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Sample records for cobalt ions implanted

  1. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  2. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation; Oberflaechenmodifikation des Hartmetalls Wolframkarbid-Kobalt durch Bor-Ionenimplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-09-07

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and {approx}5.10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co{sub 3}W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load.

  3. Formation of cobalt silicide by ion beam mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ye; Burte, Edmund P.; Ryssel, Heiner

    1991-07-01

    The formation of cobalt silicides by arsenic ion implantation through a cobalt film which causes a mixing of the metal with the silicon substrate was investigated. Furthermore, cobalt suicides were formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Sheet resistance and silicide phases of implanted Co/Si samples depend on the As dose. Ion beam mixing at doses higher than 5 × 10 15 cm -2 and RTA at temperatures T ⩾ 900° C result in almost equal values of Rs. RBS and XRD spectra of these samples illustrate the formation of a homogeneous CoSi 2 layer. Significant lateral growth of cobalt silicide beyond the edge of patterned SiO 2 was observed in samples which were only subjected to an RTA process ( T ⩾ 900 ° C), while this lateral suicide growth could be reduced efficiently by As implantation prior to RTA.

  4. Osseointegration of cobalt-chrome alloy implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Babis, George C

    2011-01-01

    Osseointegration or osteointegration refers to a direct bone-to-metal interface without interposition of non-bone tissue. The long-term clinical success of bone implants is critically related to wide bone-to-implant direct contact. However, only poor bone formation or even host bone resorption have been shown where bone is in tight contact with the implant surface. It has been suggested that an appropriate space between implant and host bone may be useful for early peri-implant bone formation. Additionally, osseointegration depends on the topographical and chemical characteristics of the implant surface. Cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) is a metal alloy of cobalt and chromium. Because of its high strength, temperature endurance and wear resistance, it is commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants. In orthopedic implants it is usually composed of cobalt with chromium, molybdenum, and traces of other elements. Co-Cr alloys are especially useful where high stiffness or a highly polished and extremely wear-resistant material is required. This article reviews the Co-Cr alloy orthopedic implants in terms of their properties, porous coating, osseointegration, outcome, and failure.

  5. Cobalt release from implants and consumer items and characteristics of cobalt sensitized patients with dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menne, Torkil; Liden, Carola

    2012-01-01

    -containing dental alloys and revised hip implant components.Results. Six of eight dental alloys and 10 of 98 revised hip implant components released cobalt in the cobalt spot test, whereas none of 50 mobile phones gave positive reactions. The clinical relevance of positive cobalt test reactions was difficult...

  6. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  7. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  8. Elaboration by ion implantation of cobalt nano-particles in silica layers and modifications of their properties by electron and swift heavy ion irradiations; Elaboration par implantation ionique de nanoparticules de cobalt dans la silice et modifications de leurs proprietes sous irradiation d'electrons et d'ions de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orleans, C

    2003-07-15

    This work aims to investigate the capability of ion irradiations to elaborate magnetic nano-particles in silica layers, and to modify their properties. Co{sup +} ions have been implanted at 160 keV at fluences of 2.10{sup 16}, 5.10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} at/cm{sup 2}, and at temperatures of 77, 295 and 873 K. The dependence of the particle size on the implantation fluence, and more significantly on the implantation temperature has been shown. TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) observations have shown a mean diameter varying from 1 nm for implantations at 2.10{sup 16} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, to 9.7 nm at 10{sup 17} Co{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 873 K. For high temperature implantations, two regions of particles appear. Simulations based on a kinetic 3-dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method reproduce quantitatively the features observed for implantations. Thermal treatments induce the ripening of the particles. Electron irradiations at 873 K induce an important increase in mean particle sizes. Swift heavy ion irradiations also induce the ripening of the particles for low fluences, and an elongation of the particles in the incident beam direction for high fluences, resulting in a magnetic anisotropy. Mechanisms invoked in thermal spike model could also explain this anisotropic growth. (author)

  9. Co(II)-mediated effects of plain and plasma immersion ion implanted cobalt-chromium alloys on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Kathleen; Lutz, Johanna; Mändl, Stephan; Hacker, Michael C; Kamprad, Manja; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Medical CoCr is one of the main alloys used for metal-on-metal prosthesis in patients with total hip arthroplasty. CoCr surfaces modified by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) are characterized by improved wear resistance but also showed increased Co(II) ion release under in vitro conditions. For the first time, CoCr modified by nitrogen PIII was evaluated with regard to its effect on the osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, the expression of the osteogenic genes Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin as well as integrin-binding bone sialoprotein and the production of osteocalcin and hydroxyapatite were determined. The results of our study demonstrate that Co(II) ions released from the alloy affected the osteogenic differentiation of MSC. Distinct differences in differentiation markers were found between pristine and modified alloys for osteocalcin but not for integrin-binding sialoprotein and hydroxyapatite. Interestingly, osteopontin was upregulated in naive and differentiated MSC by Co(II) ions and modified CoCr, likely through the induction of a cellular hypoxic response. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of possible risk factors with regard to a clinical applicability of surface modified CoCr implant materials. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. On cobalt-chrome frameworks in implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt-chrome (CoCr) alloys have been used in dentistry in decades but very little is known about their behavior and biological impact as framework materials in implant dentistry. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated and compared the clinical and radiological results of abutment and abutment-free implant treatment concepts. To investigate in vitro CoCr and commercially pure (CP) titanium frameworks regarding precision of fit, estimated material degradation and possible adverse cellular responses. In addition, to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and radiological five-year outcome of abutment-free porcelain-veneered CoCr prostheses compared to acrylic-veneered CP titanium prostheses, with or without abutments. Paper I. Two groups of cast, sectioned and laser-welded frameworks were fabricated, either in a CoCr alloy or in CP titanium. A third group comprised computer numeric controlled (CNC) milled CP titanium frameworks. Measurements of fit were performed with a coordinate measuring machine. Paper IL Ion leakage from titanium implants, CoCr and CP titanium framework sections into artificial saliva was observed with mass spectrometry. Surface structures were registered with optical interferometry. Paper III. Viability of epithelial cells and fibroblasts cultured on CoCr and titanium specimens were evaluated with the Alamar Blue method. Specimen surface structures were registered with optical interferometry and cell morphology observed with SEM. Paper IV A test group (n = 40) comprised of patients treated with prostheses made at implant level in dental-porcelain veneered CoCr alloy (n = 15) or acrylic-veneered CP titanium (n = 25). A control group (n = 40) was provided with prostheses made at abutment level, in acrylic-veneered CNC-milled CP titanium. Clinical and radiological data were evaluated after five years. Paper I. The transversal width decreased in CoCr frameworks, but increased in both groups of titanium frameworks. Less vertical distortions were

  11. Effect of Mo ion-implantation on the adhesion of diamond coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Shie; Wang Xiao Ping; Li Hui; Ma Bing Xian; Qin Guang Yong; Zhang Bing Lin

    2002-01-01

    Diamond coatings were deposited on the cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (YG6) substrates, which have been implanted with Mo ions, by microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) method. The effect of ion-implantation on the adhesion of diamond coatings was studied. The results showed that the chemical compositions of cemented carbide substrate surfaces change obviously after Mo ion-implantation; and the adhesion strength between the CVD diamond coatings and the substrates implanted with Mo ions in proper concentration is improved remarkably

  12. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  13. Chromium and cobalt ion concentrations in blood and serum following various types of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christopher; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Duus, Benn R

    2013-01-01

    Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties.......Widely different metal ion concentrations in blood and serum have been reported with metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. We reviewed the literature on blood and serum ion concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) following various MoM hip arthroplasties....

  14. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  15. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite a...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter.......Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...

  16. Polymer Films with Ion-Synthesized Cobalt and Iron Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of polymer samples implanted by iron and cobalt. The low-energy (40 keV) implantations were carried out into polyimide and polyethyleneterephthalate with fluences between 2.5x10e16-1.5x10e17 cm-2. The samples were...

  17. [Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzwarth, U; Thomas, P; Kachler, W; Göske, J; Schuh, A

    2005-10-01

    Cobalt Chromium alloys are used in cemented total hip or knee arthroplasty as well as in metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty. An increasing number of publications report about (allergic) reactions to wear particles of Cobalt Chromium alloys. Reactions to nickel are more frequent in comparison to Cobalt or Chromium particles. It is well known that different kinds of Cobalt Chromium alloys contain different amounts of alloying elements; nevertheless. The aim of the current work was to compare the different Cobalt Chromium alloys according to ASTM F or ISO standards in respect to the different alloying elements. Co28Cr6Mo casting alloys according to ASTM F 75 or ISO 5832-4 as well as forging alloy types according to ASTM F 799 and ISO 5832 such as Co20Cr15W10Ni, Co35Ni20Cr, Fe40Co20Cr10Ni, Co20Cr20Ni, and Co28Cr6Mo were analyzed in respect to their element content of Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Fe, W, and Mn. In 1935 the Cobalt based alloy "Vitallium" Co30Cr5Mo basically used in the aircraft industry was introduced into medicine. The chemical composition of this alloy based on Cobalt showed 30 wt.% Chromium and 5 wt.% Molybdenum. The differentiation using alloy names showed no Nickel information in single alloy names. The information given about different alloys can lead to an unprecise evaluation of histopathological findings in respect to alloys or alloying constituents. Therefore, implant manufacturers should give the exact information about the alloys used and adhere to European law, Euronorm 93/42/EWG.

  18. Cobalt-alloy implant debris induce HIF-1α hypoxia associated responses: a mechanism for metal-specific orthopedic implant failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryn Samelko

    Full Text Available The historical success of orthopedic implants has been recently tempered by unexpected pathologies and early failures of some types of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy containing artificial hip implants. Hypoxia-associated responses to Cobalt-alloy metal debris were suspected as mediating this untoward reactivity at least in part. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α is a major transcription factor involved in hypoxia, and is a potent coping mechanism for cells to rapidly respond to changing metabolic demands. We measured signature hypoxia associated responses (i.e. HIF-1α, VEGF and TNF-α to Cobalt-alloy implant debris both in vitro (using a human THP-1 macrophage cell line and primary human monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. HIF-1α in peri-implant tissues of failed metal-on-metal implants were compared to similar tissues from people with metal-on-polymer hip arthroplasties, immunohistochemically. Increasing concentrations of cobalt ions significantly up-regulated HIF-1α with a maximal response at 0.3 mM. Cobalt-alloy particles (1 um-diameter, 10 particles/cell induced significantly elevated HIF-1α, VEGF, TNF-α and ROS expression in human primary macrophages whereas Titanium-alloy particles did not. Elevated expression of HIF-1α was found in peri-implant tissues and synovial fluid of people with failing Metal-on-Metal hips (n = 5 compared to failed Metal-on-Polymer articulating hip arthroplasties (n = 10. This evidence suggests that Cobalt-alloy, more than other metal implant debris (e.g. Titanium alloy, can elicit hypoxia-like responses that if unchecked can lead to unusual peri-implant pathologies, such as lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis and excessive fibrous tissue growths.

