WorldWideScience

Sample records for cobalt ions implanted

  1. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  2. Peculiarities of the electrontransport properties of polyimide films implanted with copper and cobalt ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazhim, F.A.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Lukashevich, M.G.; Nuzhdin, V.I.; Khajbullin, R.I.

    2010-01-01

    Thin polyimide foils were implanted with 40 keV Co + and Cu + ions at fluencies of 2,5·1016-1,251017 cm 2 and at ion current densities of 4, 8 and 12 mA cm 2 . Surface dc electric resistance of the implanted polymer samples have been measured in the temperature range 40-300 K. Metal implantation results in decreasing polymer resistance with the dose and current density increasing for the both kinds of metal ions. The decrease of dc electric resistance is caused by radiation-induced carbonization and metal nanoparticle formation in the implanted region of polymer. The transition from the insulating to metallic regime of conductivity is observed in cobalt implanted samples for critical doses above Dc = 1,25?1017 cm 2 at an ion current density of 8 mA cm 2 . In the contrary, high-fluence implantation in the polymer with Cu + ions for the same regimes does not result in the transition. The dominating mechanisms of charge carrier transport and the origin of insulator-to-metal transition in the metal implanted polymer are discussed. (authors)

  3. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and ∼5.10 17 ions/cm 2 fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co 3 W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load

  4. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  5. Cobalt release from implants and consumer items and characteristics of cobalt sensitized patients with dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menne, Torkil; Liden, Carola

    2012-01-01

    -containing dental alloys and revised hip implant components.Results. Six of eight dental alloys and 10 of 98 revised hip implant components released cobalt in the cobalt spot test, whereas none of 50 mobile phones gave positive reactions. The clinical relevance of positive cobalt test reactions was difficult......-tested dermatitis patients in an attempt to better understand cobalt allergy.Materials and methods. 19 780 dermatitis patients aged 4-99 years were patch tested with nickel, chromium or cobalt between 1985 and 2010. The cobalt spot test was used to test for cobalt ion release from mobile phones as well as cobalt...

  6. The Formation of High-Coercivity, Oriented, Nanophase Cobalt Precipitates in Al2O3 single cyrstals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Modine, F.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; SOng, K.J.; Thompson, J.R.; Boatner, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Ion-implantation and thermal-processing methods have been used to form nanophase magnetic precipitates of metallic cobalt that are embedded in the near-surface region of single crystals of Al 2 O 3 . The Co precipitates are isolated, single-crystal particles that are crystallographically oriented with respect to the host Al 2 O 3 lattice. Embedded nanophase Co precipitates were formed by the implantation of Co+ at an energy of 140 keV and a dose of 8 x l0 16 ions/cm 2 followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The implanted/annealed Co depth profile, particle size distributions and shapes, and the orientational relationship between the nanophase precipitates and the host crystal lattice were determined using RBS/channeling, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction

  7. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1986-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  8. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation; Oberflaechenmodifikation des Hartmetalls Wolframkarbid-Kobalt durch Bor-Ionenimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-09-07

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and {approx}5.10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co{sub 3}W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load.

  9. Temperature and fluence effects in lead implanted cobalt single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johnson, E.; Steenstrup, S.; Chernysh, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The channeled sputtering yields of the hcp and fcc phases of cobalt depend on the crystal structure and the radiation induced damage. Earlier irradiations of cobalt with argon ions channeled in the hcp direction give sputtering yields higher than expected in the temperature range 100-350deg C. This effect was attributed to a combination of radiation induced damage and a possible implantation induced hcp --> fcc phase transition. Sputtering yields for cobalt single crystals irradiated with 150 keV Pb + ions along the direction of the hcp phase and the direction of the fcc phase have been measured using the weightloss method. The radiation damage and the amount of lead retained in the implanted surface has been investigated by 'in situ' RBS/channeling analysis. Measured partial sputtering yields of lead ≅ 1 atom/ion indicate preferential sputtering of lead atoms. (orig.)

  10. The local environment of cobalt in amorphous, polycrystalline and epitaxial anatase TiO{sub 2}:Co films produced by cobalt ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, O. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Cornelius, S.; Hübner, R.; Potzger, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Smekhova, A.; Zykov, G.; Gan' shina, E. A.; Granovsky, A. B. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), Faculty of Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bähtz, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-14

    Amorphous, polycrystalline anatase and epitaxial anatase TiO{sub 2} films have been implanted with 5 at. % Co{sup +}. The magnetic and structural properties of different microstructures of TiO{sub 2}:Co, along with the local coordination of the implanted Co atoms within the host lattice are investigated. In amorphous TiO{sub 2}:Co film, Co atoms are in the (II) oxidation state with a complex coordination and exhibit a paramagnetic response. However, for the TiO{sub 2}:Co epitaxial and polycrystalline anatase films, Co atoms have a distorted octahedral (II) oxygen coordination assigned to a substitutional environment with traces of metallic Co clusters, which gives a rise to a superparamagnetic behavior. Despite the incorporation of the implanted atoms into the host lattice, high temperature ferromagnetism is absent in the films. On the other hand, it is found that the concentration and size of the implantation-induced nanoclusters and the magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2}:Co films have a strong dependency on the initial microstructure of TiO{sub 2}. Consequently, metallic nanocluster formation within ion implantation prepared transition metal doped TiO{sub 2} can be suppressed by tuning the film microstructure.

  11. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orleans, C.

    2003-07-01

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co + ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10 16 , 5.10 16 and 10 17 at/cm 2 , and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10 16 Co + /cm 2 at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10 17 Co + /cm 2 at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  12. Optical effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The review concerns the effects of ion implantation that specifically relate to the optical properties of insulators. Topics which are reviewed include: ion implantation, ion range and damage distributions, colour centre production by ion implantation, high dose ion implantation, and applications for integrated optics. Numerous examples are presented of both diagnostic and industrial examples of ion implantation effects in insulators. (U.K.)

  13. Ion implantation in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.; Gusevova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The historical development is described of the method of ion implantation, the physical research of the method, its technological solution and practical uses. The method is universally applicable, allows the implantation of arbitrary atoms to an arbitrary material, ensures high purity of the doping element. It is linked with sample processing at low temperatures. In implantation it is possible to independently change the dose and energy of the ions thereby affecting the spatial distribution of the ions. (M.S.)

  14. Ion implantation in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, V; Gusevova, M

    1980-06-01

    The historical development of the method of ion implantation, the physical research of the method, its technological solution and practical uses is described. The method is universally applicable, allows the implantation of arbitrary atoms to an arbitrary material and ensures high purity of the doping element. It is linked with sample processing at low temperatures. In implantation it is possible to independently change the dose and energy of the ions thereby affecting the spatial distribution of the ions.

  15. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  16. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  17. Ion implantation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this part of the paper descriptions are given of the effects of ion implantation on (a) friction and wear in metals; and (b) corrosion of metals. In the study of corrosion, ion implantation can be used either to introduce a constituent that is known to convey corrosion resistance, or more generally to examine the parameters which control corrosion. (U.K.)

  18. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  19. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  20. Ion implantation for microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1977-01-01

    Ion implantation has proved to be a versatile and efficient means of producing microelectronic devices. This review summarizes the relevant physics and technology and assesses the advantages of the method. Examples are then given of widely different device structures which have been made by ion implantation. While most of the industrial application has been in silicon, good progress continues to be made in the more difficult field of compound semiconductors. Equipment designed for the industrial ion implantation of microelectronic devices is discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  1. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  2. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  4. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  5. Ion implantation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a widely used technique with a literature that covers semiconductor production, surface treatments of steels, corrosion resistance, catalysis and integrated optics. This brief introduction outlines advantages of the technique, some aspects of the underlying physics and examples of current applications. Ion implantation is already an essential part of semiconductor technology while in many other areas it is still in an early stage of development. The future scope of the subject is discussed. (author)

  6. Sputtering on cobalt with noble gas ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.

    1983-01-01

    Single crystals of cobalt have been bombarded with 80 keV Ar + ions and with 80 keV and 200 keV Xe + ions in the [0001] direction of the hcp phase and the [111] direction of the fcc phase. The sputtering yield has been measured as function of target temperature (20 0 C-500 0 C), showing a reduction in sputtering yield for 80 keV Ar + ions and 200 keV Xe + ions, when the crystal structure changes from hcp to fcc. In contrast to this, bombardment with 80 keV Xe + ions results in an increase in sputtering yield as the phase transition is passed. Sputtering yields for [111] nickel are in agreement with the sputtering yields for fcc cobalt indicating normal behaviour of the fcc cobalt phase. The higher sputtering yield of [0001] cobalt for certain combinations of ion mass and energy may then be ascribed to disorder induced partly by martensitic phase transformation, partly by radiation damage. (orig.)

  7. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  8. Ion implantation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, R. B.; Keutzer, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A control system is disclosed for an ion implantation system of the type in which the wafers to be implanted are mounted around the periphery of a disk which rotates and also moves in a radial direction relative to an ion beam to expose successive sections of each wafer to the radiation. The control system senses beam current which passes through one or more apertures in the disk and is collected by a Faraday cup. This current is integrated to obtain a measure of charge which is compared with a calculated value based upon the desired ion dosage and other parameters. The resultant controls the number of incremental steps the rotating disk moves radially to expose the adjacent sections of each wafer. This process is continued usually with two or more traverses until the entire surface of each wafer has been implanted with the proper ion dosage

  9. Ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.

    1977-02-01

    The application of ion beams to metals is rapidly emerging as a promising area of research and technology. This report briefly describes some of the recent advances in the modification and study of the basic properties of metals by ion implantation techniques. Most of the research discussed illustrates some of the new and exciting applications of ion beams to metals which are under active investigation at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

  10. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....

  11. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation ...

  12. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  13. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of clinically relevant cobalt nanoparticles and ions on macrophages in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Min; Xia Zhidao; Glyn-Jones, Sion; Beard, David; Gill, Harinderjit S; Murray, David W, E-mail: young-min.kwon@ndos.ox.ac.u [Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Despite the satisfactory short-term implant survivorship of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty, periprosthetic soft-tissue masses such as pseudotumours are being increasingly reported. Cytotoxic effects of cobalt or chromium have been suggested to play a role in its aetiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of clinically relevant metal nanoparticles and ions on the viability of macrophages in vitro. A RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line was cultured in the presence of either: (1) cobalt, chromium and titanium nanoparticles sized 30-35 nm; or (2) cobalt sulphate and chromium chloride. Two methods were used to quantify cell viability: Alamar Blue assay and Live/Dead assay. The cytotoxicity was observed only with cobalt. Cobalt nanoparticles and ions demonstrated dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on macrophages in vitro: the cytotoxic concentrations of nanoparticles and ions were 1 x 10{sup 12} particles ml{sup -1} and 1000 {mu}M, respectively. The high concentration of cobalt nanoparticles required for cytotoxicity of macrophages in vitro suggests that increased production of cobalt nanoparticles in vivo, due to excessive MoM implant wear, may lead to local adverse biological effects. Therefore, cytotoxicity of high concentrations of metal nanoparticles phagocytosed by macrophages located in the periprosthetic tissues may be an important factor in pathogenesis of pseudotumours.

  14. Ion implantation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.L.; Hicks, W.W.; Keller, J.H.; McKenna, C.M.; Siermarco, J.A.; Mueller, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to ion bombardment or implantation apparatus. It comprises an apparatus for bombarding a target with a beam of ions, including an arrangement for measuring the ion beam current and controlling the surface potential of the target. This comprises a Faraday cage formed, at least in part, by the target and by walls adjacent to, and electrically insulated from, the target and surrounding the beam. There is at least one electron source for supplying electrons to the interior of the Faraday cage and means within the cage for blocking direct rectilinear radiation from the source to the target. The target current is measured and combined with the wall currents to provide a measurement of the ion beam current. The quantity of electrons supplied to the interior of the cage can be varied to control the target current and thereby the target surface potential. (U.K.)

  15. Hip implants - Paper VI - Ion concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargeant, A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States); Goswami, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States)]. E-mail: t-goswami@onu.edu

    2007-07-01

    Total hip-joint arthroplasty is performed in increasing numbers where it translates to about 0.16-0.2% of population per year in industrial countries. In most cases, an implant is a metallic component articulating with a metal, ceramic or poly-ethylene liner as seen in the case of hip, knee and spine. The metal implants release ions in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to study metallic implants and ions released as a result. Toxic concentrations of ions can lead to many adverse physiological effects, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and metal sensitivity. There is a need to map ion concentrations establishing boundaries between normal and toxic levels; which however, does not exist. Reference levels of ion concentrations in body fluids and tissues determined by many studies are compiled, reviewed, and presented in this paper. The concentrations of ions released from different alloys, including cobalt, chromium, nickel, molybdenum titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, are presented in this paper. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to clinical data on metal ion concentrations in patients with metal joint prostheses, and laboratory data on the physiological effects of the metals.

  16. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  17. Removal of Cobalt Ions by Precipitate Foam Flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-30

    Simulated waste liquid containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was tested by precipitate flotation using a sodium lauryl sulfate as a collector. The effects of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH, surfactant concentration, flotation time, gas flow rate and foreign ions on removal efficiency of cobalt ion were studied. Pretreatment of the waste liquid with 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} prior to precipitate flotation made shift of optimal flotation pH from the strong alkalinity to weak alkaline range and made a favorable flotation of cobalt ion in wide range of pH. For the result of this experiment, 99.8% removal efficiency was obtained on the conditions of initial cobalt ion concentration 50 ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70 ml/min, flotation time 30 min. The simulate ion was formed to be the most harmful ion against removal of cobalt by precipitate flotation of the species which were tested. The presence of 0.1 M of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion decreased removal efficiency of cobalt to 90% while the cobalt were almost entirely removed in the absence of sulfate ion. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Optical studies of cobalt implanted rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Shalik Ram; Padmanabhan, B.; Chanda, Anupama; Mishra, Indrani; Malik, V.K.; Mishra, N.C.; Kanjilal, D.; Varma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The present study displays formation of nanostructures after Co implantation on TiO 2 surfaces. • Preferential sputtering leads to the creation of oxygen vacancies on the surface. • A large enhancement in visible light absorbance (nearly 5 times compared to pristine) is observed. • Creation of self-organized nanostructures and Ti 3+ oxygen vacancies promote photoabsorption. • Formation of Co-nanoclusters and Co–Ti–O phase play concerted role in enhancing photo-absorption. - Abstract: Present study investigates the photoabsorption properties of single crystal rutile TiO 2 (110) surfaces after they have been implanted with low fluences of cobalt ions. The surfaces, after implantation, demonstrate fabrication of nanostructures and anisotropic nano-ripple patterns. Creation of oxygen vacancies (Ti 3+ states), development of cobalt nano-clusters as well as band gap modifications have also been observed. Results presented here demonstrate that fabrication of self organized nanostructures, upon implantation, along with the development of oxygen vacancies and ligand field transitions of cobalt ion promote the enhancement of photo-absorbance in both UV (∼2 times) and visible (∼5 times) regimes. These investigations on nanostructured TiO 2 surfaces can be important for photo-catalysis.

  19. Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, Katarzyna; Terpiłowska, Sylwia; Siwicki, Andrzej K

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin.

  20. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  1. Ion implantation: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, R.N.; Subramanyam, K.

    1975-10-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing controlled amounts of dopants into target substrates, and has been successfully used for the manufacture of silicon semiconductor devices. Ion implantation is superior to other methods of doping such as thermal diffusion and epitaxy, in view of its advantages such as high degree of control, flexibility, and amenability to automation. This annotated bibliography of 416 references consists of journal articles, books, and conference papers in English and foreign languages published during 1973-74, on all aspects of ion implantation including range distribution and concentration profile, channeling, radiation damage and annealing, compound semiconductors, structural and electrical characterization, applications, equipment and ion sources. Earlier bibliographies on ion implantation, and national and international conferences in which papers on ion implantation were presented have also been listed separately

  2. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  3. Ion implantation and amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1981-01-01

    This review deals with ion implantation of metals in the high concentration range for preparing amorphous layers (>= 10 at%, implantation doses > 10 16 ions/cm 2 ). Different models are described concerning formation of amorphous phases of metals by ion implantation and experimental results are given. The study of amorphous phases has been carried out by the aid of Rutherford backscattering combined with the channeling technique and using transmission electron microscopy. The structure of amorphous metals prepared by ion implantation has been discussed. It was concluded that amorphous metal-metalloid compounds can be described by a dense-random-packing structure with a great portion of metal atoms. Ion implantation has been compared with other techniques for preparing amorphous metals and the adventages have been outlined

  4. Cobalt-alloy implant debris induce HIF-1α hypoxia associated responses: a mechanism for metal-specific orthopedic implant failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryn Samelko

    Full Text Available The historical success of orthopedic implants has been recently tempered by unexpected pathologies and early failures of some types of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy containing artificial hip implants. Hypoxia-associated responses to Cobalt-alloy metal debris were suspected as mediating this untoward reactivity at least in part. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α is a major transcription factor involved in hypoxia, and is a potent coping mechanism for cells to rapidly respond to changing metabolic demands. We measured signature hypoxia associated responses (i.e. HIF-1α, VEGF and TNF-α to Cobalt-alloy implant debris both in vitro (using a human THP-1 macrophage cell line and primary human monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. HIF-1α in peri-implant tissues of failed metal-on-metal implants were compared to similar tissues from people with metal-on-polymer hip arthroplasties, immunohistochemically. Increasing concentrations of cobalt ions significantly up-regulated HIF-1α with a maximal response at 0.3 mM. Cobalt-alloy particles (1 um-diameter, 10 particles/cell induced significantly elevated HIF-1α, VEGF, TNF-α and ROS expression in human primary macrophages whereas Titanium-alloy particles did not. Elevated expression of HIF-1α was found in peri-implant tissues and synovial fluid of people with failing Metal-on-Metal hips (n = 5 compared to failed Metal-on-Polymer articulating hip arthroplasties (n = 10. This evidence suggests that Cobalt-alloy, more than other metal implant debris (e.g. Titanium alloy, can elicit hypoxia-like responses that if unchecked can lead to unusual peri-implant pathologies, such as lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis and excessive fibrous tissue growths.

  5. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryn Samelko

    Full Text Available Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1 and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p500pg/mL. Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the unique nature of Cobalt alloy particle bioreactivity is strong enough to illicit danger signaling that secondarily activate concomitant TLR activation, and may in part explain Cobalt particulate

  6. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the unique nature of Cobalt alloy particle bioreactivity is strong enough to illicit danger signaling that secondarily activate concomitant TLR activation, and may in part explain Cobalt particulate associated

  7. Structure of ion-implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    The variation of structure of LiF, MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 accompanying annealing after ion implantation is explained. The analysis of structure is usually made by the perturbed gamma ray angular correlation, the internal electron Moessbauer method, or the ion scattering method. The results of analyses are discussed for alkali ion implantation, Fe-ion implantation, In-ion implantation, Au-ion implantation, Pt-ion implantation, Pb-ion implantation and transition metal ion implantation. The coupling of the implanted elements with lattice defects and matrix elements, and the compatibility between deposited elements and matrix crystal lattice were studied. The variation of physical properties due to ion implantation such as phase transition, volume change, the control of single crystal region, and the variation of hardness near surface were investigated, and the examples are presented. (Kato, T.)

  8. Surface microhardening by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amarjit

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the process and the underlying mechanism of surface microhardening by implanting suitable energetic ions in materials like 4145 steel, 304 stainless steel, aluminium and its 2024-T351 alloy. It has been observed that boron and nitrogen implantation in materials like 4145 steel and 304 stainless steel can produce a significant increase in surface hardness. Moreover the increase can be further enhanced with suitable overlay coatings such as aluminium (Al), Titanium (Ti) and carbon (C). The surface hardening due to implantation is attributed to precipitation hardening or the formation of stable/metastable phase or both. The effect of lithium implantation in aluminium and its alloy on microhardness with increasing ion dose and ion beam energy is also discussed. (author)

  9. Ion beam stabilization in ion implantation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental efforts aimed at ion beam current stabilization in an equipment for ion implantation in solids. The related problems of power supplies are discussed. Measured characteristics of laboratory equipment served the determination of the parameters to be required of the supplies as well as the design and the construction of the supplies. The respective wiring diagram is presented. (J.K.)

  10. Recovery of cobalt and lithium fromspent Li-ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Busnardo, Natália Giovanini; Paulino, Jéssica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The "active mass" (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 ºC) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the "active mass" was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 ºC) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of so...

  11. Ion implantation in semiconductor bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ions are selectively implanted into layers of a semiconductor substrate of, for example, semi-insulating gallium arsenide via a photoresist implantation mask and a metallic layer of, for example, titanium disposed between the substrate surface and the photoresist mask. After implantation the mask and metallic layer are removed and the substrate heat treated for annealing purposes. The metallic layer acts as a buffer layer and prevents possible contamination of the substrate surface, by photoresist residues, at the annealing stage. Such contamination would adversely affect the electrical properties of the substrate surface, particularly gallium arsenide substrates. (author)

  12. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  13. Removal of Cobalt Ion by Adsorbing Colloidal Flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-30

    Simulated waste liquid containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was treated by adsorbing colloidal flotation using Fe(III) or Al(III) as flocculant and a sodium lauryl sulfate as a collector. Parameters such as pH, surfactant concentration, Fe(III) or Al(III) concentration, gas flow rate, etc., were considered. The flotation with Fe(III) showed 99.8% removal efficiency of cobalt on the conditions of initial cobalt ion concentration 50 ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70 ml/min, and flotation time 30 min. When the waste solution was treated with 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} prior to adsorbing colloidal flotation, the optimal pH for removing cobalt shifted to weak alkaline range and flotation could be applied in wider range of pH as compared to non-use of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Additional use of 20 ppm Al(III) after precipitation of 50 ppm Co(II) with 50 ppm Fe(III) made the optimal pH range for preferable flotation wider. Foreign ions such as, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} were adopted and their effects were observed, Of which sulfate ion was found to be detrimental to removal of cobalt ion by flotation. Coprecipitation of Co ion with Fe(III) and Al(III) resulted in better removal efficiency of cobalt ion in the presence of sulfate ion. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Surface engineering by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Bjarne Roger

    1995-01-01

    Awidespread commercial applica tion iof particle accelerators is for ion implantation. Accelerator beams are used for ion implantation into metals, alloying a thin surface layer with foreign atoms to concentrations impossible to achieve by thermal processes, making for dramatic improvements in hardness and in resistance to wear and corrosion. Traditional hardening processes require high temperatures causing deformation; ion implantation on the other hand is a ''cold process'', treating the finished product. The ionimplanted layer is integrated in the substrate, avoiding the risk of cracking and delamination from normal coating processes. Surface properties may be ''engineered'' independently of those of the bulk material; the process does not use environmentally hazardous materials such as chromium in the surface coating. The typical implantation dose required for the optimum surface properties of metals is around 2 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 , a hundred times the typical doses for semiconductor processing. When surface areas of more than a few square centimetres have to be treated, the implanter must therefore be able to produce high beam currents (5 to 10 mA) to obtain an acceptable treatment time. Ion species used include nitrogen, boron, carbon, titanium, chromium and tantalum, and beam energies range from 50 to 200 keV. Since most components are three dimensional, it must be possible to rotate and tilt them in the beam, and control beam position over a large area. Examples of industrial applications are: - surface treatment of prostheses (hip and knee joints) to reduce wear of the moving parts, using biocompatible materials; - ion implantation into high speed ball bearings to protect against the aqueous corrosion in jet engines (important for service helicopters on oil rigs); - hardening of metal forming and cutting tools; - reduction of corrosive wear of plastic moulding tools, which are expensive to produce

  15. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santry, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  16. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, I.

    1994-01-01

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  17. Smoothing an isolated interface of cobalt-copper under irradiation by low-energy argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stognij, A.I.; Novitskij, N.N.; Stukalov, O.M.

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer film structures, i.e. gold layer-copper-cobalt, are considered. It is shown that the structure, where cobalt surface prior to copper layer deposition was subjected to additional irradiation by a flow of argon ions, features the smoothest surface. The conclusion is made about smoothing out of cobalt-copper interface as a result of multiple collisions of argon slow ions and cobalt atoms during braking within two or three upper atomic rows of the cobalt layer [ru

  18. Current trends in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwilliam, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    As semiconductor device dimensions continue to shrink, the drive beyond 250 nm is creating significant problems for the device processor. In particular, trends toward shallower-junctions, lower thermal budgets and simplified processing steps present severe challenges to ion implantation. In parallel with greater control of the implant process goes the need for a better understanding of the physical processes involved during implantation and subsequent activation annealing. For instance, the need for an understanding of dopant-defect interaction is paramount as defects mediate a number of technologically important phenomena such as transient enhanced diffusion and impurity gettering. This paper will outline the current trends in the ion implantation and some of the challenges it faces in the next decade, as described in the semiconductor roadmap. It will highlight some recent positron annihilation work that has made a contribution to addressing one of these challenges, namely the need for tighter control of implant uniformity and dose. Additionally, some vacancy-mediated processes are described with the implication that these may provide areas in which positron annihilation spectroscopy could make a significant contribution. (orig.)

  19. Ion implantation and bio-compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Corporate Research Labs.; Iwaki, Masaya

    1992-07-01

    Surface modification of polymers by ion implantation has been carried out to control surface properties such as conductivity, wettability, blood and tissue compatibility. Ion implantation into silicone rubber, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane was performed at 150 keV with doses ranging from 1 x 10[sup 15] to 3 x 10[sup 17] ions/cm[sup 2] to improve bio-compatibility. The platelet accumulation on ion implanted silicone rubber decreased and non-thrombogenicity of ion implanted specimens were improved. The ion implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared to the non-implanted case. It is concluded that ion implantation into polymers is effective in controlling their bio-compatibility. (author).

  20. Annealing of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, D.; Smith, B.J.; Stephen, J.; Fisher, M.

    1980-09-01

    The newer uses of ion implantation require a higher dose rate. This has led to the introduction of high beam current implanters; the wafers move in front of a stationary beam to give a scanning effect. This can lead to non-uniform heating of the wafer. Variations in the sheet resistance of the layers can be very non-uniform following thermal annealing. Non-uniformity in the effective doping both over a single wafer and from one wafer to another, can affect the usefulness of ion implantation in high dose rate applications. Experiments to determine the extent of non-uniformity in sheet resistance, and to see if it is correlated to the annealing scheme have been carried out. Details of the implantation parameters are given. It was found that best results were obtained when layers were annealed at the maximum possible temperature. For arsenic, phosphorus and antimony layers, improvements were observed up to 1200 0 C and boron up to 950 0 C. Usually, it is best to heat the layer directly to the maximum temperature to produce the most uniform layer; with phosphorus layers however it is better to pre-heat to 1050 0 C. (U.K.)

  1. Removal of Cobalt ion by Foam Flotation(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I.H.; Park, H.S.; Moon, J.S.; Yim, S.P.; Bae, K.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    Simulated liquid waste containing 50 ppm cobalt ion was treated by precipitate flotation using the surfactant of sodium lauryl sulfate. The effects of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH, surfactant concentration, removal time, gas flow rate and foreign ions were estimated on removal efficiency. 35% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added for pre-treatment stage before precipitate flotation. As the result of pre-treatment, optimum removal pH and the pH of treated water being discharged were lowed and optimum removal pH range was broadened. For the result of this experiment, 99.8% removal efficiency was obtained at the condition of 50ppm of initial cobalt ion concentration, pH 9.5, 70 mL/min of gas flow rate, and 30 min of removal time. Attraction between precipitate and surfactant was supposed to be influenced by solubility and chemical affinity among species in solution as well as zeta potential. The influence of foreign ions such as, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup +2} on the removal efficiency was also observed. Removal efficiency by precipitate flotation containing o.1 M of SO4{sup -}2 ion decreased to 90% due to the decrease of zeta potential and interruption of precipitation. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Ion Implantation and Synthesis of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ion implantation is one of the key processing steps in silicon integrated circuit technology. Some integrated circuits require up to 17 implantation steps and circuits are seldom processed with less than 10 implantation steps. Controlled doping at controlled depths is an essential feature of implantation. Ion beam processing can also be used to improve corrosion resistance, to harden surfaces, to reduce wear and, in general, to improve materials properties. This book presents the physics and materials science of ion implantation and ion beam modification of materials. It covers ion-solid interactions used to predict ion ranges, ion straggling and lattice disorder. Also treated are shallow-junction formation and slicing silicon with hydrogen ion beams. Topics important for materials modification, such as ion-beam mixing, stresses, and sputtering, are also described.

  3. In-vitro evaluation of corrosion resistance of nitrogen ion implanted titanium simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiyan, M.; Sundararajian, T.; Rajeswari, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Nair, K.G.M.; Thampi, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium and its alloy Ti6Al4V enjoy widespread use in various biomedical applications because of favourable local tissue response, higher corrosion resistance and fatigue strength than the stainless steels and cobalt-chromium alloy previously used. The study reported in this paper aims to optimize the conditions of nitrogen ion implantation on commercially pure titanium and to correlate the implantation parameters to the corrosion resistance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse surface concentration and the implantation processes. An improvement in the electrochemical behaviour of the passive film was shown to occur with nitrogen ion implantation on titanium, in simulated body fluids. (UK)

  4. Production of amorphous alloys by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, W.A.; Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent data are reported on the use of ion implantation to produce amorphous metallic alloys. In particular data on the dose dependence of the crystalline to amorphous transition induced by P + implantation of nickel is presented. (Auth.)

  5. Plasma immersion ion implantation into insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin

    2006-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is an effective surface modification tool. During PIII processes, the objects to be treated are immersed in plasmas and then biased to negative potential. Consequently the plasma sheath forms and ion implantation may be performed. The pre-requirement of plasma implantation is that the object is conductive. So it seems difficult to treat the insulating materials. The paper focuses on the possibilities of plasma implantation into insulting materials and presents some examples. (authors)

  6. Endothelial cell adhesion to ion implanted polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Kusakabe, M [SONY Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, J S; Kaibara, M; Iwaki, M; Sasabe, H [RIKEN (Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research), Saitama (Japan)

    1992-03-01

    The biocompatibility of ion implanted polymers has been studied by means of adhesion measurements of bovine aorta endothelial cells in vitro. The specimens used were polystyrene (PS) and segmented polyurethane (SPU). Na{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} and Kr{sup +} ion implantations were performed at an energy of 150 keV with fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 15} to 3x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The chemical and physical structures of ion-implanted polymers have been investigated in order to analyze their tissue compatibility such as improvement of endothelial cell adhesion. The ion implanted SPU have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells than unimplanted specimens. By contrast, ion implanted PS demonstrated a little improvement of adhesion of cells in this assay. Results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke the original chemical bond to form new radicals such as OH, ....C=O, SiH and condensed rings. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that ion implantation always produced a peak near 1500 cm{sup -1}, which indicated that these ion implanted PS and SPU had the same carbon structure. This structure is considered to bring the dramatic increase in the extent of cell adhesion and spreading to these ion implanted PS and SPU. (orig.).

  7. Electrochemical properties of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham minh Tan.

    1979-11-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of ion implanted silicon in contact with hydrofluoric acid solution was investigated. It was shown that the implanted layer on silicon changes profoundly its electrochemical properties (photopotential, interface impedance, rest potential, corrosion, current-potential behaviour, anodic dissolution of silicon, redox reaction). These changes depend strongly on the implantation parameters such as ion dose, ion energy, thermal treatment and ion mass and are weakly dependent on the chemical nature of the implantation ion. The experimental results were evaluated and interpreted in terms of the semiconductor electrochemical concepts taking into account the interaction of energetic ions with the solid surface. The observed effects are thus attributed to the implantation induced damage of silicon lattice and can be used for profiling of the implanted layer and the electrochemical treatment of the silicon surface. (author)

  8. Mutagenic effects of ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1998-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 75 keV nitrogen and carbon ions with various doses. The biological effects in M 1 and mutation in M 2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam dose. The rate of cells with chromosomal aberration was lower than that induced with γ-rays. Frequency of the mutation induced by implantation of N + and C + ions were higher than those induced by γ-rays. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and in M 2 useful mutation induced by implantation of C + ion was higher than those induced by implantation of N + ion. Mutagenic effects Feng 1 x Riyuan and Riyuan x Feng 2 by implantation of N + and C + were higher than that of Jining and Feng 2

  9. High-energy ion implantation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    High-energy ion implantation is an extremely flexible type of surface treatment technique, in that it offers the possibility of treating almost any type of target material or product with ions of almost any chemical species, or combinations of chemical species. In addition, ion implantations can be combined with variations in temperature during or after ion implantation. As a result, the possibility of approaching a wide variety of surface-related materials science problems exists with ion implantation. This paper will outline factors pertinent to application of high-energy ion implantation to surface engineering problems. This factors include fundamental advantages and limitations, economic considerations, present and future equipment, and aspects of materials science

  10. Wettability control of polystyrene by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Iwaki, Masaya

    1994-01-01

    The permanent effects of ion implantation on the improvement of wettability of polystyrene is investigated in relation to ion species and fluences. The He + , Ne + , Na + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + , K + and Kr + ion implantations were performed at energies of 50 and 150 keV at room temperature. The fluences ranged from 1x10 15 to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 . The results showed that the contact angle of water for Na + and K + implanted polystyrene decreased from 87 to 0 , as the fluences increased to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 50 keV. The contact angle for Na + and K + implanted polystyrene did not change under ambient room conditions, even when time elapsed. However, the contact an gle for He + , C + , O + , Ne + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + , and Kr + ion implanted specimens decreased slightly immediately after ion implantation. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the increase in the Na content in the surface of Na + implanted specimens were observed with increasing fluence. It is concluded that permanent improvement in wettability was caused by doping effects rather than by radiation effects from Na + and K + ion implantation. ((orig.))

  11. Modification of metallic corrosion by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    This review will consider some of the properties of surface alloys, formed by ion implantation, which are effective in modifying corrosion behaviour. Examples will be given of the modification of the corrosion behaviour of pure metals, steels and other engineering alloys, resulting from implantation with metals and metalloids. Emphasis will be given to the modification of anodic processes produced by ion implantation since a review will be given elsewhere in the proceedings concerning the modification of cathodic processes. (orig.)

  12. Ion implantation as an efficient surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straede, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ion beam processing has for several years been well established in the semiconductor industry. In recent years ion implantation of tool steels, ceramics and even plastics has gained increasing industrial awareness. The development of ion implantation to a commercially viable surface treatment of tools and spare parts working in production type environments is very dependent on technical merits, economic considerations, competing processes and highly individual barriers to acceptance for each particular application. Some examples of this will be discussed. The development of the process is very closely linked with the development of high current accelerators and their ability to efficiently manipulate the samples being treated, or to make sample manipulation superfluous by using special beam systems like the PSII. Furthermore, the ability to produce high beam currents (mA) of a wide variety of ions is crucial. Previously, it was broadly accepted that ion implantation of tools on a commercial basis generally had to be limited to nitrogen implantation. The development of implanters which can produce high beam currents of ions like B + , C + , Ti + , Cr + and others is rapidly changing this situation, and today an increasing number of commercial implantations are performed with these ions although nitrogen is still successfully used in the majority of commercial implantation. All in all, the recent development of equipment makes it possible to a higher extent than before to tailor the implantation to a specific situation. The emerging new possibilities in this direction will be discussed, and a broad selection of practical examples of ion implantation at standard low temperatures of tools and spare parts will be given. Furthermore, very interesting results have been obtained recently by implanting nitrogen at elevated temperatures, which yields a relatively deep penetration of the implanted ions. (orig./WL)

  13. Long range implantation by MEVVA metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Wu Yuguang; Ma Furong; Liang Hong

    2001-01-01

    Metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation is a new technology used for achieving long range ion implantation. It is very important for research and application of the ion beam modification of materials. The results show that the implanted atom diffusion coefficient increases in Mo implanted Al with high ion flux and high dose. The implanted depth is 311.6 times greater than that of the corresponding ion range. The ion species, doses and ion fluxes play an important part in the long-range implantation. Especially, thermal atom chemistry have specific effect on the long-range implantation during high ion flux implantation at transient high target temperature

  14. Nitrogen implantation in steel with an impulsive ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugeas, J.N.; Gonzalez, C.O.; Hermida, J.; Nieto, M.; Peyronel, M.F.; Sanchez, G.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the results of steel implantation with nitrogen, with a pulsed accelerator which provides a continuous ion energy spectrum giving a uniform profile of nitrogen without changing its operative conditions. (Author)

  15. Ion-beam mixed ultra-thin cobalt suicide (CoSi2) films by cobalt sputtering and rapid thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, S.; Kasko, I.; Ryssel, H.

    1995-10-01

    The influence of ion-beam mixing on ultra-thin cobalt silicide (CoSi2) formation was investigated by characterizing the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films. A Ge+ ion-implantation through the Co film prior to silicidation causes an interface mixing of the cobalt film with the silicon substrate and results in improved silicide-to-silicon interface roughness. Rapid thermal annealing was used to form Ge+ ion mixed and unmixed thin CoSi2 layer from 10 nm sputter deposited Co film. The silicide films were characterized by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering, and sheet resistance measurements. The experi-mental results indicate that the final rapid thermal annealing temperature should not exceed 800°C for thin (micrographs of the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films reveals that Ge+ ion mixing (45 keV, 1 × 1015 cm-2) produces homogeneous silicide with smooth silicide-to-silicon interface.

  16. Metal ion implantation: Conventional versus immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum-arc-produced metal plasma can be used as the ion feedstock material in an ion source for doing conventional metal ion implantation, or as the immersing plasma for doing plasma immersion ion implantation. The basic plasma production method is the same in both cases; it is simple and efficient and can be used with a wide range of metals. Vacuum arc ion sources of different kinds have been developed by the authors and others and their suitability as a metal ion implantation tool has been well established. Metal plasma immersion surface processing is an emerging tool whose characteristics and applications are the subject of present research. There are a number of differences between the two techniques, both in the procedures used and in the modified surfaces created. For example, the condensibility of metal plasma results in thin film formation and subsequent energetic implantation is thus done through the deposited layer; in the usual scenario, this recoil implantation and the intermixing it produces is a feature of metal plasma immersion but not of conventional energetic ion implantation. Metal plasma immersion is more suited (but not limited) to higher doses (>10 17 cm -2 ) and lower energies (E i < tens of keV) than the usual ranges of conventional metal ion implantation. These and other differences provide these vacuum-arc-based surface modification tools with a versatility that enhances the overall technological attractiveness of both

  17. Assessment of wrought ASTM F1058 cobalt alloy properties for permanent surgical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C O; Jedwab, M R; Mayer, D W; Thompson, P J; Stinson, J S

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of the ASTM F1058 wrought cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloy (commonly referred to as Elgiloy or Phynox) is evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, magnetic resonance imaging, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. The data found in the literature, the experimental corrosion and biocompatibility results presented in this article, and its long track record as an implant material demonstrate that the cobalt superalloy is an appropriate material for permanent surgical implants that require high yield strength and fatigue resistance combined with high elastic modulus, and that it can be safely imaged with magnetic resonance.