  19. A Systematic Review of Systemic Cobaltism After Wear or Corrosion of Chrome-Cobalt Hip Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D; Steck, Thomas; Woelber, Erik; Tower, Stephen S

    2015-06-12

    We sought to synthesize data on systemic arthroprosthetic cobaltism, a recently described syndrome that results from wear or corrosion of chrome-cobalt hip components. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify all reported cases of systemic arthroprosthetic cobaltism. To assess the epidemiologic link between blood cobalt levels (B[Co]), we developed a symptom scoring tool that evaluated 9 different symptom categories and a category of medical utilization. We identified 25 patients reported between 2001 and 2014 with a substantial increase in case reports over the past 3 years. Symptoms were diverse and involved the hip (84%), cardiovascular system (60%), audiovestibular system (52%), peripheral motor-sensory system (48%), thyroid (48%), psychological functioning (32%), visual system (32%), and the hematological, oncological, or immune system (20%). The mean latency from implantation to presentation or revision was 41 months (range, 9-99 months). The mean B[Co] was 324 μg/L and 4 patients had levels less than 20 μg/L. The B[Co] but not blood chromium level was highly associated with a quantitative measure of overall symptom severity (r, 0.81; P chrome-cobalt hip implants, may involve a large number of organ systems, and may occur with relatively low B[Co]. There is an urgent need to better define the overall scope of the problem and to develop screening and management strategies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  20. Evaluation Of Cobalt and Chromium Levels Following Implantation of Cobalt Chromium Coronary Stents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Pietro; Motazedian, Pouya; Jung, Richard G; Simard, Trevor; Ramirez, F Daniel; Chong, Aun-Yeong; Glover, Christopher; Hibbert, Benjamin; Dwivedi, Girish

    2017-12-14

    Large increases in myocardial trace elements may adversely affect metabolism and become detrimental to cardiac function. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) allows for the revascularisation of obstructive coronary artery disease using drug-eluting stents. These stents are comprised of a metallic stent backbone covered in an engineered polymer which delivers a drug over a prescribed period to the vessel wall. Given the potential implications of trace metal accumulation within the myocardium, our goal is to determine if metallic coronary stents are able to cause detectable elevations in serum cobalt and/or chromium levels. This study was a single centre, observational, pilot study with 20 patients who underwent planned PCI with implantation of a cobalt chromium drug eluting stent. Serum blood samples were drawn at baseline prior to PCI, 4hours post-stent deployment and at the time of routine follow-up after PCI. All blood samples were analysed for cobalt and chromium concentrations. The primary outcome of this study was the difference in serum cobalt and chromium levels at routine clinical follow-up. The mean follow up was 64.1±17.3 days. There was no difference in serum cobalt levels when comparing baseline and routine clinical follow up (3.32±2.14nmol/L vs. 3.14±1.00nmol/L, p=0.99) nor in chromium levels (4.24±2.31nmol/L vs. 2.82±1.22 nmol/L, p=0.11). There was also no difference between baseline and 4hours post-PCI serum concentrations. Percutaneous coronary intervention with cobalt chromium coronary stents does not appear to cause an elevation in these trace element serum concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  1. Cobalt Alloy Implant Debris Induces Inflammation and Bone Loss Primarily through Danger Signaling, Not TLR4 Activation: Implications for DAMP-ening Implant Related Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelko, Lauryn; Landgraeber, Stefan; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim James

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt alloy debris has been implicated as causative in the early failure of some designs of current total joint implants. The ability of implant debris to cause excessive inflammation via danger signaling (NLRP3 inflammasome) vs. pathogen associated pattern recognition receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors; TLRs) remains controversial. Recently, specific non-conserved histidines on human TLR4 have been shown activated by cobalt and nickel ions in solution. However, whether this TLR activation is directly or indirectly an effect of metals or secondary endogenous alarmins (danger-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs) elicited by danger signaling, remains unknown and contentious. Our study indicates that in both a human macrophage cell line (THP-1) and primary human macrophages, as well as an in vivo murine model of inflammatory osteolysis, that Cobalt-alloy particle induced NLRP3 inflammasome danger signaling inflammatory responses were highly dominant relative to TLR4 activation, as measured respectively by IL-1β or TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, tissue histology and quantitative bone loss measurement. Despite the lack of metal binding histidines H456 and H458 in murine TLR4, murine calvaria challenge with Cobalt alloy particles induced significant macrophage driven in vivo inflammation and bone loss inflammatory osteolysis, whereas LPS calvaria challenge alone did not. Additionally, no significant increase (p500pg/mL). Therefore, not only do the results of this investigation support Cobalt alloy danger signaling induced inflammation, but under normal homeostasis low levels of hematogenous PAMPs (<2pg/mL) from Gram-negative bacteria, seem to have negligible contribution to the danger signaling responses elicited by Cobalt alloy metal implant debris. This suggests the unique nature of Cobalt alloy particle bioreactivity is strong enough to illicit danger signaling that secondarily activate concomitant TLR activation, and may in part explain Cobalt particulate associated

  2. [Measurement of chromium and cobalt ions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo-Villanueva, A; Benítez-Garduño, R

    2012-01-01

    New metal-on-metal hip replacement models emerged in the 1990 with modifications of the previous designs and alloys. This led to expect a lesser rate of ion and particle release in the body with the resulting decrease in wear, osteolysis and loosening. To measure blood and urine chromium and cobalt ions in a 28 mm metal-on-metal tribology during the first postoperative year. Blood and urine cobalt and chromium concentrations were measured in 10 patients (13 prostheses) with the atomic absorption method. The etiology was studied and they were functionally assessed with the Harris functional scale. Adverse metal reactions were also assessed. 8 male and 2 female patients, mean age 54.5 years; 6 had primary coxarthrosis, one was post-traumatic, and 3 had avascular necrosis. The final assessment according to the Harris scale was 92 points. Mean blood chromium was 1.26 ng/l, blood cobalt was 1.033 microg/l; (reference values: chromium 1.4 ng/l and cobalt 1.8 microg/l); only one figure, in a female patient, was found to be higher than normal (chromium 21.2 ng/l and cobalt 15.4 microg/l). Mean urine chromium was 0.95 ng/ml, urine cobalt was 0.53 microg/l (Reference values: chromium: 2.0 ng/ml and cobalt 0.5 microg/l). All patients, with the exception of a female patient, were within the normal ranges. No adverse effect was observed in patients with metal implants with a 28 mm tribology.

  3. Effects of cobalt and chromium ions on lymphocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskey, Stephen J; Lehoux, Eric A; Catelas, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    A T cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in some patients with CoCrMo-based implants. However, the role of cobalt and chromium ions in this reaction remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of Co(2+) and Cr(3+) in culture medium, as well as the effects of culture supernatants of macrophages exposed to Co(2+) or Cr(3+) , on the migration of lymphocytes. The release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages exposed to Co(2+) and Cr(3+) was also analyzed. The migration of murine lymphocytes was quantified using the Boyden chamber assay and flow cytometry, while cytokine/chemokine release by J774A.1 macrophages was measured by ELISA. Results showed an ion concentration-dependent increase in TNF-α and MIP-1α release and a decrease in MCP-1 and RANTES release. Migration analysis showed that the presence of Co(2+) (8 ppm) and Cr(3+) (100 ppm) in culture medium increased the migration of T lymphocytes, while it had little or no effect on the migration of B lymphocytes, suggesting that Co(2+) and Cr(3+) can stimulate the migration of T but not B lymphocytes. Levels of T lymphocyte migration in culture medium containing Co(2+) or Cr(3+) were not statistically different from those in culture supernatants of macrophages exposed to Co(2+) or Cr(3+) , suggesting that the effects of the ions and chemokines were not additive, possibly because of ion interference with the chemokines and/or their cognate receptors. Overall, results suggest that Co(2+) and Cr(3+) are capable of stimulating the migration of T (but not B) lymphocytes in the absence of cytokines/chemokines, and could thereby contribute to the accumulation of more T than B lymphocytes in periprosthetic tissues of some patients with CoCrMo-based implants. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:916-924, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ion implantation. L'implantation ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousset, J. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (FR). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)

    1989-10-01

    The ion implantation technique which has been used in the semiconductor industry for more than 20 years, is now gradually becoming adopted as a surface treatment process for various materials, particularly metals and ceramics. The aim is to improve wear, fatigue and or corrosion resistance. Its characteristic features are the absence of an interface between the modified surface layer and the substrate, and the conservation of the initial component dimensions and volume, since the process does not involve heating. Another characteristic concerns the nature of the chemical species created in the treated zone, whose formation does not necessarily correspond to thermodynamic equilibrum, and which can be amorphous or metastable. In its simple form, the technique is limited due to the low thickness affected. This paper definies the basic principles of the technique, the methods used for characterising the implanted zone, and the present and potential fields of application. 13 refs.

  5. Fabrication of nanosized cobalt powder from Cobalt(II) hydroxide of spent lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jung-Yeul; Park, Dahee; Jung, Sung-Sik; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2017-09-01

    This study was investigated to fabricate nanosized cobalt (Co) powder from cobalt hydroxide Co(OH)2 recovered from spent lithium ion battery. Direct process newly proposed was attempted to transform phases as follow: Co(OH)2 → Co3O4 → Co. The variation of weight with time of the sample was measured using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and it was found that weight loss was observed over 500 °C. Thermal treatment was conducted to determine proper operating time for phase transformation of Co3O4 at 500 °C. Subsequently, hydrogen reduction was carried out on the effect of temperature, reaction time and flowrate. In the long run, nanosized cobalt powder was successfully fabricated with a mean particle size of 100-500 nm as well as purity of 99.21 wt.%.

  6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many semiconductor integrated circuit manufacturing processes require high dose of implantation at very low energies. Conventional beam line ion implantation system suffers from low beam current at low energies, therefore, cannot be used economically for high dose applications. Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) ...

  7. Ion Implantation and Synthesis of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ion implantation is one of the key processing steps in silicon integrated circuit technology. Some integrated circuits require up to 17 implantation steps and circuits are seldom processed with less than 10 implantation steps. Controlled doping at controlled depths is an essential feature of implantation. Ion beam processing can also be used to improve corrosion resistance, to harden surfaces, to reduce wear and, in general, to improve materials properties. This book presents the physics and materials science of ion implantation and ion beam modification of materials. It covers ion-solid interactions used to predict ion ranges, ion straggling and lattice disorder. Also treated are shallow-junction formation and slicing silicon with hydrogen ion beams. Topics important for materials modification, such as ion-beam mixing, stresses, and sputtering, are also described.

  8. A new material with atomized cobalt-multiwalled carbon nanotubes: a possible substitute for human implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bharat; Gupta, Sachin; Kalra, Nitin; Gudyka, Russell; Santhanam, K S V

    2010-06-01

    A new material composed of atomized cobalt-multiwalled carbon nanotube has been produced and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and polarization studies to estimate its lifetime. This does not show cobalt thermal oxidation suggesting that it is confined inside the carbon nanotube matrix. The density functional calculations in the literature predict a strong interaction leading to higher hybridization of cobalt atom and carbon nanotubes. A detailed investigation of the corrosion measurements shows that the new material of thickness 0.8 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm and 2 mm would last for 31, 39, 60 and 79 years and it would substitute with cobalt-chromium alloy that is used as a load bearing implant for patients with knee pain or partial denture implant.

  9. Ion-beam mixed ultra-thin cobalt suicide (CoSi2) films by cobalt sputtering and rapid thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, S.; Kasko, I.; Ryssel, H.

    1995-10-01

    The influence of ion-beam mixing on ultra-thin cobalt silicide (CoSi2) formation was investigated by characterizing the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films. A Ge+ ion-implantation through the Co film prior to silicidation causes an interface mixing of the cobalt film with the silicon substrate and results in improved silicide-to-silicon interface roughness. Rapid thermal annealing was used to form Ge+ ion mixed and unmixed thin CoSi2 layer from 10 nm sputter deposited Co film. The silicide films were characterized by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering, and sheet resistance measurements. The experi-mental results indicate that the final rapid thermal annealing temperature should not exceed 800°C for thin (films reveals that Ge+ ion mixing (45 keV, 1 × 1015 cm-2) produces homogeneous silicide with smooth silicide-to-silicon interface.

  10. Material degradation in implant-retained cobalt-chrome and titanium frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, L; Smedberg, J-I; Wennerberg, A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate in vitro material degradation in implants and cobalt-chrome or titanium frameworks, before and after exposure to artificial saliva. Four full-arch implant frameworks were fabricated according to the Cresco™ method (Astra Tech AB, Mölndal, Sweden), two in a cobalt-chrome alloy and two in commercially pure (CP) titanium. They were cut vertically, and the three central sections of each framework were used. Element leakage into an artificial saliva solution was observed with mass spectrometry. Before artificial saliva exposure, three Brånemark System(®) implants (Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) were screw-retained to cobalt-chrome sections, and three to titanium sections. The contact surfaces with the implants of the framework sections and the corresponding surfaces of six implants were examined with optical interferometry before and after exposure to artificial saliva to evaluate material degradation. Conventional descriptive statistics were used to present the mass spectrometry and interferometry data. One-way anova and Dunnett's T3 post hoc test were used to identify and study differences between the groups. To highlight changes within the groups, the Student's t-test was used. The significance level was set at 5%. There was significantly more leakage of cobalt elements than of titanium and chrome (P chrome frameworks, both before and after saliva exposure (P < 0·05). The findings in this study suggest active material degradation processes for both implants and framework materials. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Ion implantation into concave polymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakudo, N. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan)]. E-mail: sakudo@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp; Shinohara, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Amaya, S. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Endo, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Okuji, S. [Lintec Corp., 5-14-42 Nishiki-cho, Warabi, Saitama 335-0005 (Japan); Ikenaga, N. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Nomigun, Ishikawa 923-1121 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    A new technique for ion implantation into concave surface of insulating materials is proposed and experimentally studied. The principle is roughly described by referring to modifying inner surface of a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle. An electrode that is supplied with positive high-voltage pulses is inserted into the bottle. Both plasma formation and ion implantation are simultaneously realized by the same high-voltage pulses. Ion sheath with a certain thickness that depends on plasma parameters is formed just on the inner surface of the bottle. Since the plasma potential is very close to that of the electrode, ions from the plasma are accelerated in the sheath and implanted perpendicularly into the bottle's inner surface. Laser Raman spectroscopy shows that the inner surface of an ion-implanted PET bottle is modified into DLC (diamond-like carbon). Gas permeation measurement shows that gas-barrier property enhances due to the modification.

  12. Assessment of wrought ASTM F1058 cobalt alloy properties for permanent surgical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, C O; Jedwab, M R; Mayer, D W; Thompson, P J; Stinson, J S

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of the ASTM F1058 wrought cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloy (commonly referred to as Elgiloy or Phynox) is evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, magnetic resonance imaging, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. The data found in the literature, the experimental corrosion and biocompatibility results presented in this article, and its long track record as an implant material demonstrate that the cobalt superalloy is an appropriate material for permanent surgical implants that require high yield strength and fatigue resistance combined with high elastic modulus, and that it can be safely imaged with magnetic resonance.

  13. Trunnion Failure of the Recalled Low Friction Ion Treatment Cobalt Chromium Alloy Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urish, Kenneth L; Hamlin, Brian R; Plakseychuk, Anton Y; Levison, Timothy J; Higgs, Genymphas B; Kurtz, Steven M; DiGioia, Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    Gross trunnion failure (GTF) is a rare complication in total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported across a range of manufacturers. Specific lots of the Stryker low friction ion treatment (LFIT) anatomic cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) V40 femoral head were recalled in August 2016. In part, the recall was based out of concerns for disassociation of the femoral head from the stem and GTF. We report on 28 patients (30 implants) with either GTF (n = 18) or head-neck taper corrosion (n = 12) of the LFIT CoCr femoral head and the Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy femoral stems. All these cases were associated with adverse local tissue reactions requiring revision of the THA. In our series, a conservative estimate of the incidence of failure was 4.7% (n = 636 total implanted) at 8.0 ± 1.4 years from the index procedure. Failures were associated with a high-offset 127° femoral stem neck angle and increased neck lengths; 43.3% (13 of 30) of the observed failures included implant sizes outside the voluntary recall (27.8% [5 of 18] of the GTF and 75.0% [8 of 12] of the taper corrosion cases). Serum cobalt and chromium levels were elevated (cobalt: 8.4 ± 7.0 μg/mL; chromium: 3.4 ± 3.3 μ/L; cobalt/chromium ratio: 3.7). The metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large cystic fluid collections typical with adverse local tissue reactions. During revision, a pseudotumor was observed in all cases. Pathology suggested a chronic inflammatory response. Impending GTF could be diagnosed based on aspiration of black synovial fluid and an oblique femoral head as compared with the neck taper on radiographs. In our series of the recalled LFIT CoCr femoral head, the risk of impending GTF or head-neck taper corrosion should be considered as a potential diagnosis in a painful LFIT femoral head and Accolade titanium-molybdenum-zirconium-iron alloy THA with unknown etiology. Almost half of the failures we observed included sizes outside of the

  14. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  16. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  17. Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Shedd, Kim B.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Cobalt is a silvery gray metal that has diverse uses based on certain key properties, including ferromagnetism, hardness and wear-resistance when alloyed with other metals, low thermal and electrical conductivity, high melting point, multiple valences, and production of intense blue colors when combined with silica. Cobalt is used mostly in cathodes in rechargeable batteries and in superalloys for turbine engines in jet aircraft. Annual global cobalt consumption was approximately 75,000 metric tons in 2011; China, Japan, and the United States (in order of consumption amount) were the top three cobalt-consuming countries. In 2011, approximately 109,000 metric tons of recoverable cobalt was produced in ores, concentrates, and intermediate products from cobalt, copper, nickel, platinum-group-element (PGE), and zinc operations. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo [Kinshasa]) was the principal source of mined cobalt globally (55 percent). The United States produced a negligible amount of byproduct cobalt as an intermediate product from a PGE mining and refining operation in southeastern Montana; no U.S. production was from mines in which cobalt was the principal commodity. China was the leading refiner of cobalt, and much of its production came from cobalt ores, concentrates, and partially refined materials imported from Congo (Kinshasa).The mineralogy of cobalt deposits is diverse and includes both primary (hypogene) and secondary (supergene) phases. Principal terrestrial (land-based) deposit types, which represent most of world’s cobalt mine production, include primary magmatic Ni-Cu(-Co-PGE) sulfides, primary and secondary stratiform sediment-hosted Cu-Co sulfides and oxides, and secondary Ni-Co laterites. Seven additional terrestrial deposit types are described in this chapter. The total terrestrial cobalt resource (reserves plus other resources) plus past production, where available, is calculated to be 25.5 million metric tons. Additional resources of

  18. Low Energy Ion Implanting of Silver Ion in Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Elisa Demore Palandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern medicine, biomaterials have been widely used as implants. Among biomaterials, titanium medical class is distinguished by its high degree of biocompatibility. However, orthoses and prostheses infected with post-implanted microorganisms require surgeries and medical interventions that are costly and treatment can take months. To combat infections associated with implants, the best strategy is to prevent them from occurring. One strategy is the silver ion implantation in titanium. In this work, silver ions were implanted at low energies (4 keV in medical titanium with the goal to take bactericide titanium surface and therefore, inhibit biofilm formation. The implantation was done using the Ion Plating equipment. After ion implantation, the samples were analyzing for Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. The results show that the silver was implanted at depths up to 10 nm, corroborating simulation data. In addition, the strategy used in this work can be applied on an industrial scale due to the type of equipment used for the surface treatment.

  19. Neuropsychiatric symptoms following metal-on-metal implant failure with cobalt and chromium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily; Almond, Solomon

    2017-01-24

    There were at least 31,171 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants in the UK between 2003 and 2011. Some of these were subject to failure and widescale recalls and revisions followed. This is a presentation of ten cases (mean age 60 years) where we evaluated neuropsychiatric morbidity following metal-on-metal hip implant failure and revision. Implants were ASR total hip replacement (acetabular implant, taper sleeve adaptor and unipolar femoral implants) performed between 2005 and 2009. This case series describes, for the first time, neuropsychiatric complications after revision where there has been cobalt and chromium toxicity. Pre-revision surgery, nine patients had toxic levels of chromium and cobalt (mean level chromium 338 nmol/l, mean cobalt 669.4 nmol/l). Depression assessment showed 9 of 9 respondents fulfilled the BDI criteria for depression and 3 of these were being treated. 7 of 9 patients showing short term memory deficit with mean mini mental state examination score of 24.2. The normal population mean MMSE for this group would be expected to be 28 with chromium metallosis following MoM implant failure. Larger studies of neurocognitive effects are indicated in this group. There may be implications for public health.

  20. Ion Implantation In Optical Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Daniel

    1989-10-01

    Some initial results on the implantation of single- and multi-mode optical fibres are described. Fibres are wound onto a bobin system for insertion into the implantation chamber. Long and short lengths of fibres as well as discrete elements along a fibre have been implanted. Refractive index changes of 5 x 10-3 have been produced in the fibres, leading to new guiding properties. A large dose dependent fluorescence and attenuation increase is also produced in the fibre.

  1. Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Among the rapidly progressing interdisciplinary areas of physics, chemistry, material science etc. ion induced modifications of materials is one such evolving field. It has been realized in recent years that a material, in the form of an accelerated ion beam, embedded into a target specimen offers a most productive tool for transforming its properties in a controlled manner. In semiconductors particularly, where the transport behavior is determined by very small concentrations of certain impurities, implantation of ions may bring considerable changes. The present work is based on the study of the effect of krypton ion implantation on selenium nanowires. Selenium nanowires of diameter 80 nm were synthesized by template assisted electro deposition technique. Implantation of krypton ions was done at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The effect of implantation on structural, electrical and optical properties of selenium nanowires was investigated. XRD analysis of pristine and implanted nanowires shows no shifting in the peak position but there is a variation in the relative intensity with fluence. UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the decrease in the optical band gap with fluence. PL spectra showed emission peak at higher wavelength. A substantial rise in the current was observed from I-V measurements, after implantation and with the increase in fluence. The increase in current conduction may be due to the increase in the current carriers.

  2. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Effects of soluble cobalt and cobalt incorporated into calcium phosphate layers on osteoclast differentiation and activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patntirapong, Somying; Habibovic, Pamela; Hauschka, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    Metal ions originating from mechanical debris and corrosive wear of prosthetic implant alloys accumulate in peri-implant soft tissues, bone mineral, and body fluids. Eventually, metal ions such as cobalt (II) (Co2+), which is a major component of cobalt–chromium-based implant alloys and a known

  4. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James B.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system.