  18. Ion implantation and fracture toughness of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Pollock, J.T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Ceramics generally lack toughness which is largely determined by the ceramic surface where stresses likely to cause failure are usually highest. Ion implantation has the capacity to improve the surface fracture toughness of ceramics. Significantly reduced ion size and reactivity restrictions exist compared with traditional methods of surface toughening. We are studying the effect of ion implantation on ceramic fracture toughness using indentation testing as the principal tool of analysis

  19. Amorphization of metals by ion implantation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Heera, V.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous metallic systems can be formed either by high-fluence ion implantation of glassforming species or by irradiation of layered metal systems with inert gas ions. Both techniques and experimental examples are presented. Empirical rules are discussed which predict whether a given system can be transformed into an amorphous phase. Influence of temperature, implantation dose and pre-existing crystalline metal composition on amorphization is considered. Examples are given of the implantation induced amorphous structure, recrystallization and formation of quasicrystalline structures. (author)

  20. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhoff, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 10 13 /cm 2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  1. Versatile high current metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ion implantation facility has been developed with which high current beams of practically all the solid metals of the periodic table can be produced. A multicathode, broad-beam, metal vapor vacuum arc ion source is used to produce repetitively pulsed metal ion beams at an extraction voltage of up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred kiloelectronvolts because of the ion charge state multiplicity, and with a beam current of up to several amps peak pulsed and several tens of milliamps time averaged delivered onto a downstream target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line of sight from ion source to target. Here we summarize some of the features of the ion source and the implantation facility that has been built up around it. (orig)

  2. Some aspects of ion implantation in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, H.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of ion implantation in the application of semiconductor technology are reviewed in short. This article describes some aspects of the state of the art and current developments of nonconventional annealing procedures, ion beam gettering of deep impurities, special applications of ion implantation using low or high energy ions and GaAs-electronics, respectively. Radiation defects in Si and the nonexponential emission and capture processes in GaAsP are discussed. Final future trends of ion beam methods in semiconductor production technology are summarized. (author)

  3. Ion implantation methods for semiconductor substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Mamine, T.; Hayashi, H.; Nishiyama, K.

    1980-01-01

    A method of ion implantation for controlling the life time of minority carriers in a semiconductor substrate and hence to reduce the temperature dependency of the life time, comprises implanting iron ions into an N type semiconductor substrate with a dosage of 10 10 to 10 15 ions cm -2 , and then heat-treating the implanted substrate at 850 0 to 1250 0 C. The method is applicable to the production of diodes, transistors, Si controlled rectifiers and gate controlled switching devices. (author)

  4. Mechanical properties of ion-beam-textured surgical implant alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An electron-bombardment Hg ion thruster was used as an ion source to texture surfaces of materials used to make orthopedic and/or dental prostheses or implants. The materials textured include 316 stainless steel, titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, and cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten. To determine the effect of ion texturing on the ultimate strength and yield strength, stainless steel and Co-Cr-W alloy samples were tensile tested to failure. Three types of samples of both materials were tested. One type was ion-textured (the process also heats each sample to 300 C), another type was simply heated to 300 C in an oven, and the third type was untreated. Stress-strain diagrams, 0.2% offset yield strength data, total elongation data, and area reduction data are presented. Fatigue specimens of ion textured and untextured 316 stainless steel and Ti-6% Al-4% V were tested. Included as an ion textured sample is a Ti-6% Al-4% V sample which was ion machined by means of Ni screen mask so as to produce an array of 140 mu m x 140 mu m x 60 mu m deep pits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the ion textured surfaces.

  5. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology ... Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India ...

  7. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  8. Ion Implantation Processing Technologies for Telecommunications Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T E

    2000-05-01

    The subject CRADA was a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (formerly AT and T Bell Laboratories) to explore the development of ion implantation technologies for silicon integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing.

  9. Laser annealing of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.; Narayan, J.; Young, R.T.

    1978-11-01

    The physical and electrical properties of ion implanted silicon annealed with high powered ruby laser radiation are summarized. Results show that pulsed laser annealing can lead to a complete removal of extended defects in the implanted region accompanied by incorporation of dopants into lattice sites even when their concentration far exceeds the solid solubility limit

  10. Magnetoreflection studies of ion implanted bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Chieu, T.C.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Dresselhaus, G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the implantation of Sb ions on the electronic structure of the semimetal bismuth is studied by the magnetoreflection technique. The results show long electronic mean free paths and large implantation-induced increases in the band overlap and L-point band gap. These effects are opposite to those observed for Bi chemically doped with Sb. (author)

  11. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of 11 B + into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of 11 B + into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10 11 /cm 2 to 1 x 10 14 /cm 2 ) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses ( 12 /cm 2 ). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of 11 B + . Two of these hole traps have also been observed in γ-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures ( 0 C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF 2 + into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250 0 C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF 2 + implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active

  12. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Hoh; Jung, Kee Suk; Kim, Wan; Song, Woo Sub; Hwang, Chul Kyoo

    1994-02-01

    We developed an ion implanter fitted for the treatment of 12 inch or larger wafers to make 256 or higher Mega D-Ram wafers. Design features are dual usage of gas/solid for the ion source loading, production of multi-balanced ions, and the possible oxygen ion implantation. BOSII program was used for the ion optics calculation. Beams are triangularly scanned to wafers for the even implantation by a proper magnetic field application. More than 10 mA ion current is produced. For the efficient implantation to be made, target is made to rotate with tilted angle at a displaced axis. High speed tools, diamond tools, precision dies, and razor blades were implanted and the performance was evaluated after two or three times of line application. Of those materials studied, PCB drills and end mills are on the commercial treatment stages. Industrial materials as SKD-11, WC-Co, NAK-55 was compositely treated with ion beam and coating. Resultant properties were analyzed using AES, XRD, and TEM. For the case of xenon ions, excellent TiN coating resulted and its application to microcircuit lead frame increased the performance to more than 30 percent. 94 figs, 29 pix, 19 tabs, 50 refs. (Author)

  13. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Hoh; Jung, Kee Suk; Kim, Wan; Song, Woo Sub; Hwang, Chul Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-01

    We developed an ion implanter fitted for the treatment of 12 inch or larger wafers to make 256 or higher Mega D-Ram wafers. Design features are dual usage of gas/solid for the ion source loading, production of multi-balanced ions, and the possible oxygen ion implantation. BOSII program was used for the ion optics calculation. Beams are triangularly scanned to wafers for the even implantation by a proper magnetic field application. More than 10 mA ion current is produced. For the efficient implantation to be made, target is made to rotate with tilted angle at a displaced axis. High speed tools, diamond tools, precision dies, and razor blades were implanted and the performance was evaluated after two or three times of line application. Of those materials studied, PCB drills and end mills are on the commercial treatment stages. Industrial materials as SKD-11, WC-Co, NAK-55 was compositely treated with ion beam and coating. Resultant properties were analyzed using AES, XRD, and TEM. For the case of xenon ions, excellent TiN coating resulted and its application to microcircuit lead frame increased the performance to more than 30 percent. 94 figs, 29 pix, 19 tabs, 50 refs. (Author).

  14. Ion-implantation dense cascade data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterbon, K.B.

    1983-04-01

    A tabulation is given of data useful in estimating various aspects of ion-implantation cascades in the nuclear stopping regime, particularly with respect to nonlinearity of the cascade at high energy densities. The tabulation is restricted to self-ion implantation. Besides power-cross-section cascade dimensions, various material properties are included. Scaling of derived quantities with input data is noted, so one is not limited to the values assumed by the author

  15. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T.; Sood, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  16. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P J; Chu, J W; Johnson, E P; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Trunnion Failure of the Recalled Low Friction Ion Treatment Cobalt Chromium Alloy Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urish, Kenneth L; Hamlin, Brian R; Plakseychuk, Anton Y; Levison, Timothy J; Higgs, Genymphas B; Kurtz, Steven M; DiGioia, Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    Gross trunnion failure (GTF) is a rare complication in total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported across a range of manufacturers. Specific lots of the Stryker low friction ion treatment (LFIT) anatomic cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) V40 femoral head were recalled in August 2016. In part, the recall was based out of concerns for disassociation of the femoral head from the stem and GTF. We report on 28 patients (30 implants) with either GTF (n = 18) or head-neck taper corrosion (n = 12) of the LFIT CoCr femoral head and the Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy femoral stems. All these cases were associated with adverse local tissue reactions requiring revision of the THA. In our series, a conservative estimate of the incidence of failure was 4.7% (n = 636 total implanted) at 8.0 ± 1.4 years from the index procedure. Failures were associated with a high-offset 127° femoral stem neck angle and increased neck lengths; 43.3% (13 of 30) of the observed failures included implant sizes outside the voluntary recall (27.8% [5 of 18] of the GTF and 75.0% [8 of 12] of the taper corrosion cases). Serum cobalt and chromium levels were elevated (cobalt: 8.4 ± 7.0 μg/mL; chromium: 3.4 ± 3.3 μ/L; cobalt/chromium ratio: 3.7). The metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large cystic fluid collections typical with adverse local tissue reactions. During revision, a pseudotumor was observed in all cases. Pathology suggested a chronic inflammatory response. Impending GTF could be diagnosed based on aspiration of black synovial fluid and an oblique femoral head as compared with the neck taper on radiographs. In our series of the recalled LFIT CoCr femoral head, the risk of impending GTF or head-neck taper corrosion should be considered as a potential diagnosis in a painful LFIT femoral head and Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy THA with unknown etiology. Almost half of the failures we observed included sizes outside of the

  19. Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Shedd, Kim B.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses based on certain key properties, including ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and production of intense blue colors when combined with silica. Cobalt is used mostly in cathodes in rechargeable batteries and in superalloys for turbine engines in jet aircraft. Annual global cobalt consumption was approximately 75,000 metric tons in 2011; China, Japan, and the United States (in order of consumption amount) were the top three cobalt-consuming countries. In 2011, approximately 109,000 metric tons of recoverable cobalt was produced in ores, concentrates, and intermediate products from cobalt, copper, nickel, platinum-group-element (PGE), and zinc operations. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]) was the principal source of mined cobalt globally (55 percent). The United States produced a negligible amount of byproduct cobalt as an intermediate product from a PGE mining and refining operation in southeastern Montana; no U.S. production was from mines in which cobalt was the principal commodity. China was the leading refiner of cobalt, and much of its production came from cobalt ores, concentrates, and partially refined materials imported from Congo (Kinshasa).The mineralogy of cobalt deposits is diverse and includes both primary (hypogene) and secondary (supergene) phases. Principal terrestrial (land-based) deposit types, which represent most of world’s cobalt mine production, include primary magmatic Ni-Cu(-Co-PGE) sulfides, primary and secondary stratiform sediment-hosted Cu-Co sulfides and oxides, and secondary Ni-Co laterites. Seven additional terrestrial deposit types are described in this chapter. The total terrestrial cobalt resource (reserves plus other resources) plus past production, where available, is calculated to be 25.5 million metric tons. Additional resources of

  20. Cobalt deposition in mineralized bone tissue after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing: Quantitative μ-X-ray-fluorescence analysis of implant material incorporation in periprosthetic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Busse, Björn; Procop, Mathias; Zustin, Jozef; Amling, Michael; Katzer, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Most resurfacing systems are manufactured from cobalt-chromium alloys with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing couples. Because the quantity of particulate metal and corrosion products which can be released into the periprosthetic milieu is greater in MoM bearings than in metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, it is hypothesized that the quantity and distribution of debris released by the MoM components induce a compositional change in the periprosthetic bone. To determine the validity of this claim, nondestructive µ-X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out on undecalcified histological samples from 13 femoral heads which had undergone surface replacement. These samples were extracted from the patients after gradient time points due to required revision surgery. Samples from nonintervened femoral heads as well as from a MoP resurfaced implant served as controls. Light microscopy and µ-X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed that cobalt debris was found not only in the soft tissue around the prosthesis and the bone marrow, but also in the mineralized bone tissue. Mineralized bone exposed to surface replacements showed significant increases in cobalt concentrations in comparison with control specimens without an implant. A maximum cobalt concentration in mineralized hard tissue of up to 380 ppm was detected as early as 2 years after implantation. Values of this magnitude are not found in implants with a MoP surface bearing until a lifetime of more than 20 years. This study demonstrates that hip resurfacing implants with MoM bearings present a potential long-term health risk due to rapid cobalt ion accumulation in periprosthetic hard tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1855-1862, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  2. Ion implantation in semiconductors and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guernet, G.; Bruel, M.; Gailliard, J.P.; Garcia, M.; Robic, J.Y.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of ion implantation techniques in the field of semiconductors and its extension to various fields such as metallurgy, mechanics, superconductivity and opto-electronics are considered. As for semiconductors ion implantation is evoked as: a means of predeposition of impurities at low doping level (10 11 to 10 14 cm -2 ); a means for obtaining profiles of controlled concentration; a means of reaching high doping levels with using 'strong current' implantation machines of the second generation. Some results obtained are presented [fr

  3. Synthesis of cobalt alloy through smelting method and its characterization as prosthesis bone implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminatun,; Putri, N.S Efinda; Indriani, Arista; Himawati, Umi; Hikmawati, Dyah; Suhariningsih

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt-based alloys are widely used as total hip and knee replacements because of their excellent properties, such as corrosion resistance, fatigue strength and biocompatibility. In this work, cobalt alloys with variation of Cr (28.5; 30; 31.5; 33, and 34.5% wt) have been synthesized by smelting method began with the process of compaction, followed by smelting process using Tri Arc Melting Furnace at 200A. Continued by homogenization process at recrystallization temperature (1250° C) for 3 hours to allow the atoms diffuses and transform into γ phase. The next process is rolling process which is accompanied by heating at 1200° C for ± 15 minutes and followed by quenching. This process is repeated until the obtained thickness of ± 1 mm. The evaluated material properties included microstructure, surface morphology, and hardness value. It was shown that microstructure of cobalt alloys with variation of Cr is dominant by γ phase, thus making the entire cobalt alloys have high hardness. It was also shown from the surface morphology of entire cobalt alloys sample indicated the whole process of synthesis that had good solubility were at flat surface area. Hardness value test showed all of cobalt alloys sample had high hardness, just variation of 33% Cr be in the range of ASTMF75, it were 345,24 VHN which is potential to be applied as an implant prosthesis

  4. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of titanium sapphire by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpeth, L.D.; McCallum, J.C.; Nugent, K.W.

    1998-01-01

    Since laser action was first demonstrated in titanium sapphire (Ti:Al 2 O 3 ) in 1982, it has become the most widely used tunable solid state laser source. The development of a titanium sapphire laser in a waveguide geometry would yield an elegant, compact, versatile and highly tunable light source useful for applications in many areas including optical telecommunications. We are investigating whether ion implantation techniques can be utilised to produce suitable crystal quality and waveguide geometry for fabrication of a Ti:Al 2 O 3 waveguide laser. The implantation of Ti and O ions into c-axis oriented α-Al 2 O 3 followed by subsequent thermal annealing under various conditions has been investigated as a means of forming the waveguide and optimising the fraction of Ti ions that have the correct oxidation state required for laser operation. A Raman Microprobe is being used to investigate the photo-luminescence associated with Ti 3+ ion. Initial photoluminescence measurements of ion implanted samples are encouraging and reveal a broad luminescence profile over a range of ∼ .6 to .9 μm, similar to that expected from Ti 3+ . Rutherford Backscattering and Ion Channelling analysis have been used to study the crystal structure of the samples following implantation and annealing. This enables optimisation of the implantation parameters and annealing conditions to minimise defect levels which would otherwise limit the ability of light to propagate in the Ti:Al 2O 3 waveguide. (authors)

  6. Channeling ion implantation through palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwara, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of channeling ion implantation into semiconductors through polycrystalline metallic layers is studied. Minimum values and standard deviations of channeling angular yield in polycrystalline Pd 2 Si layers formed on Si have been measured by protons and 4 He, and 14 N ion backscattering and channeling measurements. Depth distributions of the spread of crystallite orientations and scattering centers such as lattice defects have been separately derived by using the above two quantities. It has been concluded that the channeling-ion-implantation technique will become a practical one by using the parallel scanning system

  7. Characterization of nitrogen-ion-implanted aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Breuer, K.; Leonhardt, G.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium has been implanted with nitrogen ions at different temperatures. The implanted samples have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Deconvolution procedures are needed to separate the influence of the ion sputter profiling by AES and XPS from the nitrogen-ion-beam-induced effects. The chemical state of Al, N, O and C was identified by deconvolution of the measured spectra. In general, there were double-peak structures observed for N 1s and O 1s, identified as contributions from nitrides and weakly bound nitrogen, and oxides and weakly bound oxygen, respectively. Auger analysis confirms the influence of the nitrogen ion fluence on the shape of the concentration distribution. The influence of temperature on the chemical state of implanted aluminium and on the concentration distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Development of a high current ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Wan; Jin, Jeong Tae

    1990-01-01

    A high current ion implanter of the energy of 100 Kev and the current of about 100 mA has been developed for using the high dose ion implantation, surface modification of steels and ceramics, and ion beam milling. The characteristics of the beam extraction and transportation are investigated. A duoPIGatron ion source compatible with gas ion extraction of about 100 mA, a single gap acceleration tube which is able to compensate the divergence due to the space charge effect, and a beam transport system with the concept of the space charge neutralization are developed for the high current machine. The performance of the constructed machine shows that nitrogen, argon, helium, hydrogen and oxygen ion beams are successfully extracted and transported at a beam divergence due to space charge effect is negligible in the operation pressure of 2 x 10 -5 torr. (author)

  9. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S P; Jamieson, D N; Nugent, K W; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Application of ion implantation in stevia breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1999-08-01

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted with 60-100 keV nitrogen ion and 75 keV carbon ion of various doses, and the effects of the composition and yield of stevioside were studied. The results showed that ion beam could induce variation in total stevioside yield and the composition of the plant. The best treatment was 75 keV nitrogen ion with 5 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 , the stevioside yield and Rebaudioside A (R-A) content were increased by 4.74% and 14.08% respectively. The effects induced by implantation of carbon ion were higher than those induced by implantation of nitrogen ion. Effects of Feng 1 x Ri Yuan and Ri Yuan x Feng 2 are higher than those of Ji Ning and Feng 2 . Seven mutation lines were selected from the mutation progenies. The stevioside composition of these lines were previously improved. The results suggest a potential application of ion implantation in stevia breeding

  12. Li-ion battery recycling and cobalt flow analysis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Asari, Misuzu; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Batteries sometimes contain precious or toxic substances (e.g. nickel, cobalt, lead, mercury, cadmium). However, the collection and recycling rate of small batteries were low in Japan. We focus on cobalt in lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and conduct chemical analysis, questioner survey and flow analysis in Japan.Results of chemical analysis showed that the concentration of cobalt in Li-ion batteries was around 20% regardless of the year manufactured or the manufacturer. As a result of the con...

  13. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MW Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system. (orig.)

  14. More-reliable SOS ion implantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Conducting layer prevents static charges from accumulating during implantation of silicon-on-sapphire MOS structures. Either thick conducting film or thinner film transparent to ions is deposited prior to implantation, and gaps are etched in regions to be doped. Grounding path eliminates charge flow that damages film or cracks sapphire wafer. Prevention of charge buildup by simultaneously exposing structure to opposite charges requires equipment modifications less practical and more expensive than deposition of conducting layer.

  15. Graphitic structure formation in ion implanted polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavenner, E., E-mail: tazman1492@gmail.com [Creative Polymers Pty. Ltd., 41 Wilkinson Street, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Chemical Committee, Surface Chemical Analysis, Standards (Australia); Wood, B. [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Chemical Committee, Surface Chemical Analysis, Standards (Australia); Curry, M.; Jankovic, A.; Patel, R. [Center for Applied Science and Engineering, Missouri State University, 524 North Boonville Avenue, Springfield, MO 65806 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Ion implantation is a technique that is used to change the electrical, optical, hardness and biocompatibility of a wide range of inorganic materials. This technique also imparts similar changes to organic or polymer based materials. With polymers, ion implantation can produce a carbon enriched volume. Knowledge as to the nature of this enrichment and its relative concentration is necessary to produce accurate models of the physical properties of the modified material. One technique that can achieve this is X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this study the formation of graphite like structures in the near surface of polyetheretherketone by ion implantation has been elucidated from detailed analysis of the C 1s and valence band peak structures generated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Further evidence is given by both Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection.

  16. Studies of ion implanted thermally oxidised chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of 99.99% pure chromium containing precise amounts of foreign elements has been studied and compared to the oxidation of pure chromium. Thirty-three foreign elements including all of the naturally occurring rare earth metals were ion implanted into chromium samples prior to oxidation at 750 0 C in oxygen. The role of radiation induced damage, inherent in this doping technique, has been studied by chromium implantations at various energies and doses. The repair of the damage has been studied by vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 800 0 C prior to oxidation. Many of the implants caused an inhibition of oxidation, the greatest being a 93% reduction for 2 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 of praseodymium. The distribution of the implant was investigated by the use of 2 MeV alpha backscattering and ion microprobe analysis. Differences in the topography and structure of the chromic oxide on and off the implanted area were studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate if a rare earth-chromium compound of a perovskite-type structure had been formed. Lastly, the electrical conductivity of chromic oxide on and off the implanted region was examined at low voltages. (author)

  17. Tribological properties of ion-implanted steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1987-01-01

    The tribological properties such as surface hardness, friction and wear have been studied for low carbon steels and tool steels implanted with many types of ion including metallic elements. The hardness measured by Vickers or Knoop hardness testers as a function of normal load is dependent on the implanted species, fluence and substrate. The friction coefficients measured by Bowden-Leben type of friction tests or detected during wear tests also depend on the implantation conditions. The improvement in the wear resistance, which is most important for industrial use of implanted materials, has been investigated for AISI H13 prehardened and tool steels implanted with nitrogen and boron ions. The relationship between hardness, friction and wear is discussed in comparison with the microcharacteristics such as composition and chemical bonding states measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is concluded that the increase in hardness and/or the decrease in friction coefficient play(s) an important role in improving the wear resistance, and the relationship between relative wear volume and relative hardness is correlated for boron and nitrogen implantation. (orig.)

  18. Changes in surface properties caused by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines various aspects of ion implantation. Major features of ion implantation are described first, focusing on the structure of ion implantation equipment and some experimental results of ion implantation into semiconductors. Distribution of components in ion-implantated layers is then discussed. The two major features of ion implantation in relation to the distribution of implanted ions are: (1) high controllability of addition of ions to a surface layer and (2) formation of a large number of lattice defects in a short period of time. Application of ion implantation to metallic materials is expected to permit the following: (1) formation of a semi-stable alloy surface layer by metallic ion implantation, (2) formation of a semi-stable ceramic surface layer or buried layer by non-metallic ion implantation, and (3) formation of a buried layer by combined implementation of a different metallic ion and non-metallic ion. Ion implantation in carbon materials, polymers and ceramics is discussed next. The last part of the report is dedicated to macroscopic properties of an ion-implanted layer, centering on surface modification, formation of a conductive surface layer, and tribology. (Nogami, K.) 60 refs

  19. Cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarova, I.A.; Bunakova, N.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The neutron-activation method for determining cobalt in rocks, polymetallic and iron ores and rockforming minerals at 2x10 -6 -5x10 -3 % content is developed. Cobalt determination is based on the formation under the effect of thermal neutrons of nuclear reactor of the 60 Co radioactive isotope by the 59 Co (n, γ) 60 Co reaction with radiation energy of the most intensive line of 1333 keV. Cobalt can be determined by the scheme of the multicomponent analysis from the sample with other elements. Co is determined in the solution after separation of all determinable by the scheme elements. The 60 Co intensity is measured by the mUltichannel gamma-spectrometer with Ge(Li)-detector

  20. Forming controlled inset regions by ion implantation and laser bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A semiconductor integrated circuit structure in which the inset regions are ion implanted and laser annealed to maintain substantially the dimensions of the implantation and the method of forming inset implanted regions having controlled dimensions

  1. [Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Detection of Cobalt Ions by Silver Triangular Nanoplates and Rhodamine 6G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-qing; Peng, Jun; Ling, Jian; Liu, Chao-juan; Cao, Qiu-e; Ding, Zhong-tao

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, the authors studied fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) phenomenon between silver triangular nanoplates and bovine serum albumin (BSA)/Rhodamine 6G fluorescence complex, and established a fluorescence method for the detection of cobalt ions. We found that when increasing the silver triangular nanoplates added to certain concentrations of fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA)/Rhodamine 6G complex, the fluorescence of Rhodamine 6G would be quenched up to 80% due to the FRET between the quencher and donor. However, in the presence of cobalt ions, the disassociation of the fluorescent complex from silver triangular nanoplates occurred and the fluorescence of the Rhodamine 6G recovered. The recovery of fluorescence intensity rate (I/I0) has a good relationship with the cobalt ion concentration (cCO2+) added. Thus, the authors developed a fluorescence method for the detection of cobalt ions based on the FRET of silver triangular nanoplates and Rhodamine 6G.

  2. Complex damage distribution behaviour in cobalt implanted rutile TiO2 (1 1 0) lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shalik Ram; Padmanabhan, B.; Chanda, Anupama; Ojha, Sunil; Kanjilal, D.; Varma, Shikha

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the radiation damage, amorphization and structural modifications that are produced by ion-solid interactions in TiO2 crystals during 200 keV Cobalt ion implantation. RBS/C and GIXRD have been utilized to evaluate the damage in the host lattice as a function of ion fluence. Multiple scattering formalism has been applied to extract the depth dependent damage distributions in TiO2(1 1 0). The results have been compared with the MC simulations performed using SRIM-2013. RBS/C results delineate a buried amorphous layer at a low fluence. Surprisingly, ion induced dynamic activation produces a recovery in this damage at higher fluences. This improvement interestingly occurs only in deep regions (60-300 nm) where a systematic lowering in damage with fluence is observed. Formation of Co-Ti-O phases and generation of stress in TiO2 lattice can also be responsible for this improvement in deep regions. In contrast, surface region (0-60 nm) indicates a gradual increase in damage with fluence. Such a switch in the damage behavior creates a cross point in damage profiles at 60 nm. Surface region is a sink of vacancies whereas deep layers are interstitial rich. However, these regions are far separated from each other resulting in an intermediate (100-150 nm) region with a significant dip (valley) in damage which can be characterized by enhanced recombination of point defects. The damage profiles thus indicate a very complex behavior. MC simulations, however, present very different results. They depict a damage profile that extends to a depth of only 150 nm, which is only about half of the damage- width observed here via RBS/C. Moreover, MC simulations do not indicate presence of any valley like structure in the damage profile. The complex nature of damage distribution observed here via RBS/C may be related to the high ionic nature of the chemical bonds in the TiO2 lattice.

  3. Evaluation of an expence of materials during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Zlobin, N.; Zotov, A.V.; Vasilev, V.I.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    Ion implantation is used for a surface modification. The implantation dose must be sufficient to obtain the required properties of a processed surface, but should not be exceeded to prevent over-expenditure of implanted materials. The latter is especially important when noble metals are used as an implanted material. The ion implanter includes a vacuum chamber, source of metal ions (target) and a vacuum pumping-out system. Ions of a plasma-forming gas sputter the target and ions of metal are then accelerated and implanted into surface treated. Ion implantation dose can be calculated from operation parameters such as ion beam current density and duration of implanting. The presence of the plasma-forming gas in the ion flow makes it difficult to determine the expenditure of an implanted metal itself. The objective of this paper is the more accurate definition of an expense of an implanted metal. Mass- spectrometric analysis of an ion beam together with the weighing of the target was used to determine the expense of an implanted metal. It was found that, depending on the implantation parameters, on average around 50% of a total ion flow are metal ions. Results obtained allow more precise definition of an implantation dose. Thus, over- expenditure of implanted metals can be eliminated. (author)

  4. Mechanical properties of ion-implanted alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Monolithic oxide ceramics are being proposed as structural materials in continuously more-demanding applications. The demands being placed on these materials have caused concern pertaining to the continued growth of oxide structural ceramics due to limited toughness. The realization that ceramic strength and toughness can be affected by surface conditions has led to many surface-modification techniques, all striving to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics. Along these lines, the effects of ion implantation as a surface modification technique for improvement of the mechanical properties of alumina were studied. Initially, sapphire samples were implanted with elemental ion species that would produce oxide precipitates within the sapphire surface when annealed in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Optimum conditions as determined from implantation into sapphire were then used to modify a polycrystalline alumina. Specific modifications in microhardness, indentation fracture toughness and flexure strength are reported for the parameters studied. Microstructure and phase relationships related to modified surfaces properties are also reported

  5. Improvement of tribological properties by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerve, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many different measurements confirm that ion implantation changes the friction and wear behaviour, which are the most important properties of tribological systems. Unfortunately, these properties will not always be improved. In industrial application, very often different results of the effects of ion implantation into tools or machine components can be observed, even if the same materials are used. A very important reason for this is the different stresses on the tribological systems. The energy input caused by friction, which is a function of the stress and other parameters of the tribosystem, within a short time leads to the appearance of energy islands, which are statistically distributed over the surfaces. The density of energy within these tiny energy islands is very high. Results of these high energy densities is a mutation of the material's composition and structure within a very thin layer of less than 100 nm underneath the surface and wear. Ion implantation also changes the composition and structure of the bulk material close to the surface. Thus there is urgent need to understand tribo-induced mutations of ion-implanted materials and their influence on the tribological properties. For that reason surface analyses have to be carried out to determine the composition and structure of the materials and the mutation caused by friction and wear

  6. The use of an ion-beam source to alter the surface morphology of biological implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    An electron-bombardment ion-thruster was used as a neutralized-ion-beam sputtering source to texture the surfaces of biological implant materials. The materials investigated included 316 stainless steel; titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium; cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten; cobalt-35% nickel, 20% chromium, 10% molybdenum; polytetrafluoroethylene; polyoxymethylene; silicone and polyurethane copolymer; 32%-carbon-impregnated polyolefin; segmented polyurethane; silicone rubber; and alumina. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface morphology changes of all materials after ion-texturing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to determine the effects of ion-texturing on the surface chemical composition of some polymers. Liquid contact angle data were obtained for ion-textured and untextured polymer samples. Results of tensile and fatigue tests of ion-textured metal alloys are presented. Preliminary data of tissue response to ion-textured surfaces of some metals, polytetrafluoroethylene, alumina, and segmented polyurethane have been obtained.

  7. Plasma immersion ion implantation of Pebax polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondyurin, A. [Applied and Plasma Physics, School of Physics (A28), University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: kond@mailcity.com; Volodin, P. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden e.v., Hohe Str.6, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Weber, J. [Boston Scientific Corporation, One Scimed Place, Maple Grove, MN 55311-1566 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was applied to Pebax thin films and plates using doses ranging from 5 x 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at applied voltages of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kV. The analysis of the Pebax structure after implantation was performed using FTIR ATR, Raman, UV-vis transmission spectra, tensile and AFM contact mode data. The carbonization and depolymerisation processes were observed in the surface layer of Pebax. It was found, that graphitic- and diamond-like structures in Pebax are formed at PIII treatment of 30 kV applied voltage. AFM measurement data showed that the hardness of the Pebax surface layer increased sharply at PIII treatment with a dose higher then 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The bulk mechanical properties of the Pebax film after PIII remained unchanged.

  8. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  9. Ion implantation data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struttmann, D.A.; Anderl, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a data acquisition system developed for hydrogen ion-driven permeation experiments for materials relevant to fusion technology. The system consists of an IMB PC-AT, CAMAC interface to diagnostic instrumentation and custom-developed software (BASIC) to provide time-history information for signals from several instruments including three quadrupole mass spectrometers. 4 refs., 5 figs

  10. Ballistic self-annealing during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Johan F.

    2001-01-01

    Ion implantation conditions are considered during which the energy, dissipated in the collision cascades, is low enough to ensure that the defects, which are generated during these collisions, consist primarily of vacancies and interstitial atoms. It is proposed that ballistic self-annealing is possible when the point defect density becomes high enough, provided that none, or very few, of the interstitial atoms escape from the layer being implanted. Under these conditions, the fraction of ballistic atoms, generated within the collision cascades from substitutional sites, decreases with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the fraction of ballistic atoms, which finally end up within vacancies, increases with increasing vacancy density. Provided the crystal structure does not collapse, a damage threshold should be approached where just as many atoms are knocked out of substitutional sites as the number of ballistic atoms that fall back into vacancies. Under these conditions, the average point defect density should approach saturation. This model is applied to recently published Raman data that have been measured on a 3 MeV He + -ion implanted diamond (Orwa et al 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 5461). The conclusion is reached that this ballistic self-annealing model describes the latter data better than a model in which it is assumed that the saturation in radiation damage is caused by amorphization of the implanted layer. (author)

  11. Subnanosecond timing with ion-implanted detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijken, H.A.; Klein, S.S.; Jacobs, W.; Teeuwen, L.J.H.G.W.; Voigt, M.J.A. de; Burger, P.

    1992-01-01

    The energy resolution of ion-implanted charged particle detectors may be improved by decreasing the thickness of the implanted detector window to minimize energy straggling. Because of the resistance of this layer, however, the timing depends on the position of entry. Two solutions to this conflict between energy resolution and time resolution are studied: evaporating a very thin aluminum layer on the detector window and fabricating a rectangular detector. Both solutions are shown to be successful with a total time resolution in the low subnanosecond region (<200 ps). (orig.)

  12. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW) [de

  13. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  14. Mechanical properties of ion implanted ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms by which ion implantation can affect those surface mechanical properties of ceramics relevant to their tribological behaviour, specifically hardness and indentation fracture. A range of model materials (including single crystal Si, SiC, A1 2 0 3 , Mg0 and soda-lime-silica glass) have been implanted with a variety of ion species and at a range of ion energies. Significant changes have been found in both low-load microhardness and indentation fracture behaviour. The changes in hardness have been correlated with the evolution of an increasingly damaged and eventually amorphous thin surface layer together with the operation of radiation-, solid-solution- and precipitation-hardening mechanisms. Compressive surface stresses have been shown to be responsible for the observed changes in identation fracture behaviour. In addition, the levels of surface stress present have been correlated with the structure of the surface layer and a simple quantitative model proposed to explain the observed stress-relief upon amorphisation. Finally, the effects of ion implantation upon a range of polycrystalline ceramic materials has been investigated and the observed properties modifications compared and contrasted to those found for the model single crystal materials. (author)

  15. Effects of nanodiamonds of explosive synthesis on the skin of experimental animals locally exposed to cobalt and chrome ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorenkov, V I; Vasil'eva, E Yu; Puzyr', A P; Bondar', V S

    2014-12-01

    Experiments in vivo demonstrated the protective effect of modified nanodiamonds on guinea pig skin after local exposure cobalt ions, but not chrome ions. The observed differences are determined by different adsorption of these ions by nanodiamonds: in vitro experiments showed that nanodiamonds adsorbed cobalt ions, but not chrome ions from water solutions. The perspectives of using modified nanodiamonds as a new adsorbent for prevention of allergic contact dermatitis induced by ions of bivalent metals are discussed.

  16. Operation of low-energy ion implanters for Si, N, C ion implantation into silicon and glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report details the operation of the low-energy ion implanters at GNS Science for C, N and Si implantations. Two implanters are presented, from a description of the components through to instructions for operation. Historically the implanters have been identified with the labels 'industrial' and 'experimental'. However, the machines only differ significantly in the species of ions available for implantation and sample temperature during implantation. Both machines have been custom designed for research purposes, with a wide range of ion species available for ion implantation and the ability to implant two ions into the same sample at the same time from two different ion sources. A fast sample transfer capability and homogenous scanning profiles are featured in both cases. Samples up to 13 mm 2 can be implanted, with the ability to implant at temperatures down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The implanters have been used to implant 28 Si + , 14 N + and 12 C + into silicon and glassy carbon substrates. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy has been used to analyse the implanted material. From the data a Si 30 C 61 N 9 layer was measured extending from the surface to a depth of about 77 ± 2 nm for (100) silicon implanted with 12 C + and 14 N + at multiple energies. Silicon and nitrogen ion implantation into glassy carbon produced a Si (40.5 %), C (38 %), N (19.5 %) and O (2%) layer centred around a depth of 50 ± 2 nm from the surface. (author). 8 refs., 20 figs

  17. Electron backscatter diffraction studies of focused ion beam induced phase transformation in cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.G., E-mail: helen.jones@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Day, A.P. [Aunt Daisy Scientific Ltd, Claremont House, High St, Lydney GL15 5DX (United Kingdom); Cox, D.C. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    A focused ion beam microscope was used to induce cubic to hexagonal phase transformation in a cobalt alloy, of similar composition to that of the binder phase in a hardmetal, in a controlled manner at 0°, 45° and 80° ion incident angles. The cobalt had an average grain size of ~ 20 μm, allowing multiple orientations to be studied, exposed to a range of doses between 6 × 10{sup 7} and 2 × 10{sup 10} ions/μm{sup 2}. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to determine the original and induced phase orientations, and area fractions, before and after the ion beam exposure. On average, less phase transformation was observed at higher incident angles and after lower ion doses. However there was an orientation effect where grains with an orientation close to (111) planes were most susceptible to phase transformation, and (101) the least, where grains partially and fully transformed at varying ion doses. - Highlights: •Ion-induced phase change in FCC cobalt was observed at multiple incidence angles. •EBSD was used to study the relationship between grain orientation and transformation. •Custom software analysed ion dose and phase change with respect to grain orientation. •A predictive capability of ion-induced phase change in cobalt was enabled.

  18. Chemical and catalytic effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Energetic particles are used for inducing chemical reactions as well as for modifying the properties of materials with regard to their bulk and surface chemical behavior. The effects are partly caused by radiation damage or phase intermixing, partly by the chemical properties of the individual bombarding particles. In this contribution a survey of relevant applications of these techniques is presented: (1) Chemical reactions of implanted and recoil atoms and their use for syntheses, doping and labeling of compounds. (2) The formation of thin films by decomposing chemical compounds with ion beams. 3) Catalytic effects on substrates treated by sputtering or ion implantation. Recent results with nonmetallic substrates are reviewed. Mainly hydrogenation reactions at a solid/gas interface or redox reactions at an electrified solid/liquid interface are mentioned. The present status and future prospects of these kinds of investigations will be discussed. (author)

  19. Damage accumulation in ceramics during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; Begun, G.M.; Williams, J.M.; White, C.W.; Appleton, B.R.; Sklad, P.S.; Angelini, P.