  5. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF/sub 2//sup +/ into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250/sup 0/C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF/sub 2//sup +/ implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active.

  6. Single Ion Implantation and Deterministic Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-06-11

    The presence of single atoms, e.g. dopant atoms, in sub-100 nm scale electronic devices can affect the device characteristics, such as the threshold voltage of transistors, or the sub-threshold currents. Fluctuations of the number of dopant atoms thus poses a complication for transistor scaling. In a complementary view, new opportunities emerge when novel functionality can be implemented in devices deterministically doped with single atoms. The grand price of the latter might be a large scale quantum computer, where quantum bits (qubits) are encoded e.g. in the spin states of electrons and nuclei of single dopant atoms in silicon, or in color centers in diamond. Both the possible detrimental effects of dopant fluctuations and single atom device ideas motivate the development of reliable single atom doping techniques which are the subject of this chapter. Single atom doping can be approached with top down and bottom up techniques. Top down refers to the placement of dopant atoms into a more or less structured matrix environment, like a transistor in silicon. Bottom up refers to approaches to introduce single dopant atoms during the growth of the host matrix e.g. by directed self-assembly and scanning probe assisted lithography. Bottom up approaches are discussed in Chapter XYZ. Since the late 1960's, ion implantation has been a widely used technique to introduce dopant atoms into silicon and other materials in order to modify their electronic properties. It works particularly well in silicon since the damage to the crystal lattice that is induced by ion implantation can be repaired by thermal annealing. In addition, the introduced dopant atoms can be incorporated with high efficiency into lattice position in the silicon host crystal which makes them electrically active. This is not the case for e.g. diamond, which makes ion implantation doping to engineer the electrical properties of diamond, especially for n-type doping much harder then for silicon. Ion

  7. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  8. Effects of nanodiamonds of explosive synthesis on the skin of experimental animals locally exposed to cobalt and chrome ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorenkov, V I; Vasil'eva, E Yu; Puzyr', A P; Bondar', V S

    2014-12-01

    Experiments in vivo demonstrated the protective effect of modified nanodiamonds on guinea pig skin after local exposure cobalt ions, but not chrome ions. The observed differences are determined by different adsorption of these ions by nanodiamonds: in vitro experiments showed that nanodiamonds adsorbed cobalt ions, but not chrome ions from water solutions. The perspectives of using modified nanodiamonds as a new adsorbent for prevention of allergic contact dermatitis induced by ions of bivalent metals are discussed.

  9. Luminescence efficiency during ion implantation of sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, A.; Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    Luminescence signals produced during ion implantation of sapphire are related to the F,F{sup +} and F{sub 2} defect centres. However, the efficiency of light production changes with ion beam dose, the rate of energy deposition and radiation damage, hence the signals are not proportional to the defect concentrations. Data are presented which suggest that the light is primarily produced by electronic excitation. Luminescence efficiency within the region of nuclear collisions is very low. It is not possible to determine the energy dependence of the luminescence intensity, as a function of ion energy, by energy variations within a single target crystal. (author).

  10. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  11. Electronic band gap reduction and intense luminescence in Co and Mn ion-implanted SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.; Zatsepin, D. A.; St. Onge, D. J.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Zatsepin, A. F.; Moewes, A.

    2014-03-01

    Cobalt and manganese ions are implanted into SiO2 over a wide range of concentrations. For low concentrations, the Co atoms occupy interstitial locations, coordinated with oxygen, while metallic Co clusters form at higher implantation concentrations. For all concentrations studied here, Mn ions remain in interstitial locations and do not cluster. Using resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and Anderson impurity model calculations, we determine the strength of the covalent interaction between the interstitial ions and the SiO2 valence band, finding it comparable to Mn and Co monoxides. Further, we find an increasing reduction in the SiO2 electronic band gap for increasing implantation concentration, due primarily to the introduction of Mn- and Co-derived conduction band states. We also observe a strong increase in a band of x-ray stimulated luminescence at 2.75 eV after implantation, attributed to oxygen deficient centers formed during implantation.

  12. Mechanical failure of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy implants. An animal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimb, L; Gotfredsen, K; Steen Jensen, J

    1993-01-01

    a histological and biomechanical evaluation of HA-coated titanium and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy implants in a non-weight-bearing model. Twelve cylindrical plugs were inserted into the medial femoral condyle on 6 mongrel dogs. HA-coatings of 80-120 microns thickness were applied to 6 Cr-Co-Mo implants...

  13. One-step separation by thermal treatment and cobalt acid-leaching from spent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in portable storage devices and automobiles, therefore the environment and resource problems caused by spent lithium ion batteries have become increasingly severe. This paper focuses on the recovery process of spent lithium cobalt oxide active material and comes up with reasonable processes and the best conditions for cobalt leaching ultimately.

  14. Ligand-exchange chromatography of aromatic amines on resin-bound cobalt ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlivan, E.; Vural, U.S.; Ayar, A.; Yildiz, S. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey)

    1996-06-01

    The use of cobalt metal for the selective separation of aromatic amines is completed with a chemically bonded diamine and glyoxime functional groups onto Lycopodium clavatum. Oximes and amines are excellent complexing agents for transition metal ions. Cobalt(II) metal ions can easily be immobilized on bis-diaminoethyl-glyoximated sporopollenin (bDAEG-sporopollenin). The ligand-exchange behavior of modified Lycopodium clavatum with respect to aromatic amines was investigated. This will permit the evaluation of bDAEG-sporopollenin ligand exchangers for their utilization as sorbents in the recovery, pollution control, and elimination of amines from wastewater.

  15. Paramagnetism in ion-implanted oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, Torben Esmann; Gíslason, Hafliði Pétur; Ólafsson, Sveinn

    This thesis describes the investigation on para-magnetism in dilute ion-implanted single-crystal oxide samples studied by on- and off-line $^{57}$Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ion-implantation of the radioactive isotopes ( $^{57}$Mn and $^{57}$Co) was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The off-line measurements were performed at Aarhus University, Denmark. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a unique method, giving simultaneously local information on valence/spin state of the $^{57}$Fe probe atoms, site symmetry and magnetic properties on an atomic scale. The utilisation of emission Mössbauer spectroscopy opens up many new possibilities compared with traditional transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Among them is the possibility of working with a low concentration below 10$^{-4}$ –10$^{-3}$ at.%, where the implanted Mössbauer $^{57}$Fe probes are truly dilute impurities exclusively interacting with their nearest neighbours and therefore the possibility of crea...

  16. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  17. Computational stochastic model of ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmievskaya, Galina I., E-mail: zmi@gmail.ru; Bondareva, Anna L., E-mail: bal310775@yandex.ru [M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, 4,Miusskaya sq., 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatlevchenko@mail.ru [VNII Geosystem Russian Federal Center, Varshavskoye roadway, 8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.maino@enea.it [Scuola di Lettere e BeniCulturali, University di Bologna, sede di Ravenna, via Mariani 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe{sup ++} irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage.

  18. Optical and magnetic properties of Yb ion-doped cobalt-based ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Well-crystalline structured ZnO nanoparticles with cobalt (Co) and ytterbium (Yb) multiple ions doping were successfully synthesized by the chemical precipitation technique. The structures, optical and magnetic properties of the samples were analysed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy and.

  19. Optical and magnetic properties of Yb ion-doped cobalt-based ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-crystalline structured ZnO nanoparticles with cobalt (Co) and ytterbium (Yb) multiple ions doping were successfully synthesized by the chemical precipitation technique. The structures, optical and magnetic properties of the samples were analysed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy and magnetic ...

  20. Production technology for high efficiency ion implanted solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.; Josephs, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is being developed for high volume automated production of silicon solar cells. An implanter designed for solar cell processing and able to properly implant up to 300 4-inch wafers per hour is now operational. A machine to implant 180 sq m/hr of solar cell material has been designed. Implanted silicon solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16% AM1 are now being produced and higher efficiencies are expected. Ion implantation and transient processing by pulsed electron beams are being integrated with electrostatic bonding to accomplish a simple method for large scale, low cost production of high efficiency solar cell arrays.

  1. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Schubert, M. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Held, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Pichler, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Chill, A. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kiermaier, S. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schloesser, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Busch, H. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Schenk, K. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Streufert, D. [Acri.Tec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf (Germany); Lanzl, I. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A biodegradable, {beta}-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the {beta}-emitter {sup 32}P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and {sup 32}P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  2. Simulation and dose uniformity analysis of plasma based ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z W; Sun, Q; Ding, K; Gu, C X [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-12-21

    Plasma based ion implantation for a planar target was simulated using the particle-in-cell model. The plasma sheath evolution and the ion implantation details (the incident ion flux, the ion impact angle and the ion impact energy) were studied for targets with different sizes, with an aim to investigate the dependence of dose uniformity on target size. The effect of plasma density and pulse width on dose distribution was studied as a plus. The simulation results show that a larger target leads to a faster and less cylindrical sheath expansion. By increasing the target size, a more uniform distribution of incident ion flux can be obtained and the normal impact effect can be improved, while the distribution of impact energy is slightly influenced. As a result, the ion implantation dose presents a better uniformity on a larger target. By increasing plasma density or pulse width, we get a higher ion implantation dose but worse dose uniformity.

  3. Determination of the maximum retention of cobalt by ion exchange in h-zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine the maximum content of cobalt that can be incorporated by ion exchange in zeolites H-USY, H-Beta, H-Mordenite, and H-ZSM-5. To reach this goal, batch isotherms at 75ºC were constructed after addition of zeolite samples in flasks filled with cobalt nitrate solution. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir was the best model for zeolites H-Beta, H-Mordenite, and H-ZSM-5, whereas experimental data for H-USY were better fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. From the isotherms, it was possible to determine the maximum cobalt exchange level (q max that can be incorporated in each zeolite through ion exchange. In this sense, H-USY presented the highest q max value (2.40 meq/g zeol, while H-ZSM-5 showed the lowest one (0.64 meq/g zeol. These results also show the influence of the zeolite framework related to the channel system, pore opening, presence of cavities and secondary porosity and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (SAR on the maximum capacity and behavior of cobalt ion exchange in protonic zeolites.

  4. Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadev Somasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion at fluences of 1015, 1016, and 1017 ion·cm−2, and its in vitro degradation behaviour was evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS revealed that the implanted ions formed layers within the passive magnesium-oxide/hydroxide layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results demonstrated that calcium-ion implantation at a fluence of 1015 ions·cm−2 increased the polarisation resistance by 24%, but higher fluences showed no appreciable improvement. In the case of zinc-ion implantation, increase in the fluence decreased the polarisation resistance. A fluence of 1017 ion·cm−2 decreased the polarisation resistance by 65%, and fluences of 1015 and 1016 showed only marginal effect. Similarly, potentiodynamic polarisation results also suggested that low fluence of calcium-ion decreased the degradation rate by 38% and high fluence of zinc-ion increased the degradation rate by 61%. All the post-polarized ion-implanted samples and the bare metal revealed phosphate and carbonate formation. However, the improved degradative behaviour in calcium-ion implanted samples can be due to a relatively better passivation, whereas the reduction in degradation resistance in zinc-ion implanted samples can be attributed to the micro-galvanic effect.

  5. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W; Laufer, P; Tajmar, M; Böttger, R; Bischoff, L

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi 2 + ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  6. Distribution of metal released from cobalt-chromium alloy orthopaedic wear particles implanted into air pouches in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolaranmi, Grace A; Akbar, Moeed; Brewer, James; Grant, M Helen

    2012-06-01

    Metal-on-metal hip replacement implants generate wear debris and release ions both locally and systemically in patients. To investigate dissemination of metal, we determined blood and organ levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and molybdenum (Mo) following the implantation of Co-Cr alloy wear debris in mice using skin pouches as a model system. We observed increased metal levels in blood for up to 72 h; the levels of Co were highest and remained elevated for 7 days. Co levels were elevated in all organs studied (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, brain, and testes), with the peak at 48 h; highest levels were measured in liver and kidney (838.9 ± 223.7 ng/g in liver, and 938.8 ± 131.6 ng/g in kidney). Organ Cr levels were considerably lower than Co levels, for example, Cr in kidney was 117.2 ± 12.6 ng/g tissue at 48 h. Co is more mobile than Cr, reaching higher levels at earlier time points. This could be due to local tissue binding of Cr. Exposure to Co-Cr particles in vivo altered antioxidant enzyme expression and activities. We observed induction of catalase protein in the liver and glutathione reductase (GR) and peroxidase (GPx) proteins in the spleen. Activities of catalase and GPx in the liver were significantly increased while that of GR was decreased in the kidney. Organs of mice with Co-Cr particle implantation were exposed to increased metal levels capable of inducing reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, suggesting the tissue may be subjected to oxidative stress; however, the overall antioxidant defence system was not markedly disturbed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties : Influence of cobalt chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Anton H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm

  8. Ion implantation of highly corrosive electrolyte battery components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rolf H.; Zhang, Shengtao

    1997-01-01

    A method of producing corrosion resistant electrodes and other surfaces in corrosive batteries using ion implantation is described. Solid electrically conductive material is used as the ion implantation source. Battery electrode grids, especially anode grids, can be produced with greatly increased corrosion resistance for use in lead acid, molten salt, end sodium sulfur.

  9. A novel method for effective sodium ion implantation into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiu Yuan; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-07-01

    Although sodium ion implantation is useful to the surface modification of biomaterials and nano-electronic materials, it is a challenging to conduct effective sodium implantation by traditional implantation methods due to its high chemical reactivity. In this paper, we present a novel method by coupling a Na dispenser with plasma immersion ion implantation and radio frequency discharge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling reveals that sodium is effectively implanted into a silicon wafer using this apparatus. The Na 1s XPS spectra disclose Na2O-SiO2 bonds and the implantation effects are confirmed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. Our setup provides a feasible way to conduct sodium ion implantation effectively.

  10. Mechanical stresses and amorphization of ion-implanted diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelnitsky, R. A.; Dravin, V. A.; Tal, A. A.; Latushko, M. I.; Khomich, A. A.; Khomich, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Terentiev, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Scanning white light interferometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the mechanical stresses and structural changes in ion-implanted natural diamonds with different impurity content. The uniform distribution of radiation defects in implanted area was obtained by the regime of multiple-energy implantation of keV He+ ions. A modification of Bosia's et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 268 (2010) 2991) method for determining the internal stresses and the density variation in an ion-implanted diamond layer was proposed that suggests measuring, in addition to the surface swelling of a diamond plate, the radius of curvature of the plate. It is shown that, under multiple-energy implantation of He+, mechanical stresses in the implanted layer may be as high as 12 GPa. It is shown that radiation damage reaches saturation for the implantation fluence characteristic of amorphization of diamond but is appreciably lower than the graphitization threshold.

  11. A novel method for effective sodium ion implantation into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qiuyuan; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    Although sodium ion implantation is useful to the surface modification of biomaterials and nano-electronic materials, it is a challenging to conduct effective sodium implantation by traditional implantation methods due to its high chemical reactivity. In this paper, we present a novel method by coupling a Na dispenser with plasma immersion ion implantation and radio frequency discharge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling reveals that sodium is effectively implanted into a silicon wafer using this apparatus. The Na 1s XPS spectra disclose Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} bonds and the implantation effects are confirmed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. Our setup provides a feasible way to conduct sodium ion implantation effectively.

  12. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  13. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutroneo Mariapompea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high energy increasing the ion charge state. The accelerated ions are emitted with the high directivity, depending on the ion charge state and ion mass, along the normal to the target surface. The ion fluencies depend on the ablated mass by laser, indeed it is low for thin targets. Ions accelerated from plasma can be implanted on different substrates such as Si crystals, glassy-carbon and polymers at different fluences. The ion dose increment of implanted substrates is obtainable with repetitive laser shots and with repetitive plasma emissions. Ion beam analytical methods (IBA, such as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE can be employed to analyse the implanted species in the substrates. Such analyses represent ‘off-line’ methods to extrapolate and to character the plasma ion stream emission as well as to investigate the chemical and physical modifications of the implanted surface. The multi-energy and species ion implantation from plasma, at high fluency, changes the physical and chemical properties of the implanted substrates, in fact, many parameters, such as morphology, hardness, optical and mechanical properties, wetting ability and nanostructure generation may be modified through the thermal-assisted implantation by multi-energy ions from laser-generated plasma.

  14. Adsorption of cobalt ions from waste water on activated Saudi clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jlil, Saad A.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to remove the Cobalt ions from wastewater by three types of Saudi clay. These were collected from Tabbuk city (Tabbuk clay), Khiber city (Khiber clay), and Bahhah city (Bahhah clay). The paper also examined the effect of different activators on the enhancement of adsorption capacity of clays for cobalt ions. The results showed minor enhancement in the adsorption capacities of cobalt ions on three types of clays activated by acid treatment. The adsorption capacity of clays improved particularly for Tabbuk clay when treated with hydrogen peroxide as an activator. The adsorption capacity increased from 3.94 to 12.9 mg/g for the untreated and treated Tabbuk clay, respectively. Also, the adsorption capacity of Bahhah clay increased by activating with sodium chloride from 3.44 to 12.55 mg/g for untreated and treated sample, respectively. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using five equilibrium equations, namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, BET, and Toth isotherm equations. Langmuir isotherm agreed well with the experimental data of Khiber and Bahhah clay, while Freundlich model and Langmuir-Freundlich model fitted well with the experimental data of Tabbuk and Bahhah clay activated by NaCl. The results showed that Freundlich model fitted well with the experimental data of Tabbuk clay when activated by H2O2 and H2SO4. Finally, the BET model did not describe the experimental data well for the three types of clay after activation.

  15. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  16. Titanium niobium nitride knee implants are not inferior to chrome cobalt components for primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Metal allergy in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is still a controversial topic. Oxinium, ceramic or titanium niobium nitride (TiNbN) coated implants are available for some knee systems. The hypothesis of this study was that the use of TiNbN-coated components would not lead to inferior results compared to conventional implants and that none of the allergic patients receiving TiNbN-coated implants would require revision for metal allergy. This study was a retrospective, 2 to 1 matched pairs study with 40 titanium niobium nitride-coated TKA compared with 80 conventional cobalt chrome implants. No demographic differences between these groups were observed. The mean follow-up for this study was 2 years. No differences in clinical, radiological, or patient-reported outcome measurements were observed between the two groups. No patients have been revised at this short- to medium-term outcome evaluation. Metal allergy leading to contact or systemic dermatitis is especially linked to chrome and cobalt allergy. Nickel allergy because of knee implants rarely gives cutaneous symptoms, but could potentially lead to peri-prosthetic osteolysis and loosening. The use of titanium niobium nitride implants in case of a positive history of metal allergy could avoid this devastating complication. The use of titanium niobium nitride-coated implants for primary knee osteoarthritis shows similar clinical and radiological outcomes as conventional TKA without revision for loosening at short- to medium-term follow-up. Level of evidence Level IV study.

  17. Dimension effects in plasma immersion ion implantation of cylindrical bore

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Xiu Bo; Tong Hong Hui; Chu, P K

    2002-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is a new technique pertaining to ion implantation. Different from the case of exterior surface treatment, plasma immersion ion implantation of interior surface possesses dimension effects. Consequently it is a challenge to implant the inner wall of a cylindrical bore due to this finite dimension.The ion energy cannot be linearly changed with applied voltage and there exists a saturation value due to overlap effect of plasma sheath. The plasma in the bore may rapidly be depleted, which is attributed to finite plasma volume and plasma-sheath con-flowing effect. For instance the plasma depletion time is about 0.55 mu s when a bore with a diameter of 20 cm is treated under conditions of applied voltage of 30 kV and plasma density of 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 3. Interior plasma-source hardware may be an effective solution

  18. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reversible cobalt ion binding to imidazole-modified nanopipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Niya; Fu, Yaqin; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-15

    In this report, we demonstrate that quartz nanopipettes modified with an imidazole-terminated silane respond to metal ions (Co(2+)) in solution. The response of nanopipettes is evaluated through examination of the ion current rectification ratio. When nanopipettes are cycled between solutions of different pH, adsorbed Co(2+) can be released from the nanopipette surface, to regenerate binding sites of the nanopipette. These results demonstrate that rectification-based sensing strategies for nanopore sensors can benefit from selection of recognition elements with intermediate binding affinities, such that reversible responses can be attained.

  20. Biosorptive removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Amaranthus hybridus L. stalk as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of Co (II) from aqueous solution. The experiment was carried out by batch method at 33°C. The influence of pH, contact time and initial metal ion ...

  1. Modification of polyvinyl alcohol surface properties by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukhova, I.V., E-mail: ivpuhova@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kurzina, I.A. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K.P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Laput, O.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E.M. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    We describe our investigations of the surface physicochemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified by silver, argon and carbon ion implantation to doses of 1 × 10{sup 14}, 1 × 10{sup 15} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} and energies of 20 keV (for C and Ar) and 40 keV (for Ag). Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) indicates that destructive processes accompanied by chemical bond (−C=O) generation are induced by implantation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the implanted silver is in a metallic Ag3d state without stable chemical bond formation with polymer chains. Ion implantation is found to affect the surface energy: the polar component increases while the dispersion part decreases with increasing implantation dose. Surface roughness is greater after ion implantation and the hydrophobicity increases with increasing dose, for all ion species. We find that ion implantation of Ag, Ar and C leads to a reduction in the polymer microhardness by a factor of five, while the surface electrical resistivity declines modestly.

  2. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; de Maeztu, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-01

    Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40-80 keV), fluence (1-2 e17 ion/cm2) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted surfaces, without surface chemistry modification, are in the same range and that such modifications, in certain conditions, do have a statistically significant effect on bone tissue forming cell adhesion.

  3. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: q.zhao@dundee.ac.uk; Liu, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Peng, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-31

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N{sup +}, O{sup +} and SiF{sub 3} {sup +}, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF{sub 3} {sup +}-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N{sup +}-implanted steel, O{sup +}-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  4. Structures of cobalt oxide cluster cations studied by ion mobility mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kosuke; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Ohshimo, Keijiro; Misaizu, Fuminori

    2013-11-01

    Structures of cobalt oxide cluster cations have been investigated by ion mobility mass spectrometry. When the ions were injected into a drift cell with 250 eV kinetic energy, (CoO)n+ and ConOn-1+ were observed. Collision cross sections were experimentally determined for (CoO)2-7+ and ConOn-1+ (n = 5-7). Orientation-averaged collision cross sections were calculated for optimized structures of these ions obtained in quantum chemical calculations. By comparison between experimental and theoretical cross sections, (CoO)3-5+ ions are found to have monocyclic-ring structures. By contrast, (CoO)6,7+ have compact tower structures. Therefore, structural transition from the ring to compact structures occurs at (CoO)6+.