    1985-01-01

    The damage structures of α-Al 2 O 3 and α-SiC were examined as functions of ion implantation parameters using Rutherford backscattering-channeling, analytical electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Low temperatures or high fluences of cations favor formation of the amorphous state. At 300 0 K, mass of the bombarding species has only a small effect on residual damage, but certain ion species appear to stabilize the damage microstructure and increase the rate of approach to the amorphous state. The type of chemical bonding present in the host lattice is an important factor in determining the residual damage state

  20. Laser annealing of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.; Appleton, B.R.; Wilson, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Pulsed laser annealing of ion implanted silicon leads to the formation of supersaturated alloys by nonequilibrium crystal growth processes at the interface occurring during liquid phase epitaxial regrowth. The interfacial distribution coefficients from the melt (k') and the maximum substitutional solubilities (C/sub s//sup max/) are far greater than equilibrium values. Both K' and C/sub s//sup max/ are functions of growth velocity. Mechanisms limiting substitutional solubilities are discussed. 5 figures, 2 tables

  1. Quantum effects in ion implanted devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Chan, V.; Hudson, F.E.; Andresen, S.E.; Yang, C.; Hopf, T.; Hearne, S.M.; Pakes, C.I.; Prawer, S.; Gauja, E.; Yang, C.; Dzurak, A.S.; Yang, C.; Clark, R.G.; Yang, C.

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale devices that exploit the rules of quantum mechanics to process information presents formidable technical challenges because it will be necessary to control quantum states at the level of individual atoms, electrons or photons. We have developed a pathway to the construction of quantum devices using ion implantation and demonstrate, using charge transport analysis, that the devices exhibit single electron effects. We construct devices that employ two P donors in Si by employing the technique of ion beam induced charge (IBIC) in which single 14 keV P ions can be implanted into ultra-pure silicon by monitoring on-substrate detector electrodes. We have used IBIC with a MeV nuclear microprobe to map and measure the charge collection efficiency in the development of the electrode structure and show that 100% charge collection efficiency can be achieved leading to the fabrication of prototype devices that display quantum effects in the transport of single charge quanta between the islands of implanted donors. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Lithium ion implantation effects in MgO (100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, MA; Fedorov, AV; van Veen, A; Labohm, F; Schut, H; Mijnarends, PE; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM; Triftshauser, W; Kogel, G; Sperr, P

    2001-01-01

    Single crystals of MgO (100) were implanted with 10(16) (6)Li ions cm(-2) at an energy of 30 keV. After ion implantation the samples were annealed isochronally in air at temperatures up to 1200K. After implantation and after each annealing step, the defect evolution was monitored with optical

  3. A study on the localized corrosion of cobalt in bicarbonate solutions containing halide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Sciences de la Sante, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Que., G5L 3A1 (Canada); Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada); Simard, Stephan [Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Sciences de la Sante, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Que., G5L 3A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephan_simard@uqar.qc.ca

    2005-07-01

    The localized attack of cobalt in bicarbonate aqueous solutions containing halide ions was investigated using electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrodes were used to determine the effect of bicarbonate concentration, solution pH, nature and concentration of the halide ions, convection and potential sweep rate on the corrosion processes. These parameters were found to play a key role on the localized attack induced by halide ions by influencing the production of a Co(HCO{sub 3}){sub 2} precipitate on the pit surface. Potentiostatically generated cobalt oxide films (CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were found to be efficient to reduce pitting corrosion of cobalt.

  4. Electron microscopy studies of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshan, K.

    1975-11-01

    The nature of defects resulting from the implantation of phosphorous ions into doped silicon and a model of how they form are reported. This involved an electron microscope study of the crystallographic defects (in the 300A size range in concentration of 10 15 /cm 3 ) that form upon annealing. Images formed by these crystallographic defects are complex and that nonconventional imaging techniques are required for their characterization. The images of these small defects (about 300A) are sensitive to various parameters, such as foil thickness, their position in the foil, and diffracting conditions. The defects were found to be mostly interstitial hexagonal Frank loops lying on the four [111] planes and a few perfect interstitial loops; these loops occurred in concentrations of about 10 16 /cm 3 . In addition, ''rod like'' linear defects that are shown to be interstitial are also found in concentrations of 10 13 /cm 3 . It was found that the linear defects require boron for their formation. A model is proposed to account for the interstitial defects. The number of point defects that make up the defects is of the same order as the number of implanted ions. The model predicts that only interstitial loops ought to be observed in agreement with several recent investigations. Dislocation models of the loops are examined and it is shown that phosphorous ions could segregate to the Frank loops, changing their displacement vectors to a/x[111]. (x greater than 3) thus explaining the contrast effects observed. It would also explain the relative electrical inactivity of P + ion implants

  5. Paramagnetism in ion-implanted oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, Torben Esmann; Gíslason, Hafliði Pétur; Ólafsson, Sveinn

    This thesis describes the investigation on para-magnetism in dilute ion-implanted single-crystal oxide samples studied by on- and off-line $^{57}$Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ion-implantation of the radioactive isotopes ( $^{57}$Mn and $^{57}$Co) was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The off-line measurements were performed at Aarhus University, Denmark. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a unique method, giving simultaneously local information on valence/spin state of the $^{57}$Fe probe atoms, site symmetry and magnetic properties on an atomic scale. The utilisation of emission Mössbauer spectroscopy opens up many new possibilities compared with traditional transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Among them is the possibility of working with a low concentration below 10$^{-4}$ –10$^{-3}$ at.%, where the implanted Mössbauer $^{57}$Fe probes are truly dilute impurities exclusively interacting with their nearest neighbours and therefore the possibility of crea...

  6. High energy iron ion implantation into sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Pedraza, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Sapphire specimens of c-axis orientation were implanted at room temperature with iron ions at energies of 1.2 and of 2 MeV to various fluences up to 8 x 10 16 cm -2 . The damage induced by the implantations was assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in random and channeling geometries. Dechanneling in both sublattices was observed to saturate for all implantation conditions. Disorder in the aluminum sublattice was found to increase with depth at a significantly slower rate than in the oxygen sublattice. In the oxygen sublattice, a relative yield, χ, of 0.80 ± 0.11 was attained at a depth of 0.1 μm and remained constant up to the measured depth of 0.45 μm. In the aluminum sublattice, the disorder increased with depth and the dechanneling asymptotically approached χ =0.70 ± 0.04 at 0.45 μm. These results are discussed and compared with those for shallower Fe implantations obtained by other researchers

  7. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zengliang

    1993-04-01

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  8. One-step separation by thermal treatment and cobalt acid-leaching from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in portable storage devices and automobiles, therefore the environment and resource problems caused by spent lithium ion batteries have become increasingly severe. This paper focuses on the recovery process of spent lithium cobalt oxide active material and comes up with reasonable processes and the best conditions for cobalt leaching ultimately.

  9. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  10. Computational stochastic model of ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmievskaya, Galina I., E-mail: zmi@gmail.ru; Bondareva, Anna L., E-mail: bal310775@yandex.ru [M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, 4,Miusskaya sq., 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatlevchenko@mail.ru [VNII Geosystem Russian Federal Center, Varshavskoye roadway, 8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.maino@enea.it [Scuola di Lettere e BeniCulturali, University di Bologna, sede di Ravenna, via Mariani 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe{sup ++} irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage.

  11. Non-Uniformity of Ion Implantation in Direct-Current Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Sen, Liu; Yu-Jia, Fan; Nan, Zhang; Li, Guan; Yuan, Yao; De-Zhen, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A particle-in-cell simulation is developed to study dc plasma immersion ion implantation. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the voltage applied to the target on the ion path, and the ion flux distribution on the target surface. It is found that the potential near the aperture within the plasma region is not the plasma potential, and is impacted by the voltage applied to the implanted target. A curved equipotential contour expands into the plasma region through the aperture and the extent of the expansion depends on the voltage. Ions accelerated by the electric field in the sheath form a beam shape and a flux distribution on the target surface, which are strongly dependent on the applied voltage. The results of the simulations demonstrate the formation mechanism of the grid-shadow effect, which is in agreement with the result observed experimentally. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  12. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10 16 ionscm -2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  13. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of investigations of surface modification by ion implantation in zirconia are described. As dopant material, iron was investigated thoroughly. The depth distribution of implanted ions depends on implantation parameters and the dopant-matrix system. The investigations of thermal stability of some implanted iron profiles by RBS and AES are described. Special interest lies in the thermal stability under working conditions of the zirconia material (400-1000 0 C). Radiation damage introduced in the implanted layer was investigated using transmission electron microscopy on polycrystalline material and channeling experiments on a single crystal implanted with iron. 179 refs.; 87 figs.; 20 tabs

  14. Simulation of ion implantation for ULSI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoessinger, A.

    2000-07-01

    In modern semiconductor technology ion implantation has turned out to be the most important technique to introduce dopant atoms into semiconducting materials. The major advantage of the ion implantation technique is the high controllability and reproducibility of the process parameters influencing the doping distributions. Furthermore, very shallow doping profiles can be formed, which are a prerequisite for ULSI (ultra large scale integration) technology. Since it is mainly ion implantation which determines the distribution of the dopants and thereby the electrical properties of the semiconductor devices highly accurate simulation methods for ion implantation processes are required to be able to predict and optimize the behavior of integrated circuits. In recent years successively shrinking device dimensions and new design concepts have shown the necessity of a full three-dimensional treatment of simulation problems, e.g. the simulation of MOS transistors with narrow gates, or vertical transistors. Three-dimensional simulations obviously require large computation times and a lot of memory. Therefore, it is a waste of computational resources if a three-dimensional simulation would be applied to all applications. Several problems, like the buried layer or the well formation of an MOS transistor can be analyzed as accurate by simpler two-dimensional or even one-dimensional simulations. Since it should be easy to switch the dimension of the simulation without recalibrating a simulator, it is not desirable to use different simulators, which eventually use different models, for the simulation of one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems. The goal of this work was to further improve a Monte-Carlo ion implantation simulator developed over the last fifteen years within the scope of several PhD theses. As part of this work several new models and methods have been developed and implemented to improve the accuracy and the efficiency of the simulator, in

  15. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Schubert, M. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Held, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Pichler, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Chill, A. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kiermaier, S. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schloesser, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Busch, H. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Schenk, K. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Streufert, D. [Acri.Tec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf (Germany); Lanzl, I. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A biodegradable, {beta}-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the {beta}-emitter {sup 32}P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and {sup 32}P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  16. Quantum effects in ion implanted devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Chan, V.; Hudson, F.E.; Andresen, S.E.; Yang, C.; Hopf, T.; Hearne, S.M.; Pakes, C.I.; Prawer, S.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale devices that exploit the rules of quantum mechanics to process information presents formidable technical challenges because of the need to control quantum states at the level of individual atoms, electrons or photons. We have used ion implantation to fabricate devices on the scale of 10 nm that have allowed the development and test of nanocircuitry for the control of charge transport at the level of single electrons. This fabrication method is compatible with the construction of devices that employ counted P dopants in Si by employing the technique of ion beam induced charge (IBIC) in which single 14 keV P ions can be implanted into ultra-pure silicon substrates by monitoring on-substrate detector electrodes. We have used IBIC with a MeV nuclear microprobe to map and measure the charge collection efficiency in the development of the electrode structure and show that 100% charge collection efficiency can be achieved. Prototype devices fabricated by this method have been used to investigate quantum effects in the control and transport of single electrons with potential applications to solid state quantum information processing devices

  17. Formation of InN phase by sequential ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhana Raman, P.; Ravichandran, V.; Nair, K.G.M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Kalavathi, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Dhara, S.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of InN phase by sequentially implanting nitrogen on indium implanted silica was demonstrated. The growth of embedded InN phase on as-implanted and post-implantation annealed sample was studied using Glancing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Existence of both cubic and hexagonal phases of InN was observed. Results of irradiation induced ripening of In nanoclusters due to N + ion implantation was also studied. (author)

  18. Cobalt nanosheet arrays supported silicon film as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.H.; Wu, J.B.; Cao, Y.Q.; Zhang, P.; Lin, Y.; Guo, R.Q.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt nanosheet arrays supported silicon film is prepared and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The film is fabricated using chemical bath deposition, hydrogen reduction and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering techniques. The microstructure and morphology are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In this composite film, the silicon layer is supported by interconnected aligned cobalt nanosheet arrays that act as the three-dimensional current collector and buffering network. The electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results show that the film prepared by sputtering for 1500 s exhibits high capacity, good rate capability and stable cycle ability. It is believed that the cobalt nanosheet arrays play important roles in the electrochemical performance of the silicon layer.

  19. Adherent zirconia films by reactive ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, S.N.; Armini, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional methods of forming ceramic coatings on metal substrates, such as CVD or plasma spray, typically retain a sharp interface and may have adhesion problems. In order to produce a completely mixed interface for better adhesion, a method using reactive ion implantation was used which can grow a thick stoichiometric film of an oxide ceramic starting from inside the substrate. Zirconium oxide ceramic films have been produced by this technique using a high-energy zirconium ion beam in an oxygen gas ambient. Compositional data are shown based on Auger electron spectroscopy of the film. Tribological properties of the layer were determined from wear and friction measurements using a pin-on-disk test apparatus. The adhesion was measured both by a scratch technique as well as by thermal shock. Results show an extremely adherent ZrO 2 film with good tribological properties

  20. Evaluation of stabilization techniques for ion implant processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Narcy, Mark E.; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    With the integration of high current ion implant processing into volume CMOS manufacturing, the need for photoresist stabilization to achieve a stable ion implant process is critical. This study compares electron beam stabilization, a non-thermal process, with more traditional thermal stabilization techniques such as hot plate baking and vacuum oven processing. The electron beam processing is carried out in a flood exposure system with no active heating of the wafer. These stabilization techniques are applied to typical ion implant processes that might be found in a CMOS production process flow. The stabilization processes are applied to a 1.1 micrometers thick PFI-38A i-line photoresist film prior to ion implant processing. Post stabilization CD variation is detailed with respect to wall slope and feature integrity. SEM photographs detail the effects of the stabilization technique on photoresist features. The thermal stability of the photoresist is shown for different levels of stabilization and post stabilization thermal cycling. Thermal flow stability of the photoresist is detailed via SEM photographs. A significant improvement in thermal stability is achieved with the electron beam process, such that photoresist features are stable to temperatures in excess of 200 degrees C. Ion implant processing parameters are evaluated and compared for the different stabilization methods. Ion implant system end-station chamber pressure is detailed as a function of ion implant process and stabilization condition. The ion implant process conditions are detailed for varying factors such as ion current, energy, and total dose. A reduction in the ion implant systems end-station chamber pressure is achieved with the electron beam stabilization process over the other techniques considered. This reduction in end-station chamber pressure is shown to provide a reduction in total process time for a given ion implant dose. Improvements in the ion implant process are detailed across

  1. Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadev Somasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion at fluences of 1015, 1016, and 1017 ion·cm−2, and its in vitro degradation behaviour was evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS revealed that the implanted ions formed layers within the passive magnesium-oxide/hydroxide layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results demonstrated that calcium-ion implantation at a fluence of 1015 ions·cm−2 increased the polarisation resistance by 24%, but higher fluences showed no appreciable improvement. In the case of zinc-ion implantation, increase in the fluence decreased the polarisation resistance. A fluence of 1017 ion·cm−2 decreased the polarisation resistance by 65%, and fluences of 1015 and 1016 showed only marginal effect. Similarly, potentiodynamic polarisation results also suggested that low fluence of calcium-ion decreased the degradation rate by 38% and high fluence of zinc-ion increased the degradation rate by 61%. All the post-polarized ion-implanted samples and the bare metal revealed phosphate and carbonate formation. However, the improved degradative behaviour in calcium-ion implanted samples can be due to a relatively better passivation, whereas the reduction in degradation resistance in zinc-ion implanted samples can be attributed to the micro-galvanic effect.

  2. Electrochemical investigations of ion-implanted oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.W.; Danzfuss, B.; Meyer, O.; Stimming, U.

    1985-01-01

    Oxide films (passive films) of 40-50 nm thickness were prepared by anodic polarization of hafnium and titanium electrodes up to 20 V. Multiple-energy ion implantation of palladium, iron and xenon was used in order to obtain modified films with constant concentration profiles of the implanted ions. Rutherford backscattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and electrochemical charging curves prove the presence of implanted ions, but electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the dominating effect of ion implantation is the disordering of the oxide film. The capacity of hafnium electrodes increases as a result of an increase in the dielectric constant D. For titanium the Schottky-Mott analysis shows that ion implantation causes an increase in D and the donor concentration N. Additional electronic states in the band gap which are created by the implantation improve the conductivity of the semiconducting or insulating films. This is seen in the enhancement of electron transfer reactions and its disappearance during repassivation and annealing. Energy changes in the band gap are derived from photoelectrochemical measurements; the absorption edge of hafnium oxide films decreases by approximately 2 eV because of ion implantation, but it stays almost constant for titanium oxide films. All changes in electrochemical behavior caused by ion implantation show little variation with the nature of the implanted ion. Hence the dominating effect seems to be a disordering of the oxide. (Auth.)

  3. Nickel and cobalt filled multiwalled carbon nantubes : structural transformation under heavy ion irradiation and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, D.S.; Misra, A.; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Karamakar, S.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The nickel and cobalt nano wires of diameters ranging from 5-15 nm are formed inside the multiwalled carbon nantubes using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition in our laboratory. The nano wires inside the tubes are found to have a perfect crystalline structure and the crystalline planes of (111) orientations are aligned for FCC nickel and cobalt in a particular fashion. We find that the cobalt can exist either in FCC or HCP phase in confinement depending upon the diameter of the tubes. The irradiation of these nanowires with high energy Au + ions alter the orientation of the crystalline planes and generate various types of domains and defects in the nanowires. The complete amorphization of the walls of the nano tubes is observed at the fluence of 5x10 13 /cm 2 and results in amorphization of nickel nano wires as well. The cobalt nano wires have FCC structure in ambient conditions and transform to HCP cobalt irreversibly when subjected to high pressure of ∼9 GPa. Multi-walled carbon nano tubes that encapsulate the cobalt nano wires do not undergo any other structural transformation with pressure except partial reversible amorphization beyond 9 GPa

  4. Depth distribution of nitrogen in silicon from plasma ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajo, J.J.; Williams, J.D.; Wei, R.; Wilson, R.G.; Matossian, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma Ion Implantation (PII) is an ion implantation technique that eliminates the line-of-sight restriction of conventional ion-beam implantation and therefore allows for cost effective surface modification of large-scale objects or large-number of small-scale objects. In PII, a part to be implanted is immersed in a low-pressure (10 -4 --10 -5 Torr), partially-ionized plasma that surrounds the part with a plasma sheath. The part is negatively pulse biased up to 100 keV using a repetitive train (100--1,000 Hz) of short-duration (10--40 μsec) voltage pulses. The applied voltage develops across the sheath and accelerates plasma ions into the surface, implanting them omnidirectionally and simultaneously over the entire surface of the part. The depth distribution of the implanted ions influences the extent and type of surface modification achieved and depends upon many factors. These include three rise and fall time of the voltage-pulse waveform, the voltage-pulse amplitude, the ion specie, the ion density, and the temperature of the target. Understanding the contributions to the depth distribution from each of these factors will enable prediction of conditions that will be useful for implantation of large complex parts. To investigate the contributions to the measured depth distributions from these factors nitrogen, predominantly as N + 2 , has been implanted into silicon using PII at 50 and 100 keV (25 and 50 keV per N atom). The implanted depth distributions have been determined using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. The distributions differ from the typical, approximately Gaussian, profiles that result from conventional mass selected monoenergetic ion beam implantation. In comparison with ion beam implants and numerical simulations the profiles appear ''filled-in'' with an approximately constant nitrogen concentration for depths less than the expected average ion range

  5. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  6. Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt-Chromium Implant Frameworks: Fit and Effect of Ceramic Veneering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, Per; Eliasson, Alf; Stenport, Victoria

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fit of additively manufactured cobalt-chromium and titanium and CNC-milled titanium frameworks before and after ceramic veneering. Ten stone casts simulating an edentulous maxilla provided with six abutment analogs were produced. For each stone cast, one additively manufactured cobalt-chromium framework (AM CoCr) and one titanium framework (AM Ti) were fabricated. The fit was analyzed with a coordinate measuring machine in three dimensions (x, y, and z axes) using best-fit virtual matching of center point coordinates, before and after ceramic veneering. CNC-milled titanium frameworks (CNC Ti) and earlier results from CNC-milled cobalt-chromium frameworks (CNC CoCr) were used for comparison. All frameworks presented minor misfit before and after veneering in the horizontal plane (x- and y-axes) between 2.9 and 13.5 μm and in the vertical plane (z-axis) between 1.6 and 5.4 μm. Ceramic veneering affected the fit of all groups of frameworks. Both AM Ti and AM CoCr presented significantly smaller distortion in the vertical plane compared with the CNC-milled frameworks. Implant-supported frameworks can be produced in either Ti or CoCr using either CNC milling or additive manufacturing with a fit well within the range of 20 μm in the horizontal plane and 10 μm in the vertical plane. The fit of frameworks of both materials and production techniques are affected by the ceramic veneering procedure to a small extent.

  7. SIMS analysis of isotopic impurities in ion implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.E.; Blunt, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    The n-type dopant species Si and Se used for ion implantation in GaAs are multi-isotopic with the most abundant isotope not chosen because of potential interferences with residual gases. SIMS analysis of a range of 29 Si implants produced by several designs of ion implanter all showed significant 28 Si impurity with a different depth distribution from that of the deliberately implanted 29 Si isotope. This effect was observed to varying degrees with all fifteen implanters examined and in every 29 Si implant analysed to date 29 Si + , 29 Si ++ and 30 Si implants all show the same effect. In the case of Se implantation, poor mass resolution results in the implantation of all isotopes with the same implant distribution (i.e. energy), whilst implants carried out with good mass resolution show the implantation of all isotopes with the characteristic lower depth distribution of the impurity isotopes as found in the Si implants. This effect has also been observed in p-type implants into GaAs (Mg) and for Ga implanted in Si. A tentative explanation of the effect is proposed. (author)

  8. Perturbation of cobalt 60 radiation doses by metal objects implanted during oral and maxillofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatcher, M.; Kuten, A.; Helman, J.; Laufer, D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence on cobalt 60 dose distributions of typical metal parts used in oral and maxillofacial surgery was studied. Relative doses were determined by exposing x-ray films in a polystyrene phantom set-up containing samples of vitallium, titanium, and stainless steel. Optical densities were converted to doses with the aid of sensitometric curves. The results show that for normal incidence there is a 25% to 40% increase in dose at the entrance side of the metal and a 20% to 25% decrease in dose at the exit side. The enhancement effect falls off rapidly and becomes negligible at about 1 mm from the interface. The reduction effect decreases more gradually and is still evident at distances of a few centimeters. These dose perturbations should be taken into account in the planning of radiation therapy for patients in whom metal objects have been implanted

  9. Corrosion resistance of uranium with carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Hongwei; Yan Dongxu; Bai Bin; Lang Dingmu; Xiao Hong; Wang Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    The carbon modified layers prepared on uranium surface by carbon ion implantation, gradient implantation, recoil implantation and ion beam assisted deposition process techniques were studied. Depth profile elements of the samples based on Auger electron spectroscopy, phase composition identified by X-ray diffraction as well as corrosion resistance of the surface modified layers by electrochemistry tester and humid-thermal oxidation test were carried out. The carbon modified layers can be obtained by above techniques. The samples deposited with 45 keV ion bombardment, implanted by 50 keV ions and implanted with gradient energies are of better corrosion resistance properties. The samples deposited carbon before C + implantation and C + assisted deposition exhibit worse corrosion resistance properties. The modified layers are dominantly dot-corraded, which grows from the dots into substructure, however, the assisted deposition samples have comparatively high carbon composition and are corraded weakly. (authors)

  10. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  11. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  12. Synthesis of graphene by MEVVA source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, J.J.; Xiao, X.H.; Dai, Z.G.; Wu, W.; Li, W.Q.; Mei, F.; Cai, G.X.; Ren, F.; Jiang, C.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ion implantation provides a new synthesis route for graphene, and few-layered graphene synthesis by ion implantation has been reported. Here we show the synthesis of a single layer of high-quality graphene by Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation. Polycrystalline nickel and copper thin films are implanted with MEVVA source carbon ions at 40 kV, followed by high-temperature thermal annealing and quenching. A Raman spectrum is applied to probe the quality and thickness of the prepared graphene. A single layer of high-quality graphene is grown on the nickel films, but not on the copper films. The growth mechanisms on the nickel and copper films are explained. MEVVA source ion implantation has been widely applied in industrial applications, demonstrating that this synthesis method can be generalized for industrial production

  13. In-situ deposition of sacrificial layers during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Brown, I.G.; Yu, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    The retained dose of implanted ions is limited by sputtering. It is known that a sacrificial layer deposited prior to ion implantation can lead to an enhanced retained dose. However, a higher ion energy is required to obtain a similar implantation depth due to the stopping of ions in the sacrificial layer. It is desirable to have a sacrificial layer of only a few monolayers thickness which can be renewed after it has been sputtered away. We explain the concept and describe two examples: (i) metal ion implantation using simultaneously a vacuum arc ion source and filtered vacuum arc plasma sources, and (ii) Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (MePIIID). In MePIIID, the target is immersed in a metal or carbon plasma and a negative, repetitively pulsed bias voltage is applied. Ions are implanted when the bias is applied while the sacrificial layer suffers sputtering. Low-energy thin film deposition - repair of the sacrificial layer -- occurs between bias pulses. No foreign atoms are incorporated into the target since the sacrificial film is made of the same ion species as used in the implantation phase

  14. Magnetic properties of thin films obtained by ion implantation of 3d metals in polyethylene-terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.Yu.; Ibragimova, M.I.; Khabibullina, N.R; Zheglov, E.P.; Muller, R.

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films containing small metal particles have been attracting particular interest because of their unique properties. Implantation of metal ions in polymers is one of the methods to synthesize metal-polymer nano-composite materials. Ion implantation makes possible the magnetic nano-structures with controlled parameters. Previously, we showed that 3d-metal implantation into numerous polymers (polymethylmethacrylate, phosphorus containing polymethylmethacrylate) resulted in the formation of a composite film consisting of metal nanoparticles buried in an implanted layer. The particles are usually found to be distributed randomly in the surface layer. It has been established that structural peculiarities, phase composition, and magnetic properties of synthesized metal-polymer systems depend on the type of the initial polymer matrix, ion types, as well as conditions of ion implantation. In the present study we have been prepared thin metal-polymer composite films by ion-beam implantation of Fe + and Co + ions in polyethylene terephthalate. The implantation of 40 keV ions at room temperature with doses from 2·10 1 6 to 3·10 17 cm -2 have been performed, with the ion current density not exceeding 10 μA/cm 2 . The magnetic properties have been investigated both by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). FMR spectra were recorded using magnetic radio spectrometer Varian E-12 with frequency of 9.5 GHz at room temperature. The dependencies of FMR spectra on orientation have been measured for all samples. Measurements were carried out for two orientations of the sample, normal direction of the films being either parallel or perpendicular to dc magnetic field. The values of the effective magnetization were calculated from orientation dependencies. Thin ferromagnetic films (TFF) have been shown to form for samples with both implanted ions. For samples implanted with Co + ions, the appearance of FMR lines occurs at doses markedly greater

  15. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  16. Channeling effect for low energy ion implantation in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K.; Allen, W.R.; Finstad, T.G.; Chu, W.K.; Liu, J.; Wortman, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is one of the most important processes in semiconductor device fabrication. Due to the crystalline nature of Si, channeling of implanted ions occurs during this process. Modern devices become smaller and shallower and therefore require ion implantation at lower energies. The effect of channeling on ion implantation becomes a significant problem for low energy ion implantation. The critical angle for axial and planar channeling increases with decreasing energy. This corresponds to an increased probability for channeling with lowering of ion energy. The industry approach to avoid the channeling problem is to employ a tilt angle of 7 0 between the ion implantation direction and the surface normal. We approach the problem by mapping major crystalline axes and planes near the [100] surface normal. Our analysis indicates that a 7 0 tilt is not an optimum selection in channeling reduction. Tilt angles in the range 5 0 to 6 0 combined with 7 0 +- 0.5 0 rotation from the (100) plane are better selections for the reduction of the channeling effect. The range of suitable angles is a function of the implantation energy. Implantations of boron along well specified crystallographic directions have been carried out by careful alignment and the resulting boron profiles measured by SIMS. (orig.)

  17. Extraction of cobalt ion from textile using a complexing macromolecular surfactant in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirat, Mathieu; Ribaut, Tiphaine; Clerc, Sebastien; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Charton, Frederic; Fournel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt ion under the form of cobalt nitrate is removed from a textile lab coat using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The process involves a macromolecular additive of well-defined architecture, acting both as a surfactant and a complexing agent. The extraction efficiency of cobalt reaches 66% when using a poly(1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluoro-decyl-acrylate-co-vinyl-benzylphosphonic diacid) gradient copolymer in the presence of water at 160 bar and 40 C. The synergy of the two additives, namely the copolymer and water which are useless if used separately, is pointed out. The potential of the supercritical carbon dioxide process using complexing macromolecular surfactant lies in the ability to modulate the complexing unit as a function of the metal as well as the architecture of the surface-active agent for applications ranging for instance from nuclear decontamination to the recovery of strategic metals. (authors)

  18. Electrical properties of polymer modified by metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Deng Zhiwei; Zhou Gu

    2000-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified by Ag, Cr, Cu and Si ion implantation with a dose range from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 ions cm -2 using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source. The electrical properties of PET have been changed after metal ion implantation. The resistivity of implanted PET decreased obviously with an increase of ion dose. When metal ion dose of 2x10 17 cm -2 was selected, the resistivity of PET could be less than 10 Ω cm, but when Si ions are implanted, the resistivity of PET would be up to several hundred Ω cm. The results show that the conductive behavior of a metal ion implanted sample is obviously different from Si implantation one. The changes of the structure and composition have been observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface structure is varying after ion implantation and it is believed that the change would cause the improvement of the conductive properties. The mechanism of electrical conduction will be discussed

  19. Fatigue and wear of metalloid-ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Richter, E.; Rauschenbach, B.; Blochwitz, C.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of metalloid ion implantation on the fatigue behaviour and wear of nickel and two steels has been investigated. These metals were implanted with boron, carbon and nitrogen ions at energies from 30 to 60 keV and with doses from 1 X 10 16 to 1 X 10 18 ions cm -2 at room temperature. The mechanical behaviour of fatigued nickel was studied in push-pull tests at room temperature. Wear measurements were made using a pin-and-disc technique. The surface structure, dislocation arrangement and modification of the implantation profile resulting from mechanical tests on metals which had been implanted with metalloid ions were examined using high voltage electron microscopy, transmission high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. It is reported that nitrogen and boron ion implantation improves the fatigue lifetime, changes the number and density of the slip bands and modifies the dislocation arrangements in nickel. The cyclic deformation leads to recrystallization of the boron-ion-induced amorphous structure of nickel and to diffusion of the boron and nitrogen in the direction of the surface. The wear behaviour of steels was improved by implantation of mass-separated ions and by implantation of ions without mass separation. (Auth.)

  20. Recovery of cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuol, Daniel A; Machado, Caroline M; Silva, Mariana L; Calgaro, Camila O; Dotto, Guilherme L; Tanabe, Eduardo H

    2016-05-01

    Continuing technological development decreases the useful lifetime of electronic equipment, resulting in the generation of waste and the need for new and more efficient recycling processes. The objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of supercritical fluids for the leaching of cobalt contained in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For comparative purposes, leaching tests are performed with supercritical CO2 and co-solvents, as well as under conventional conditions. In both cases, sulfuric acid and H2O2 are used as reagents. The solution obtained from the supercritical leaching is processed using electrowinning in order to recover the cobalt. The results show that at atmospheric pressure, cobalt leaching is favored by increasing the amount of H2O2 (from 0 to 8% v/v). The use of supercritical conditions enable extraction of more than 95wt% of the cobalt, with reduction of the reaction time from 60min (the time employed in leaching at atmospheric pressure) to 5min, and a reduction in the concentration of H2O2 required from 8 to 4% (v/v). Electrowinning using a leach solution achieve a current efficiency of 96% and a deposit with cobalt concentration of 99.5wt%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cobalt products from real waste fractions of end of life lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Moscardini, Emanuela; Altimari, Pietro; Abo Atia, Thomas; Toro, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    An innovative process was optimized to recover Co from portable Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB). Pilot scale physical pretreatment was performed to recover electrodic powder from LIB. Co was extracted from electrodic powder by a hydrometallurgical process including the following main stages: leaching (by acid reducing conditions), primary purification (by precipitation of metal impurities), solvent extraction with D2EPHA (for removal of metal impurities), solvent extraction with Cyanex 272 (for separation of cobalt from nickel), cobalt recovery (by precipitation of cobalt carbonate). Tests were separately performed to identify the optimal operating conditions for precipitation (pH 3.8 or 4.8), solvent extraction with D2EHPA (pH 3.8; Mn/D2EHPA=4; 10% TBP; two sequential extractive steps) and solvent extraction with Cyanex 272 (pH 3.8; Cyanex/Cobalt=4, 10% TBP, one extractive step). The sequence of optimized process stages was finally performed to obtain cobalt carbonate. Products with different degree of purity were obtained depending on the performed purification steps (precipitation with or without solvent extraction). 95% purity was achieved by implementation of the process including the solvent extraction stages with D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 and final washing for sodium removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A copper-catalyzed bioleaching process for enhancement of cobalt dissolution from spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guisheng; Deng, Xiaorong; Luo, Shenglian; Luo, Xubiao; Zou, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic ion was first applied to the bioleaching process of spent lithium-ion batteries. ► The bioleaching efficiency was great improved from 43.1% to 99.9% in the presence of copper ion. ► A new reaction model was proposed to explain the catalytic mechanism. - Abstract: A copper-catalyzed bioleaching process was developed to recycle cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries (mainly LiCoO 2 ) in this paper. The influence of copper ions on bioleaching of LiCoO 2 by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A.f) was investigated. It was shown that almost all cobalt (99.9%) went into solution after being bioleached for 6 days in the presence of 0.75 g/L copper ions, while only 43.1% of cobalt dissolution was obtained after 10 days without copper ions. EDX, XRD and SEM analyses additionally confirmed that the cobalt dissolution from spent lithium-ion batteries could be improved in the presence of copper ions. The catalytic mechanism was investigated to explain the enhancement of cobalt dissolution by copper ions, in which LiCoO 2 underwent a cationic interchange reaction with copper ions to form CuCo 2 O 4 on the surface of the sample, which could be easily dissolved by Fe 3+ .

  3. A copper-catalyzed bioleaching process for enhancement of cobalt dissolution from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Guisheng, E-mail: zengguisheng@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Deng, Xiaorong [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Xubiao; Zou, Jianping [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic ion was first applied to the bioleaching process of spent lithium-ion batteries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bioleaching efficiency was great improved from 43.1% to 99.9% in the presence of copper ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new reaction model was proposed to explain the catalytic mechanism. - Abstract: A copper-catalyzed bioleaching process was developed to recycle cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries (mainly LiCoO{sub 2}) in this paper. The influence of copper ions on bioleaching of LiCoO{sub 2} by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A.f) was investigated. It was shown that almost all cobalt (99.9%) went into solution after being bioleached for 6 days in the presence of 0.75 g/L copper ions, while only 43.1% of cobalt dissolution was obtained after 10 days without copper ions. EDX, XRD and SEM analyses additionally confirmed that the cobalt dissolution from spent lithium-ion batteries could be improved in the presence of copper ions. The catalytic mechanism was investigated to explain the enhancement of cobalt dissolution by copper ions, in which LiCoO{sub 2} underwent a cationic interchange reaction with copper ions to form CuCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} on the surface of the sample, which could be easily dissolved by Fe{sup 3+}.

  4. Evaluation of electron beam stabilization for ion implant processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffat, Stephen J.; Kickel, Bee; Philipps, B.; Adams, J.; Ross, Matthew F.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Wong, Selmer S.

    1999-06-01

    With the integration of high energy ion implant processes into volume CMOS manufacturing, the need for thick resist stabilization to achieve a stable ion implant process is critical. With new photoresist characteristics, new implant end station characteristics arise. The resist outgassing needs to be addressed as well as the implant profile to ensure that the dosage is correct and the implant angle does not interfere with other underlying features. This study compares conventional deep-UV/thermal with electron beam stabilization. The electron beam system used in this study utilizes a flood electron source and is a non-thermal process. These stabilization techniques are applied to a MeV ion implant process in a CMOS production process flow.

  5. Tribological effects of oxygen ion implantation into stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Vilaithong, T.; Yu, L.D.; Monteiro, O.R.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of sub-surface oxide layers by hybrid metal-gas co-implantation into steel and other metals can improve their tribological properties. In this report, we compare the wear and friction performance of previously studied Al + O hybrid implants with that produced by single species oxygen ion (O + ) implantation under similar conditions. The substrates were AISI 304L stainless steel discs polished to a final mirror finish using 1 μm diamond paste, and the ion implantation was done using a conventional swept-beam technique at ion energies of 70 or 140 keV and doses of up to 1x10 17 cm -2 . The wear and friction behaviour of the implanted and unimplanted material was measured with a pin-on-disc tribometer. Here we describe the experimental procedure and results, and discuss the improvement relative to that achieved with surface layers modified by metal-gas co-implantation

  6. DC plasma ion implantation in an inductively coupled RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silawatshananai, C.; Matan, N.; Pakpum, C.; Pussadee, N.; Srisantitam, P.; Davynov, S.; Vilaithong, T.

    2004-01-01

    Various modes of plasma ion implantation have been investigated in a small inductively coupled 13.6 MHz RF plasma source. Plasma ion implantation with HVDC(up to -10 kV bias) has been investigated in order to incorporate with the conventional implantation of diamond like carbon. In this preliminary work, nitrogen ions are implanted into the stainless steel sample with a dose of 5.5 x 10 -2 cm for a short implanting time of 7 minutes without target cooling. Surface properties such as microhardness, wear rate and the friction coefficient have been improved. X-ray and SEM analyses show distinct structural changes on the surface. A combination of sheath assisted implantation and thermal diffusion may be responsible for improvement in surface properties. (orig.)