  5. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Muñoz, Roberto [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de [Private Practice, P° San Francisco, 43 A-1°, 20400 Tolosa (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm{sup 2}) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  6. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  7. Polymorphism in a Cobalt-Based Single-Ion Magnet Tuning Its Barrier to Magnetization Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexander A; Nelyubina, Yulia V; Kats, Svitlana V; Penkova, Larysa V; Efimov, Nikolay N; Dmitrienko, Artem O; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Belov, Alexander S; Voloshin, Yan Z; Novikov, Valentin V

    2016-10-04

    A large barrier to magnetization reversal, a signature of a good single-molecule magnet (SMM), strongly depends on the structural environment of a paramagnetic metal ion. In a crystalline state, where SMM properties are usually measured, this environment is influenced by crystal packing, which may be different for the same chemical compound, as in polymorphs. Here we show that polymorphism can dramatically change the magnetic behavior of an SMM even with a very rigid coordination geometry. For a cobalt(II) clathrochelate, it results in an increase of the effective barrier from 109 to 180 cm-1, the latter value being the largest one reported to date for cobalt-based SMMs. Our finding thus highlights the importance of identifying possible polymorphic phases in search of new, even more efficient SMMs.

  8. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  9. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakarov, Ivan [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)]. E-mail: ivan.chakarov@silvaco.com; Temkin, Misha [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator.

  10. Ion Implantation in III-V Compound Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    the implantation process and from the fact that any ion can be implanted into any solid. The three main parameters over which control is exercised are...Kinchin and Pease’s theory does not consider annealing due to the recombination of Frenkel pairs, oKP should be larger than the experimentally derived

  11. Enhancement of Ag nanoparticles concentration by prior ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jun; Liu, Changlong

    2017-09-01

    Thermally grown SiO2 layer on Si substrates were singly or sequentially implanted with Zn or Cu and Ag ions at the same fluence of 2 × 1016/cm2. The profiles of implanted species, structure, and spatial distribution of the formed nanoparticles (NPs) have been characterized by the cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (XTEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). It is found that pre-implantation of Zn or Cu ions could suppress the self sputtering of Ag atoms during post Ag ion implantation, which gives rise to fabrication of Ag NPs with a high density. Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the suppressing effect strongly depends on the applied energy and mobility of pre-implanted ions. The possible mechanism for the enhanced Ag NPs concentration has been discussed in combination with SRIM simulations. Both vacancy-like defects acting as the increased nucleation sites for Ag NPs and a high diffusivity of prior implanted ions in SiO2 play key roles in enhancing the deposition of Ag implants.

  12. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  13. Hydrogenation of zirconium film by implantation of hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Kaihong; Lv, Huiyi; Liu, Jiwei; Wang, Boyu

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the drive-in target in a D-D type neutron generator, it is essential to study the mechanism of the interaction between hydrogen ion beams and the hydrogen-absorbing metal film. The present research concerns the nucleation of hydride within zirconium film implanted with hydrogen ions. Doses of 30 keV hydrogen ions ranging from 4.30 × 1017 to 1.43 × 1018 ions cm-2 were loaded into the zirconium film through the ion beam implantation technique. Features of the surface morphology and transformation of phase structures were investigated with scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Confirmation of the formation of δ phase zirconium hydride in the implanted samples was first made by x-ray diffraction, and the different stages in the gradual nucleation and growth of zirconium hydride were then observed by atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Bioactivity of Mg-ion-implanted zirconia and titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H.; Wan, Y. Z.; He, F.; Huang, Y.; Xu, J. D.; Li, J. M.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhao, Z. G.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium and zirconia are bioinert materials lacking bioactivity. In this work, surface modification of the two typical biomaterials is conducted by Mg-ion-implantation using a MEVVA ion source in an attempt to increase their bioactivity. Mg ions were implanted into zirconia and titanium with fluences ranging from 1 × 10 17 to 3 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at 40 keV. The Mg-implanted samples, as well as control (unimplanted) samples, were immersed in SBF for 7 days and then removed to identify the presence of calcium and phosphate (Ca-P) coatings and to characterize their morphology and structure by SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. SEM observations confirm that globular aggregates are formed on the surfaces of the Mg-implanted zirconia and titanium while no precipitates are observed on the control samples. XRD and FT-IR analyses reveal that the deposits are carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAp). Our experimental results demonstrate that Mg-implantation improves the bioactivity of zirconia and titanium. Further, it is found that the degree of bioactivity is adjustable by the ion dose. Mechanisms are proposed to interpret the improvement of bioactivity as a result of Mg implantation and the difference in bioactivity between zirconia and titanium.

  15. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  16. Early fixation of cobalt-chromium based alloy surgical implants to bone using a tissue-engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Munehiro; Tohma, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Takakura, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    To establish the methods of demonstrating early fixation of metal implants to bone, one side of a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) based alloy implant surface was seeded with rabbit marrow mesenchymal cells and the other side was left unseeded. The mesenchymal cells were further cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid, β-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone, resulting in the appearance of osteoblasts and bone matrix on the implant surface. Thus, we succeeded in generating tissue-engineered bone on one side of the CoCr implant. The CoCr implants were then implanted in rabbit bone defects. Three weeks after the implantation, evaluations of mechanical test, undecalcified histological section and electron microscope analysis were performed. Histological and electron microscope images of the tissue engineered surface exhibited abundant new bone formation. However, newly formed bone tissue was difficult to detect on the side without cell seeding. In the mechanical test, the mean values of pull-out forces were 77.15 N and 44.94 N for the tissue-engineered and non-cell-seeded surfaces, respectively. These findings indicate early bone fixation of the tissue-engineered CoCr surface just three weeks after implantation.

  17. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Research Progress in Genotoxic Effects of Degradation Products, Cobalt, Chromium Ions and Nanoparticles from Metal-on-metal Prostheses on Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Han, Qinglin; Liu, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Cobalt or chromium alloys are the most common clinical materials of prosthesis and there have been some investigators at home and abroad have done related researches about the genotoxic effects of cobalt and chromium ions and nanoparticles. People have certain understanding about the mechanism of production of ions as well as their influence on cells. However, chromium or cobalt nanoparticles genotoxicity related research is still in its preliminary stage. In each stage, the mechanisms, from creating of the particles, through entering cells, until finally causing genotoxic, are still contained many problems to be solved. This article reviews the research progress in mechanisms of production and genotoxic effects of cobalt, chromium ions and nanoparticles.

  19. Electrospun carbon-cobalt composite nanofiber as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Long; Yu Yan; Chen Pice [Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Chen Chunhua [Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-03-15

    Carbon-cobalt (C/Co) composite nanofibers with diameters from 100 to 300 nm were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent heat treatment. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, galvanostatic cell cycling and impedance spectroscopy. As a lithium storage material, these fibers exhibit excellent electrochemical properties with high reversible capacity (>750 mA h g{sup -1}) and good rate capability (578 mA h g{sup -1} at 1 C rate). These composite fibers are a promising anode material for high-power Li-ion batteries.

  20. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Hydrometallurgical process for recovery of cobalt from waste cathodic active material generated during manufacturing of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Jeong, Jinki; Lee, Jae-chun; Lee, Gae-Ho; Sohn, Jeong-Soo

    The paper presents a new leaching-solvent extraction hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of a pure and marketable form of cobalt sulfate solution from waste cathodic active material generated during manufacturing of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Leaching of the waste was carried out as a function of the leachant H 2SO 4 concentration, temperature, pulp density and reductant H 2O 2 concentration. The 93% of cobalt and 94% of lithium were leached at suitable optimum conditions of pulp density: 100 g L -1, 2 M H 2SO 4, 5 vol.% of H 2O 2, with a leaching time 30 min and a temperature 75 °C. In subsequent the solvent extraction study, 85.42% of the cobalt was recovered using 1.5 M Cyanex 272 as an extractant at an O/A ratio of 1.6 from the leach liquor at pH 5.00. The rest of the cobalt was totally recovered from the raffinate using 0.5 M of Cyanex 272 and an O/A ratio of 1, and a feed pH of 5.35. Then the co-extracted lithium was scrubbed from the cobalt-loaded organic using 0.1 M Na 2CO 3. Finally, the cobalt sulfate solution with a purity 99.99% was obtained from the cobalt-loaded organic by stripping with H 2SO 4.

  2. Terahertz generation from Cu ion implantation into lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuhua, E-mail: wyh61@163.com [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Ruwu; Yuan, Jie [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Yumei [Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2014-03-15

    In this letter, the authors present first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Metal nanoparticles synthesized by Cu ion implantation were implanted into lithium niobate single crystal using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. 1 kHz, 35 fs laser pulse centred at 800 nm was focused onto the samples. The supercontinuum spectra of the sample are obtained. Terahertz was generated via this kind of sample and investigated using the electro-optical sampling technique. The findings suggest that under the investigated implantation parameter, a strong spectral component in excess of 0.46 THz emission was found from Cu ion implantation of lithium niobate. -- Highlights: • We first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. • Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Cu nanoparticles in lithium niobate have been formed by using MEVVA ion source. • The THz bandwidth and center from this kind of sample were determined.

  3. Cytocompatibility of nitrogen plasma ion immersed medical cobalt-chromium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Kathleen; Schneider, Heike; Lutz, Johanna; Hacker, Michael C; Mändl, Stephan; Kamprad, Manja; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2014-06-01

    Wear particles and ion release from medical CoCr contribute to the risk for aseptic loosening. Nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been shown to reduce wear of CoCr but is associated with increased Co ion release. This work investigated the cytocompatibility of CoCr modified by nitrogen PIII at different temperatures (mCoCr). The osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and mononuclear cells (MNCs) were grown directly on CoCr/mCoCr discs or treated with CoCl2. Proliferation and metabolic activity of Saos-2 and MSC were decreased on mCoCr in correlation with increasing implantation temperature. The elevated Co ion release seemed to play a decisive role since analog effects were observed by treatment of cells with CoCl2. Proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated MNC was reduced in the presence of CoCr discs or CoCl2. For MNC-alloy cultures we observed an increase in interleukin 2 (IL-2) and a decrease in interferon γ (IFN-γ) and IL-10 secretion compared to cultures without alloys. The results of this study demonstrate that PIII process temperature and corresponding Co ion release correlate with material cytocompatibility. Therefore, the two competing parameters, reduction of wear and increase in Co ions, have to be taken into consideration for the evaluation of the clinical applicability of nitrogen-implanted CoCr. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High temperature annealing studies of strontium ion implanted glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odutemowo, O.S., E-mail: u12052613@tuks.co.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Malherbe, J.B.; Prinsloo, L.; Langa, D.F. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Wendler, E. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Glassy carbon samples were implanted with 200 keV strontium ions to a fluence of 2 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analysis with Raman spectroscopy showed that ion bombardment amorphises the glassy carbon structure. Partial recovery of the glassy carbon structure was achieved after the implanted sample was vacuum annealed at 900 °C for 1 h. Annealing the strontium ion bombarded sample at 2000 °C for 5 h resulted in recovery of the glassy carbon substrate with the intensity of the D peak becoming lower than that of the pristine glassy carbon. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) showed that the implanted strontium diffused towards the surface of the glassy carbon after annealing the sample at 900 °C. This diffusion was also accompanied by loss of the implanted strontium. Comparison between the as-implanted and 900 °C depth profiles showed that less than 30% of the strontium was retained in the glassy carbon after heat treatment at 900 °C. The RBS profile after annealing at 2000 °C indicated that no strontium ions were retained after heat treatment at this temperature.

  5. Compression of self-ion implanted iron micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieveson, E.M. [University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Armstrong, D.E.J., E-mail: david.armstrong@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Xu, S.; Roberts, S.G. [University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-ion implantation used to cause cascade damage in pure iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in hardness measured in implanted region using nanoindentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micropillars manufactured and tested in both implanted and unimplanted material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Marked difference in deformation mechanisms in each set of pillars seen using scanning electron microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No difference in yield stress seen, suggesting it is difficult to use micro-compression to understand bulk properties. - Abstract: Ion implantation causes displacement damage in materials, leading to the formation of small dislocation loops and can cause changes to the material's mechanical properties. Samples of pure Fe were subjected to Fe{sup +} implantation at 275 Degree-Sign C, producing damage of {approx}6 dpa to {approx}1 {mu}m depth. Nanoindentation into implanted material shows an increase in hardness compared to unimplanted material. Micropillars were manufactured in cross-section specimens of implanted and unimplanted material and compressed using a nanoindenter. The implanted pillars have a deformation mode which differs markedly from the unimplanted pillars but show no change in yield-stress. This suggests that the controlling mechanism for deformation is different between nanoindentation and micropillar compression and that care is needed if using micropillar compression to extract bulk properties of irradiated materials.

  6. Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Susarla, Naresh; Dees, Dennis W.

    2017-02-01

    The price of the cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries is a key cost driver and thus significantly impacts consumer adoption of devices that utilize large energy storage contents (e.g. electric vehicles). A process model has been developed and used to study the production process of a common lithium-ion cathode material, lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide, using the co-precipitation method. The process was simulated for a plant producing 6500 kg day-1. The results indicate that the process will consume approximately 4 kWh kgNMC-1 of energy, 15 L kgNMC-1 of process water, and cost 23 to produce a kg of Li-NMC333. The calculations were extended to compare the production cost using two co-precipitation reactions (with Na2CO3 and NaOH), and similar cathode active materials such as lithium manganese oxide and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide. A combination of cost saving opportunities show the possibility to reduce the cost of the cathode material by 19%.

  7. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo, E-mail: guidi@fe.infn.it; Mazzolari, Andrea; Paternò, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara, Italy and INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Mattei, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.mattei@unipd.it; Scian, Carlo [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lanzoni, Luca [Dipertimento di Economia e Tecnologia, Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino, Salita alla Rocca, 44, 47890 San Marino Città (San Marino)

    2015-08-10

    Ion implantation is proposed to produce self-standing bent monocrystals. A Si sample 0.2 mm thick was bent to a radius of curvature of 10.5 m. The sample curvature was characterized by interferometric measurements; the crystalline quality of the bulk was tested by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry through synchrotron light at ESRF (Grenoble, France). Dislocations induced by ion implantation affect only a very superficial layer of the sample, namely, the damaged region is confined in a layer 1 μm thick. Finally, an elective application of a deformed crystal through ion implantation is here proposed, i.e., the realization of a crystalline undulator to produce X-ray beams.

  8. Ion implantation of graphene-toward IC compatible technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, U; Pierce, W; Kepaptsoglou, D M; Ramasse, Q; Zan, R; Gass, M H; Van den Berg, J A; Boothroyd, C B; Amani, J; Hofsäss, H

    2013-10-09

    Doping of graphene via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of nanometer-scale patterned graphene-based devices as well as for graphene functionalization compatible with large-scale integrated semiconductor technology. Using advanced electron microscopy/spectroscopy methods, we show for the first time directly that graphene can be doped with B and N via ion implantation and that the retention is in good agreement with predictions from calculation-based literature values. Atomic resolution high-angle dark field imaging (HAADF) combined with single-atom electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy reveals that for sufficiently low implantation energies ions are predominantly substitutionally incorporated into the graphene lattice with a very small fraction residing in defect-related sites.

  9. Influence of ion implantation on titanium surfaces for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischok, Stefan; Blank, Claudia; Engel, Michael; Gutt, Richard; Ecke, Gernot; Schawohl, Jens; Spieß, Lothar; Schrempel, Frank; Hildebrand, Gerhard; Liefeith, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    The implantation of ions into the near surface layer is a new approach to improve the osseointegration of metallic biomaterials like titanium. Meanwhile it is well known that surface topography and surface physico-chemistry as well as visco-elastic properties influence the cell response after implantation of implants into the human body. To optimize the cell response of titanium, ion implantation techniques have been used to integrate calcium and phosphorus, both elements present in the inorganic bone phase. In this context, the concentration profile of the detected elements and their chemical state have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. Ion implantation leads to strong changes of the chemical composition of the near surface region, which are expected to modify the biofunctionality as observed in previous experiments on the cell response. The co-implantation of calcium and phosphorus samples, which showed best results in the performed tests (biological and physical), leads to a strong modification of the chemical surface composition.

  10. Experimental characterization of monocrystalline Si targets implanted with Sb + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbani, R.; Serrar, H.; Baouni, L.

    2010-02-01

    Monocrystalline silicon targets were submitted to a beam of antimony ions. The Si(1 1 1) substrates were implanted at an energy of 120 keV, at room temperature, to a dose varying from 1×10 15 to 5×10 15 Sb + cm -2. To recover the radiation defects generated by Sb + ions, a thermal annealing was performed, at 900 °C for 30 min under very high vacuum. The study of antimony ion implantation in the monocrystalline silicon targets was performed by means of different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. The perturbations enhanced by Sb + ion implantation and the recovery of the damage were investigated with great interest. Although the selected techniques are not frequently applied to investigate such phenomena, they have provided important results. In as-implanted specimens, it was found that the radiation damage increased with the increase of antimony dose. After the annealing treatment, a good recovery of defects was obtained especially in the samples implanted with the low dose (i.e. 1×10 15 Sb + cm -2).

  11. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Becker, H.-W. [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Williams, G.V.M. [The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  12. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    oxidation rate of silicon and to synthesize the diffusion barrier for copper metallization. This technique offers high dose rate and different implantation doses can be achieved by changing the frequency of applied pulses. Acknowledgement. Authors would like to express their gratitude to Mr P B. Sahoo for extending pertinent ...

  13. Metal ion levels in ceramic-on-ceramic THR with cobalt-chrome modular necks: analysis of cobalt and chromium serum levels in 23 healthy hip patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jan F A; Dedrye, Lieven; Goeminne, Sofie

    2017-02-21

    Modular necks in total hip replacement (THR) can be a source of metal ion release. We measured the level of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) ions in the serum of 23 healthy volunteers with a well-functioning ceramic-on-ceramic THR of a particular design, containing a cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) stem and a Co-Cr modular neck. Average Co in serum was 1,71 µg/l; median Co was 1.50 µg/l. No patient had Co levels higher than 3.70 µg/l. Average Cr level was 0.49 µg/l; in all but one patient Cr was below the detection limit (<0.50 µg/l). Co was higher for varus necks compared to all other subtypes: 2.14 µg/l vs 1.58 µg/l (p<0.05). The same system with Titanium modular necks shows lower Co serum levels: 1.26 µg/l (p<0.01 ). In conclusion, the hybrid THR Profemur Xm® - Procotyle L® with a Co-Cr modular neck on a Co-Cr stem design shows very low Cr ion serum levels in a randomly selected group of well-functioning hip patients. Co ion serum levels are low, but significantly higher for 8° varus necks, and Co levels are significantly higher than values of this system with a Titanium modular neck.

  14. Characterization of duplex hard coatings with additional ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Škorić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin fi lms which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD. In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N+2 ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of eff ects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densifi cation of the fi lms. The evolution of the microstructure from porous and columnar grains to densel packed grains is accompanied by changes in mechanical and physical properties. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, X-ray diff raction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX.

  15. Analysis of metal ion release from biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dimić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are commonly used for fixation or replacement of damaged bones in the human body due to their good combination of mechanical properties. The disadvantage of metals as implant materials is their susceptibility to corrosion and metal ion release, which can cause serious health problems. In certain concentrations metals and metal ions are toxic and their presence can cause diverse inflammatory reactions, genetic mutations or even cancer. In this paper, different approaches to metal ion release examination, from biometallic materials sample preparation to research results interpretation, will be presented. An overview of the analytical techniques, used for determination of the type and concentration of released ions from implants in simulated biofluids, is also given in the paper.

  16. Buried injector logic, a vertical IIL using deep ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A vertically integrated alternative for integrated injection logic has been realized, named buried injector logic (BIL). 1 MeV ion implantations are used to create buried layers. The vertical pnp and npn transistors have thin base regions and exhibit a limited charge accumulation if a gate is

  17. Surface and bulk vibrations in ion-implanted amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS) has been used to identify the Si-O vibrational mode and confirm previous assignments of Si-OH, and Si-OD vibrational modes in porous amorphous silica implanted with heavy ions and with H/sup +/ and D/sup +/ ions. The Si-O stretching mode (approx. 1015 cm/sup -1/) is produced by the damage cascade and is seen in all implanted bulk silicas as well as in porous silica. Implantation of porous silica with H/sup +/ and D/sup +/ ions produces bands at approx. 985 cm/sup -1/ and approx. 960 cm-/sup 1/, respectively. The position of all three bands is consistent with O, OH, and OD mass considerations. Implantation of D/sup +/ ions into porous silica containing molecular water and OH/sup -/ groups results in D-H exchange. The Si-OH and Si-OD vibrations are also seen in the bulk fused silica at low H/D fluences. These results suggest that intrinsic E'-type defects in bulk silica and dangling Si bonds at internal surface sites.

  18. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Lagomarsino, S; Bosia, F; Vannoni, M; Calusi, S; Giuntini, L; Massi, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating light-waveguiding microstructures in bulk single-crystal diamond by means of direct ion implantation with a scanning microbeam, resulting in the modulation of the refractive index of the ion-beam damaged crystal. Direct evidence of waveguiding through such buried microchannels is obtained with a phase-shift micro-interferometric method allowing the study of the multi-modal structure of the propagating electromagnetic field. The possibility of defining optical and photonic structures by direct ion writing opens a range of new possibilities in the design of quantum-optical devices in bulk single crystal diamond.