  7. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  8. Dopant profile engineering of advanced Si MOSFET's using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, P.A.; Ponomarev, Y.V.; Schmitz, J.; Brandenburg, A.C.M.C. van; Roes, R.; Montree, A.H.; Woerlee, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation has been used to realize non-uniform, steep retrograde (SR) dopant profiles in the active channel region of advanced Si MOSFET's. After defining the transistor configuration, SR profiles were formed by dopant implantation through the polycrystalline Si gate and the gate oxide (through-the-gate, TG, implantation). The steep nature of the as-implanted profile was retained by applying rapid thermal annealing for dopant activation and implantation damage removal. For NMOS transistors, TG implantation of B yields improved transistor performance through increased carrier mobility, reduced junction capacitances, and reduced susceptibility to short-channel effects. Electrical measurements show that the gate oxide quality is not deteriorated by the ion-induced damage, demonstrating that transistor reliability is preserved. For PMOS transistors, TG implantation of P or As leads to unacceptable source/drain junction broadening as a result of transient enhanced dopant diffusion during thermal activation

  9. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 21 0 C +/- 1 0 C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F + , Ar + , or As + ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 . The conductivity of films implanted with As + was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar + , which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F + . The conductivity of the most conductive film ∼1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 with F + , Ar + , and As + ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  10. Modification of the hydriding of uranium using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musket, R.G.; Robinson-Weis, G.; Patterson, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The hydriding of depleted uranium at 76 Torr hydrogen and 130 0 C has been significantly reduced by implantation of oxygen ions. The high-dose implanted specimens had incubation times for the initiation of the reaction after exposure to hydrogen that exceeded those of the nonimplanted specimens by more than a factor of eight. Furthermore, the nonimplanted specimens consumed enough hydrogen to cause macroscopic flaking of essentially the entire surface in times much less than the incubation time for the high-dose implanted specimens. In contrast, the ion-implanted specimens reacted only at isolated spots with the major fraction of the surface area unaffected by the hydrogen exposure

  11. Dose measurement of ion implanted silicon by RBS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamawanna, Teerasak; Intarasiri, Saweat; Prapunsri, Chowunchun; Thongleurm, Chome; Maleepatra, Saenee; Singkarat, Somsorn

    2003-10-01

    Surface modification can be achieved by ion implantation. This study used a 1 mm thick silicon wafer as a target which was implanted with Ar+ at 80 keV. The degree of the modification depends on both the ion energy and the implanted dose. The distribution of argon in the silicon substrate and the absolute implanted dose can be measured by using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). These investigations utilized a 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator system at Chiang Mai University. The dose determination by a direct calculation is in agreement with the simulation by the SIMNRA code

  12. High-temperature superconductors induced by ion implantation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, A.C.; Johnson, E.

    1988-08-01

    High dose oxygen ion implantation (10 to the 17th power ions per sq. cm.) at elevated temperatures (300 C) has been shown to adjust the critical temperature of gamma-Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O materials. These results are in marked contrast to earlier work which showed complete destruction of superconducting properties for similar radiation doses, and marked reduction in superconducting properties at one-tenth this dose in the 1-2-3- compound only. Experiments also showed that the superconducting materials can be patterned into conducting and nonconducting areas without etching by ion implantation, allowing maintenance of planar geometries required for microcircuit fabrication. Experiments on deposition of thin films of high temperature superconductors for use with the ion implantation experiments showed that ion beam sputtering from a single target could achieve the correct stoichiometry. Variations of composition with ion beam energy and angle of sputtered ions were studied

  13. Iron ion implantation into C60 layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Csik, A.; Vad, K.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The soccer ball shaped carbon molecule consisting of 60 carbon atoms (C 60 , fullerene) was discovered in 1985. Since that time the fullerene has become intensively studied. This special molecule has much potential in medical care, biotechnology and nanotechnology. We are motivated to produce special type fullerenes, so called endohedral fullerenes (some alien atoms are encapsulated inside the fullerene cage). The spring of our motivation is that the Fe at C 60 could be applied as a contrast material for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or microwave heat therapy. One way to make X at C 60 is the surface production using an ECRIS (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source). An evaporated or preprepared fullerene layer is irradiated by ions to form a new material during the implantation. By this method several kinds of atomic species, such as Li, Na, K, Rb, Xe were encapsulated into the fullerenes. However evidence for the Fe at C 60 has not been found yet. During the analysis of the irradiated samples three questions must be answered. 1. Are there iron atoms in the layer and where? 2. Does the iron bond to the fullerene? 3. How does the iron bond to the fullerene, inside or outside? Using different investigation tools, SNMS (Secondary Neural Mass Spectrometer), MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight), XPS (Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) or HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography), all these questions could be clarified step by step. In this paper we made the first steps to answer the first question: fullerene layers irradiated by iron ion beam delivered by the ATOMKI-ECRIS have been analyzed by the ATOMKI-SNMS. The evaporated 90 - 120 nm thick fullerene layers on Si holder were irradiated by Fe 5+ and Fe + ion beams produced from Ferrocene vapor. Samples were irradiated with two different doses (5 10 18 ion/cm 3 and 10 22 ion/cm 3 ) at four ion energies (65 keV, 6.5 keV, 0.2 keV and two of

  14. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Mei; Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1997-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  15. Modification of medical metals by ion implantation of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y. Z.; Xiong, G. Y.; Liang, H.; Raman, S.; He, F.; Huang, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of copper ion implantation on the antibacterial activity, wear performance and corrosion resistance of medical metals including 317 L of stainless steels, pure titanium, and Ti-Al-Nb alloy was studied in this work. The specimens were implanted with copper ions using a MEVVA source ion implanter with ion doses ranging from 0.5 × 10 17 to 4 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 80 keV. The antibacterial effect, wear rate, and inflexion potential were measured as a function of ion dose. The results obtained indicate that copper ion implantation improves the antibacterial effect and wear behaviour for all the three medical materials studied. However, corrosion resistance decreases after ion implantation of copper. Experimental results indicate that the antibacterial property and corrosion resistance should be balanced for medical titanium materials. The marked deteriorated corrosion resistance of 317 L suggests that copper implantation may not be an effective method of improving its antibacterial activity.

  16. Plasma source ion implantation research at southwestern institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhenkui; Geng Man; Tong Honghui

    1997-10-01

    The PSII-EX device and PSII-IM device for research and development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technology are described briefly. The functions, main technical specifications and properties of the devices are also discussed. After ion implantation by PSII, the improvements of the surface-mechanical properties (such as microhardness, wear-resistance, friction factor, biological compatibility, etc) for some materials, microanalysis and numerical simulation of modified layers of materials, the technical developments for the practical workpiece treatments and the preliminary experiments for plasma source ion implantation-enhanced deposition are introduced too. As last, the future work about PSII have been proposed

  17. Microstructure evolution in carbon-ion implanted sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orwa, J. O.; McCallum, J. C.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Peng, J. L.; Rubanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon ions of MeV energy were implanted into sapphire to fluences of 1x10 17 or 2x10 17 cm -2 and thermally annealed in forming gas (4% H in Ar) for 1 h. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results obtained from the lower dose implant showed retention of implanted carbon and accumulation of H near the end of range in the C implanted and annealed sample. Three distinct regions were identified by transmission electron microscopy of the implanted region in the higher dose implant. First, in the near surface region, was a low damage region (L 1 ) composed of crystalline sapphire and a high density of plateletlike defects. Underneath this was a thin, highly damaged and amorphized region (L 2 ) near the end of range in which a mixture of i-carbon and nanodiamond phases are present. Finally, there was a pristine, undamaged sapphire region (L 3 ) beyond the end of range. In the annealed sample some evidence of the presence of diamond nanoclusters was found deep within the implanted layer near the projected range of the C ions. These results are compared with our previous work on carbon implanted quartz in which nanodiamond phases were formed only a few tens of nanometers from the surface, a considerable distance from the projected range of the ions, suggesting that significant out diffusion of the implanted carbon had occurred.

  18. Isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Itami, Akira

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide ion exchanger and aqueous solutions was radiochemically measured to obtain fundamental data which are useful for elucidating the ion-exchange kinetics of the material for the transition metal elements. The rate can be understood by considering that the cobalt ions were present in the exchanger as three kinds of species: (A 1 ) Free ions which can diffuse in the exchanger particles, (A 2 ) Weakly bound ions to the exchange sites which exchange rapidly with A 1 , and (B) Covalently fixed ions to the exchange sites which exchange very slowly with A 1 . At low fraction of B, the rate is controlled by the diffusion of A 1 with the effective diffusion coefficient, D eff , the values of which depend on the concentration ratios of A 2 to A 1 . When B predominates over the A species, the concentration ratios of B to A 1 affect greatly D eff . The values of D eff and their activation energy(20 kJ/mol) were also estimated

  19. Defects in boron ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W.K.

    1975-05-01

    The crystal defects formed after post-implantation annealing of B-ion-implanted Si irradiated at 100 keV to a moderate dose (2 x 10 14 /cm 2 ) were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Contrast analysis and annealing kinetics show at least two different kinds of linear rod-like defects along broken bracket 110 broken bracket directions. One kind either shrinks steadily remaining on broken bracket 110 broken bracket at high temperatures (greater than 850 0 C), or transforms into a perfect dislocation loop which rotates toward broken bracket 112 broken bracket perpendicular to its Burgers vector. The other kind shrinks steadily at moderate temperatures (approximately 800 0 C). The activation energy for shrinkage of the latter (3.5 +- 0.1 eV) is the same as that for B diffusion in Si, suggesting that this linear defect is a boron precipitate. There also exist a large number of perfect dislocation loops with Burgers vector a/2broken bracket 110 broken bracket. The depth distribution of all these defects was determined by stereomicroscopy. The B precipitates lying parallel to the foil surfaces are shown to be at a depth of about 3500 +- 600 A. The loops are also at the same depth, but with a broader spread, +-1100 A. Si samples containing B and samples containing no B (P-doped) were irradiated in the 650-kV electron microscope. Irradiation at 620 0 C resulted in the growth of very long linear defects in the B-doped samples but not in the others, suggesting that at 620 0 C Si interstitials produced by the electron beam replace substitutional B some of which precipitates in the form of long rods along broken bracket 110 broken bracket. (DLC)

  20. Mechanism of caesium ion exchange on potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrates(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J.; Haukka, S.; Harjula, R. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Radiochemistry); Blomberg, M. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-03-01

    The caesium uptakes by K{sub 2}(CoFe(CN){sub 6}) and non-stoicheiometric compounds K{sub 2/x}Co{sub x/2}(CoFe(CN){sub 6}) were found to correlate directly with the specific surface areas of the products with x < 1. The exchange process is assumed to involve only the outermost surface layer of their crystals, which have cubic lattice, i.e. only potassium (or cobalt) ions inside the elementary cubes closest to the surface of the crystals are exchanged for caesium ions. Compounds with x > 1 are mixtures of cubic potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (ii) and tetragonal Co{sub 2}Fe(CN){sub 6}. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant of the caesium exchange on K{sub 2}(CoFe(CN){sub 6}) was found to have a high value of 125. (author).

  1. Procedure for the ion implantation of MOS elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, T.; Vetter, E.; Tolonics, J.

    1986-01-01

    The ion implantation procedure is applied to the doping of MOS elements. The invention guarantees a homogeneous doping in the dose range from 10 10 to 10 12 ions/cm 2 without additional installations of mechanical orifices in high-current implantation devices. The ion source parameters like cathode heating current, pressure at the ion source, extraction and acceleration voltages correspond to the dose range (10 10 to 10 12 ions/cm 2 ) for single charged ions of the doping agent. Double or triple charged ions generated at the ion source have been separated mass-analytically, accelerated and scanned. Ion densities below 100 nA/cm 2 have been obtained

  2. Modification of polyvinyl alcohol surface properties by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukhova, I.V., E-mail: ivpuhova@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kurzina, I.A. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K.P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Laput, O.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E.M. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    We describe our investigations of the surface physicochemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified by silver, argon and carbon ion implantation to doses of 1 × 10{sup 14}, 1 × 10{sup 15} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} and energies of 20 keV (for C and Ar) and 40 keV (for Ag). Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) indicates that destructive processes accompanied by chemical bond (−C=O) generation are induced by implantation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the implanted silver is in a metallic Ag3d state without stable chemical bond formation with polymer chains. Ion implantation is found to affect the surface energy: the polar component increases while the dispersion part decreases with increasing implantation dose. Surface roughness is greater after ion implantation and the hydrophobicity increases with increasing dose, for all ion species. We find that ion implantation of Ag, Ar and C leads to a reduction in the polymer microhardness by a factor of five, while the surface electrical resistivity declines modestly.

  3. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarasiri, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Bootkul, D.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  4. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intarasiri, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Bootkul, D.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented

  5. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Wijaikhum, A. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.; Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  6. Low energy implantation of boron with decaborane ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria Angela

    The goal of this dissertation was to determine the feasibility of a novel approach to forming ultra shallow p-type junctions (tens of nm) needed for future generations of Si MOS devices. In the new approach, B dopant atoms are implanted by cluster ions obtained by ionization of decaborane (B 10H14) vapor. An experimental ion implanter with an electron impact ion source and magnetic mass separation was built at the Ion Beam and Thin Film Research Laboratory at NJIT. Beams of B10Hx+ ions with currents of a few microamperes and energies of 1 to 12 keV were obtained and used for implantation experiments. Profiles of B and H atoms implanted in Si were measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). From the profiles, the junction depth of 57 nm (at 1018 cm-3 B concentration) was obtained with 12 keV decaborane ions followed by RTA. The dose of B atoms that can be implanted at low energy into Si is limited by sputtering as the ion beam sputters both the matrix and the implanted atoms. As the number of sputtered B atoms increases with the implanted dose and approaches the number of the implanted atoms, equilibrium of B in Si is established. This effect was investigated by comparison of the B dose calculated from the ion beam integration with B content in the sample measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Maximum (equilibrium) doses of 1.35 x 1016 B cm -2 and 2.67 x 1016 B cm-2 were obtained at the beam energies of 5 and 12 keV, respectively. The problem of forming shallow p-type junctions in Si is related not only to implantation depth, but also to transient enhanced diffusion (TED). TED in Si implanted with B10Hx+ was measured on boron doping superlattice (B-DSL) marker layers. It was found that TED, following decaborane implantation, is the same as with monomer B+ ion implantation of equivalent energy and that it decreases with the decreasing ion energy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. Investigation of corrosion and ion release from titanium dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.; Mouhyi, J.; Louvette, P.; Sennerby, L.

    1997-01-01

    A thin passive titanium dioxide, in its stoichiometric form, has a very high corrosion resistance, but the same conclusion can not be made on corrosion resistance of a surface which is not stoichiometrically titanium dioxide, or even a surface which is a composition of various elements and oxides. In practice, the implants available on the market have an oxide surface contaminated with other elements. The aim of this paper is to correlate clinical observations that show the deterioration of Ti made implants after certain period of insertion in the patients, and in vitro corrosion resistance of Ti implants with surface passive oxide layer. For this purpose, surface analysis of the retrieved failed implants were performed and in vivo animal experiments with relation to ion release from implants were done. Finally, on the basis of the clinical observation, in vivo animal test, and in vitro electrochemical corrosion test, a model is proposed to explain the corrosion and ion release from the Ti implant. (author)

  8. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J. (Applications of Nuclear Physics, Ansto, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)); Paoloni, F.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wollongong, GPO Box 1144, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10[sup 16]ionscm[sup -2] were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  9. Removal of cobalt ion from bentonite using diffusion dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Hisao; Tamura, Kouichi; Katoh, Naotake

    1995-01-01

    A radioactive metal ion must be removed from contaminated soil which accidentally adsorbs the radioactive metal ion. With this situation, the authors examined the diffusion dialysis as a removal process of the radioactive ion from fine particles of the soil. In a dialyzer, the one side of the solution including fine particles of soil was referred to as diluting cell and the other side stripping was referred to as concentrating cell. The experiments by batch operations were carried out by interposing a cation exchange membrane (CMV) between both cells. The high separation of the ion from the soil could be achieved by the experiments when the aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid was used as stripping solution. Equations for batch diffusion dialysis system were set up and calculated. From the results of simulation, it was noted that the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stripping solution, the selections of the membrane, and mass transfer coefficient at the surface of the membrane strongly affect the removal efficiency of the ion. (author)

  10. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakarov, Ivan [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)]. E-mail: ivan.chakarov@silvaco.com; Temkin, Misha [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator.

  11. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarov, Ivan; Temkin, Misha

    2006-01-01

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator

  12. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Muñoz, Roberto [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de [Private Practice, P° San Francisco, 43 A-1°, 20400 Tolosa (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm{sup 2}) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  13. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm 2 ) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  14. Structural and electronic properties of ion-implanted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, H.; Nedellec, P.

    1980-01-01

    Recent work on ion implanted superconductors is reviewed. In situ x-ray, channeling, resistivity, and electron tunneling experiments now approach the relation between lattice order (or disorder) and superconductivity

  15. Industrial applications of ion implantation into metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    The modern materials processing technique, ion implantation, has intriguing and attractive features that stimulate the imaginations of scientists and technologists. Success of the technique for introducing dopants into semiconductors has resulted in a stable and growing infrastructure of capital equipment and skills for use of the technique in the economy. Attention has turned to possible use of ion implantation for modification of nearly all surface related properties of materials - optical, chemical and corrosive, tribological, and several others. This presentation provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of equipment, technique, and materials science of ion implantation. Practical and economic factors pertaining to the technology are discussed. Applications and potential applications are surveyed. There are already available a number of ion-implanted products, including ball-and-roller bearings and races, punches-and-dies, injection screws for plastics molding, etc., of potential interest to the machine tool industry

  16. Improving Sustainability of Ion Implant Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor fabs have long been pressured to manage capital costs, reduce energy consumption and increasingly improve efforts to recycle and recover resources. Ion implant tools have been high-profile offenders on all three fronts. They draw such large volumes of air for heat dissipation and risk reduction that historically, they are the largest consumer of cleanroom air of any process tool—and develop energy usage and resource profiles to match. This paper presents a documented approach to reduce their energy consumption and dramatically downsize on-site facilities support for cleanroom air manufacture and abatement. The combination produces significant capital expenditure savings. The case entails applying SAGS Type 1 (sub-atmospheric gas systems) toxic gas packaging to enable engineering adaptations that deliver the energy savings and cost benefits without any reduction in environmental health and safety. The paper also summarizes benefits as they relate to reducing a fabs carbon emission footprint (and longer range advantages relative to potential cap and trade programs) with existing technology.

  17. A simple ion implantation system for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Bird, J.R.; Broe, H.G.

    1982-11-01

    A project has been initiated to investigate simple but effective ion implantation and pulsed annealing techniques for the fabrication of high efficiency silicon solar cells. In particular, the method aims to eliminate the mass analyser and associated components from the implanter. A solid feed source is used in a clean ultra high vacuum environment to minimise impurities

  18. Plasma immersion ion implantation: duplex layers from a single process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, R.; Collins, G.A.; Tendys, J.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) is an alternative non-line-of-sight technique for implanting ions directly from a plasma which surrounds the component to be treated. In contrast to plasma source ion implantation, the PI 3 system uses an inductively coupled r.f. plasma. It is shown that nitrogen can be retained during implantation at elevated temperatures, even for unalloyed steels. This allows controlled diffusion of nitrogen to greater depths, thereby improving the load bearing capacity of the implanted layer. Components can be heated directly, using the energy deposited by the incident ions during the pulsed implantation. The necessary temperature control can be accomplished simply by regulating the frequency and length of the high voltage pulses applied to the component. Chemical depth profiles and microstructural data obtained from H13 tool steel are used to show that PI 3 can, in a single process, effectively produce a duplex subsurface structure. This structure consists of an outer non-equilibrium layer typical of nitrogen implantation (containing in excess of 20 at.% nitrogen) backed by a substantial diffusion zone of much lower nitrogen content. The relationship between implantation temperature and the resultant subsurface microstructure is explored. (orig.)

  19. SIMPLANT: analytic calculation of ion implantation within the Tadpance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.J.

    1988-04-01

    An analytic method for calculating the concentration distribution of dopant atoms introduced into a multilayer semiconductor device by ion beam implantation is explained. Computer software written to apply the method is described. The operation of the software within a semiconductor process and device modelling package is outlined. Implantation distributions generated by the software are illustrated. (author)

  20. Study on surface modification of M2 steel induced by Cu ions and Al ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Liu Zhengmin

    2001-01-01

    Changes of surface hardness and wear resistances in M2 type steel implanted by Cu Al ions were reported. The dependence of surface strengthening on ion species and dose was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) for microhardness and wear resistances measurement. It is shown that both hardness and wear resistance increases apparently after ion implantation. XRD analysis indicates that different phases formed after Al Cu ions implanted. It is also suggested that Cu, Al ions have different role in surface strengthening

  1. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Wyndham, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted wide interests since it emulates conventional ion-beam ion implantation (IBII) in niche applications. For instance, the technique has very high throughput, the implantation time is independent of the sample size, and samples with an irregular shape can be implanted without complex beam scanning or sample manipulation. For uniform ion implantation and deposition on to different substrates, like silicon, stainless steel etc., a capacitive coupled Radio frequency (RF), 13.6 MHz, plasma is used. During the PIII process, the physical parameters which are expected to play crucial rule in the deposition process like RF power, Negative pulse voltage and pulse duration, gas type and gas mixture, gas flow rates and the implantation dose are studied. The ion dose is calculated by dynamic sheath model and the plasma parameters are calculated from the V-I characteristic and power balance equation by homogeneous model of rf plasma discharge considering Ohmic as well as Stochastic heating. The correlations between the yield of the implantation process and the physical parameters as well as plasma parameters are discussed. (author)

  3. Modification of polyethyleneterephtalate by implantation of nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svorcik, V.; Endrst, R.; Rybka, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cerny, F.

    1994-01-01

    The implantation of 90 keV N + ions into polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) to fluences of 1 x 10 14 --1 x 10 17 cm -2 was studied. The changes in electrical sheet conductivity and polarity of ion-exposed PET were observed and the structural changes were examined using IR spectroscopy. One degradation process is a chain fission according to the Norrish II reaction. The sheet conductivity due to conjugated double bonds was increased by ten orders of magnitude as a result of ion implantation. The surface polarity of the PET samples increases slightly with increasing ion fluence

  4. Effect of ion implantation on apple wine yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Andong; Chen Hongge; Zhang Shimin; Jia Cuiying

    2004-01-01

    The wild type apple wine yeast Y 02 was treated by ion implantation with the dose of 8 x 10 15 ion/cm 2 . As results, a special mutant strain, ION II -11 dry, was obtained. The morphology characters, partial biochemistry characters, mycelium protein of the mutant strain were distinctively changed compared with original strain Y 02 . After the fermentation test ,the apple wine producing rate of the mutant strain increased 22.4% compared with original strain. These results showed that ion implantation was an effective method for mutagenesis

  5. Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: Recent developments and future opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrum, A.; Boatner, L.A.; White, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Ion implantation is a versatile and powerful technique for forming many types of nanocrystalline precipitates embedded in the near-surface region of a wide variety of crystalline and amorphous host materials. The unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties of these nanocomposites has stimulated considerable recent research interest. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field as well as some of the problems that currently hinder the potential applications of nanocomposites formed by ion implantation

  6. Biosorptive removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Amaranthus hybridus L. stalk as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of Co (II) from aqueous solution. The experiment was carried out by batch method at 33°C. The influence of pH, contact time and initial metal ion ...

  7. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp 2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation

  8. Prospects of ion implantation and ion beam mixing for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.K.; Munn, P.; Ensinger, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is very useful new low temperature treatment for improving the mechanical surface properties of materials without any dimensional changes. In addition also the corrosion properties of metals can be modified considerably by this technique. The long term corrosion behaviour of implanted metals, however, has been studied only for a very limited number of cases. In this contribution a survey of attempts to do this will be presented. As examples of promising systems for corrosion protection by ion beams iron, steel and titanium were examined with and without pretreatment by ion implantation and ion beam mixing. The corrosion rates of the systems have been obtained by neutron activation analysis and by electrochemical methods. Experimental results are presented on: Palladium implanted in titanium - crevice corrosion in salt solution; Palladium implanted in and deposited on titanium -corrosion in sulfuric acid; Platinum implanted in stainless steel -corrosion in sulfuric acid. (author)

  9. High fluence effects on ion implantation stopping and range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Tek, Z.; Oeztarhan, A.; Akbas, N.; Brown, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a code STOPPO which can be used to modify the more-widely used ion implantation codes to more accurately predict the mean nuclear and electronic stopping power, preferential sputtering and range of heavy ions in monatomic target materials. In our simulations an effective atomic number and effective atomic mass are introduced into conveniently available analytical stopping cross-sections and a better fitting function for preferential sputtering yield is carefully evaluated for each ion implantation. The accuracy of the code confirmed experimentally by comparison with measured Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) concentration profiles for 130 keV Zr ions implanted into Be to fluences of 1 x 10 17 , 2 x 10 17 and 4 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . We find a steady increase in the mean nuclear and electronic stopping powers of the target; the increase in nuclear stopping power is much greater than the increase in electronic stopping power

  10. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  11. Development of industrial ion implantation and ion assisted coating processes: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, K.O.; Solnick-Legg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beam processes have gone through a series of developmental stages, from being the mainstay of the semiconductor industry for production of integrated circuits, to new commercial processes for biomedical, aerospace and other industries. Although research is still continuing on surface modification using ion beam methods, ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for treatment of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites must now be considered viable industrial processes of benefit in a wide variety of applications. However, ion implantation methods face various barriers to acceptability, in terms not only of other surface treatment processes, but for implantation itself. This paper will discuss some of the challenges faced by a small company whose primary business is development and marketing of ion implantation and ion-assisted coating processes. (orig.)

  12. Nitrogen ion implantation effect on friction coefficient of tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, N.I.; Udovenko, V.F.; Markus, A.M.; Presnyakova, G.N.; Gamulya, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen molecular ion implantation into KhVSG steel on the friction coefficient in the air and vacuum is investigated. Irradiation is carried out by the N 2 + beam with energy 120 keV and flux density 5 μ/cm 2 at room temperature in vacuum 5x10 -4 Pa. The integral dose of irradiation is 10 17 particle/cm 2 . Nitrogen ion implantation is shown to provide the formation of the modified layer changing friction properties of steel. The friction coefficient can either increase or decrease depending on implantation and test conditions. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Ion implantation induced conducting nano-cluster formation in PPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Patnaik, A.; Ghosh, G.; Dhara, S.

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of polymers and non-polymeric organic molecules from insulating to semiconducting materials as an effect of energetic ion implantation is an established fact. Formation of nano-clusters enriched with carbonaceous materials are made responsible for the insulator-semiconductor transition. Conduction in these implanted materials is observed to follow variable range hopping (VRH) mechanism. Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide) [PPO] compatible in various proportion with polystyrene is used as a high thermal resistant insulating polymer. PPO has been used for the first time in the ion implantation study

  14. Characterization of ion implanted silicon by the electrolytic reverse current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueller, J.; Pham, M.T.

    1977-01-01

    The current voltage behaviour of ion implanted silicon electrodes in HF electrolyte is investigated. The electrolytic reverse current, i.e. the reaction rate of the minority carrier limited reactions is found to increase. The current increase depends on the implanted dose and layer stripping. Reason for the increased reverse current can be referred to radiation damage acting as generation centres for minority carriers. Measurement of the electrolytic reverse current can be used for determining damage profiles. Layer stripping is carried out by anodic dissolution in the same electrolyte. The sensitivity of this new method for characterizing ion implanted silicon layers lies at 10 11 to 10 12 atoms/cm 2 . (author)

  15. Thermal stress resistance of ion implanted sapphire crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Jamieson, D.N.; Szymanski, R.; Orlov, A.V.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1999-01-01

    Monocrystals of sapphire have been subjected to ion implantation with 86 keV Si - and 80 keV Cr - ions to doses in the range of 5x10 14 -5x10 16 cm -2 prior to thermal stress testing in a pulsed plasma. Above a certain critical dose ion implantation is shown to modify the near-surface structure of samples by introducing damage, which makes crack nucleation easier under the applied stress. The effect of ion dose on the stress resistance is investigated and the critical doses which produce a noticeable change in the stress resistance are determined. The critical dose for Si ions is shown to be much lower than that for Cr - ions. However, for doses exceeding 2x10 16 cm -2 the stress resistance parameter decreases to approximately the same value for both implants. The size of the implantation-induced crack nucleating centers and the density of the implantation-induced defects are considered to be the major factors determining the stress resistance of sapphire crystals irradiated with Si - and Cr - ions

  16. The emittance and brightness characteristics of negative ion sources suitable for MeV ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the description and beam properties of ion sources suitable for use with ion implantation devices. Particular emphasis is placed on the emittance and brightness properties of state-of-the-art, high intensity, negative ion sources based on the cesium ion sputter principle

  17. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  18. Dual-ion implantation into GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealy, B.J.; Bell, E.C.; Surridge, R.K.; Stephens, K.G.; Ambridge, T.; Heckingbottom, R.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of dual implants have been carried out to test the theory of Ambridge and Heckingbottom (Ambridge, T. and Heckingbottom, R., 1973, Radiat. Effects, vol. 17, 31). After annealing at 700 0 C or 750 0 C a significant enhancement of electrical activity compared with single-ion implants has been obtained for (Ga + Se) and (Sn + Se) implants but the degree of enhancement is dose dependent. The results imply that the dual implantation process is more complex than predicted by the theory and the electrical activity measured seems to be dominated by residual, compensating damage. (author)

  19. Characterisation of Cs ion implanted GaN by DLTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoepe, P. N. M.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Omotoso, E.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Diale, M.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to characterise Cs implanted GaN grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). This implantation was done at room temperature using energy of 360 keV to a fluence of 10-11 cm-2. A defect with activation energy of 0.19 eV below the conduction band and an apparent capture cross section of 1.1 × 10-15 cm2 was induced. This defect has previously been observed after rare earth element (Eu, Er and Pr) implantation. It has also been reported after electron, proton and He ion implantation.

  20. A collisional model for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    In plasma immersion ion implantation, a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of negative short pulses are applied to it to implant the ions. A new analytical model is being developed for the high pressure regimes in which the motion of the ions is highly collisional. The model provides values for ion flux, average ion velocity at the target, and sheath edge motion as a function of time. These values are being compared with those obtained from simulation and show good agreement. A review is also given (for comparison) of the earlier work done at low pressures, where the motion of ions in the sheath is collisionless, also showing good agreement between analysis and simulation. The simulation code is PDP1 which utilizes particle-in-cell techniques plus Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-neutral (elastic, excitation and ionization) and ion-neutral (scattering and charge-exchange) collisions

  1. Corrosion behaviour of pure iron implanted with Pd ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, J.M.; Lin, W.L.; Wu, Z.D.; Wang, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure iron implanted with Pd ions up to doses in the range 1x10 16 -1x10 18 ions/cm 2 at an extracting voltage 45kV by using MEVVA source ion implanter has been investigated. The concentration profiles and valence states of elements at the near surface of Pd implanted iron specimens were analyzed by AES and XPS respectively. The Anodic dissolution process of Pd implanted pure iron was measured by means of potentiokinetic sweep in a 0.5 mol/1 NaAc/Hac buffer solution with pH5.0. The open circuit corrosion potential as a function of immersion time was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of Pd implanted iron specimens. The experimental results show that Pd ion implantation decreases the critical passive current of iron and maintains a better passivity in acetate buffer solution with pH5.0. It is interesting that the active corrosion rate of Pd implanted iron is even higher than that of unimplanted one, when the oxide layer on the surface of iron has been damaged. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization of 4140 steel implanted by nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niño, E D V; Dugar-Zhabon, V; Pinto, J L; Henao, J A

    2012-01-01

    AISI SAE 4140 steel samples of different surface roughness which are implanted with 20 keV and 30 keV nitrogen ions at a dose of 10 17 ions/cm 2 are studied. The crystal phases of nitrogen compositions of the implanted samples, obtained with help of an x-ray diffraction method, are confronted with the data reported by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) PDF-2. The implantation treatment is realized in high-voltage pulsed discharges at low pressures. The crystal structure of the implanted solid surfaces is analyzed by the x-ray diffraction technique which permits to identify the possible newly formed compounds and to identify any change in the surface structure of the treated samples. A decrease in the intensity of the plane (110), a reduction of the cell unity in values of 2-theta and a diminishing of the crystallite dimensions in comparison with non-implanted samples are observed.

  3. Chemical characterization of 4140 steel implanted by nitrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, E. D. V.; Pinto, J. L.; Dugar-Zhabon, V.; Henao, J. A.

    2012-06-01

    AISI SAE 4140 steel samples of different surface roughness which are implanted with 20 keV and 30 keV nitrogen ions at a dose of 1017 ions/cm2 are studied. The crystal phases of nitrogen compositions of the implanted samples, obtained with help of an x-ray diffraction method, are confronted with the data reported by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) PDF-2. The implantation treatment is realized in high-voltage pulsed discharges at low pressures. The crystal structure of the implanted solid surfaces is analyzed by the x-ray diffraction technique which permits to identify the possible newly formed compounds and to identify any change in the surface structure of the treated samples. A decrease in the intensity of the plane (110), a reduction of the cell unity in values of 2-theta and a diminishing of the crystallite dimensions in comparison with non-implanted samples are observed.

  4. Lithium ion implantation effects in MgO(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huis, M.A. van; Fedorov, A.V.; Veen, A. van; Labohm, F.; Schut, H.; Mijnarends, P.E.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Single crystals of MgO(100) were implanted with 10 16 6 Li ions cm -2 at an energy of 30 keV. After ion implantation the samples were annealed isochronally in air at temperatures up to 1200K. After implantation and after each annealing step, the defect evolution was monitored with optical absorption spectroscopy and depth-sensitive Doppler Broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). A strong increase in the S-parameter is observed in the implantation layer at a depth of approximately 100 nm. The high value of the S-parameter is ascribed to positron annihilation in small lithium precipitates. The results of 2D-ACAR and X-TEM analysis show evidence of the presence of lithium precipitates. The depth distribution of the implanted 6 Li atoms was monitored with neutron depth profiling (NDP). It was observed that detrapping and diffusion of 6 Li starts at an annealing temperature of 1200K. (orig.)

  5. Behavior of PET implanted by Ti, Ag, Si and C ion using MEVVA implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Yanwen; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Zhou Gu

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalane (PET) has been modified with Ti, Ag, Si and C ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). Ti, Ag, Si and C ions were implanted with acceleration voltage 40 kV to fluences ranging from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 cm -2 . The surface of implanted PET darkened with increasing ion dose, when the metal ion dose was greater than 1x10 17 cm -2 the color changed to metallic bright. The surface resistance decreases by 5-6 orders of magnitude with increasing dose. The resistivity is stable after long-term storage. The depth of Ti- and Ag-implanted layer is approximately 150 and 80 nm measured by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), respectively. TEM photos revealed the presence of Ti and Ag nano-meter particles on the surface resulting from the high-dose implantation. Ti and Ag ion implantations improved conductivity and wear resistance significantly. The phase and structural changes were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It can be seen that nano-meter particles of Ti precipitation, TiO 2 and Ti-carbides have been formed in implanted layer. Nano-hardness of implanted PET has been measured by a nano-indenter. The results show that the surface hardness, modulus and wear resistance could be increased

  6. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  7. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  8. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnardo, Natalia Giovanini; Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The 'active mass' (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 deg C) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the 'active mass' was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 deg C) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of sodium hydroxide. Lithium was partially recovered as lithium fluoride. Co-processing of other battery components (aluminum and copper foils) affected negatively the behavior of the recovery procedures. Previous segregation of battery components is essential for an efficient and economical processing of the 'active mass'. (author)

  9. Carbon dioxide ion implantation in Titanium Nitride (Ti N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torabi, Sh.; Sari, A. H.; Hojabri, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation on titanium samples performed at 3x10 18 , 8x10 17 , 3x10 18 doses. In addition CO 2 ions were also implanted at doses in the range of 1x10 17 ,4 x10 17 ,8x10 17 . Atomic Force Microscopy, used to investigate the topographical changes of implanted samples. The structure of samples and phase composition were characterized using x-ray diffraction. The results show that by increasing of nitrogen ions, the roughness, grain sizes and hardness will increase. But by further increasing of dose, hardness will be decreased. The CO 2 implantation also enhance the roughness, grain size and hardness which could be caused by phase composition.

  10. Silicon carbide layer structure recovery after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violin, Eh.E.; Demakov, K.D.; Kal'nin, A.A.; Nojbert, F.; Potapov, E.N.; Tairov, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The process of recovery of polytype structure of SiC surface layers in the course of thermal annealing (TA) and laser annealing (LA) upon boron and aluminium implantation is studied. The 6H polytype silicon carbide C face (0001) has been exposed to ion radiation. The ion energies ranged from 80 to 100 keV, doses varied from 5x10 14 to 5x10 16 cm -2 . TA was performed in the 800-2000 K temperature range. It is shown that the recovery of the structure of silicon carbide layers after ion implantation takes place in several stages. Considerable effect on the structure of the annealed layers is exerted by the implantation dose and the type of implanted impurity. The recovery of polytype structure is possible only under the effect of laser pulses with duration not less than the time for the ordering of the polytype in question

  11. Surface sputtering in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Microstructures and elemental distributions in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) substrates were implanted at 350 deg. C with 120 keV Fe ions to fluences ranging from 0.1 x 10 17 to 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . Extensive damage induced by ion implantation was observed inside the substrate below 1.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 , while a continuous iron silicide layer was formed at 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . It was found that the spatial distribution of Fe projectiles drastically changes at the fluence between 1.0 x 10 17 and 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 due to surface sputtering during implantation

  12. Fe doped Magnetic Nanodiamonds made by Ion Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ChienHsu; Cho, I C; Jian, Hui-Shan; Niu, H

    2017-02-09

    Here we present a simple physical method to prepare magnetic nanodiamonds (NDs) using high dose Fe ion-implantation. The Fe atoms are embedded into NDs through Fe ion-implantation and the crystal structure of NDs are recovered by thermal annealing. The results of TEM and Raman examinations indicated the crystal structure of the Fe implanted NDs is recovered completely. The SQUID-VSM measurement shows the Fe-NDs possess room temperature ferromagnetism. That means the Fe atoms are distributed inside the NDs without affecting NDs crystal structure, so the NDs can preserve the original physical and chemical properties of the NDs. In addition, the ion-implantation-introduced magnetic property might make the NDs to become suitable for variety of medical applications.

  13. Fe doped Magnetic Nanodiamonds made by Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chienhsu; Cho, I. C.; Jian, Hui-Shan; Niu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Here we present a simple physical method to prepare magnetic nanodiamonds (NDs) using high dose Fe ion-implantation. The Fe atoms are embedded into NDs through Fe ion-implantation and the crystal structure of NDs are recovered by thermal annealing. The results of TEM and Raman examinations indicated the crystal structure of the Fe implanted NDs is recovered completely. The SQUID-VSM measurement shows the Fe-NDs possess room temperature ferromagnetism. That means the Fe atoms are distributed inside the NDs without affecting NDs crystal structure, so the NDs can preserve the original physical and chemical properties of the NDs. In addition, the ion-implantation-introduced magnetic property might make the NDs to become suitable for variety of medical applications.

  14. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  15. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Lazaro, J.; Enriquez, L.; Bailon, L.; Barbolla, J.; Jaraiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided

  16. The KFKI 150 kV ion-implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, E.

    1976-09-01

    The description of the ion-implanter of 150 keV maximum energy designed and built in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest is given. The implanter fulfils all technological and safety requirements of the industry. In addition to B,P and As other elements up to mass-number 76 can also be implanted by help of the Danfysik 911 type ion source. The 3x10 -6 Torr operational pressure is provided by three turbomolecular pumps. The maximum dose is 1 μCb/cm 2 min and to ensure uniformity of the implantation on the 100x105 mm 2 target area the ion beam is swept electrostatically. According to the testing experiments the inhomogenity can be taken to be +-1.3%. (Sz.N.Z.)

  17. TEM study of amorphous alloys produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Grant, W.A.; Wohlenberg, P.; Hansen, P.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing foreign elements into surface layers of solids. Ions, as a suitably accelerated beam, penetrate the surface, slow down by collisions with target atoms to produce a doped layer. This non-equilibrium technique can provide a wide range of alloys without the restrictions imposed by equilibrium phase diagrams. This paper reports on the production of some amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys by implantation. Thinned foils of Ni, Fe and stainless steel were implanted at room temperature with Dy + and P + ions at doses between 10 13 - 10 17 ions/cm 2 at energies of 20 and 40 keV respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction analysis were used to investigate the implanted specimens. Radial diffracted intensity measurements confirmed the presence of an amorphous implanted layer. The peak positions of the maxima are in good agreement with data for similar alloys produced by conventional techniques. Only certain ion/target combinations produce these amorphous layers. Implantations at doses lower than those needed for amorphization often result in formation of new crystalline phases such as an h.c.p. phase in nickel and a b.c.c. phase in stainless steel. (Auth.)

  18. Improving Aspergillus niger tannase yield by N+ ion beam implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to improve tannase yield of Aspergillus niger through N+ ion beam implantation in submerged fermentation. The energy and dose of N+ ion beam implantation were investigated. The results indicated that an excellent mutant was obtained through nine successive implantations under the conditions of 10 keV and 30-40 (×2.6×10(13 ions/cm², and its tannase yield reached 38.5 U/mL, which was about five-time higher than the original strain. The study on the genetic stability of the mutant showed that its promising performance in tannase production could be stable. The studies of metal ions and surfactants affecting tannase yield indicated that manganese ions, stannum ions, xylene and SDS contained in the culture medium had positive effects on tannase production under submerged fermentation. Magnesium ions, in particular, could enhance the tannase yield by the mutant increasing by 42%, i.e. 53.6 U/mL. Accordingly, low-energy ion implantation could be a desirable approach to improve the fungal tannase yield for its commercial application.

  19. Ion implantation induced martensite nucleation in SUS301 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Heishichiro; Gustiono, Dwi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2007-01-01

    Phase transformation behaviors of the austenitic 301 stainless steel was studied under Fe + , Ti + and Ar + ions implantation at room temperature with 100, 200 and 300 keV up to fluence of 1x10 21 ions/m 2 and the microstructures were observed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The plane and cross-sectional observations of the implanted specimen showed that the induced-phases due to implantation from the γ matrix phase were identified as α' martensite phases with the orientation relationship of (11-bar0) α parallel (111-bar) γ and [111] α parallel [011] γ close to the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S). The ion implantation induced phases nucleated near the surface region and the depth position of the nucleation changed depending on the ion accelerating energy and ion species. It was also found that the induced marten sites phases nucleate under the influence of the stress distribution, which is introduced due to the concentration of implanted ions, especially due to the stress gradient caused by the corresponding concentration gradient. (author)

  20. Structural changes in the polyethylene after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskova, K.; Svorcik, V.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the polyethylene (PE) after its modification by ion implantation. In this way the mechanical, optical, magnetic and electric characteristics can be changed. Experiments were processed on PE films with 15 μm thickness. For modification of the surface of PE for implantation the Ar + ions with the energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with the energy 156 keV and with doses from 1·10 13 to 3·10 15 cm +2 were used. The aim of this work was the study of structural changes of modified layer of the PE

  1. The ion implantation of metals and engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1978-01-01

    An entirely new method of metal finishing, by the process of ion implantation, is described. Introduced at first for semiconductor device applications, this method has now been demonstrated to produce major and long-lasting improvements in the durability of material surfaces, as regards both wear and corrosion. The process is distinct from that of ion plating, and it is not a coating technique. After a general description of ion implantation examples are given of its effects on wear behaviour (mostly in steels and cemented carbides) and on corrosion, in a variety of metals and alloys. Its potential for producing decorative finishes is mentioned briefly. The equipment necessary for carrying out ion implantation for engineering applications has now reached the prototype stage, and manufacture of plant for treating a variety of tools and components is about to commence. These developments are outlined. (author)

  2. Electrical conductivity enhancement of polyethersulfone (PES) by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridwell, L.B.; Giedd, R.E.; Wang Yongqiang; Mohite, S.S.; Jahnke, T.; Brown, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous polyethersulfone (PES) films have been implanted with a variety of ions (He, B, C, N and As) at a bombarding energy of 50 keV in the dose range 10 16 -10 17 ions/cm 2 . Surface resistance as a function of dose indicates a saturation effect with a significant difference between He and the other ions used. ESR line shapes in the He implanted samples changed from a mixed Gaussian/Lorentzian to a pure Lorentzian and narrowed with increasing dose. Temperature dependent resistivity indicates an electron hopping mechanism for conduction. Infrared results indicate cross-linking or self-cyclization occurred for all implanted ions with further destruction in the case of As. (orig.)

  3. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Wasik, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted with a variety of ions (O 5+ , N 4+ , Kr 9+ ) by the energy of 10 keV/q up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and the changes in the chemical structure of implanted membrane were measured by conductivity and discharge currents and FTIR spectra. Electrical conductivity of the membranes PET increases to 1-3 orders of magnitude after implantation and is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal detrapping of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability to accumulate charge

  4. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L J; Sood, D K; Manory, R R [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 μm thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10 17 - 8x10 17 ions cm -2 . Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. Implantation of D+ ions in niobium and deuterium gas reemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.A.; Tel'kovskij, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    This is a study of the implanting and reflex gasoisolation of D ions in niobium. It has been discovered that deutrium scope and gasoisolation are defined by several processes. An assumption is made that in ion bombarding conditions the implanting solutions are possible to exist and that deutrium can be replaced on the basis of niobium and hydrid compounds NbxDy. The portion of the particles entrained in the metal in one or another way depends on the ion energy. The dependence of the scope coefficient of n D + ions from the target temperature in the range of 290-1500 K was registered. An increase of the scope coefficient of the ions at high temperature with an increase of the ion energy was discovered

  8. Study of ion implantation in grown layers of multilayer coatings under ion-plasma vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Erokhin, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The model of ion implantation into growing layers of a multilayer coating produced with vacuum ion-plasma deposition was developed. The model takes into account a possibility for ions to pass through the growing layer and alloys to find the distribution of implanted atoms over the coating thickness. The experimental vitrification of the model was carried out on deposition of Ti and TiN coatings

  9. The influence of ion implantation on the oxidation of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, P.D.

    1975-11-01

    The effects of ion implantation on the oxidation of polycrystalline nickel have been studied for a range of implanted species: viz. He, Li, Ne, Ca, Ti, Ni, Co, Xe, Ce and Bi. The oxides were grown in dry oxygen at 630 0 C and the 16 O(d,p) 17 O nuclear reaction technique used to determine the amount of oxygen taken up. The influence of atomic and ionic size, valency and electronegativity of the implanted impurities was studied as also were the effects of ion bombardment damage and the influence of sputtering during implantation. Atomic size and the annealing of disorder were found to have a marked influence on oxide growth rate. The dependence of oxidation on annealing was further studied by implanting polycrystalline specimens with self ions and observing the oxide growth rate as a function of annealing temperature. A peak in the curve was found at 400 0 C and a similar peak observed at a somewhat higher temperature for oxidised single crystals. It is concluded that the oxidation rate will be influenced by those factors which alter the epitaxial relationship between metal and growing oxide. Such factors include atomic size of the implanted species, surface strain induced by implantation and changes in surface topography as a result of sputtering. In addition a model based on vacancy assisted cation migration is proposed to explain enhanced oxidation observed over a limited temperature range. (author)

  10. Polymer tribology by combining ion implantation and radionuclide tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, Heiko; Gladkis, Laura G.; Warner, Jacob A.; Byrne, Aidan P.; Grosso, Mariela F. del; Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Garcia-Bermudez, Gerardo; Geruschke, Thomas; Vianden, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide tracers were ion implanted with three different techniques into the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene polymer. Tracer nuclei of 7 Be were produced with inverse kinematics via the reaction p( 7 Li, 7 Be)n and caught by polymer samples at a forward scattering angle with a maximum implantation energy of 16 MeV. For the first time, 97 Ru, 100 Pd, and, independently, 111 In have been used as radionuclide tracers in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. 97 Ru and 100 Pd were recoil-implanted following the fusion evaporation reactions 92 Zr( 12 C,α3n) 97 Ru and 92 Zr( 12 C,4n) 100 Pd with a maximum implantation energy of 8 MeV. 111 In ions were produced in an ion source, mass-separated and implanted at 160 keV. The tribology of implanted polymer samples was studied by tracing the radionuclide during mechanical wear. Uni-directional and bi-directional sliding apparatus with stainless steel actuators were used. Results suggest a debris exchange process as the characteristic feature of the wear-in phase. This process can establish the steady state required for a subsequently constant wear rate in agreement with Archard's equation. The nano-scale implantation of mass-separated 111 In appears best suited to the study of non-linear tribological processes during wear-in. Such non-linear processes may be expected to be important in micro- and nanomachines.

  11. Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel by titanium ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Hyvarinen, J.; Samandi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The wear properties of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel implanted with Ti were investigated for ion doses in the range (2.3-5.4)x10 16 ionscm -2 and average ion energies of 60 and 90keV. The implanted layer was examined by Rutherford backscattering, from which the retained doses were determined, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Following implantation, the surface microhardness was observed to increase with the greatest change occurring at higher ion energy. Pin-on-disc wear tests and associated friction measurements were also performed under both dry and lubricated conditions using applied loads of 2N and 10N. In the absence of lubrication, breakthrough of the implanted layer occurred after a short sliding time; only for a dose of 5.1x10 16 ionscm -2 implanted at an average energy of 90keV was the onset of breakthrough appreciably delayed. In contrast, the results of tests with lubrication showed a more gradual variation, with the extent of wear decreasing with implant dose at both 2N and 10N loads. Finally, the influence of Ti implantation on possible wear mechanisms is discussed in the light of information provided by several surface characterization techniques. ((orig.))

  12. Computer simulation of damage processes during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.J.; Shimizu, R.; Saito, T.; Yamakawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A new version for the marlowe code, which enables dynamic simulation of damage processes during ion implantation to be performed, has been developed. This simulation code is based on uses of the Ziegler--Biersack--Littmark potential [in Proceedings of the International Engineering Congress on Ion Sources and Ion-Assisted Technology, edited by T. Takagi (Ionic Co., Tokyo, 1983), p. 1861] for elastic scattering and Firsov's equation [O. B. Firsov, Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 1453 (1971)] for electron stopping

  13. Structural changes in the polyethylene after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskova, K.; Svorcik, V.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the study of structural changes of the polyethylene after ion implantation. There were used the polyethylene film with thickness 15 μm, and Ar + ions with energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with energy 156 keV with doses 1·10 13 - 3·10 15 cm -2 for experiments. For the study of structural changes of polymer were used methods UV-VIS spectrometry, ESR, Rutherford back scattering

  14. Progress in ion implantation equipment for semiconductor manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Naito, Masao

    1987-01-01

    In the semiconductor device manufacturing industry, ion implantation systems are used to dope semiconductor substrates with impurities that act as donor or acceptor. In an ion implantation system, required impurity ions are generated from an ion source, subjected to mass analysis, accelerated, converged and implanted in semiconductor wafers. High-tension arc tends to cause troubles in these systems, but improvement in design increased the average operation rate of medium-power systems from bout 70 percent to 90 percent during the past 10 years. Freeman type ion sources have replaced most RF ion sources and cold cathode PIG sources, which had been widely used until the early 1970s. Many of the recent ion sources are equipped with a P and As vaporizer to increase the beam intensity. By an increased beam intensity or decreased handling time in combination with an automatic handling system, the throughput has reached 330 wafers per hour for 10 second implantation. The yield has increased due to the development of improved scanning methods, vacuum devices such as cryopump, and processes and apparatus that serve for preventing particles from being contained in micro-devices. Various other improvements have been made to permit efficient production. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G.V.M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C_3H_6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  16. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Becker, H.-W. [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Williams, G.V.M. [The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  17. Optimal pulse modulator design criteria for plasma source ion implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes what are believed to be the required characteristics of a high-voltage modulator for efficient and optimal ion deposition from the ''Plasma Source Ion Implantation'' (PSII) process. The PSII process is a method to chemically or physically alter and enhance surface properties of objects by placing them in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsing the object with a high negative voltage. The attracted ions implant themselves and form chemical bonds or are interstitially mixed with the base material. Present industrial uses of implanted objects tends to be for limited-production, high-value-added items. Traditional implanting hardware uses the typical low-current (ma) semiconductor ''raster scan'' implanters. The targets must also be manipulated to maintain a surface normal to the ion beam. The PSII method can provide ''bulk'' equipment processing on a large industrial scale. For the first generation equipment, currents are scaled from milliamps to hundreds of amps, voltages to -175kV, at kilohertz rep-rates, and high plasma ion densities

  18. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Co+ -ion implantation induced doping of nanocrystalline CdS thin films: structural, optical, and vibrational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, S.; Sarangi, S.N.; Majumder, S.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, A.; Sathyamoorthy, R.

    2009-01-01

    -Raman spectroscopic studies show that the implanted cobalt atoms are likely to occupy the cationic sites in the CdS lattice. An attempt has been made to correlate the changes in lattice vibrational properties with the microstructure. The results would be discussed in the light of ion-solid interaction. These results show the efficacy of ion implantation technique for synthesis of Co-doped CdS thin films which would be useful for synthesis of CdS based devices

  20. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Short-cut recovery of cobalt and lithium was directly obtained using oxalic acid. • Short-cut recovery process was optimized for a high recovery rate. • Leaching process was controlled by chemical reaction. • Leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} using oxalic acid was first proposed. - Abstract: With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L{sup −1} solid–liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO{sub 2} of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  1. Magnetic patterning by means of ion irradiation and implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J.; McCord, J.

    2008-01-01

    A pure magnetic patterning by means of ion irradiation which relies on a local modification of the magnetic anisotropy of a magnetic multilayer structure has been first demonstrated in 1998. Since then also other magnetic properties like the interlayer exchange coupling, the exchange bias effect, the magnetic damping behavior and the saturation magnetization to name a few have also been demonstrated to be affected by ion irradiation or ion implantation. Consequently, all these effects can be used if combined with a masking technique or employing direct focused ion beam writing for a magnetic patterning and thus an imprinting of an artificial magnetic domain structure, which subsequently modifies the integral magnetization reversal behavior or the magnetization dynamics of the film investigated. The present review will summarize how ion irradiation and implantation can affect the magnetic properties by means of structural modifications. The main part will cover the present status with respect to the pure magnetic patterning of micro- and nano structures

  2. Critical microstructure for ion-implantation gettering effects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geipel, H.J.; Tice, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of residual ion-implantation damage responsible for gettering deleterious impurities from active semiconductor device regions in Si has been studied. A propensity for dislocations of the type b=1/2 to gather metallic contaminant (e.g., Cu), as compared to Frank partials b=1/3 , is established. Transmission electron microscopy and pulsed leakage measurements are used to demonstrate that the density of 1/2 dislocations introduced by Xe implantation greatly influences gettering efficiency

  3. Annealing behavior and selected applications of ion-implanted alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    Thermally activated processes cause ion-implanted metals to evolve from the initial state toward thermodynamic equilibrium. The degree of equilibration is strongly dependent upon temperature and is considered for three temperature regimes which are distinguished by the varying mobilities of interstitial and substitutional atoms. In addition, perturbations resulting from the irradiation environment are discussed. Examples are given of the use of implanted and annealed alloys in studies of diffusion, phase diagrams, and solute trapping

  4. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo, E-mail: guidi@fe.infn.it; Mazzolari, Andrea; Paternò, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara, Italy and INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Mattei, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.mattei@unipd.it; Scian, Carlo [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lanzoni, Luca [Dipertimento di Economia e Tecnologia, Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino, Salita alla Rocca, 44, 47890 San Marino Città (San Marino)

    2015-08-10

    Ion implantation is proposed to produce self-standing bent monocrystals. A Si sample 0.2 mm thick was bent to a radius of curvature of 10.5 m. The sample curvature was characterized by interferometric measurements; the crystalline quality of the bulk was tested by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry through synchrotron light at ESRF (Grenoble, France). Dislocations induced by ion implantation affect only a very superficial layer of the sample, namely, the damaged region is confined in a layer 1 μm thick. Finally, an elective application of a deformed crystal through ion implantation is here proposed, i.e., the realization of a crystalline undulator to produce X-ray beams.

  5. Yttrium ion implantation on the surface properties of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.M.; Zeng, X.Q.; Wu, G.S.; Yao, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Owing to their excellent physical and mechanical properties, magnesium and its alloys are receiving more attention. However, their application has been limited to the high reactivity and the poor corrosion resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effects of ion-implanted yttrium using a MEVVA ion implanter on the surface properties of pure magnesium. Isothermal oxidation tests in pure O 2 at 673 and 773 K up to 90 min indicated that the oxidation resistance of magnesium had been significantly improved. Surface morphology of the oxide scale was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the implanted layer was mainly composed of MgO and Y 2 O 3 , and the implanted layer with a duplex structure could decrease the inward diffusion of oxygen and reduce the outward diffusion of Mg 2+ , which led to improving the oxidation resistance of magnesium. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the implanted magnesium. The results show yttrium implantation could enhance the corrosion resistance of implanted magnesium compared with that of pure magnesium

  6. Ion implantation of CdTe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, Tomasz; Popovich, Volodymir; Bester, Mariusz; Kuzma, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Ion implantation is a technique which is widely used in industry for unique modification of metal surface for medical applications. In semiconductor silicon technology ion implantation is also widely used for thin layer electronic or optoelectronic devices production. For other semiconductor materials this technique is still at an early stage. In this paper based on literature data we present the main features of the implantation of CdTe single crystals as well as some of the major problems which are likely to occur when dealing with them. The most unexpected feature is the high resistance of these crystals against the amorphization caused by ion implantation even at high doses (10"1"7 1/cm"2). The second property is the disposal of defects much deeper in the sample then it follows from the modeling calculations. The outline of principles of the ion implantation is included in the paper. The data based on RBS measurements and modeling results obtained by using SRIM software were taken into account.

  7. Development of a CMOS process using high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolmeijer, A.

    1986-01-01

    The main interest of this thesis is the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) in electronic technology. Problems in developing a CMOS process are mostly related to the isolation well of p-n junctions. It is shown that by using high energy ion implantation, it is possible to reduce lateral dimensions to obtain a rather high packing density. High energy ion implantation is also presented as a means of simplifying CMOS processing, since extended processing steps at elevated temperatures are superfluous. Process development is also simplified. (Auth.)

  8. Mutation effect of ion implantation on tomato breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Baoshan; Ling Haiqiu; Mao Peihong; Jin Xiang; Zeng Xianxian

    2003-01-01

    The mutation effects of N + ion implantation on cultivated tomato, Catchup type and Eatable type were studied. The result show that the mutation ranges of single-fruit weight and fruit number per plant were increased and their mutation frequencies were high, however the effect of ion implantation on germination rate of seed and quality of fruit was very weak. Using doses of 4 x 10 16 and 6 x 10 16 N + /cm 2 , the yield was greatly improved. The optimum mutation dosage was slightly different for seed of 2 tomato lines

  9. Research advances in adsorption treatment of cesium and cobalt in waste liquid of nuclear power plants by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dan; Wang Xin; Liu Jiean; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin; Weng Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Liquid radwaste is unavoidably produced during the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). With the development of China's nuclear power, much more attention will be paid to the impact of NPP construction on water environment. Radionuclides are the main targets for adsorption treatment of NPP liquid radwaste. Thereinto, cesium and cobalt are typical cationic ones. Currently, ion exchange process is widely used in liquid radwaste treatment system (WLS) of NPP, wherein resin plays a key role. The paper reviewed the research progress on adsorption of cesium and cobalt existed in NPP liquid radwaste using ion exchange resin. (authors)

  10. Development of Mechanical Improvement of the Cladding by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J G; Lee, S B [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S H [Kangwon University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of); Song, G [Suwon College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    In this research we analyzed the state of art related to the surface treatment method of nuclear fuel cladding for the development of the surface treatment technique of nuclear fuel cladding by ion beam while investigating major causes of the leakage of fuel rods. Ion implantation simulation code called TRIM-95 was used to decide basic parameters ion beams and wetup an appropriate process for ion implantation. For the mechanical properties measurements, a high temperature wear resistance tester, a fretting wear tester, and a fretting fatigue resistance tester were constructed. Using these testers, some mechanical properties as micro hardness, wear resistance against AISI52100 and AI{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls, and fretting properties were measured and analyzed for the implanted materials as a function of ion dose and processing temperature. Effect of the oxygen atmosphere was measured in the nitrogen implantation. Auger electron spectroscopy(AES) was applied for the depth profile, and X-ray diffraction was used for the nitrogen and oxide measurements. 48 refs., 7 tabs., 46 figs. (author)

  11. Copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide composites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Hee-Sang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a composite electrode structure consisting of copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide (CuNFs@CoO x . The copper nanofibers (CuNFs were fabricated on a substrate with formation of a network structure, which may have potential for improving electron percolation and retarding film deformation during the discharging/charging process over the electroactive cobalt oxide. Compared to bare CoO x thin-film (CoO x TF electrodes, the CuNFs@CoO x electrodes exhibited a significant enhancement of rate performance by at least six-fold at an input current density of 3C-rate. Such enhanced Li-ion storage performance may be associated with modified electrode structure at the nanoscale, improved charge transfer, and facile stress relaxation from the embedded CuNF network. Consequently, the CuNFs@CoO x composite structure demonstrated here can be used as a promising high-performance electrode for Li-ion batteries.

  12. Intramolecular electron transfer through a bridging carboxylate group coordinated to two cobalt(III)-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieghardt, K.

    1978-01-01

    Reduction of the binuclear μ-p-nitrobenzoato -di-μ-hydroxo -bis[triammine cobalt(III)] cation with (CH 3 ) 2 COH radicals yields a radical cation with the p-nitrobenzoato radical being coordinated to two cobalt(III) ions at the carboxylic group. The unprotonated form of this species undergoes intramolecular electron transfer producing Co(II) (k = (3.3 +- 0.3). x 10 3 s -1 ). The role of the carboxylate group in the intramolecular electron transfer process is tentatively assessed in terms of an intramolecular outer-sphere reaction because of lack of overlap of the donor orbitals (π) and the acceptor orbital (sigma). The protonated form of the radical cation (pKsub(a) = 2.5) disproportionates via a bimolecular process without production of Co(II). The effect of two coordinated Co(III) ions as compared to only one on the properties of the nitrobenzoate radical anion are discussed. (orig.) 891 HK 892 GM [de

  13. Amorphous GaP produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, T.; Kato, Y.; Shiraki, Y.; Komatsubara, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of non-crystalline states ('disordered' and 'amorphous') of GaP were produced by using ion implantation and post annealing. A structural-phase-transition-like annealing behaviour from the 'disordered' state to the 'amorphous' state was observed. The ion dose dependence and the annealing behaviour of the atomic structure of GaP implanted with 200 keV -N + ions were studied by using electron diffraction, backscattering and volume change measurements. The electronic structure was also investigated by measuring optical absorption and electrical conductivity. The implanted layer gradually loses the crystalline order with the increase of the nitrogen dose. The optical absorption coefficient α and electric conductivity sigma of GaP crystals implanted with 200 keV -N + ions of 1 x 10 16 cm -2 were expressed as αhν = C(hν - E 0 )sup(n) and log sigma = A -BTsup(-1/4), respectively. Moreover, the volume of the implanted layer increased about three percent and the electron diffraction pattern was diffused halo whose intensity monotonically decreases along the radial direction. These results indicate that the as-implanted layer has neither a long range order or short range order ('disordered state'). In the sample implanted at 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , a structural phase-transition-like annealing stage was observed at around 400 0 C. That is, the optical absorption coefficient abruptly fell off from 6 x 10 4 to 7 x 10 3 cm -1 and the volume of the implanted layer decreased about 2% within an increase of less than 10 degrees in the anneal temperature. Moreover, the short range order of the lattice structure appeared in the electron diffraction pattern. According to the backscattering experiment, the heavily implanted GaP was still in the non-crystalline state even after annealing. These facts suggest that heavily implanted GaP, followed by annealing at around 400 0 C, is in the 'amorphous' state, although as-implanted GaP is not in the 'amorphous' state but in the

  14. Application of TXRF for ion implanter dose matching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, M. R.; French, M.; Harris, W.

    2004-06-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been utilized for many years to measure the dose of ion implants in silicon for the purpose of verifying the ability of ion implantation equipment to accurately and reproducibly implant the desired species at the target dose. The development of statistically and instrumentally rigorous protocols has lead to high confidence levels, particularly with regard to accuracy and short-term repeatability. For example, high-dose, high-energy B implant dosimetry can be targeted to within ±1%. However, performing dose determination experiments using SIMS does have undesirable aspects, such as being highly labor intensive and sample destructive. Modern total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) instruments are equipped with capabilities for full 300 mm wafer handling, automated data acquisition software and intense X-ray sources. These attributes enable the technique to overcome the SIMS disadvantages listed above, as well as provide unique strengths that make it potentially highly amenable to implanter dose matching. In this paper, we report on data collected to date that provides confidence that TXRF is an effective and economical method to perform these measurements within certain limitations. We have investigated a number of ion implanted species that are within the "envelope" of TXRF application. This envelope is defined by a few important parameters. Species: For the anode materials used in the more common X-ray sources on the market, each has its own set of elements that can be detected. We have investigated W and Mo X-ray sources, which are the most common in use in commercial instrumentation. Implant energy: In general, if the energy of the implanted species is too high (or more specifically, the distribution of the implanted species is too deep), the amount of dopant not detected by TXRF may be significant, increasing the error of the measurement. Therefore, for each species investigated, the implant energy cannot exceed a

  15. Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Zhao, J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has three layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO 2 with some Mg(OH) 2 . The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO 2 and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl 2 O 4 and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti 3 Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37±1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased β-Mg 12 Al 17 phase

  16. Effect of ion implantation on thin hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auner, G.; Hsieh, Y.F.; Padmanabhan, K.R.; Chevallier, J.; Soerensen, G.

    1983-01-01

    The surface mechanical properties of thin hard coatings of carbides, nitrides and borides deposited by r.f. sputtering were improved after deposition by ion implantation. The thickness and the stoichiometry of the films were measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis before and after ion bombardment. The post ion bombardment was achieved with heavy inert ions such as Kr + and Xe + with an energy sufficient to penetrate the film and to reach the substrate. Both the film adhesion and the microhardness were consistently improved. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding, Rb + and Ni + ions were also used as projectiles, and it was found that these ions were more effective than the inert gas ions. (Auth.)

  17. Solidification of 137Cs into potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.; Haukka, S.; Wallace, J.

    1989-01-01

    An inorganic ion exchange, potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate(II), has been studied for the separation of 137 Cs from nuclear waste solutions. This exchanges is highly selective for cesium over other alkali metal ions and can be synthesized in granular form suitable for column operations. Pilot-plant experiments were carried out at a NPP to test the exchanges for solidification of 137 Cs from an evaporator concentrate. The results were encouraging: decontamination factors and volume reduction factors were both very high. A full-scale separation plant is now under construction plans call for the exchanges, loaded with 137 Cs, to be disposed of in stainless steel columns, sealed by welding and enclosed in concrete block. According to the authors this multibarrier procedure provides a safe final disposal solution

  18. Laws of phase formation in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazdaev, H.R.; Abylkhalykova, R.B.; Skakov, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Main laws of ordered structures formation at molybdenum implantation by elements forming phases of introduction (B, C, N, 0, Si, P, S) are discovered in this work. According to them the character of structural and phase transformations in molybdenum at ion implantation is determined not by kinetic parameters of bombarding particles and their chemical activity but by size factor η x/Me (ratio of nuclear radii of introduced elements and atoms of a matrix). At change of its meaning in the certain limits the following can be observed: superstructures formation (η x/Mo x/Mo x/Mo >0.69). In the latter case at the further implantation doze increasing recrystallization of molybdenum monocrystalline layers amorphized during previous bombarding with chemical connection formation takes place, characterized by us as ion-inducted synthesis. The phenomenon discovered on the samples implanted by phosphorus ions. As the result, the high-temperature phase of molybdenum monophosphide MoP having densely situated lattice was synthesized. The complete confirmation of the main laws of structural and phased transformations at ion implantation established by results on molybdenum monocrystals with OCC lattice was achieved at realization of similar researches on the other transitive metal - zirconium which differs from molybdenum according to a number of attributes: a type of an initial lattice structural condition (large scaled polycrystal), presence of interparticle borders and high solubility of atmospheric impurities (nitrogen, carbon, oxygen). The discovered laws have proved to be true also according to ion implanted samples of monocrystal tungsten and polycrystal tantalum

  19. Application of ion implantation in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1981-01-01

    Ion implantation first became established as a precise method of introducing dopant elements into semiconductors. It is now appreciated that there may be equally important applications in metallic tools or components with the purpose of improving their resistance to wear, fatigue or corrosion. Nitrogen ions implanted into steels pin dislocations and thereby harden the metal. Some metallic ions such as yttrium reduce the tendency for oxidative wear. There is a fairly good understanding of how both treatments can provide a long-lasting protection that extends to many times the original depth of implantation. Nitrogen implantation also improves the wear resistance of Co-cemented tungsten carbide and of hard chromium electroplated coatings. These treatments have wide application in press tools, molds, dies and other metal-forming tools as well as in a more limited variety of cutting tools. Some striking improvements can be achieved in the corrosion field, but there are economic and technical reasons for concluding that practical applications of ion implantation will be more restricted and specialized in this area. The most promising area is that in which mechanical stress and oxidation coexist. When a metallic species has to be introduced, a promising new development is to bombard a thin coating of the metal at an elevated temperature. Several powerful mechanisms of radiation-enhanced diffusion can bring about a complete intermixing. Examples of how this has been used to produce wear resistant surfaces in titanium are given. Finally, the equipment developed for the large scale application of the ion implantation process in the engineering field is described

  20. Comparison of oxidation resistance of copper treated by beam-line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Quanzhang; Li Liuhe; Hu Tao; Xin Yunchang; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Cai Xun; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Copper which has many favorable properties such as low cost, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as easy fabrication and joining is one of the main materials in lead frames, interconnects, and foils in flexible circuits. Furthermore, copper is one of the best antibacterial materials. However, unlike aluminum oxide or chromium oxide, the surface copper oxide layer does not render sufficient protection against oxidation. In this work, in order to improve the surface oxidation resistance of Cu, Al and N were introduced into copper by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and beam-line ion implantation (BII). The implantation fluences of Al and N were 2 x 10 17 ions cm -2 and 5 x 10 16 ions cm -2 , respectively. The implanted and untreated copper samples were oxidized in air at 260 deg. C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that both implantation methods can enhance the oxidation resistance of copper but to different extent. PIII is superior to BII in enhancing the oxidation resistance of copper. The effects and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Characterization of duplex hard coatings with additional ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Škorić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin fi lms which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD. In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N+2 ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of eff ects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densifi cation of the fi lms. The evolution of the microstructure from porous and columnar grains to densel packed grains is accompanied by changes in mechanical and physical properties. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, X-ray diff raction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX.

  2. Analysis of metal ion release from biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dimić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are commonly used for fixation or replacement of damaged bones in the human body due to their good combination of mechanical properties. The disadvantage of metals as implant materials is their susceptibility to corrosion and metal ion release, which can cause serious health problems. In certain concentrations metals and metal ions are toxic and their presence can cause diverse inflammatory reactions, genetic mutations or even cancer. In this paper, different approaches to metal ion release examination, from biometallic materials sample preparation to research results interpretation, will be presented. An overview of the analytical techniques, used for determination of the type and concentration of released ions from implants in simulated biofluids, is also given in the paper.

  3. Sheath physics and materials science results from recent plasma source ion implantation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Radtke, J.L.; Dodd, R.A.; Worzala, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a surface modification technique which has been optimized for ion-beam processing of materials. PSII departs radically from conventional implantation by circumventing the line of sight restriction inherent in conventional ion implantation. The authors used PSII to implant cutting tools and dies and have demonstrated substantial improvements in lifetime. Recent results on plasma physics scaling laws, microstructural, mechanical, and tribological properties of PSII-implanted materials are presented

  4. Chemical effects induced by ion implantation in molecular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, G.; Calcagno, L.; Puglisi, O.

    1983-01-01

    Ion implantation in molecular solids as ice, frozen noble gases, benzene and polymers produces a large amount of new molecules compared to the starting materials. Mass and energy analysis of ejected molecules together with the erosion yield, are discussed for several ion-target combinations at low temperature. The observed phenomena are analyzed in terms of deposited ennergy in electronic and nuclear collisions, for incoming beams, as helium or argon, in the range 10-2000 keV. (orig.)

  5. A method to measure depth distributions of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnesen, A.; Noreland, T.

    1977-04-01

    A new variant of the radiotracer method for depth distribution determinations has been tested. Depth distributions of radioactive implanted ions are determined by dissolving thin, uniform layers of evaporated material from the surface of a backing and by measuring the activity before and after the layer removal. The method has been used to determine depth distributions for 25 keV and 50 keV 57 Co ions in aluminium and gold. (Auth.)

  6. Chemical characterization of 4140 steel implanted by nitrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Ely Dannier V.; Duran, Fernando [Grupo de Investigacion en Tecnologia del Plasma (GINTEP), Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Pinto, Jose L.C. [Grupo de Investigacion en Quimica Estructural (GIQUE), Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Dugar-Zhabon, V.; Garnica, Hernan [Grupo de Fisica y Tecnologia del Plasma (FITEK), Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    AISI-SAE 4140 sample surfaces of different roughness which are implanted by nitrogen ions of 20 keV and 30 keV at a dose of 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} through a three dimensional ion implantation technique are studied. Crystal phases of nitrogen compositions of the implanted samples, obtained with help of an x-ray diffraction method, are confronted with the data reported by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), PDF-2. It is observed that the implanted into the metal nitrogen atoms produce changes in orientation of crystal planes that is manifested as variations of the intensity of the refracted rays and of cell dimensions (a displacement of 2 theta of the maximum intensity position). An analysis for determining nitrogen atoms implanted by high-voltage pulsed discharges at low pressures in the crystal structure of the solid surface was carried out by X-Ray Diffraction due to this technique permits to assess the possibility of formation of new compounds. (author)

  7. Chemical characterization of 4140 steel implanted by nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino, Ely Dannier V.; Duran, Fernando; Pinto, Jose L.C.; Dugar-Zhabon, V.; Garnica, Hernan

    2010-01-01

    AISI-SAE 4140 sample surfaces of different roughness which are implanted by nitrogen ions of 20 keV and 30 keV at a dose of 10"1"7 ions/cm"2 through a three dimensional ion implantation technique are studied. Crystal phases of nitrogen compositions of the implanted samples, obtained with help of an x-ray diffraction method, are confronted with the data reported by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), PDF-2. It is observed that the implanted into the metal nitrogen atoms produce changes in orientation of crystal planes that is manifested as variations of the intensity of the refracted rays and of cell dimensions (a displacement of 2 theta of the maximum intensity position). An analysis for determining nitrogen atoms implanted by high-voltage pulsed discharges at low pressures in the crystal structure of the solid surface was carried out by X-Ray Diffraction due to this technique permits to assess the possibility of formation of new compounds. (author)

  8. Damage and in-situ annealing during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.; Washburn, J.; Byrne, P.F.; Cheung, N.W.

    1982-11-01

    Formation of amorphous (α) layers in Si during ion implantation in the energy range 100 keV-11 MeV and temperature range liquid nitrogen (LN)-100 0 C has been investigated. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) shows that buried amorphous layers can be created for both room temperature (RT) and LN temperature implants, with a wider 100 percent amorphous region for the LN cooled case. The relative narrowing of the α layer during RT implantation is attributed to in-situ annealing. Implantation to the same fluence at temperatures above 100 0 C does not produce α layers. To further investigate in situ annealing effects, specimens already containing buried α layers were further irradiated with ion beams in the temperature range RT-400 0 C. It was found that isolated small α zones (less than or equal to 50 diameter) embedded in the crystalline matrix near the two α/c interfaces dissolved into the crystal but the thickness of the 100 percent α layer was not appreciably affected by further implantation at 200 0 C. A model for in situ annealing during implantation is presented

  9. Materials science issues of plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.; Faehl, R.J.; Elmoursi, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam processing, including ion implantation and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), are established surface modification techniques which have been used successfully to synthesize materials for a wide variety of tribological applications. In spite of the flexibility and promise of the technique, ion beam processing has been considered too expensive for mass production applications. However, an emerging technology, Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), has the potential of overcoming these limitations to become an economically viable tool for mass industrial applications. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma and then pulsed-biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for intricate target geometries without complicated fixturing. If the bias is a relatively high negative potential (20--100 kV) ion implantation will result. At lower voltages (50--1,200 V), deposition occurs. Potential applications for PSII are in low-value-added products such as tools used in manufacturing, orthopedic devices, and the production of wear coatings for hard disk media. This paper will focus on the technology and materials science associated with PSII

  10. Extended defects and hydrogen interactions in ion implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Sanjay

    The structural and electrical properties of extended defects generated because of ion implantation and the interaction of hydrogen with these defects have been studied in this work. Two distinct themes have been studied, the first where defects are a detrimental and the second where they are useful. In the first scenario, transient enhanced diffusion of boron has been studied and correlated with defect evolution studies due to silicon and argon ion implants. Spreading resistance profiles (SRP) correlated with deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, reveal that a low anneal temperatures (TED at low anneal temperatures (550°C, the effect of hydrogen is lost, due to its out-diffusion. Moreover, due to catastrophic out-diffusion of hydrogen, additional damage is created resulting in deeper junctions in hydrogenated samples, compared to the non-hydrogenated ones. Comparing defect evolution due to Si and Ar ion implants at different anneal temperatures, while the type of defects is the same in the two cases, their (defect) dissolution occurs at lower anneal temperatures (˜850°C) for Si implants. Dissolution for Ar implants seems to occur at higher anneal temperatures. The difference has been attributed to the increased number of vacancies created by Ar to that of silicon implant. In second aspect, nano-cavity formation due to vacancy agglomeration has been studied by helium ion implantation and furnace anneal, where the effect of He dose, implant energy and anneal time have been processing parameters that have been varied. Cavities are formed only when the localized concentration of He is greater than 3 x 1020 cm-3. While at high implant doses, a continuous cavity layer is formed, at low implant doses a discontinuous layer is observed. The formation of cavities at low doses has been observed for the first time. Variation of anneal times reveal that cavities are initially facetted (for short anneal times) and tend to become spherical when annealed for

  11. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-04-18

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response for Lithium ion battery (LIB) applications was evaluated as well. The results herein show that the nanoporous C material was uniformly functionalized with the CoO/Co core-shell NPs. Further the NPs were crystalline with fcc-Type lattice on the Co2+ oxide shell and hcp-Type core of metallic Co0. The electrochemical study was carried out by using galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling at a current density of 1000 mA g-1. The potential of this hybrid material for LIB applications was confirmed and it is attributed to the successful dispersion of the Co2+/ Co0 NPs in the C support.

  12. Channeled-ion implantation of group-III and group-V ions into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, T.; Nishi, H.; Inada, T.; Sakurai, T.

    1978-01-01

    Implantation of group-III and group-V ions along [111] and [110] axes of silicon have been performed using a backscattering technique, and the depth profiles of implanted ions have been measured by the C-V method. The range of channeled Ga ions is the largest among the present data, and a p-type layer of about 6 μm is obtained by implantation at only 150 keV. The carrier profiles of channeled Al and Ga ions with deep ranges do not show any distinguishable channeled peak contrasting with the B, P, and As channeling which gives a well-defined peak. The electronic stopping cross section (S/sub e/) of channeled P ions agree well with the results of Eisen and Reddi, but in B channeling, the discrepancies of 10--20% are observed among S/sub e/ values obtained experimentally by three different groups

  13. Defect-impurity interactions in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of defect-impurity interactions in metals is presented. When point defects become mobile they migrate towards the sinks and on the way can be captured by impurity atoms forming stable associations so-called complexes. In some metallic systems complexes can also be formed athermally during ion implantation by trapping point defects already in the collision cascade. An association of a point defect with an impurity atom leads to its displacement from the lattice site. The structure and stability of complexes are strongly temperature dependent. With increasing temperature they dissociate or grow by multiple defect trapping. The appearance of freely migrating point defects at elevated temperatures, due to ion bombardment or thermal annealing, causes via coupling with defect fluxes, important impurity redistribution. Because of the sensitivity of many metal-in-metal implanted systems to radiation damage the understanding of this processes is essential for a proper interpretation of the lattice occupancy measurements and the optimization of implantation conditions. (author)

  14. Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Campisi, M.G.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; Filippo, E. De; Geraci, E.; Geraci, M.; Guazzoni, P.; Manno, M.C. Iacono; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Nigro, S. Lo; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors have been investigated for different detector characteristics as a function of type and energy of the detected particles. A new approach is presented and used to reproduce the effect of the plasma delay in the timing performances. The results are in good agreement with the present data and with previous measurements found in the literature

  15. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  16. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Weiser, P S; Dooley, S P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Studies of phase formation in CoSi2 buried layers fabricated using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaev, A.A.; Parkhomenko, Yu.N.; Podgornyi, D.A.; Shcherbachev, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The processes of the formation of cobalt disilicide buried layers in silicon are studied under different conditions of implantation with Co. In particular, the effects of the implantation dose and the postimplantation annealing temperature on the state of the Co-implanted layer are considered. Two types of heteroepitaxial Si/CoSi 2 /Si structures are obtained with the conducting layers of thicknesses 70 and 90 nm buried at the depths 80 and 10 nm, respectively

  19. Vacancy supersaturations produced by high-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezia, V.C.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Jacobson, D.C.; Gossmann, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for detecting the vacancy clusters produced by high-energy ion implantation into silicon is proposed and tested. This technique takes advantage of the fact that metal impurities, such as Au, are gettered near one-half of the projected range (1/2 R p ) of MeV implants. The vacancy clustered region produced by a 2 MeV Si + implant into silicon has been labeled with Au diffused in from the front surface. The trapped Au was detected by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to profile the vacancy clusters. Cross section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analysis shows that the Au in the region of vacancy clusters is in the form of precipitates. By annealing MeV implanted samples prior to introduction of the Au, changes in the defect concentration within the vacancy clustered region were monitored as a function of annealing conditions

  20. Heavy Ion Irradiated Ferromagnetic Films: The Cases of Cobalt and Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, K. P.; Zhang, K.; Müller, G. A.; Gupta, R.; Schaaf, P.

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline, e-gun deposited Co, Fe and Co/Fe films, tens of nanometers thick, have been irradiated with Ne, Kr, Xe and/or Fe ions to fluences of up to 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. Changes in the magnetic texture induced by the implanted ions have been measured by means of hyperfine methods, such as Magnetic Orientation Mössbauer Spectroscopy (Fe), and by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. In Co and CoFe an hcp → fcc phase transition has been observed under the influence of Xe-ion implantation. For 1016 Xe-ions/cm2, ion beam mixing in the Co/Fe system produces a soft magnetic material with uniaxial anisotropy. The effects have been correlated with changes in the microstructure as determined via X-ray diffraction. The influences of internal and external strain fields, an external magnetic field and pre-magnetization have been studied. A comprehensive understanding of the various effects and underlying physical reasons for the modifications appears to emerge from these investigations.

  1. Heavy Ion Irradiated Ferromagnetic Films: The Cases of Cobalt and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieb, K. P., E-mail: plieb@gwdg.de; Zhang, K.; MUller, G. A. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut and SFB 602 (Germany); Gupta, R. [Devi Ahilya University, Institute of Instrumentation (India); Schaaf, P. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut and SFB 602 (Germany)

    2005-01-15

    Polycrystalline, e-gun deposited Co, Fe and Co/Fe films, tens of nanometers thick, have been irradiated with Ne, Kr, Xe and/or Fe ions to fluences of up to 5 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Changes in the magnetic texture induced by the implanted ions have been measured by means of hyperfine methods, such as Magnetic Orientation Moessbauer Spectroscopy (Fe), and by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. In Co and CoFe an hcp {yields} fcc phase transition has been observed under the influence of Xe-ion implantation. For 10{sup 16} Xe-ions/cm{sup 2}, ion beam mixing in the Co/Fe system produces a soft magnetic material with uniaxial anisotropy. The effects have been correlated with changes in the microstructure as determined via X-ray diffraction. The influences of internal and external strain fields, an external magnetic field and pre-magnetization have been studied. A comprehensive understanding of the various effects and underlying physical reasons for the modifications appears to emerge from these investigations.

  2. Very broad beam metal ion source for large area ion implantation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Yao, X.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have made and operated a very broad beam version of vacuum arc ion source and used it to carry out high energy metal ion implantation of a particularly large substrate. A multiple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source was coupled to a 50 cm diameter beam extractor (multiple aperture, accel-decel configuration) operated at a net extraction voltage of up to 50 kV. The metal ion species chosen were Ni and Ta. The mean ion charge state for Ni and Ta vacuum arc plasmas is 1.8 and 2.9, respectively, and so the mean ion energies were up to about 90 and 145 keV, respectively. The ion source was operated in a repetitively pulsed mode with pulse length 250 μs and repetition rate several pulses per second. The extracted beam had a gaussian profile with FWHM about 35 cm, giving a nominal beam area of about 1,000 cm 2 . The current of Ni or Ta metal ions in the beam was up to several amperes. The targets for the ion implantation were a number of 24-inch long, highly polished Cu rails from an electromagnetic rail gun. The rails were located about 80 cm away from the ion source extractor grids, and were moved across a diameter of the vessel in such a way as to maximize the uniformity of the implant along the rail. The saturation retained dose for Ta was limited to about 4 x 10 16 cm -2 because of the rather severe sputtering, in accordance with the theoretical expectations for these implantation conditions. Here they describe the ion source, the implantation procedure, and the kinds of implants that can be produced in this way

  3. Biological effect of nitrogen ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang; Shu Shizhen

    1997-10-01

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ions with various doses. The biological effect in M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam energy and dose added, but there was on significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The results indicated the seedling height reduced with the increasing of dose for ion beam. The biological effect of nitrogen ion beam on M 1 stevia was lower than that of γ-rays. (6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  4. Ion implantation and annealing studies in III-V nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Pearton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ion implantation doping and isolation is expected to play an enabling role for the realization of advanced III-Nitride based devices. In fact, implantation has already been used to demonstrate n- and p-type doping of GaN with Si and Mg or Ca, respectively, as well as to fabricate the first GaN junction field effect transistor. Although these initial implantation studies demonstrated the feasibility of this technique for the III-Nitride materials, further work is needed to realize its full potential. After reviewing some of the initial studies in this field, the authors present new results for improved annealing sequences and defect studies in GaN. First, sputtered AlN is shown by electrical characterization of Schottky and Ohmic contacts to be an effect encapsulant of GaN during the 1,100 C implant activation anneal. The AlN suppresses N-loss from the GaN surface and the formation of a degenerate n + -surface region that would prohibit Schottky barrier formation after the implant activation anneal. Second, they examine the nature of the defect generation and annealing sequence following implantation using both Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Hall characterization. They show that for a Si-dose of 1 x 10 16 cm -2 50% electrical donor activation is achieved despite a significant amount of residual implantation-induced damage in the material

  5. Tribological studies of ion-implanted steel constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ronghau.

    1990-01-01

    Tribological properties of ion-implanted ferrite and austenite were studied systematically using a unique oscillating pin-on-disc wear tester. Results show that nitrogen implantation at elevated temperatures to high doses dramatically improves the adhesive wear resistance of ferrite and the critical load at which the adhesive wear mechanism changes from mild to severe for austenite. The wear resistance of nitrogen-implanted ferrite is determined by the nitride formed. Extremely hard solid solutions of nitrogen develop on the implanted austenite surfaces and induce three orders of magnitude reductions in wear rates. The implantation conditions that should be used to produce deep, wear-resistant layers for both steels are discussed in detail. Oscillating pin-on-disc wear tests demonstrate that nitrogen does not diffuse during the wearing process although tests conducted using conventional fixed pin-on-disc test equipment could erroneously suggest this occurs. Taken together, the results show that high-dose-rate implantation at low energies yields very-high-quality implanted surfaces at low cost

  6. Ion implantation planar in targets with semi-cylindrical grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiz, Y.; Demokan, O.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and numerical investigations suggest that the ion-matrix phase of the sheath evolution plays a crucial role in determining the ion flux to the target surfaces . It can easily be realized that conformal mapping of the target's surface by the sheath is questionable, or even inapplicable in the case of surfaces with fine irregularities or this continuities. The theoretical analysis of such cases is evidently quite complicated. On the other hand, most actual targets fall into this category, and hence, the understanding of the corresponding sheath behavior remains vital for accomplishing uniform implantation. The ion- matrix sheaths have been treated analytically by Conrad for planar, cylindrical and spherical targets successfully. Similar y, Sheridan and Zang et al. have investigated the ion matrix sheath in cylindrical bores, without and with axial electrodes, respectively. All these works assumed targets with infinite areas or length, Zeng et al. and Kwok et al. have started studying implantation into grooves, by carrying out simulations for the inner and outer races of bearings, which are modeled as semi- cylinders of infinite length. Finally, Demokan has presented the first analytic treatment of on matrix sheaths in two- dimensions, by considering targets with rectangular grooves of infinite length, representing a broad range of industrial items. In this work, ion-matrix sheath near infinite length are theoretically analysed. Understanding the sheath formation near such targets is essential for achieving successful ion implantation on the surfaces of a broad range of industrial products, including all types of bearings. The potential profiles both inside and outside the groove are derived and the consequent ion velocity higher plasma densities may improve the uniformity of implantation on the surfaces of such grooves. Furthermore, the sheath edge deformation due to the grooves, the variation of the angle of incidence on the surface of the groove

  7. Recent advances in ion implantation. A state of the art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.L.; Plunkett, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The latest advances in ion implantation related to MOS, CMOS, CCDS, I 2 L, and other semiconductor devices are discussed. In addition, the application of ion implantation to superconductivity, integrated optics, compound semiconductors, and magnetic bubbles is considered. The requirements of ion implantation machine technology to fulfill the needs of the production environment are also reviewed. 75 refs

  8. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry. 9. Metal ions and complexes. Part A: Cobalt, rhodium, iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M Z; Ross, A B

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order.

  9. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2018-04-24

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 10 13 to 10 16 ions/cm². The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  10. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondyurin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  11. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Marquez, H, E-mail: gvvazquez@cio.mx [Departamento de Optica, CICESE, Km 107 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb{sup 3+} ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  12. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R; Marquez, H

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb 3+ ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm 3+ and Er 3+ traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  13. Magnetoresistive nanojunctions fabricated via focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanescu, E.; Hong, J.; Guduru, R. [Florida International University (United States); Lavrenov, A. [Hitachi Research (United States); Litvinov, D. [University of Houston, Center for Nanomagnetic Systems (United States); Khizroev, S., E-mail: khizroev@fiu.edu [Florida International University (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Focused ion beam (FIB) is used to implant Ga{sup +} ions into a 30-nm thick magnetoresistive element to effectively reduce the track width of the sensor from 1 Micro-Sign m to {approx}80 nm. Through magnetic recording industry-standard spinstand measurements, it is confirmed that a dose of {approx}10{sup 3} ions/cm{sup 2} at a 1-pA FIB current is sufficient to fully 'de-activate' magnetism in the exposed side regions. To record tracks required for spinstand tests, a FIB-trimmed ring type write head is used.

  14. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the 'seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs

  15. Methods for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    Three simple practical methods of irradiations with high energy particles providing the conditions for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in the massive samples are described in the present paper. Realization of the condition of two-sided irradiation of a plane sample during its rotation in the flux of the projectiles is the basis of the first method. The use of free air as a filter with varying absorbent ability due to movement of the irradiated sample along ion beam brought to the atmosphere is at the basis of the second method of uniform ion alloying. The third method for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in a massive sample consists of irradiation of a sample through the absorbent filter in the shape of a foil curved according to the parabolic law moving along its surface. The first method is the most effective for obtaining a great number of the samples, for example, for mechanical tests, the second one - for irradiation in different gaseous media, and the third one - for obtaining high concentrations of the implanted ions under controlled (regulated) thermal and deformation conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  16. Negative-ion current density dependence of the surface potential of insulated electrode during negative-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Okayama, Yoshio; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kouji.

    1994-01-01

    Positive ion implantation has been utilized as the method of impurity injection in ultra-LSI production, but the problem of substrate charging cannot be resolved by conventional charge compensation method. It was forecast that by negative ion implantation, this charging problem can be resolved. Recently the experiment on the negative ion implantation into insulated electrodes was carried out, and the effect of negative ion implantation to this problem was proved. However, the dependence of charged potential on the increase of negative ion current at the time of negative ion implantation is a serious problem in large current negative ion implantation hereafter. The charged potential of insulated conductor substrates was measured by the negative ion implantation using the current up to several mA/cm 2 . The experimental method is explained. Medium current density and high current density negative ion implantation and charged potential are reported. Accordingly in negative ion implantation, if current density is optimized, the negative ion implantation without charging can be realized. (K.I.)

  17. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  18. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10 10 cm -2 ). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D. [STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Copper ion implantation of polycarbonate matrices: Morphological and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta, V., E-mail: vincenzo.resta@le.infn.it; Quarta, G.; Maruccio, L.; Calcagnile, L.

    2014-07-15

    The implantation of 1 MeV {sup 63}Cu{sup +} ions in polycarbonate (PC) matrices has been carried out in order to evaluate the morphological and structural modifications induced in the polymer as a function of the ion fluence in the range 5 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis reveals a significant roughness increase of the polymer surface only for fluences higher than 5 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2} with the presence of hillock structures which surface density increases with increasing the ion fluence. X-ray Diffraction measurements of PC implanted with fluences in the range between 5 × 10{sup 15} at cm{sup −2} and 5 × 10{sup 16} at cm{sup −2} reveal an increase of the disorder inside the PC matrix, as a consequence of the damaging process induced by the ion irradiation. Evidences about the presence of exotic phase structures ascribed to both cubic Cu{sub 2}O and cubic Cu have been found.

  1. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Kai; Wang, Yibo [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, 2.4 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, and 4.8 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation.

  2. Lithium ion implantation effects in MgO(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huis, M.A. van; Fedorov, A.V.; Veen, A. van; Labohm, F.; Schut, H.; Mijnarends, P.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de [Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Materials Science Centre

    2001-07-01

    Single crystals of MgO(100) were implanted with 10{sup 16} {sup 6}Li ions cm{sup -2} at an energy of 30 keV. After ion implantation the samples were annealed isochronally in air at temperatures up to 1200K. After implantation and after each annealing step, the defect evolution was monitored with optical absorption spectroscopy and depth-sensitive Doppler Broadening positron beam analysis (PBA). A strong increase in the S-parameter is observed in the implantation layer at a depth of approximately 100 nm. The high value of the S-parameter is ascribed to positron annihilation in small lithium precipitates. The results of 2D-ACAR and X-TEM analysis show evidence of the presence of lithium precipitates. The depth distribution of the implanted {sup 6}Li atoms was monitored with neutron depth profiling (NDP). It was observed that detrapping and diffusion of {sup 6}Li starts at an annealing temperature of 1200K. (orig.)

  3. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C M; Ridgway, M C [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P L [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nayak, B.B.; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Cr and N ion implantation on natural rubies of low aesthetic quality. • Cr-ion implantation improves colour tone from red to deep red (pigeon eye red). • N-ion implantation at fluence of 3 × 10{sup 17} causes blue coloration on surface. • Certain extent of amorphization is observed in the case of N-ion implantation. - Abstract: Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV–Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 10{sup 17} N-ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, formation of colour centres (F{sup +}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 2}{sup +} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  6. Dental implant suprastructures using cobalt-chromium alloy compared with gold alloy framework veneered with ceramic or acrylic resin: a retrospective cohort study up to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teigen, Kyrre; Jokstad, Asbjørn

    2012-07-01

    An association between the long-term success and survival of implant-supported prostheses as a function of biomaterial combinations has not been established. The use of cast cobalt-chromium for the suprastructure framework may be an alternative to the conventional approach of using type 3 gold alloys. A retrospective chart audit of all patients who had received implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDP) before 1996 was identified in a private practice clinic. Data were recorded for FDPs made from four combinations of alloy frameworks and veneering material, i.e. type 3 gold and cobalt-chromium with ceramic or prefabricated acrylic teeth. The extracted data from the charts were subjected to explorative statistical tests including Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Patients (n=198) with 270 short and extensive FDPs supported entirely by 1117 implants were identified. The average follow-up observation periods varied between 4 and 220 months, with an average of 120 months. The success and survival, as well as event rates and types of biological and technical complications, were similar for implant-supported FDPs using cobalt-chromium and type 3 gold alloy frameworks veneered with ceramics or prefabricated acrylic teeth. An influence of the suprastructure biomaterial combination on the clinical performance of the individual supporting implants could not be established. Implant-supported FDPs made from type 3 gold or cobalt-chromium frameworks and veneered with ceramic or prefabricated acrylic teeth demonstrate comparable clinical performance. The biomaterial combinations do not appear to influence the success or survival of the individual implants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungers, L.J.; Jones, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a dopant material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Ion implantation and diamond-like coatings of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaczynski, G. W.; Hamdi, A. H.; Elmoursi, A. A.; Qiu, X.

    1997-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the wear resistance of some key automotive components, General Motors Research and Development Center initiated a study to determine the potential of surface modification as a means of improving the tribological properties of automotive parts, and to investigate the feasibility of mass producing such parts. This paper describes the plasma immersion ion implantation system that was designed for the study of various options for surface treatment, and it discusses bench testing procedures used for evaluating the surface-treated samples. In particular, both tribological and microstructural analyses are discussed for nitrogen implants and diamond-like hydrocarbon coatings of some aluminum alloys.

  9. Monitoring Ion Implantation Energy Using Non-contact Characterization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallian, M.; Pap, A.; Mocsar, K.; Somogyi, A.; Nadudvari, Gy.; Kosztka, D.; Pavelka, T.

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art ultra-shallow junctions are produced using extremely low ion implant energies, down to the range of 1-3 keV. This can be achieved by a variety of production techniques; however there is a significant risk that the actual implantation energy differs from the desired value. To detect this, sensitive measurement methods need to be utilized. Experiments show that both Photomodulated Reflection measurements before anneal and Junction Photovoltage-based sheet resistance measurements after anneal are suitable for this purpose.

  10. The ion implanter of the Institute of Nuclear Physics and its application in the ion engineering; Implantator jonow IFJ i jego wykorzystanie w inzynierii jonowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drwiega, M.; Lipinska, E.; Lazarski, S.; Wierba, M.

    1993-09-01

    The device used for ion implantation is described in detail. It is built with the use of electromagnetic ion separator and consists of: ion source, ion beam system, ion mass analyzer and target chamber. The device parameters are also given. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  11. Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solution by an amination graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Fang [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Kong, Lingtao, E-mail: ltkong@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Jiarui [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Wu, Shibiao [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Zhang, Kaisheng [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Xuelong [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Jin [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu, E-mail: xjhuang@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Jinhuai, E-mail: jhliu@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A newly designed GO-NH{sub 2}: Higher adsorption capability than that of activated carbon. • Very quick adsorption property: More than 90% of Co(II) can be removed within 5 min. • One of the highest adsorption capabilities of today's nanomaterials for Co(II) (116.35 mg/g). • GO-NH{sub 2} membrane can remove more than 98% Co(II) from the water. - Abstract: A newly designed amination graphene oxide (GO-NH{sub 2}), a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon, was fabricated by graphene oxide (GO) combining with aromatic diazonium salt. The resultant GO-NH{sub 2} maintained a high surface area of 320 m{sup 2}/g. When used as an adsorbent, the GO-NH{sub 2} demonstrated a very quick adsorption property for the removal of Co(II) ions, more than 90% of Co(II) ions could be removed within 5 min for dilute solutions at 0.3 g/L adsorbent dose. The adsorption capability approaches 116.35 mg/g, which is one of the highest capabilities of today's materials. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that the Co(II) ions adsorption on GO-NH{sub 2} was a spontaneous process. Considering the superior adsorption capability, the GO-NH{sub 2} filter membrane was fabricated for the removal of Co(II) ions. Membrane filtration experiments revealed that the removal capabilities of the materials for cobalt ions depended on the membrane's thickness, flow rate and initial concentration of Co(II) ions. The highest percentage removal of Co(II) exceeds 98%, indicating that the GO-NH{sub 2} is one of the very suitable membrane materials in environmental pollution management.

  12. Carbon nanotube growth from catalytic nano-clusters formed by hot-ion-implantation into the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Yasushi, E-mail: yhoshino@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Arima, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Ai; Saito, Yasunao; Nakata, Jyoji [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have studied growth of chirality-controlled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from hot-implantation-formed catalytic nano-clusters in a thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. This procedure has the advantage of high controllability of the diameter and the number of clusters by optimizing the conditions of the ion implantation. In the present study, Co{sup +} ions with ion dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} are implanted in the vicinity of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface at 300 Degree-Sign C temperature. The implanted Co atoms located in the SiO{sub 2} layer has an amorphous-like structure with a cluster diameter of several nm. In contrast, implanted Co atoms in the Si substrate are found to take a cobalt silicide structure, confirmed by the high-resolution image of transmission electron microscope. CNTs are grown by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We have confirmed a large amount of vertically-aligned multi-walled CNTs from the Co nano-clusters formed by the hot-ion-implantation near the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  13. Theoretical predictions of the lateral spreading of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.G.; Oven, R.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical model and computer program (AAMPITS-3D) of Ashworth and co-workers for the calculation of three-dimensional distributions of implanted ions in multi-element amorphous targets are extended to show that the lateral rest distribution is gaussian in a form with a lateral standard deviation (lateral-spread function) which is a function of depth beneath the target surface. A method is given whereby this function may be accurately determined from a knowledge of the projected range and chord range rest distribution functions. Examples of the lateral-spread function are given for boron, phosphorus and arsenic ions implanted into silicon and a detailed description is given of how the lateral-spread function may be used in conjunction with the projected range rest distribution function to provide a fully three-dimensional rest distribution of ions implanted into amorphous targets. Examples of normalised single ion isodensity contours computed from AMPITS-3D are compared with those obtained using the previous assumption of a lateral standard deviation which was independent of distance beneath the target surface. (author)

  14. Implantation of β-emitters on biomedical implants: 32 P isotropic ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, M.A.; Paynter, R.W.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.L.; Terreault, B.; Dufresne, V.

    2003-01-01

    The development of endovascular brachytherapy and the treatment of certain types of cancers (liver, lung, prostate) often require the use of beta-emitters, sometimes in the form of radioisotope-implanted devices. Among the most commonly used isotopes figures 32 P, a pure beta-emitter (maximum energy: 1.7 MeV), of which the path in biological tissues is of a few cm, restricting the impact of electron bombardment to the immediate environment of the implant. Several techniques and processes have been tried to elaborate surfaces and devices showing strongly bonded, or implanted 32 P. Anodizing, vapor phase deposition, grafting of oligonucleotides, as well as ion implantation processes have been investigated by several research groups as methods to implant beta-radioisotopes into surfaces. A coaxial plasma reactor was developed at INRS to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects, such as coronary stents commonly used in angioplasty procedures. The dispersion of 32 P atoms on the interior surfaces of the chamber can be investigated using radiographs, contributing to image the plasma ion transport mechanisms that guide the efficiency of the implantation procedure. The amount of radioactivity on the wall liner, on the internal components, and on the biomedical implants are quantified using a surface barrier detector. A comparative study establishes a relationship between the gray scale of the radiographs, and dose measurements. A program was developed to convert the digitized images into maps showing surface dose density in mCi/cm 2 . An integration process allows the quantification of the doses on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32 P dose is correlated to the initial amount of radioactivity inserted inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This method could be introduced as a fast and reliable way to test, qualify and assess the amount of radioactivity present on the as-produced implants

  15. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  16. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation; Dopage du carbure de silicium par implantation ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimbert, J

    1999-03-04

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  17. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  18. The electrochemical performance and mechanism of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinli; Liu, Li; Guo, Shengping; Hu, Hai; Yan, Zichao; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The as-prepared CoF 2 shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries. •The Li insertion/extraction mechanism of CoF 2 below 1.2 V was firstly proposed. •The electrochemical performance of CoF 2 as anode material in sodium ion batteries was firstly studied. -- Abstract: Cobalt (II) fluoride begins to enter into the horizons of people along with the research upsurge of metal fluorides. It is very significative and theoretically influential to make certain its electrochemical reaction mechanism. In this work, we discover a new and unrevealed reversible interfacial intercalation mechanism reacting below 1.2 V for cobalt (II) fluoride electrode material, which contributes a combined discharge capacity of about 400 mA h g −1 with the formation of SEI film at the initial discharge process. A highly reversible storage capacity of 120 mA h g −1 is observed when the cell is cycled over the voltage of 0.01-1.2 V at 0.2 C, and the low-potential voltage reaction process has a significant impact for the whole electrochemical process. Electrochemical analyses suggest that pure cobalt (II) fluoride shows better electrochemical performance when it is cycled at 3.2-0.01 V compared to the high range (1.0-4.5 V). So, we hold that cobalt (II) fluoride is more suitable to serve as anode material for lithium ion batteries. In addition, we also try to reveal the relevant performance and reaction mechanism, and realize the possibility of cobalt (II) fluoride as anode material for sodium ion batteries

  19. Long-wavelength germanium photodetectors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, I.C.; Beeman, J.W.; Luke, P.N.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1990-11-01

    Extrinsic far-infrared photoconductivity in thin high-purity germanium wafers implanted with multiple-energy boron ions has been investigated. Initial results from Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) measurements have demonstrated that photodetectors fabricated from this material have an extended long-wavelength threshold near 192μm. Due to the high-purity substrate, the ability to block the hopping conduction in the implanted IR-active layer yields dark currents of less than 100 electrons/sec at temperatures below 1.3 K under an operating bias of up to 70 mV. Optimum peak responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) for these sensitive detectors are 0.9 A/W and 5 x 10 -16 W/Hz 1/2 at 99 μm, respectively. The dependence of the performance of devices on the residual donor concentration in the implanted layer will be discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  20. Sliding behavior of boron ion-implanted 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.; Jain, A.; Singh, C.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of boron ion implantation on the friction and wear behavior of 304 stainless steel. The authors find an increase in microhardness following implantation. The authors also observed a reduction in wear and coefficient of friction. They have measured the microhardness, inside the wear tracks and have found a large increase in the values in the unimplanted specimens and only a small increase in the implanted specimens. These observations have thrown light on the change in the wear mechanism between the two cases. The authors have also used Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays, to characterize the differences in the mode of wear. The change in wear behavior is brought about by the ability of boron to prevent the surface from transforming into a hard brittle layer during wear

  1. Lattice damage in ion-implanted silicon-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, T.E.; Holland, O.W.

    1992-08-01

    The damage produced in Si 1-x Ge x alloys (0≤x≤1) by implantation of 70--100 keV 30 Si + has been measured as a function of temperature and fluence by ion channeling. For all compositions, the damage efficiency decreased sharply as the implant temperature was increased between room temperature and 150 degrees C. Furthermore, the damage efficiency in alloys of intermediate compositions (0.34≤x≤0.5) exceeds that in Ge, especially at elevated temperatures, despite the larger cascade energy density in Ge. It is shown that this behavior can be described based on a model in which the point-defect mobility is the dominant factor controlling damage retention, rather than the cascade energy density. This approach provides a framework for understanding other temperature-dependent phenomena related to damage growth in Si-Ge alloys including dose-rate effects and damage saturation in MeV implantation

  2. Cobalt(III) complexes of [3(5)]adamanzane, 1,5,9,13-tetraazabicyclo[7.7.3]nonadecane. Report of an inert, chelate hydrogen carbonate ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broge, Louise; Søtofte, Inger; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2001-01-01

    .H2O (3a). The coordination geometry around the cobalt(III) ion is a distorted octahedron with the inorganic ligands at cis-positions. Complex 2 is the second example of a cobalt(III) complex for which the X-ray structure,sfiows a chelate binding mode of the hydrogen carbonate entity. The pK(a) value...

  3. Plasma ion implantation technology for broad industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.; Siambis, J.; Symons, R.

    1994-01-01

    The recently invented Plasma Ion Implantation (PII) process (1987) [J. R. Conrad, U.S. Patent No. 764394 (August 16, 1988)] is currently under intense industrial engineering investigation and development. A critical component of PII for broad industrial utilization is the availability of an efficient modulator system that applies the high voltage pulse to the workpiece. A modulator technology assessment and selection is carried out. The requirements of the PII process favor the selection of a hard-tube modulator. The PII process favors the application of beam switch tube technology such as the Litton L-5012 and L-5097. These Litton tubes have already been selected by LANL and utilized in their pilot engineering demonstration experiment with GM and the University of Wisconsin. The performance, physical operation, and potential enhancements of the Litton beam switch tubes L-5012 and L-5097 will be discussed in connection with the requirements of the emerging plasma ion implantation industrial modulator technology

  4. Rapid Thermal annealing of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenack, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior and the supression mechanisms of the residual defects of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation, were investigated. The samples were annealed with the aid of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at temperature range from 850 to 1200 0 C, and annealing time up to 120 s. Random and aligned Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to analyse the samples. Similarities in the recrystallization behavior for layers implanted with ions of the same chemical groups such as As or Sb; Ge, Sn or Pb, In or Ga, are observed. The results show that the effective supression of resisual defects of the recrystallired layers is vinculated to the redistribution of impurities via thermal diffusion. (author) [pt

  5. 1/f Fluctuations in ion implanted metal semiconductor contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, M.; Marjanovic, N.; Radojevic, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ion implanted Metal-Semiconductor contacts is the most widely used structures in electrical devices. Weather complete devices or some parts are of interest, properties of metal-semiconductor junction strongly influence the quality and external characteristic of electronic devices. That is the reason why special attention is paid to the investigation of factor (noise for example) that could influence given junction. Low frequency 1/f fluctuations (noise) are constantly present in metal-semiconductor junction, so measurement of their level as well as the dependence on factors such as temperature must be taken into account in detailed analysis of electrical characteristics of devices such as contact, nuclear detector with surface barrier etc. In this paper we present the results of low frequency noise level measurements on TiN-Ti-Si structures produced by As + ion implantation. (author)

  6. Synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, G.H.; Dresselhaus, G.; Withrow, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have synthesized layers of CdMnTe by implantation of Mn into CdTe. Samples of CdTe have been implanted with Mn ions of 60 keV energy to fluences in the range 1 x 10 13 cm -2 to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 resulting in local concentrations of up to 10% at the maximum of the Mn distribution. Rutherford backscattering-channeling analysis has been used to study the radiation damage after implantation and after subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). These experiments reveal that RTA for 15 sec at a temperature T greater than or equal to 700 0 C results in the complete recovery of the lattice order, without affecting the stoichiometry of CdTe. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of a sample showing complete annealing reveal an increase in the band gap corresponding to the synthesis of very dilute (x approx. = 0.004) Cd/sub 1-x/Mn/sub x/Te. A shift of the excitonic PL peak to lower energies is observed when a magnetic field H less than or equal to 1T is applied. These measurements provide clear evidence for the synthesis of a DMS by ion implantation of Mn into CdTe

  7. Bubble formation in Zr alloys under heavy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, L. Jr.; Motta, A.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Birtcher, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-12-01

    Kr ions were used in the HVEM/Tandem facility at ANL to irradiate several Zr alloys, including Zircaloy-2 and -4, at 300-800 C to doses up to 2{times}10{sup 16}ion.cm{sup -2}. Both in-situ irradiation of thin foils as well as irradiation of bulk samples with an ion implanter were used in this study. For the thin foil irradiations, a distribution of small bubbles in the range of 30-100 {angstrom} was found at all temperatures with the exception of the Cr-rich Valloy where 130 {angstrom} bubbles were found. Irradiation of bulk samples at 700-800 C produced large faceted bubbles up to 300 {angstrom} after irradiation to 2{times}10{sup 16}ion.cm{sup -2}. Results are examined in context of existing models for bubble formation and growth in other metals.

  8. Surface modification technique of structural ceramics: ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhijian; Miao Hezhuo; Si Wenjie; Qi Longhao; Li Wenzhi

    2003-01-01

    Through reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of the existed surface modification techniques, a new technique, ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating, was proposed. Using the proposed technique, the surfaces of silicon nitride ceramics were modified by Ti ion implantation, and then three kinds of ternary coatings, (Ti,Al)N, (Ti,Zr)N and (Ti,Cr)N, were deposited on the as-implanted ceramics. The coatings prepared by this technique are of high-hardness and well adhesive to the ceramic substrates. The maximal hardness measured by nanoindentation tests is more than 40 GPa. The maximal critical load by nanoscratch tests is more than 60 mN. The cutting tools prepared by this technique with the presented coatings are of excellent performance in industrial applications. The technique may be promising for the surface modification of structural ceramics. (orig.)

  9. Influence of heavy ion implantation on the microhardness of lif

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Alazm, S M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented microhardness measurements for pure lithium fluoride (LiF) implanted with Ar, Kr and Xe at doses ranged from 10 sup 9 up to 10 sup 1 2 ion/cm sup 2. Measurements were also performed for the microhardness after irradiation by electron and gamma rays. The data exhibited a large increase of microhardness of LiF using heavy ions in comparison with the unimplanted and irradiated samples with electrons and gamma rays. The influence of annealing the samples on the microhardness is also studied. The obtained results were interpreted according to the formation of F-centers in LiF.

  10. Radioactive ion implantation as a tool for wear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, C.; Soerensen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with ion implantation of radioactive krypton ions in surfaces with aim of measuring wear of different magnetic materials in sound-heads. The technique is especially suited for a relatively fast comparison of wear-characteristics of materials of varying composition in small inaccessible areas. In the present case utilisation of a 60 KeV accelerator allows determination of a total wear as small as 0.05 μm with an accuracy of 10%. Further the technique yields information of the time dependence of the wear process with an accuracy less than 0.001 μm. (author)

  11. Flash lamp annealing of ion implanted boron profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, E.; Syhre, H.; Ruedenauer, F.G.; Steiger, W.

    1983-05-01

    The diffusion behaviour of ion implanted boron profiles (5x10E15 B/cm 2 , 50keV) in silicon at 800 0 C and 900 0 C has been compared for samples with and without foregoing flahs - lamp annealing of the radiation damage. The observed differences are discussed with respect to mechanisms of diffusion inhibition in the high concentration region. (Author) [de

  12. Urinary catheter with polyurethane coating modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondyurina, I.; Nechitailo, G.S.; Svistkov, A.L.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.

    2015-01-01

    A low friction urinary catheter that could be used without a lubricant is proposed in this work. A polyurethane coating was synthesised on the surface of a metal guide wire catheter. Ion implantation was applied to surface modify the polyurethane coating. FTIR ATR, wetting angle, AFM and friction tests were used for analysis. Low friction was found to be provided by the formation of a hard carbonised layer on the polyurethane surface

  13. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  14. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  15. Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen ion implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmanova, M.F., E-mail: marina.sarmanova@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Karl, H. [University Augsburg, Institute of Physics, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Mändl, S.; Hirsch, D. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Mayr, S.G.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); University Leipzig, Institute for Experimental Physics II, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Elastic properties of sub-stoichiometric nitrogen implanted silicon were measured with nanometer-resolution using contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) as function of ion fluence and post-annealing conditions. The determined range of indentation moduli was between 100 and 180 GPa depending on the annealing duration and nitrogen content. The high indentation moduli can be explained by formation of Si–N bonds, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  16. Nanosystems in Ceramic Oxides Created by Means of Ion Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Huis, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The material properties of nanometer-sized clusters are dependent on the cluster size. Changing the cluster dimensions induces structural phase transformations, metal-insulator transitions, non-linear optical properties and widening of the band gap of semiconductors. In this work, nanoclusters are created by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. The ceramic oxides MgO and Al2O3 are used as embedding materials because of their stability and optical transparency. All clusters were cre...

  17. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, J.T.; Walter, K.C.; Rej, D.J.; Nastasi, M.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 10 17 N-at/cm 2 is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4

  18. Swept Line Electron Beam Annealing of Ion Implanted Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    a pre- liminary study using silicon solar cells. This work was undertaken in cooperation with Dr. J. Eguren of the Instituto De Energia Solar , Madrid...device fabrication has been attempted. To date, resistors, capacitors, diodes, bipolar transistors, MOSFEs, and solar cells have been fabricated with...34 " 48 *Si Solar Cells Ruby PL P+ Ion-Implanted 49 Ruby PL Pulsed Diffused 50 :C

  19. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  20. Research on ion implantation in MEMS device fabrication by theory, simulation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Minyu; Zhao, Yulong; Jiao, Binbin; Zhu, Lingjian; Zhang, Guodong; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Ion implantation is widely utilized in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), applied for embedded lead, resistors, conductivity modifications and so forth. In order to achieve an expected device, the principle of ion implantation must be carefully examined. The elementary theory of ion implantation including implantation mechanism, projectile range and implantation-caused damage in the target were studied, which can be regarded as the guidance of ion implantation in MEMS device design and fabrication. Critical factors including implantations dose, energy and annealing conditions are examined by simulations and experiments. The implantation dose mainly determines the dopant concentration in the target substrate. The implantation energy is the key factor of the depth of the dopant elements. The annealing time mainly affects the repair degree of lattice damage and thus the activated elements’ ratio. These factors all together contribute to ions’ behavior in the substrates and characters of the devices. The results can be referred to in the MEMS design, especially piezoresistive devices.

  1. Cell patterning on a glass surface by a mask-assisted ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Dong-Ki; Hwang, In-Tae; Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae-Hak [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaehakchoi@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-04-15

    A simple patterning method of cells on a glass has been developed by using ion implantation. The glass was implanted through a pattern mask with 150 keV Ar ions in the absence or presence of oxygen. Surface properties of the ion-implanted glass were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and cell culture test. The results showed that more hydrophilic groups were formed on the glass surface implanted in the presence of oxygen. Thus, the glass surface implanted in the presence of oxygen showed lower contact angle compared with the glass surface implanted in the absence of oxygen. The cells were strongly adhered to and proliferated on the ion-implanted regions of the glass. The cell population was found to be the highest on the glass implanted at a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} in the presence of oxygen.

  2. Architecture and control of a high current ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, E.H.; Paul, L.F.; Kranik, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an ion implant system for use in production requires that special attention be given to areas of design which normally are not emphasized on research or development type ion implanters. Manually operated, local controls are replaced by remote controls, automatic sequencing, and digital displays. For ease of maintenance and replication the individual components are designed as simply as possible and are contained in modules of separate identities, joined only by the beam line and electrical interconnections. A production environment also imposes requirements for the control of contamination and maintainability of clean room integrity. For that reason the major portion of the hardware is separated from the clean operator area and is housed in a maintenance core area. The controls of a production system should also be such that relatively unskilled technicians are able to operate the system with optimum repeatability and minimum operator intervention. An extensive interlock system is required. Most important, for use in production the ion implant system has to have a relatively high rate of throughput. Since the rate of throughput at a given dose is a function of beam current, pumpdown time and wafer handling capacity, design of components affecting these parameters has been optimized. Details of the system are given. (U.K.)

  3. Ion beam system for implanting industrial products of various shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, A.S.; Wittkower, A.

    1985-01-01

    Implantation of metals and ceramics with ions of nitrogen and other species has improved surface properties such as friction, wear and corrosion in numerous industrial applications. Zymet has built a production machine to take advantage of this process which can implant a 2 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 dose of nitrogen ions into a 20 cm x 20 cm area in about 30 min using a 100 keV beam. Treatment is accomplished by mounting the product on a cooled, tiltable, turntable which rotates continuously, or is indexed in 15 0 steps to expose different surfaces in fixed position. Product cooling is accomplished by using a chilled eutectic metal to mount and grip the variously shaped objects. A high voltage supply capable of 10 mA at 100 kV is used, and the equipment is microcomputer controlled via serial light links. All important machine parameters are presented in sequenced displays on a CRT. Uniformity of treatment and accumulated dose are monitored by a Faraday cup system which provides the microprocessor with data for display of time to completion on the process screen. For routine implants the operator requires only two buttons; one for chamber vacuum control, and the other for process start and stop. (orig.)

  4. Homojunction silicon solar cells doping by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milési, Frédéric; Coig, Marianne; Lerat, Jean-François; Desrues, Thibaut; Le Perchec, Jérôme; Lanterne, Adeline; Lachal, Laurent; Mazen, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Production costs and energy efficiency are the main priorities for the photovoltaic (PV) industry (COP21 conclusions). To lower costs and increase efficiency, we are proposing to reduce the number of processing steps involved in the manufacture of N-type Passivated Rear Totally Diffused (PERT) silicon solar cells. Replacing the conventional thermal diffusion doping steps by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing allows reducing the number of steps from 7 to 3 while maintaining similar efficiency. This alternative approach was investigated in the present work. Beamline and plasma immersion ion implantation (BLII and PIII) methods were used to insert n-(phosphorus) and p-type (boron) dopants into the Si substrate. With higher throughput and lower costs, PIII is a better candidate for the photovoltaic industry, compared to BL. However, the optimization of the plasma conditions is demanding and more complex than the beamline approach. Subsequent annealing was performed on selected samples to activate the dopants on both sides of the solar cell. Two annealing methods were investigated: soak and spike thermal annealing. Best performing solar cells, showing a PV efficiency of about 20%, was obtained using spike annealing with adapted ion implantation conditions.

  5. Influence of ion implantation on the adhesion and grow of human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walachova, K.; Svorcik, V.; Dvorakova, B.; Vogtova, D.

    1999-01-01

    Interaction of keratinocytes with polymer modified by ion implantation was studied with the possibility of cultivate these cells for regeneration of dermal cover, for example, heavy burned persons. The modification on polyethylene (PE) with 100 μm thickness was processed by implantation the Ar + ions with the energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with the energy 156 keV. Some characteristics of superficial modified layers and influence of ion implantation on the adhesion and proliferation of keratinocytes were studied

  6. Effects of ion-implanted C on the microstructure and surface mechanical properties of Fe alloys implanted with Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Pope, L.E.; Yost, F.G.; Picraux, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructural and tribological effects of ion implanting C into Ti-implanted, Fe-based alloys are examined and compared to the influence of C introduced by vacuum carburization during Ti implantation alone. The amorphous surface alloy formed by Ti implantation of pure Fe increases in thickness when additional C is implanted at depths containing Ti but beyond the range of carburization. Pin-on-disc tests of 15-5 PH stainless steel show that implantation of both Ti and C reduces friction significantly under conditions where no reduction is obtained by Ti implantation alone; wear depths are also less when C is implanted. All available experimental results can be accounted for by consideration of the thickness and Ti concentration of the amorphous Fe-Ti-C alloy. The thicker amorphous layer on samples implanted with additional C extends tribological benefits to more severe wear regimes

  7. Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.

  8. A high current metal vapour vacuum arc ion source for ion implantation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C.; Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main features of the metal vapour vacuum arc(MEVA) as an ion source are presented. The technology utilizes the plasma production capabilities of a vacuum arc cathode. Some of the ions produced in this discharge flow through the anode and the 3 extraction grids to form an extracted ion beam. The high beam current and the potential for generating broad beams, make this technology suitable for implantation of large surface areas. The composition of the vacuum arc cathode determines the particular ions obtained from the MEVA source. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  9. Effect of implanted doses of N+-ions on the contact resistance of copper contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubravec, B.; Kovac, P.; Lipka, F.; Padysak, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of implanted doses of N + ions on the contact resistance. Dependencies of the contact resistance versus contact force R c =f(F c ) and microhardness of implanted surfaces were measured for three implanted profiles. The influence of the aggressive environs on the contact resistance of implanted contact is given too

  10. Rapid thermal and swift heavy ion induced annealing of Co ion implanted GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.; Pandey, A. C.; Gerlach, J. W.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    Thin epitaxial GaN films grown on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with 180 keV Co ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain the Co depth profiles and the maximum Co concentrations. As-implanted samples were annealed applying two different techniques: rapid thermal annealing and annealing by swift heavy ion irradiation. Rapid thermal annealing was done at two temperatures: 1150 deg. C for 20 s and 700 deg. C for 5 min. 200 MeV Ag ions at two fluences were used for annealing by irradiation. Crystalline structure of the pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using x-ray diffraction, and the results were compared. Improvement of the crystalline quality was observed for rapid thermal annealed samples at the higher annealing temperature as confirmed with rocking curve measurements. The results indicate the presence of Co clusters in these annealed samples. Swift heavy ion irradiation with the parameters chosen for this study did not lead to a significant annealing

  11. Target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by method of stable ion beam implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M

    The ionization efficiency is one of the most important parameters of an on-line used target-ion source system exploited for production of exotic radioactive beams. The ionization efficiency value determination as a characteristic of a target-ion source unit in the stage of its normalizing before on-line use is a very important step in the course of the preparation for an on-line experiment. At the IRIS facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina) a reliable and rather precise method of the target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by the method of stable beam implantation has been developed. The method worked out exploits an off-line mass-separator for the implantation of the ion beams of selected stable isotopes of different elements into a tantalum foil placed inside the Faraday cup in the focal plane of the mass-separator. The amount of implanted ions has been measured with a high accuracy by the current integrator connected to the Faraday cup. After the implantation of needed a...

  12. Low energy ion implantation and high energy heavy ion irradiation in C60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Dharmarasu, N.; Kojima, N.; Kanjilal, D.

    2001-01-01

    C 60 films have been bombarded with low energy boron ions and high energy swift heavy ions (SHI) of silver and oxygen at different doses. Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were carried out on the virgin and irradiated films and the results are in good agreement with each other. The films subject to low energy boron ion implantation showed destruction of the bukky balls whereas the films subject to high energy ion irradiation did not show appreciable effects on their structure. These results indicate that C 60 films are more prone to defects by elastic collision and subsequent implantation at lower energy. Irradiation at higher energy was less effective in creating appreciable defects through electronic excitation by inelastic collisions at similar energy density

  13. On the use of thin ion implanted Si detectors in heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne-Gosselin, L.; Stab, L.; Lampert, M.O.

    1988-10-01

    We present test results on the use of thin ion implanted epitaxial Si detectors for registration of low- and medium energy heavy fragments in nuclear reactions. A linear energy response for very low energy nuclei has been observed. A test of 10 μm + 300 μm telescopes under realistic experimental conditions for heavy ion experiments exhibits the possibilities to use these detectors for the measurements of multifragmentation products. (authors)

  14. Zinc, nickel, and cobalt ions removal from aqueous solution and plating plant wastewater by modified Aspergillus flavus biomass: A dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Foroutan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomass of Aspergillus flavus was modified by calcium chloride to achieve a bioadsorbent for treating nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The information of pH, bioadsorbent dose, contact time, and temperature effect on the removal efficiency are presented. The data of Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are also depicted. The data showed that the maximum bioadsorption capacity of nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions is 32.26, 31.06 and 27.86 mg/g, respectively. The suitability of the bioadsorbent in heavy metals removal at field condition was tested with a real wastewater sample collected from a plating plant in the final part of this dataset. Based on the findings, the bioadsorbent was shown to be an affordable alternative for the removal of metals in the wastewater.

  15. Mesoporous ethanesilica materials with bimodal and trimodal pore-size distributions synthesised in the presence of cobalt ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alufelwi M. Tshavhungwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous organosilica materials containing ethane groups in their framework were formed with two and three pore sizes (i.e. bimodal and trimodal pores when synthesised by the sol-gel method in the presence of cobalt ions. The compounds 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane and tetraethylorthosilicate were used as silicon sources and the reactions were done in the presence of a surfactant, which served as a template. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed that organic functional groups were incorporated into the ethanesilica. Powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption data indicated that the mesophase and textural properties (surface area, pore volume, pore diameter of the materials were dependent on the ageing temperature, the amount/ratio of silica precursors and cobalt ion incorporation. Secondary mesopores were drastically reduced by changing the ratio of silicon precursors.

  16. Si-nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Wolff, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sychugov, I.; Suvanam, S.S.; Linnros, J. [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hallen, A. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    A dielectric matrix with embedded Si-nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si-excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO{sub 2} matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si-nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO{sub 2} by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%-Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV {sup 127}I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. New developments in metal ion implantation by vacuum arc ion sources and metal plasma immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ion implantation by intense beams of metal ions can be accomplished using the dense metal plasma formed in a vacuum arc discharge embodied either in a vacuum arc ion source or in a metal plasma immersion configuration. In the former case high energy metal ion beams are formed and implantation is done in a more-or-less conventional way, and in the latter case the substrate is immersed in the plasma and repetitively pulse-biased so as to accelerate the ions at the high voltage plasma sheath formed at the substrate. A number of advances have been made in the last few years, both in plasma technology and in the surface modification procedures, that enhance the effectiveness and versatility of the methods, including for example: controlled increase of the in charge states produced; operation in a dual metal-gaseous ion species mode; very large area beam formation; macroparticle filtering; and the development of processing regimes for optimizing adhesion, morphology and structure. These complementary ion processing techniques provide the plasma tools for doing ion surface modification over a very wide parameter regime, from pure ion implantation at energies approaching the MeV level, through ion mixing at energies in the ∼1 to ∼100 keV range, to IBAD-like processing at energies from a few tens of eV to a few keV. Here the authors review the methods, describe a number of recent developments, and outline some of the surface modification applications to which the methods have been put. 54 refs., 9 figs

  18. Nitrogen ion implantation: Barriers to industrial acceptance and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation has been used to improve the wear and fatigue resistance of metals in industrial applications since the process was developed at the UK Harwell Laboratory in the 1970s. However, implantation service companies like Ion Surface Technology have found so far that the market for nitrogen implantation is limited. Both market and technical barriers exist to more widespread acceptance in industry. Market factors include cost, industrial conservatism, and production priorities in manufacturing. Technical factors include the size of available implanters, the line-of-sight limitation of ion implantation, sputtering, and other process limitations such as shallow penetration depth. Several recent technical developments that should greatly increase market acceptance are described: 1. large-scale nitrogen implanters, 2. the non-line-of-sight plasma source ion implantation process, and 3. ion assisted coating techniques. (orig.)

  19. High-temperature oxidation of ion-implanted tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Musket, R.G.; Truhan, J.J.; Grabowski, K.S.; Singer, I.L.; Gossett, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation of ion-implanted Ta in two different high temperature regimes has been studied. Oxidations were carried out at 500 0 C in Ar/O 2 mixtures, where oxide growth is known to follow a parabolic rate law in initial stages, and at 1000 0 C in pure O 2 , where a linear-rate behavior obtains. Implanted species include Al, Ce, Cr, Li, Si and Zr at fluences of the order of 10 17 /cm 2 . Oxidized samples were studied using Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, Auger spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Significant differences among the specimens were noted after the milder 500 0 C treatment, specifically, in the amount of oxide formed, the degree of oxygen dissolution in the metal beneath the oxide, and in the redistribution behavior of the implanted solutes. Under the severe 1000 0 C treatment, indications of different solute distributions and of different optical features were found, whereas overall oxidation rate appeared to be unaffected by the presence of the solute. 7 figures

  20. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  1. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  2. Bimodal distribution of damage morphology generated by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, K.R.C.; Jaraiz, M.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Rubio, J.E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Benistant, F.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleation and evolution model of damage based on amorphous pockets (APs) has recently been developed and implemented in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator. In the model, APs are disordered structures (I n V m ), which are agglomerates of interstitials (I) and vacancies (V). This model has been used to study the composition and size distribution of APs during different ion implantations. Depending strongly on the dose rate, ion mass and implant temperature, the APs can evolve to a defect population where the agglomerates have a similar number of I and V (n ∼ m), or to a defect population with pure I (m ∼ 0) and pure V (n ∼ 0) clusters, or a mixture of APs and clusters. This behaviour corresponds to a bimodal (APs/clusters) distribution of damage. As the AP have different thermal stability compared to the I and V clusters, the same damage concentration obtained through different implant conditions has a different damage morphology and, consequently, exhibit a different resistance to subsequent thermal treatments

  3. Synergistic extraction of Eu(III) with N-phosphorylated bis-ureas and chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selucký, P.; Bubeníková, M.; Rais, J.; Grüner, Bohumír; Brusko, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-31 ISSN 0033-8230 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0668 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : liquid-liquid extraction * lanthanides * actinides * N-phosphorylated bis-ureas * chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion * high level liquid waste Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.411, year: 2013

  4. Cellular structure formed by ion-implantation-induced point defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, N.; Taniwaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have found that a cellular defect structure is formed on the surface of Sn + ion implanted GaSb at a low temperature and proposed its formation mechanism based on the movement of the induced point defects. This research was carried out in order to examine the validity of the mechanism by clarifying the effect of the mobility of the point defects on the defect formation. The defect structure on the GaSb surfaces implanted at cryogenic temperature and room temperature was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. In the sample implanted at room temperature, the sponge-like structure (a pileup of voids) was formed and the cellular structure, as observed at a low temperature, did not develop. This behavior was explained by the high mobility of the vacancies during implantation at room temperature, and the proposed idea that the defect formation process is dominated by the induced point defects was confirmed

  5. Automated Implanter Endstation for Combinatorial Materials Science with Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosshans, I.; Karl, H.; Stritzker, B.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery, understanding and optimization of new complex functional materials requires combinatorial synthesis techniques and fast screening instrumentation for the measurement of the samples. In this contribution the synthesis of buried II-VI compound semiconductor nanocrystals by ion-implantation in SiO2 on silicon will be presented. For that we constructed a computer controlled implanter target end station, in which a 4-inch wafer can be implanted with a lateral pattern of distinct dose, composition or energy combinations. The chemical reaction of the constituents is initiated either during the implantation process or ex-situ by a rapid thermal process, where a reactive atmosphere can be applied. The resulting optical photoluminescence properties of the individual fields of the pattern can then be screened in rapid succession in an optical cryostat into which the whole wafer is mounted and cooled down. In this way, complex interdependences of the physical parameters can be studied on a single wafer and the technically relevant properties optimized

  6. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A.G.; Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M.; Oztarhan, A.; Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S.; Brown, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material

  7. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  8. Ion beam studies. Part 5 - the computer simulation of composite ion implantation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Booker, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The computer simulation of composite ion implantation profiles produced by continuous energy programming and by discrete multiple dose doping is described. It is shown that precise matching of the computed profile to various uniform and power-law distributions can be achieved. (author)

  9. A novel solution combustion synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles as negative-electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wei; Wu Jinming; Tu Jiangping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the electrochemical performance of cobalt oxides fabricated by solution combustion synthesis for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. ► The additive of NaF in precursor results in an eruption combustion mode. ► The eruption combustion leads to fluffy networks with smaller grains and more macroporous voids. ► The network contributes to higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Low cost mass production of cobalt oxide nanoparticles with high electrochemical performance is of practical interest for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In this report, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by solution combustion synthesis, with the introduction of NaF into the precursor to alter the combustion mode. The novel eruption combustion resulted in fluffy networks with smaller particles and more macroporous voids, which contributed to the higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance when compared with that achieved by the conventional combustion mode.

  10. The effect of metal ion implantation on the surface mechanical properties of Mylar (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W; Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Yao, X; Brown, I G [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation of polymers leads to the formation of new carbonaceous materials, the revolution during implantation of various species consists of (1) ion beam induced damage: chain scission, crosslinking, molecular emission of volatile elements and compounds, stoichiometric change in the surface layer of pristine polymers; and (2) chemical effect between ion and target materials: microalloying and precipitation. Literature regarding ion implanted polymers shows that the reorganisation of the carbon network after implantation can dramatically modify several properties of pristine polymers solubility, molecular weight, and electrical, optical and mechanical properties. However, ion implantation of polymers is actually a very complex interaction which depends on not only ion species, implantation condition, but also polymer type and specific structure. In this paper the effect of Ag or Ti ions implantation on surface mechanical properties of PET (polyethylenne terephthalate) polymer is reported. There was a clear deterioration in wear resistance after implantation of both Ag and Ti ions. It is suggested that the increment of wear after implantation may result from not only ion damage but also chemical effect between ion and target material. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. The effect of metal ion implantation on the surface mechanical properties of Mylar (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Yao, X.; Brown, I.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation of polymers leads to the formation of new carbonaceous materials, the revolution during implantation of various species consists of (1) ion beam induced damage: chain scission, crosslinking, molecular emission of volatile elements and compounds, stoichiometric change in the surface layer of pristine polymers; and (2) chemical effect between ion and target materials: microalloying and precipitation. Literature regarding ion implanted polymers shows that the reorganisation of the carbon network after implantation can dramatically modify several properties of pristine polymers solubility, molecular weight, and electrical, optical and mechanical properties. However, ion implantation of polymers is actually a very complex interaction which depends on not only ion species, implantation condition, but also polymer type and specific structure. In this paper the effect of Ag or Ti ions implantation on surface mechanical properties of PET (polyethylenne terephthalate) polymer is reported. There was a clear deterioration in wear resistance after implantation of both Ag and Ti ions. It is suggested that the increment of wear after implantation may result from not only ion damage but also chemical effect between ion and target material. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Characterization of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters having gold absorbers with implanted $^{163}$Ho ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gastaldo, L.; von Seggern, F.; Porst, J.-P.; Schäfer, S.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Wolf, T.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Herlert, A.; Johnston, K.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time we have investigated the behavior of fully micro-fabricated low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) after undergoing an ion-implantation process. This experiment had the aim to show the possibility to perform a high precision calorimetric measurement of the energy spectrum following the electron capture of $^{163}$Ho using MMCs having the radioactive $^{163}$Ho ions implanted in the absorber. The implantation of $^{163}$Ho ions was performed at ISOLDE-CERN. The performance of a detector that underwent an ion-implantation process is compared to the one of a detector without implanted ions. The results show that the implantation dose of ions used in this experiment does not compromise the properties of the detector. In addition an optimized detector design for future $^{163}$Ho experiments is presented.

  13. Planar transistors and impatt diodes with ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorendorf, H.; Glawischnig, H.; Grasser, L.; Hammerschmitt, J.

    1975-03-01

    Low frequency planar npn and pnp transistors have been developed in which the base and emitter have been fabricated using ion implantation of boron and phosphorus by a drive-in diffusion. Electrical parameters of the transistors are comparable with conventionally produced transistors; the noise figure was improved and production tolerances were significantly reduced. Silicon-impatt diodes for the microwave range were also fabricated with implanted pn junctions and tested for their high frequency characteristics. These diodes, made in an improved upside down technology, delivered output power up to 40 mW (burn out power) at 30 GHz. Reverse leakage current and current carrying capability of these diodes were comparable to diffused structures. (orig.) 891 ORU 892 MB [de

  14. Tribological behavior of duplex coating improved by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakas, D.; Skoric, B.; Rakita, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper the tribological behavior of the coatings are discussed. Duplex coatings were applied on cold working steel 100Cr6. Samples were plasma nitrided at different thickness of plasma surface layers. TiN was deposited with a classic BALZERS PVD equipment and subsequent ion implantation. Ion implantation was provided with N 5+ ions. The other samples were produced with IBAD technology in DANFYSIK chamber. Wear resistance and exchanges of friction coefficient were measured with on-line test using special designed tribology equipment. Following the tests, the wear zone morphology and characteristics of surface layer structure as well as important properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Scratch adhesion testing was performed using commercially available equipment. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) of the wear-scars on pins provided essential information on the wear characteristics. In this paper some results related to influence of duplex coating production methodology on tribological behavior for cold working steel was presented

  15. Scanning probe microscopy of single Au ion implants in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, L.; Monakhov, E.; Maknys, K.; Svensson, B.G.; Jensen, J.; Hallen, A.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied 5 MeV Au 2+ ion implantation with fluences between 7 x 10 7 and 2 x 10 8 cm -2 in Si by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The DLTS measurements show formation of electrically active defects such as the two negative charge states of the divacancy (V 2 (=/-) and V 2 (-/0)) and the vacancy-oxygen (VO) center. It is observed that the intensity of the V 2 (=/-) peak is lower compared to that of V 2 (-/0) by a factor of 5. This has been attributed to a highly localized distribution of the defects along the ion tracks, which results in trapping of the carriers at V 2 (-/0) and incomplete occupancy of V 2 (=/-). The SCM measurements obtained in a plan view show a random pattern of regions with a reduced SCM signal for the samples implanted with fluence above 2 x 10 8 cm -2 . The reduced SCM signal is attributed to extra charges associated with acceptor states, such as V 2 (-/0), formed along the ion tracks in the bulk Si. Indeed, the electron emission rate from the V 2 (-/0) state is in the range of 10 kHz at room temperature, which is well below the probing frequency of the SCM measurements, resulting in 'freezing' of electrons at V 2 (-/0)

  16. Application of ion implantation RBS to the study of electrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.J.; Vallet, C.E.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ir-implanted titanium near-surface alloys were prepared by ion implantation, characterized (Ir concentration/depth profiles) by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and subsequently anodically oxidized to form electrocatalytically active Ir x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the metallic-like Ir 4 Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti electrodes in acidic chloride, sulfate, and perchlorate solutions was investigated, and the results compared with those previously obtained with similarly prepared Ru x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti electrodes. For both electrodes, M x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti (M equals Ir or Ru), the Tafel slope for the Cl 2 evolution reaction is 40 mV, i.e.,δE/δlog i equals 2.303 (2RT/3F). The reaction order (n) with respect to chloride ion concentration δlogi/δlog[Cl - ] + 1, where K 9 equals 54.9 dm 3 mol -1 for Ir x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti and K 9 equals 40 dm 3 mol -1 for Ru x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti. A modified Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism, one in which the role of absorbed chloride ions is taken into account, is shown to be consistent with aforementioned diagnostic parameters

  17. Nonlinear optical properties of Sn+ ion-implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Y.; Hioki, T.; Motohiro, T.; Noda, S.; Kurauchi, T.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke , of Sn + ion-implanted silica glass was found to be similar 10 -6 esu. This value is as large as those reported for semiconductor-doped glasses. Silica glass substrates were implanted with Sn + ions at an acceleration energy of 400 keV to a dose of 2x10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. Metallic Sn microcrystallites of 4-20 nm in diameter were found to be embedded in the silica glass matrix. The average volume fraction of the Sn microcrystallites was evaluated to be 28%. vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke and the imaginary part of the dielectric function, Im ε, had peaks at the same wavelength of 500 nm owing to surface plasmon resonance. The peak width of vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke was nearly half of that of Im ε, which can be explained by an effective medium theory. ((orig.))

  18. The enhancement in wear resistance of W18Cr4V steel by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ping; Xu Peiguang

    1987-01-01

    Two new methods of ion implantation were adopted in comparison with nitrogen implantation: carbon monoxide was implanted directly into W18Cr4V steel, and nitrogen was implanted into a deposited titanium film about 1000 A thick. It is shown that higher surface hardness and wear resistance have been achieved. The composition and phase structure of the implanted layer was determined in detail. The wear mechanisms were discussed

  19. The influence of ion implantation on the surface properties of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, W.A.; Carter, G.

    1975-10-01

    The report falls into three sections: (1) annealing behaviour of high dose rare gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) implantations into silicon; (2) measurement of projected and lateral range parameters for low energy heavy ions (Ar, Cu, Kr, Cd, Xe, Cs, Dy, W, Au, Pb, Bi) in silicon by Rutherford backscattering; (3) surface chemistry of ion implanted solids (e.g. corrosion, catalysis, oxidation, synthesis of compounds in ion implanted layers). (U.K.)

  20. Polarography of cytochrome c in ammoniacal buffers containing cobalt ions. The effect of the protein conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, V

    1985-12-01

    Catalytic currents yielded by cytochrome c in ammoniacal buffers containing cobalt ions at a dropping mercury electrode (Brdicka's catalytic currents) were investigated by means of direct current, differential pulse, normal pulse (NP) and phase-selective alternating current polarography. It was found that Brdicka's catalytic current of cytochrome c, (the more negative part of Brdicka's double wave, wave B) is influenced by the presence of cytochrome c denaturants in the background solution. The wave B rose with the increasing concentrations of urea and sodium perchlorate, and increased in parallel with absorbance changes at 409 and 695 nm measured for identical cytochrome c solutions. The latter absorbance changes reflect unfolding of cytochrome c molecules in the bulk of solution by these denaturants. The results of NP polarography (a technique working with large potential excursion during the drop lifetime) indicate that in Brdicka's solution cytochrome c could extensively be unfolded due to its adsorption at the mercury electrode, polarized to potentials around that of zero charge.

  1. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  2. X-Ray K Absorption Edge Structures of Ligand Chlorine Ion in Some Cobalt Coordination Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashi, Masayoshi; Matsukawa, Tokuo

    1983-03-01

    The X-ray Cl K absorption spectra in [Co(NH3)6]Cl3, [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, trans-[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl and Cs2[CoCl4] are measured with a high-resolution vacuum two-crystal spectrometer. The spectra, except that of [Co(NH3)6]Cl3, show an extremely narrow absorption line at the absorption threshold. The result is interpreted on the basis of molecular orbital theory and it is proposed that the intensity of these narrow absorption lines depends on the chemical state between the cobalt and ligand chlorine ions. The narrow absorption line may well be attributed to transitions of the Cl 1s electron into the eg* antibonding orbitals having partially the 3p character of chlorine in [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 and trans-[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl. In Cs2[CoCl4] it may be ascribed to the Cl 1s-t2* transitions.

  3. Graphene-encapsulated cobalt sulfides nanocages with excellent anode performances for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxue; Li, Fenfen; Sun, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiao; Tang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Graphene wrapped CoS 2 nanocages are synthesized as anode materials. •Layer-by-layer assembled structures are beneficial for fast and stable Li storage. •Hollow features improve capacity, rate capability and cycling life. •The sample shows outstanding lithium storages, especially high-rate performance. -- Abstract: A layer-by-layer assembled composite of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) wrapped monodisperse cobalt sulfides (CoS 2 ) nanocages has been prepared via a solvothermal method. The flexible GNSs in the layered composite act as the effective matrix to encapsulate the monodisperse CoS 2 nanocages, buffer the volume changes and prevent the aggregation of the CoS 2 nanocages during electrochemical cycling. The loosely stacked GNSs, which are induced with the insertion of CoS 2 , are convenient for electrolyte wetting and serve as highway for the rapid electron and lithium transport. The monodisperse nanocages can supply additional space to tolerate the volume changes, shorten lithium diffusion path, and do not tend to aggregate. As a result, the specific sample can deliver a high capacity approaching 800 mA h g −1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g −1 and 697 mA h g −1 after 300 cycles at 500 mA g −1 , in addition to good capacity retention and excellent rate capability, making it a promising candidate as next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  4. Ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for wear resistance in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The implantation of electrically accelerated ions of chosen elements into the surface of material provides a method for improving surface properties such as wear resistance. High concentrations of nitrogen implanted into metals create obstacles to dislocation movement, and certain combinations of metallic and non-metallic species will also strengthen the surface. The process is best applied to situations involving mild abrasive wear and operating temperatures that are not too high. Some dramatic increases in life have been reported under such favourable conditions. A more recent development has been the combination of a thin coating with reactive ion bombardment designed to enhance adhesion by ion mixing at the interface and so provide hardness by the formation of finely dispersed nitrides, including cubic boron nitride. These coatings often possess vivid and decorative colours as an added benefit. Developments in the equipment for industrial ion implantation now offer more attractive costs per unit area and a potentially greater throughput of work. A versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments is now emerging, involving the use of intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (author)

  5. Characterization of a Porous Carbon Material Functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.; Rasul, Shahid; Roldan-Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    A nanoporous carbon (C) material, functionalized with Cobalt-Oxide/Cobalt (CoO/Co) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), was structurally and chemically characterized with transmission electron microcopy (TEM) while its electrochemical response

  6. Mass and energy deposition effects of implanted ions on solid sodium formate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiangqin E-mail: clshao@mail.ipp.ac.cn; Shao Chunlin; Yao Jianming; Yu Zengliang

    2000-07-01

    Solid sodium formate was implanted by low energy N{sup +}, H{sup +}, and Ar{sup +} ions. Measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), it was observed that new -CH{sub 2}-, -CH{sub 3}- groups and COO{sup -} radical ion were produced in the implanted sodium formate. Analyzing with the highly sensitive ninhydrin reaction, it was found that a new -NH{sub 2} functional group was formed upon N{sup +} ion implantation, and its yield increased along with implantation dose but decreased with the ion's energy.

  7. Design for a low temperature ion implantation and luminescence cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Kirkpatrick, C.G.; Myers, D.R.; Streetman, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Several simple design changes of a conventional liquid helium optical Dewar can significantly improve the cryostat's versatility for use in low temperature particle irradiation. A bellows assembly provides precise sample positioning and allows convenient access for electrical connections. A heat exchanger consisting of thin walled tubing with a 'goose neck' bend provides a simple, effective means of cooling the sample as well as excellent thermal isolation of the sample holder from the coolant reservoir during controlled anneals. The addition of a vane-type vacuum valve, optical windows, and a rotatable tailpiece facilitates the study of optical properties of materials following low temperature ion implantation. (author)

  8. Production of solid deuterium targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.; Szegedi, S.; Olah, L.; El-Megrab, A.M.; Molla, N.I.; Rahman, M.M.; Miah, R.U.; Habbani, F.; Shaddad, I.

    1997-01-01

    Solid metal, semiconductor and metallic glass samples were irradiated with deuteron atomic ions between 60 and 180 keV incident energies. Accumulation rates of deuterons in different targets were recorded by the detection of protons and neutrons via the 2 H(d,p) and 2 H(d,n) reactions. A simple analytical expression is given to describe the kinetics of the accumulation. The dependence of the reaction rate on the deuteron energy gives information on the concentration profile in addition to the neutron flux density spectra. A varying distortion of the implanted deuteron profiles by a change in the beam energy were also observed for different targets. (orig.)

  9. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  10. Titanium and aluminium ions implanted by plasma on polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, G.J.; Olayo, M.G.; Lopez, R.; Granda, E.; Munoz, A.; Valencia, R.; Morales, J.

    2007-01-01

    The ion implantation by plasma of titanium and aluminum on polyethylene thin films (PE) is presented. The results indicate that the polymers reacted firstly with the oxygen and/or nitrogen carrying gases, and later its received the metallic particles that formed thin films. The stainless steel and the titanium formed a single phase. The metallic layers grew in the interval of 1 to 2 nm/min, its are thin, but enough to change the hardness of the polymer that it is increased in more of 20 times. (Author)

  11. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Magnetic insulation of secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Wood, B.P.; Faehl, R.J.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    The uncontrolled loss of accelerated secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) can significantly reduce system efficiency and poses a potential x-ray hazard. This loss might be reduced by a magnetic field applied near the workpiece. The concept of magnetically-insulated PSII is proposed, in which secondary electrons are trapped to form a virtual cathode layer near the workpiece surface where the local electric field is essentially eliminated. Subsequent electrons that are emitted can then be reabsorbed by the workpiece. Estimates of anomalous electron transport from microinstabilities are made. Insight into the process is gained with multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

  13. Temperature Activated Diffusion of Radicals through Ion Implanted Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakelin, Edgar A.; Davies, Michael J.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a promising technique for immobilizing biomolecules on the surface of polymers. Radicals generated in a subsurface layer by PIII treatment diffuse throughout the substrate, forming covalent bonds to molecules when they reach the surface. Understanding...... to the surface. The model makes useful predictions for the lifetime over which the surface is sufficiently active to covalently immobilize biomolecules and it can be used to determine radical fluence during biomolecule incubation for a range of storage and incubation temperatures so facilitating selection...

  14. Simulation and visualization of ion-implantation in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Joan; Silverman, Amihai; Ierushalmi, Niv; Sorkin, Anastassia; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    We have explored aspects of ion implantation in diamonds with molecular dynamics and tightbinding atomistic simulations. Relevant experiments and their potential applications as well as our computer models and computational approaches are described. Our simulations have been designed to answer questions proposed by experimental researchers concerning optimal laboratory schedules for the preparation of samples with potential applications to diamond membranes and NV centers for quantum computers. Simulation and visualization of results enable us to peek inside samples where experimental techniques cannot tread. In order to provide the requisite Brazilian component a new connection between these models and bootstrap percolation is made

  15. Ion Implantation in III-V Compound Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    340 keV H + -0 Ga P  O UES-723-292 !:• (H o>ray *P-K X - rayO Ga-K X -ray iii! RBS * ..I -iO.. 0 10I to1. 01 • .0 -. I0 1 LI =i, O I 0 01 0.J 10...Identity by blo ," pume) Ion Implantation, GaAs, Hall effect, electrical resistivity, Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), channeling, Proton induced x -ray...Mebility (jH) upon Aiinealing Temperature (TA) for 1 X 101 /cm• Dose Samples of GaAs:Mg with Three Different Capping Methods 33 p 14 Dependence of Surface

  16. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  17. Hydroxyapatite coating on cobalt alloys using electrophoretic deposition method for bone implant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatun; M, Shovita; I, Chintya K.; H, Dyah; W, Dwi

    2017-05-01

    Damage on bone due to osteoporosis and cancer triggered high demand for bone implant prosthesis which is a permanent implant. Thus, a prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) is required because it is osteoconductive that can trigger the growth of osteoblast cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of HA suspension in terms of the surface morphology, coating thickness, adhesion strength and corrosion rate resulting in the HA coating with the best characteristics for bone implant. Coating using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method with concentrations of 0.02M, 0.04M, 0.06M, 0.08M, and 0.1M was performed on the voltage and time of 120V and 30 minutes respectively. The process was followed by sintering at the temperature of 900 °C for 10 minutes. The results showed that the concentration of HA suspension influences the thickness and the adhesion of layer of HA. The higher the concentration of HA-ethanol suspension the thicker the layer of HA, but its coating adhesion strength values became lower. The concentration of HA suspension of 0.04 M is the best concentration, with characteristics that meet the standards of the bone implant prosthesis. The characteristics are HA coating thickness of 199.93 ± 4.85 μm, the corrosion rate of 0.0018 mmpy and adhesion strength of 4.175 ± 0.716 MPa.

  18. Differences in proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production by bone cells seeded on titanium-nitride and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hove, R.P.; Nolte, P.A.; Semeins, C.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium-nitride coating is used to improve cobalt-chromium-molybdenum implant survival in total knee arthroplasty, but its effect on osteoconduction is unknown. Chromium and cobalt ions negatively affect the growth and metabolism of cultured osteoblasts while enhancing osteoclastogenic cytokine

  19. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu, Hongqin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Lan, Ming-Ying [Division of Rhinology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  20. Amorphization and recrystallization in MeV ion implanted InP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, F.; Nieh, C.W.; Jamieson, D.N.; Vreeland, T. Jr.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive study of MeV- 15 N-ion-implanted InP by a variety of analytical techniques has revealed the physical processes involved in MeV ion implantation into III-V compound semiconductors as well as the influence of post-implantation annealing. It provides a coherent picture of implant distribution, structural transition, crystalline damage, and lattice strain in InP crystals induced by ion implantation and thermal annealing. The experimental results from the different measurements are summarized in this report. Mechanisms of amorphization by implantation and recrystallization through annealing in MeV-ion-implanted InP are proposed and discussed in light of the results obtained

  1. Determination of migration of ion-implanted helium in silica by proton backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szakacs, G.; Szilagyi, E.; Paszti, F.; Kotai, E.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the processes caused by ion implantation of light ions in dielectric materials such as silica is important for developing the diagnostic systems used in fusion and fission environments. Recently, it has been shown that ion-implanted helium is able to escape from SiO 2 films. To study this process in details, helium was implanted into the central part of a buried SiO 2 island up to a fluence of 4 x 10 17 He/cm 2 . The implanted helium could be detected in the SiO 2 island, if the oxide was insulated properly from the vacuum. The shape of the helium depth distributions was far from SRIM simulation because helium distributed in the whole 1 μm thick oxide layer. After the ion implantation, helium was observed only on the implanted spot. After nine months the implanted helium filled out the whole oxide island as it was expected from the high diffusivity

  2. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Tian, X. B.; Chu, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C2H2) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C2H2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel.

  3. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Z.M.; Tian, X.B.; Chu, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C 2 H 2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel

  4. Surface potential measurement of negative-ion-implanted insulators by analysing secondary electron energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki.

    1994-01-01

    The negative ion implantation method we have proposed is a noble technique which can reduce surface charging of isolated electrodes by a large margin. In this paper, the way to specify the surface potential of negative-ion-implanted insulators by the secondary electron energy analysis is described. The secondary electron energy distribution is obtained by a retarding field type energy analyzer. The result shows that the surface potential of fused quartz by negative-ion implantation (C - with the energy of 10 keV to 40 keV) is negatively charged by only several volts. This surface potential is extremely low compared with that by positive-ion implantation. Therefore, the negative-ion implantation is a very effective method for charge-up free implantation without charge compensation. (author)

  5. Implantation of 111In in NTDSi by heavy ion recoil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakare, S.V.; Tomar, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil implantation technique has been used to implant 111 In in n-type silicon using medium energy heavy ion accelerator Pelletron, at TIFR, Colaba, Mumbai. The nuclear reaction used for this purpose was 109 Ag( 7 Li,p4n) 111 In. The beam energy was optimised to be 50 MeV for maximum concentration of the implanted probe atoms. The gamma-ray spectrum of the implanted sample after 24 hours was found to contain only 171 and 245 keV gamma rays of 111 In. The penetration depth of ion is increased to 1.6 μm by heavy ion recoil implantation technique as compared to 0.16 μm with the conventional ion implantation technique. (author)

  6. Effect of ion implantation on the corrosion behavior of lead and a lead-antimony alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.T.; Kong, F.P.; Muller, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ion implantation of different metals in Pb and Pb-4% Sb has been found to improve the open-circuit corrosion resistance of the two metals in 5M H 2 SO 4 . Titanium ions were implanted under different conditions of ion dose and ion energy. Optimum implantation conditions resulted in an up to 72-fold reduction of corrosion currents. The implantation of V, Cr, Ni, and W has been investigated for one implantation condition and has also resulted in decreased corrosion currents. The corrosion behavior was characterized by the current response to small anodic potential steps. Surface analysis and depth profiles have shown the importance of the spatial distribution of the implanted ions for their effects on the anodic and cathodic parts of the corrosion reactions

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a novel chain coordination polymer constructed by tetrafunctional phosphonate anions and cobalt ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Lei; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A novel cobalt phosphonate, [Co(HL)(H 2 O) 3 ] n (1) (L=N(CH 2 PO 3 H) 3 3− ) has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 °C and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. Complex 1 features a 1D chain structure with double-channel built from CoO 6 octahedra bridged together by the phosphonate groups. Each cobalt ion is octahedrally coordinated by three phosphonate oxygen atoms and three water molecules. The coordinated water molecules can form the hydrogen bonds with the phosphonate oxygen atoms to link the 1D chains, building a 2D layered structure, further resulting in a 3D network. The luminescence spectrum indicates an emission maximum at 435 nm. The magnetic susceptibility curve exhibits a dominant antiferromagnetic behavior with a weakly ferromagnetic component at low temperatures. - Graphical abstract: The connectivity between cobalt ions and the ligands results in a chain structure with a 1D double-channel structure, which is constructed by A-type subrings and B-type subrings. - Highlights: • The tetrafunctional phosphonate ligand was used as the ligand. • A novel chain structure can be formed by A-type rings and B-type rings. • Two types of rings can form a 1D double-channel structure, along the c-axis

  8. Ion implantation enhanced metal-Si-metal photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. K.; Scott, K. A. M.; Brueck, S. R. J.; Zolper, J. C.; Myers, D. R.

    1994-05-01

    The quantum efficiency and frequency response of simple Ni-Si-Ni metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors at long wavelengths are significantly enhanced with a simple, ion-implantation step to create a highly absorbing region approx. 1 micron below the Si surface. The internal quantum efficiency is improved by a factor of approx. 3 at 860 nm (to 64%) and a full factor of ten at 1.06 microns (to 23%) as compared with otherwise identical unimplanted devices. Dark currents are only slightly affected by the implantation process and are as low as 630 pA for a 4.5-micron gap device at 10-V bias. Dramatic improvement in the impulse response is observed, 100 ps vs. 600 ps, also at 10-V bias and 4.5-micron gap, due to the elimination of carrier diffusion tails in the implanted devices. Due to its planar structure, this device is fully VLSI compatible. Potential applications include optical interconnections for local area networks and multi-chip modules.

  9. Modification of magnetic properties of polyethyleneterephthalate by iron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashevich, M.G.; Batlle, X.; Labarta, A.; Popok, V.N.; Zhikharev, V.A.; Khaibullin, R.I.; Odzhaev, V.B.

    2007-01-01

    Fe + ions (40 keV) were implanted into polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with fluences of (0.25-1.5) x 10 17 cm -2 . Magnetic properties of the synthesised Fe:PET composites were studied using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technique in temperature range of 2-300 K. For range of fluences (0.5-0.75) x 10 17 cm -2 the samples reveal superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. At fluences above 0.75 x 10 17 cm -2 the strong increase of magnetisation and transition to ferromagnetic properties are registered. Analysis of the magnetic hysteresis loops suggests an easy plane magnetic anisotropy similar to that found for thin magnetic films. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) temperature measurements of magnetisation are found to be in agreement with earlier observed formation of Fe nanoparticles (NPs) in the implanted layers. The growth and agglomeration of the NPs forming the quasi-continuous labyrinth-like structure in the polymer film at the highest implantation fluence of 1.5 x 10 17 cm -2 is an origin for the transition to the ferromagnetic properties

  10. Implantation of cobalt in SnO2 thin films studied by TDPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Schell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC results of Co-doped SnO2 thin films. Making use of stable Co and radioactive 111In implanted at the Bonn Radioisotope Separator with energies of 80 keV and 160 keV, respectively, it was possible to study the dopant incorporation and its lattice location during annealing. The hyperfine parameters have been probed as a function of temperature in vacuum. Two quadrupole interactions were observed. At high temperatures the dominant fraction for the probe nuclei can be assigned to the Cd-incorporation at the cation substitutional site in a highly disordered structure, obtained after implantation, to high crystallinity for the measurements at 873 K and 923 K. The similarity in TDPAC spectra obtained in undoped SnO gives indirect evidence that In and Co diffuse to different depths during the annealing process. Other interpretations will be discussed.

  11. Selection of RIB targets using ion implantation at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Dellwo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of RIBs, selection of the most appropriate target material is perhaps the most difficult because of the requisite fast and selective thermal release of minute amounts of the short-lived product atoms from the ISOL target in the presence of bulk amounts of target material. Experimental studies are under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which are designed to measure the time evolution of implanted elements diffused from refractory target materials which are candidates for forming radioactive ion beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The diffusion coefficients are derived by comparing experimental data with numerical solutions to a one-dimensional form of Fick's second law for ion implanted distributions. In this report, we describe the experimental arrangement, experimental procedures, and provide time release data and diffusion coefficients for releasing ion implanted 37 Cl from Zr 5 Si 3 and 75 As, 79 Br, and 78 Se from Zr 5 Ge 3 and estimates of the diffusion coefficients for 35 Cl, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 69 Ga and 71 Ga diffused from BN; 35 Cl, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 69 Ga, 75 As, and 78 Se diffused from C; 35 Cl, 68 Cu, 69 Ga, 75 As, and 78 Se diffused from Ta

  12. Characterization and control of wafer charging effects during high-current ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current, M.I.; Lukaszek, W.; Dixon, W.; Vella, M.C.; Messick, C.; Shideler, J.; Reno, S.

    1994-02-01

    EEPROM-based sense and memory devices provide direct measures of the charge flow and potentials occurring on the surface of wafers during ion beam processing. Sensor design and applications for high current ion implantation are discussed

  13. Trapping behaviour of deuterium ions implanted into tungsten simultaneously with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Suzuki, Sachiko; Wang, Wanjing; Kurata, Rie; Kida, Katsuya; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji; Ashikawa, Naoko; Sagara, Akio; Yoshida, Naoaki

    2009-01-01

    The trapping behaviour of deuterium ions implanted into tungsten simultaneously with carbon ions was investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The D 2 TDS spectrum consisted of three desorption stages, namely desorption of deuterium trapped by intrinsic defects, ion-induced defects and carbon with the formation of the C-D bond. Although the deuterium retention trapped by intrinsic defects was almost constant, that by ion-induced defects increased as the ion fluence increased. The retention of deuterium with the formation of the C-D bond was saturated at an ion fluence of 0.5x10 22 D + m -2 , where the major process was changed from the sputtering of tungsten with the formation of a W-C mixture to the formation of a C-C layer, and deuterium retention as the C-D bond decreased. It was concluded that the C-C layer would enhance the chemical sputtering of carbon with deuterium with the formation of CD x and the chemical state of carbon would control the deuterium retention in tungsten under C + -D 2 + implantation.

  14. The Reduction of TED in Ion Implanted Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amitabh

    2008-01-01

    The leading challenge in the continued scaling of junctions made by ion implantation and annealing is the control of the undesired transient enhanced diffusion (TED) effect. Spike annealing has been used as a means to reduce this effect and has proven successful in previous nodes. The peak temperature in this process is typically 1050 deg. C and the time spent within 50 deg. C of the peak is of the order of 1.5 seconds. As technology advances along the future scaling roadmap, further reduction or elimination of the enhanced diffusion effect is necessary. We have shown that raising the peak temperature to 1175 deg. C or more and reduction of the anneal time at peak temperature to less than a millisecond is effective in eliminating enhanced diffusion. We show that it is possible to employ a sequence of millisecond anneal followed by spike anneal to obtain profiles that do not exhibit gradient degradation at the junction and have junction depth and sheet resistance appropriate to the needs of future technology nodes. We have implemented millisecond annealing using a carbon dioxide laser to support high-volume manufacturing of 65 nm microprocessors and system-on-chip products. We further show how the use of molecular ion implantation to produce amorphousness followed by laser annealing to produce solid phase epitaxial regrowth results in junctions that meet the shallow depth and abruptness requirements of the 32 nm node.

  15. Industrial plasma immersion ion implanter and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Hong Hui; Huo Yan Feng; Wang Ke; Mu Li Lan; Feng Tie Min; Zhao Jun; Yan Bing; Geng Man

    2002-01-01

    A new generation industrial plasma immersion ion implanter was developed recently in South-western Institute of Physics and some experimental results are reported. The vacuum chamber with 900 mm in diameter and 1050 mm in height stands vertically. The pumping system includes turbo -pump and mechanical pump and it can be automatically controlled by PLC. The background pressure is less than 4 x 10 sup - sup 4 Pa. The plasma in the chamber can be generated by hot-filament discharge and three high-efficiency magnetic filter metal plasma sources, so that the plasma immersion ion implantation and enhanced deposition can be done. The maximum pulse voltage output is 80 kV, maximum pulse current is 60 A, repetition frequency is 50-500 Hz, and the pulse rise time is less than 2 mu s. The power modulator can operate in the pulse bunching mode if necessary. In general, the plasma density is 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 3 , the film deposition rate is 0.1-0.5 nm/s

  16. Dynamic sheath studies in plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schever, J.T.; Shamim, M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a non-line-of-sight method for materials processing in which a target is immersed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative voltage (∼ 50 kV). A model of the dynamic sheath which forms under these conditions has been developed and applied to planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries. This model assumes that the transient sheath obeys the Child-Langmuir law for space charge limited emission at each instant during the propagation. Ions uncovered by the propagating sheath edge supply the space charge limited current. This yields an equation relating sheath edge velocity to position, which can be integrated to obtain the sheath edge position as a function of time. The same procedure used in cylindrical and spherical geometry results in a similar equation which must be integrated numerically. Comparison of results of experimental measurements, our model and simulation will be presented for the dynamic sheath edge position and target current waveform. Measurements of implanted dose uniformity of wedge shaped targets are also presented

  17. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  18. Behavior of ion-implanted cesium in silicon dioxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbein, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Charged impurities in silicon dioxide can be used to controllably shift the flatband voltage of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices independently of the substrate doping, the gate oxide thickness and the gate-electrode work function. Cesium is particularly well suited for this purpose because it is immobile in SiO 2 at normal device operating temperatures, and because it can be controllably introduced into oxide films by ion implantation. Cesium is positively charged in silicon dioxide, resulting in a negative flatband voltage shift. Possible applications for cesium technology include solar cells, devices operated at liquid nitrogen temperature, and power devices. The goal of this work has been to characterize as many aspects of cesium behavior in silicon dioxide as are required for practical applications. Accordingly, cesium-ion implantation, cesium diffusion, and cesium electrical activation in SiO 2 were studied over a broad range of processing conditions. The electrical properties of cesium-containing oxides, including current-voltage characteristics, interface trap density, and inversion-layer carrier mobility were examined, and several potential applications for cesium technology have been experimentally demonstrated

  19. The Reduction of TED in Ion Implanted Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amitabh

    2008-11-01

    The leading challenge in the continued scaling of junctions made by ion implantation and annealing is the control of the undesired transient enhanced diffusion (TED) effect. Spike annealing has been used as a means to reduce this effect and has proven successful in previous nodes. The peak temperature in this process is typically 1050 °C and the time spent within 50 °C of the peak is of the order of 1.5 seconds. As technology advances along the future scaling roadmap, further reduction or elimination of the enhanced diffusion effect is necessary. We have shown that raising the peak temperature to 1175 °C or more and reduction of the anneal time at peak temperature to less than a millisecond is effective in eliminating enhanced diffusion. We show that it is possible to employ a sequence of millisecond anneal followed by spike anneal to obtain profiles that do not exhibit gradient degradation at the junction and have junction depth and sheet resistance appropriate to the needs of future technology nodes. We have implemented millisecond annealing using a carbon dioxide laser to support high-volume manufacturing of 65 nm microprocessors and system-on-chip products. We further show how the use of molecular ion implantation to produce amorphousness followed by laser annealing to produce solid phase epitaxial regrowth results in junctions that meet the shallow depth and abruptness requirements of the 32 nm node.

  20. Metal Ion Concentrations in Body Fluids after Implantation of Hip Replacements with Metal-on-Metal Bearing – Systematic Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip

  1. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  2. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N; Evans, P J; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1997-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Platelet adhesion and plasma protein adsorption control of collagen surfaces by He+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurotobi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Suzuki, H.; Iwaki, M.

    2003-01-01

    He + ion implanted collagen-coated tubes with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 were exhibited antithrombogenicity. To investigate the mechanisms of antithrombogenicity of these samples, plasma protein adsorption assay and platelet adhesion experiments were performed. The adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) was minimum on the He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . Platelet adhesion (using platelet rich plasma) was inhibited on the He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 and was accelerated on the untreated collagen and ion implanted collagen with fluences of 1 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 15 and 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Platelet activation with washed platelets was observed on untreated collagen and He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 and was inhibited with fluences of 1 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 15 and 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Generally, platelets can react with a specific ligand inside the collagen (GFOGER sequence). The results of platelets adhesion experiments using washed platelets indicated that there were no ligands such as GFOGER on the He + ion implanted collagen over a fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . On the 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 implanted collagen, no platelet activation was observed due to the influence of plasma proteins. >From the above, it is concluded that the decrease of adsorbed Fg and vWf caused the antithrombogenicity of He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 and that plasma protein adsorption took an important role repairing the graft surface

  5. A simple synthetic route of N-doped mesoporous carbon derived from casein extracted with cobalt ions for high rate performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Shaopei; Wang, Yanhui; Tian, Pengfei; Zhou, Shuyu; Cai, Haixia; Gao, Hongwei; Zang, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •NMC is prepared by pyrolysis of cobalt-containing casein. •Cobalt-containing casein is extracted from the pure milk by cobalt ions. •The cobalt element increases the specific surface area and the N doping amount. •NMC exhibits high specific capacitance, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NMC) was synthesized via pyrolysis of cobalt-containing casein obtained by extraction from pure milk with the auxiliary of cobalt ions. The cobalt element in casein promoted specific surface area and N element doping amount of casein-derived porous carbon. The N-doped porous carbon obtained by carbonization at 800 °C (NPC-800) possessed a specific surface area of ∼886.7 m 2 g −1 , and the mesoporous size was centered at 2.7 and 7 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the nitrogen content of NPC-800 was 3.29 at%. The NPC-800 was explored as a symmetric supercapacitor, which exhibited specific capacity of 380 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 , 218 F g −1 at a current density of 20 A g −1 , and high capacitance retention of 91.3% after charging/discharging 5,000 cycles.

  6. Development of a simple, low cost, indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion implanters, accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K.; Balaji, S.; Saravanan, K.; Navas, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2018-02-01

    We developed a simple, low cost user-friendly automated indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion irradiation and analysis experiments requiring indirect beam fluence measurements unperturbed by sample conditions like low temperature, high temperature, sample biasing as well as in regular ion implantation experiments in the ion implanters and electrostatic accelerators with continuous beam. The system, which uses simple, low cost, off-the-shelf components/systems and two distinct layers of in-house built softwarenot only eliminates the need for costly data acquisition systems but also overcomes difficulties in using properietry software. The hardware of the system is centered around a personal computer, a PIC16F887 based embedded system, a Faraday cup drive cum monitor circuit, a pair of Faraday Cups and a beam current integrator and the in-house developed software include C based microcontroller firmware and LABVIEW based virtual instrument automation software. The automatic fluence measurement involves two important phases, a current sampling phase lasting over 20-30 seconds during which the ion beam current is continuously measured by intercepting the ion beam and the averaged beam current value is computed. A subsequent charge computation phase lasting 700-900 seconds is executed making the ion beam to irradiate the samples and the incremental fluence received by the sampleis estimated usingthe latest averaged beam current value from the ion beam current sampling phase. The cycle of current sampling-charge computation is repeated till the required fluence is reached. Besides simplicity and cost-effectiveness, other important advantages of the developed system include easy reconfiguration of the system to suit customisation of experiments, scalability, easy debug and maintenance of the hardware/software, ability to work as a standalone system. The system was tested with different set of samples and ion fluences and the results were verified using

  7. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors electrical and physiochemical characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance in the future as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer afterhigh temperature annealing.Electrical and Physicochemical Characterization focuses on the physics of the annealing kine

  8. Low preveance ion source bridges low and high intensities in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, F.D.; Mayhall, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Low Perveance Ion Source developed by Accelerators, Inc. offers the Semiconductor Industry the advantage of processing medium to high intensity implants on a system which will also implant 200 to 300 wafers an hour at MOS doses. Stable source beam currents can be varied over three orders of magnitude by variation of a single source parameter. This source uses a new computer designed Low Perveance extraction optics which is completely new to the Ion Implantation Industry. Test data and calculations are shown which define the versatility of this system. Scanned currents from 1 microamp to 400 microamps allow for a variety of production processing. Beam characteristics feature low energy spread (less than 10 eV) and low divergence (less than 3 degrees). Beam control optics consist of a double focusing analyzing magnet and two triplet quadrupoles. The source may be fitted with an oven for feeding of solid materials and analyzed beam currents in the milliamp range for development purposes. The batch processing, hybrid scanning end station is most applicable for high current beams as well as high volume batch processings of MOS Implants. Results of development work toward increased currents using both solid and gas feed material with the Low Perveance source are presented. System improvements including Accel-Decel and a third extraction element are discussed

  9. Structural Changes in Polymer Films by Fast Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, M. A.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Muntele, C.; Muntele, I.; De Almeida, A.; Ila, D.

    2006-11-01

    In applications from food wrapping to solar sails, polymers films can be subjected to intense charged panicle bombardment and implantation. ETFE (ethylenetetrafluoroethylene) with high impact resistance is used for pumps, valves, tie wraps, and electrical components. PFA (tetrafluoroethylene-per-fluoromethoxyethylene) and FEP (tetrafluoroethylene-hexa-fluoropropylene) are sufficiently biocompatible to be used as transcutaneous implants since they resist damage from the ionizing space radiation, they can be used in aerospace engineering applications. PVDC (polyvinyllidene-chloride) is used for food packaging, and combined with others plastics, improves the oxygen barrier responsible for the food preservation. Fluoropolymers are also known for their radiation dosimetry applications, dependent on the type and energy of the radiation, as well as of the beam intensity. In this work ETFE, PFA, FEP and PVDC were irradiated with ions of keV and MeV energies at several fluences and were analyzed through techniques as RGA, OAP, FTIR, ATR and Raman spectrophotometry. CF3 is the main specie emitted from PFA and FEP when irradiated with MeV protons. H and HF are released from ETFE due to the broken C-F and C-H bonds when the polymer is irradiated with keV Nitrogen ions and protons. At high fluence, especially for keV Si and N, damage due to carbonization is observed with the formation of hydroperoxide and polymer dehydroflorination. The main broken bonds in PVDC are C-O and C-Cl, with the release of Cl and the formation of double carbon bonds. The ion fluence that causes damage, which could compromise fluoropolymer film applications, has been determined.

  10. Compare of N-ion implantation effects on Bacillus coagulans by use of two kinds of ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Long; Sun Yang; Xie Fei; Liu Yang; An Xiao

    2007-01-01

    As a novel method of mutation breeding, the low energy ion beam implantation has been widely used. The biological effects of Bacillus coagulans implanted by Kaufman source and dual-Panning source have been compared. The results showed that with the same extraction voltage, the genetic stability of the third generation strain implanted by Kaufman source was 30% higher than that implanted by dual-Panning source, while the general mutation rate of the former was 2% lower than the latter. The appropriate ion source should be chosen to meet the requirement of mutation. (authors)

  11. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation improved

  12. Magnesium aluminate planar waveguides fabricated by C-ion implantation with different energies and fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Qiao, Mei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xuelinwang@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-11-01

    We report on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} planar waveguides produced using different energies and fluences of C-ion implantation at room temperature. Based on the prism coupling method and end-face coupling measurements, light could propagate in the C-ion-implanted samples. The Raman spectra results indicate that the MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lattice was damaged during the multi-energy C implantation process, whereas the absorption spectra were hardly affected by the C-ion implantation in the visible and infrared bands.

  13. Measurement of electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment in plasma source ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, M. M.; Scheuer, J. T.; Fetherston, R. P.; Conrad, J. R.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to measure electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment during plasma source ion implantation. Spherical targets of copper, stainless steel, graphite, titanium alloy, and aluminum alloy were biased negatively to 20, 30, and 40 kV in argon and nitrogen plasmas. A Langmuir probe was used to detect the propagating sheath edge and a Rogowski transformer was used to measure the current to the target. The measurements of electron emission coefficients compare well with those measured under similar conditions.

  14. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, M.P.; Kurzina, I.A.; Bozhko, I.A.; Kozlov, E.V.; Fortuna, S.V.; Sivin, D.O.; Stepanov, I.B.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·10 18 -2.9·10 18 ion/cm -2 ). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (Ni

  15. The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implanter for surface modification of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tang Bao Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Gan Kong Yin; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Huang Nian Ning; Sun Hong

    2002-01-01

    The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) equipment has been successfully used for research and development of surface modification of biomedical materials, metals and their alloys in the Southwest Jiaotong University. The implanter equipped with intense current, pulsed cathodic arc metal plasma sources which have both strong coating function and gas and metal ion implantation function. Its pulse high voltage power supply can provide big output current. It can acquire very good implantation dose uniformity. The equipment can both perform ion implantation and combine ion implantation with sputtering deposition and coating to form many kinds of synthetic surface modification techniques. The main design principles, features of important components and achievement of research works in recent time have been described

  16. Fabrication of micromechanical structures on substrates selectively etched using a micropatterned ion-implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shizuka; Nakagawa, Sachiko; Ishikawa, Haruo; Ogiso, Hisato

    2001-01-01

    An advanced micromachining technique using ion implantation to modify materials was studied. Gold ion implantation into silicon decreased the etching rate when the silicon was etched in potassium hydroxide solution after the ion implantation; the implanted region remained, thus forming the microstructure. Observation of the cross-section of the resulting etched structure by transmission electron microscopy showed that the structure was made only from the ion-implanted region, and that gold was precipitated on the surface. To clarify the mechanism involved in the decrease in the etching rate, we varied the etching conditions. Our results show that precipitation of implanted gold on the surface decreased the etching rate, because solubility of gold is lower

  17. Effects on cuytoskeleton system in pollen tube of pinus thunbergii induced by ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunce; Liang Qiuxia; Li Guopin

    2008-01-01

    The damage of the cytoskeleton system in the pollen and the pollen tube of Pinus thunbergii induced by ion beam implantation were researched. The results showed that the disorganization of the micro-tubules in the pollen tube was produced by N + implantation. The abnormal states of the pollen tube in morphology were very correlative with the abnormality of the cytoskeleton system. N + implantation was responsible for morphological abnormalities in the pollen tubes. There was a distinct correlation between the damage effects and the ion implantation dose. The add of dose caused more obvious damage effects. Furthermore, the state of the cytoskeleton system in the pollen tube was influenced by the ion implantation. The impact grade depended also on the ion implantation dose. (authors)

  18. Combined transmission electron microscope and ion channeling study of metastable metal alloys formed by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullis, A.G.; Borders, J.A.; Hirvonen, J.K.; Poate, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recently, ion implantation has been used to produce metastable alloy layers with a range of structures from crystalline substitutional solid solutions to amorphous. The technique offers the possibility of producing metastable metal layers with unique physical properties. Its application in the formation of alloys exhibiting different although complementary types of metastability is described. The metal combinations chosen (Ag-Cu and Ta-Cu) show little mutual solubility under equilibrium conditions

  19. Multi-dimensional microanalysis of masklessly implanted atoms using focused heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki; Iiorino, Yuji; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kiuchi, Masato; Fujii, Kanenaga; Satou, Mamoru

    1992-01-01

    Multi-dimensional structure fabricated by maskless MeV gold implantation in silicon wafer was analyzed by 3 MeV carbon ion microprobe using a microbeam line developed at GIRIO. The minimum line width of the implanted region was estimated to be about 5 μm. The advantages of heavy ions for microanalysis were demonstrated. (author)

  20. Characterization of ion-implanted aluminum and iron by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodkin, J.S.; Franzen, W.; Culbertson, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The change in the optical constants of aluminum alloy and iron samples caused by implantation with nitrogen and chromium ions has been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The objective is to develop a method for simple, non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted metals. 5 refs., 6 figs

  1. Single-Ion Implantation for the Development of Si-Based MOSFET Devices with Quantum Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. McCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in single-ion implantation is driven in part by research into development of solid-state devices that exhibit quantum behaviour in their electronic or optical characteristics. Here, we provide an overview of international research work on single ion implantation and single ion detection for development of electronic devices for quantum computing. The scope of international research into single ion implantation is presented in the context of our own research in the Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology in Australia. Various single ion detection schemes are presented, and limitations on dopant placement accuracy due to ion straggling are discussed together with pathways for scale-up to multiple quantum devices on the one chip. Possible future directions for ion implantation in quantum computing and communications are also discussed.

  2. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  3. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J.S.; Katardiev, I.V.; Faunce, C.A.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm -2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm -2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C 3 N 4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C 3 N 4 matrix was predominantly sp 2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  4. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  5. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada, Olga M., E-mail: O.M.PosadaEstefan@leeds.ac.uk [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Gilmour, Denise [Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Tate, Rothwelle J., E-mail: r.j.tate@strath.ac.uk [Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Grant, M. Helen [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  6. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb

  7. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikolian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests, ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model, state of charge (SoC estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT and world harmonized light vehicle profiles have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL and aged (95%, 90% state of health ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro, polarization resistance (Rp, activation resistance (Rp2 and time constants (τ is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C. The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed.

  8. Structural investigations of amorphised iron and nickel by high-fluence metalloid ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Otto, G.; Hohmuth, K.; Heera, V.

    1987-01-01

    Boron, phosphorus and arsenic ions have been implanted into evaporated iron and nickel thin films at room temperature, and the implantation-induced microstructure has been investigated by high-voltage electron microscopy and transmission high energy electron diffraction. The metal films were implanted with ions to a constant dose of 1 x 10 17 and 5 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 respectively at energy of 50 keV. An amorphous layer was produced by boron and phosphorus ion implantation. Information on the atomic structure of the amorphous layers was obtained from the elastically diffracted electron intensity. On the basis of the correct scattering curves, the total interference function and the pair correlation function were determined. Finally, the atomic arrangement of the implantation-induced amorphous layers is discussed and structure produced by ion irradiation is compared with amorphous structures formed with other techniques. (author)

  9. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, L.; Girault, P.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.L.; Dinhut, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 16 ions/cm 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced

  10. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, L; Grosseau-Poussard, J L; Dinhut, J F

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced.

  11. A study on mutagenic effects of antibiotic-producers by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Liqing; Zhang Yinfen; Chen Ruyi; Zhou Ruiying; Zhang Peiling; Ying Hengfeng; Yang Guorong; Yang Guifang

    1995-01-01

    Mutagenic effects of Streptomyces ribosidificus, Streptomyces kanamyceticus and the phage-resistant culture of Streptomyces kanamyceticus induced by N + and C + ion implantation with different doses have been investigated. The experimental results show that the death rates of antibiotic-producers increase with the increase of ion implantation dose, and the form mutation of the antibiotic-producers is rather obvious. After N + ion implantation, the titer units increase by 10%-25%, 5.2%-12.1% and 2.1%-12.75% for the above three strains respectively; while after C + ion implantation the titer units increase by 10%-16.9%, 1.05%-3.08% and 5%-20% respectively. The selected strains of Micromonospora echimospoora and Streptomyces kanamyceticus after N + ion implantation have been used in the factory. The increase of production is 20% and 12.5% respectively and marked economic benefits are obtained

  12. Electrical conduction in 100 keV Kr+ ion implanted poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P. K.; Kumar, V.; Gupta, Renu; Mahendia, S.; Anita, Kumar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples have been implanted to 100 keV Kr+ ions at the fluences 1×1015-- 1×1016 cm-2. From I-V characteristics, the conduction mechanism was found to be shifted from ohmic to space charge limited conduction (SCLC) after implantation. The surface conductivity of these implanted samples was found to increase with increasing implantation dose. The structural alterations in the Raman spectra of implanted PET samples indicate that such an increase in the conductivity may be attributed to the formation of conjugated double bonded carbonaceous structure in the implanted layer of PET.

  13. Anticorrosion ion implantation of fragments of zirconium fuel can specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Osipov, V.V.; Volkov, N.V.; Khernov, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Aimed at the study of specific features of oxide film formation in the initial stage of Eh110 and Eh635 alloy fuel can oxidation the modification of tubular specimen surfaces is performed using an ion mixing technique, and the structure of oxide films produced in a steam-water environment is investigated. Using the method of vacuum vapor deposition the outer surface of specimens is coated with alloying element films irradiated by a polyenergetic Ar + ion beam with a 10 keV mean energy up to radiation doses of (7-10) x 10 17 ion/cm 2 . Monatomic (Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Mo, Sn) or diatomic (Al-Fe, Al-Mo, Al-Sn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Mo, Fe-Sn, Cr-Mo, Cr-Sn) implantation into a zirconium cladding occurs under irradiation effect. The positive influence of combined intrusion of Al and other elements is revealed. The presence of Al atoms enhances the oxide film structure. The least ZeO 2 film thickness is observed when alloying with molybdenum, Al-Fe, Al-Mo and Al-Sn [ru

  14. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  15. Boron lattice location in room temperature ion implanted Si crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, A.M.; Romano, L.; Mirabella, S.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The B lattice location in presence of a Si-self-interstitial (I Si ) supersaturation, controlled by energetic proton bombardment, has been studied by means of ion channelling and massive Monte Carlo simulations. B-doped layers of Si crystals with a B concentration of 1 x 10 2 B/cm 3 were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Point defect engineering techniques, with light energetic ion implants, have been applied to generate an I Si uniform injection in the electrically active layer. The displacement of B atoms out of substitutional lattice sites was induced by 650 keV proton irradiations at room temperature (R.T.) and the resultant defect configuration was investigated by ion channelling and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques. Angular scans were measured both through and axes along the (1 0 0) plane using the 11 B(p,α) 8 Be nuclear reaction at 650 keV proton energy. Monte Carlo simulated angular scans were calculated considering a variety of theoretical defect configurations, supported by literature, and compared with experimental data. Our experimental scans can be fitted by a linear combination of small (0.3 A) and large B displacements (1.25 A) along the direction, compatible with the B-dumbbell oriented along as proposed by ab initio calculations

  16. Pure high dose metal ion implantation using the plasma immersion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Tang, B.Y.; Zeng, Z.M.; Kwok, T.K.; Chu, P.K.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    High energy implantation of metal ions can be carried out using conventional ion implantation with a mass-selected ion beam in scanned-spot mode by employing a broad-beam approach such as with a vacuum arc ion source, or by utilizing plasma immersion ion implantation with a metal plasma. For many high dose applications, the use of plasma immersion techniques offers a high-rate process, but the formation of a surface film along with the subsurface implanted layer is sometimes a severe or even fatal detriment. We describe here an operating mode of the metal plasma immersion approach by which pure implantation can be obtained. We have demonstrated the technique by carrying out Ti and Ta implantations at energies of about 80 and 120 keV for Ti and Ta, respectively, and doses on the order of 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 . Our experiments show that virtually pure implantation without simultaneous surface deposition can be accomplished. Using proper synchronization of the metal arc and sample voltage pulse, the applied dose that deposits as a film versus the part that is energetically implanted (the deposition-to-implantation ratio) can be precisely controlled.copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries; Recuperacao de cobalto e de litio de baterias ion-litio usadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busnardo, Natalia Giovanini; Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica]. E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    The 'active mass' (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 deg C) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the 'active mass' was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 deg C) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of sodium hydroxide. Lithium was partially recovered as lithium fluoride. Co-processing of other battery components (aluminum and copper foils) affected negatively the behavior of the recovery procedures. Previous segregation of battery components is essential for an efficient and economical processing of the 'active mass'. (author)

  18. Study of phase transformation processes in steel after phosphor ion implantation and following thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhetbaev, A.K.; Vereshchak, N.F.; Satpaev, K.K.; Dosmagambetov, T.D.; Serikbaeva, Z.T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper process of phase transformation after phosphor ion implantation in steel-45 and annealing in vacuum at 1000 deg C and irradiation by various doses of phosphor ions with energy 100 keV an accelerator are researched by conversion electron method. The phosphor overall solubility in iron is equal 4.53 %. Implantation dose below 6·10 17 ions/cm 2 allows increase phosphor ions content in implantation region to 35 %. Therefore, iron phosphides (Fe 3 P, Fe 2 P and Fe P) forming are possible. (author)

  19. Surface modification of multi-point cutting tools using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, M.

    1995-01-01

    Ion-implantation has been used to treat multi-point cutting tools using a 'systems approach' in order to improve the performance of these tools in dynamic cutting conditions. The effects of energy, species and system pressure on life and performance of circular saws have been investigated. For both nitrogen and argon ion-implantation an improvement in cutting performance has been observed as compared to untreated edges. As the energy of the nitrogen ions is increased there is a gradual improvement in the performance of the cutting edge. Ion-implanted tools were compared to those coated with TiN and these results are also presented. (author) 5 figs

  20. A one-dimensional collisional model for plasma-immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (also known as plasma-source ion implantation) is a process in which a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of large negative-voltage pulses are applied to it to extract ions from the plasma and implant them into the target. A general one-dimensional model is developed to study this process in different coordinate systems for the case in which the pressure of the neutral gas is large enough that the ion motion in the sheath can be assumed to be highly collisional