  20. Coloration of natural beryl by iron ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaibullin, R.I. E-mail: rik@kfti.knc.ru; Lopatin, O.N.; Vagizov, F.G.; Bazarov, V.V.; Bakhtin, A.I.; Khaibullin, I.B.; Aktas, B

    2003-05-01

    Natural colorless crystals of Ural beryl were implanted at room temperature with 40 keV Fe{sup +} ions with fluences in the range of 0.5-1.5 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. As-implanted samples show dark-grey tone due to radiation damage of beryl crystal. Subsequent thermal annealing of irradiated crystals in oxygen at 600 deg. C for 30 min results in the color change, to yellowish or yellow-orange tones with golden luster, depending on value of iron fluence. The nature of beryl coloration was studied by optical absorption, Moessbauer and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectroscopes. It was established that the thermal treatment of iron-irradiated beryl lead to inward diffusive redistribution of iron ions. An appearance of optical absorption bands connected with charge-transfers O{sup 2-} {yields} Fe{sub VI}{sup 3+} and O{sup 2-} {yields} Fe{sub IV}{sup 2+}, Fe{sub IV}{sup 3+} determine the yellow tone in colored beryls. Most of implanted iron ions are founded in both tetrahedral Fe{sub IV}{sup 2+} and octahedral Fe{sub VI}{sup 3+} sites where they may substitute beryllium and aluminum host ions by isomorphic way.

  1. Role of span length in the adaptation of implant-supported cobalt chromium frameworks fabricated by three techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Yong; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Yiqing; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of span length on the adaptation of implant-supported cobalt chromium frameworks fabricated by three techniques. Models with two solid abutment analogs at different inter-abutment distances were digitized using a laboratory scanner. Frameworks of two-, three-, and four-unit fixed prostheses were designed by a computer. Six dots with a diameter of 0.2 mm were preset on the surface of each framework. A total of 54 implant-supported cobalt chromium frameworks were fabricated by milling, selective laser melting (SLM), and cast techniques. The frameworks were scanned and exported as Stereolithography files. Distances between two dots in X, Y, and Z coordinates were measured in both the designed and fabricated frameworks. Marginal gaps between the framework and the abutments were also evaluated by impression replica method. In terms of distance measurement, significant differences were found between three- and four-unit frameworks, as well as between two- and four-unit frameworks prepared by milling technique (Pframeworks, as well as between two- and four-unit frameworks prepared by cast technique (Pframeworks was affected by the span length and fabrication method.

  2. Some features of ion mixing during simultaneous ion implantation and deposition of metallic coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Pogrebnyak, A D; Mikhalev, A D; Shablya, V T; Yanovskij, V P

    2001-01-01

    The results on the Ta, Cu ions implantation into the aluminium substrate by simultaneous deposition of these ions in the form of coatings are presented. The complex structure of these coatings from the given elements in the substrate, as well as the increase in the microhardness, adhesion and corrosion resistance growth are determined. It is shown on the basis of the results of the secondary ions energy distribution, that intermetallic phases are formed in the substrate surface layer

  3. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D. [STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries using organic acids: Process optimization and kinetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadzadeh, Rabeeh; Rashchi, Fereshteh; Vahidi, Ehsan

    2017-06-01

    An environmentally-friendly route based on hydrometallurgy was investigated for the recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using different organic acids (citric acid, Dl-malic acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid). In this investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize leaching parameters including solid to liquid ratio (S/L), temperature, acid concentration, type of organic acid and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Based on the results obtained from optimizing procedure, temperature was recognized as the most influential parameter. In addition, while 81% of cobalt was recovered, the maximum lithium recovery of 92% was achieved at the optimum leaching condition of 60°C, S/L: 30gL-1, citric acid concentration: 2M, hydrogen peroxide concentration: 1.25Vol.% and leaching time: 2h. Furthermore, results displayed that ultrasonic agitation will enhance the recovery of lithium and cobalt. It was found that the kinetics of cobalt leaching is controlled by surface chemical reaction at temperatures lower than 45°C. However, diffusion through the product layer at temperatures higher than 45°C controls the rate of cobalt leaching. Rate of lithium reaction is controlled by diffusion through the product layer at all the temperatures studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal-on-metal bearings total hip arthroplasty: the cobalt and chromium ions release concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, C; Petit, I; Learmonth, I D; Oger, P; Vendittoli, P A

    2010-12-01

    With certain concerns recently reported on metal-on-metal bearing couples in total hip arthroplasty, this study's objective is to review the current knowledge concerning release of metal ions and its potential consequences. Each metal-on-metal implant presents different tribological properties. The analytical techniques for metals are accurate and the Co ion rates seem acceptable up to 2 μg/L. A delayed type IV hypersensitivity reaction (atypical lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesion [ALVAL]) may be the source of arthroplasty failure. Idiosyncratic, it remains unpredictable even using cutaneous tests and apparently is rare (0.3%). Today, there are no scientific or epidemiologic data supporting a risk of carcinogenesis or teratogenesis related to the use of a metal-on-metal bearings couple. Solid pseudotumors nearly exclusively are observed with resurfacing procedures, carrying a high annual revision rate in women under 40 years of age, occurring particularly in cases of acetabular malposition and with use of cast molded Cr-Co alloys. Osteolysis manifests through complete and progressive radiolucent lines or through cavitary lesions stemming from ALVAL-type alterations or impingement problems or implant incompatibility. The formation of wear debris exceeding the biological tolerance is possible with implant malposition, subluxation, and jamming of the femoral head in cases of cup deformity. Moreover, each implant presents different metal ion production; assessment of their performance and safety is required before their clinical use. With the knowledge available today, metal-on-metal bearing couples are contraindicated in cases of metal allergies or end stage renal dysfunction and small size resurfacing should cautiously be used. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungers, L J; Jones, J H

    1986-10-01

    Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a "dopant" material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Carbon nanotube growth from catalytic nano-clusters formed by hot-ion-implantation into the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Yasushi, E-mail: yhoshino@kanagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Arima, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Ai; Saito, Yasunao; Nakata, Jyoji [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    We have studied growth of chirality-controlled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from hot-implantation-formed catalytic nano-clusters in a thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. This procedure has the advantage of high controllability of the diameter and the number of clusters by optimizing the conditions of the ion implantation. In the present study, Co{sup +} ions with ion dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} are implanted in the vicinity of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface at 300 Degree-Sign C temperature. The implanted Co atoms located in the SiO{sub 2} layer has an amorphous-like structure with a cluster diameter of several nm. In contrast, implanted Co atoms in the Si substrate are found to take a cobalt silicide structure, confirmed by the high-resolution image of transmission electron microscope. CNTs are grown by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We have confirmed a large amount of vertically-aligned multi-walled CNTs from the Co nano-clusters formed by the hot-ion-implantation near the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  9. Iron-Ion Implantation into the Structure of Rock Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Mukhametshin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron ions with the energy of 40 keV have been implanted into colorless natural rock crystals to high fluencies of 1.0∙1017 and 1.5∙1017 ion/cm2. These crystals were selected from Svetlinsky deposits of the Southern Urals, which are well-known as minerals with high quality and low content of impurities. A radical change in the color of the crystals after iron-ion implantation and subsequent high-temperature annealing in air has been revealed. The origin of color changes has been studied by using optical methods, as well as Mössbauer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been established that the high-dose and high-energy flow of ions results in the formation of various kinds of structural defects on the surface layer of the matrix, such as electron-hole centers, as well as in the formation at a specific depth of the irradiated matrix of the ultrafine iron-containing phases with a structure, which is non-coherent to the structure of the original matrix. The subsequent high-temperature annealing of the implanted quartz has changed the color of the samples to orange-yellow. This color is similar to the color of natural citrine. The orange color richness of the heat-treated samples grew with increasing amounts of embedded iron impurity in the crystal. The nature of orange-yellow coloration of the implanted and annealed quartz plates can be explained by the formation of ultrafine hematite nanoparticles located in a layer at a depth of ~15 nm. The possibility of refining the color of minerals by ion-beam exposure has been discussed.

  10. Cobalt-chromium alloys in dentistry: An evaluation of metal ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Maria Claudia; Fratto, Giovanni; Valeriani, Federica; De Vittori, Elisabetta; Giampaoli, Saverio; Papetti, Patrizia; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Manzon, Licia

    2015-10-01

    Metal ions released into the oral cavity from dental prosthesis alloys may damage the cellular metabolism or proliferation and cause hypersensitivity or allergies. The oral cavity environment is particularly prone to corrosion due to saliva, microorganisms, and pH variations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ion release of chromium, cobalt, and iron from the Co-Cr alloys used for traditionally cast and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing dental devices after interaction with oral bacteria and different pH conditions. All specimens were prepared from currently available alloys, polished, and immersed in 3 different pH media (artificial saliva [pH 2.3] and 6.5% and 0.9% saline solution [pH 7.1]). Specimens were also incubated in the presence of the bacterium Eikenella corrodens. Solutions were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer after 15 and 30 days in the chemical corrosion test and 30 days in the biocorrosion test to detect ions released in different solutions. An ANOVA test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences among the percentages of metal corrosion ion release values. The greatest amount of element release was seen after 30 days: 4.964 ppm of casting alloy, 2.642 ppm of milling alloy, and 2.351 ppm of laser metal sintering. With the exception of casting alloy under acidic conditions, no significant differences were found, even after exposure to bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  12. Ion Implantation of Wide Bandgap Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    u s i n g nomina l l v • S’~ xi lane in UHP argon and r o u g h ly eq u i va l e n t system cond it ions. We probably obtained a h o t t i t ’ of...dilute silane that is more c o nce n t rat e d han t he nomina l 1 .5Z reques ted . Both Auger ana l vs is and Rut her f o rd b ackscu t t er ing

  13. Low-energy collisions of helium clusters with size-selected cobalt cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Hideho; Ichihashi, Masahiko

    2017-04-01

    Collisions of helium clusters with size-selected cobalt cluster ions, Com+ (m ≤ 5), were studied experimentally by using a merging beam technique. The product ions, Com+Hen (cluster complexes), were mass-analyzed, and this result indicates that more than 20 helium atoms can be attached onto Com+ at the relative velocities of 103 m/s. The measured size distributions of the cluster complexes indicate that there are relatively stable complexes: Co2+Hen (n = 2, 4, 6, and 12), Co3+Hen (n = 3, 6), Co4+He4, and Co5+Hen (n = 3, 6, 8, and 10). These stabilities are explained in terms of their geometric structures. The yields of the cluster complexes were also measured as a function of the relative velocity (1 × 102-4 × 103 m/s), and this result demonstrates that the main interaction in the collision process changes with the increase of the collision energy from the electrostatic interaction, which includes the induced deformation of HeN, to the hard-sphere interaction. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80015-0

  14. Fabrication of Graphene Using Carbon Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Graphene is a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice and is a basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensionalities. It can be wrapped up into 0D fullerenes, rolled into 1D nanotubes, or stacked into 3D graphite. Graphene's high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency make it a candidate for transparent conducting electrodes, required for such applications as touchscreens, liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells, and organic light-emitting diodes. In particular, graphene's mechanical strength and flexibility are advantageous compared to indium tin oxide, which is brittle, and graphene films may be deposited from solution over large areas. One method to grow epitaxial graphene is by starting with single crystal silicon carbide (SiC). When SiC is heated under certain conditions, silicon evaporates leaving behind carbon that reorganizes into layers of graphene. Here we report on an alternate method of producing graphene by using low energy carbon implantation in a nickel layer deposited on silicon dioxide mechanical support, followed by heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere to induce carbon migration and self-assembly. We used high resolution RBS and Raman spectroscopy for process and sample characterization. Details will be discussed during the meeting.

  15. Copper nanoparticles synthesized in polymers by ion implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Nuzhdin, Vladimir; Valeev, Valerij

    2015-01-01

    as optical transmission spectroscopy. It is found that copper nanoparticles nucleation and growth are strongly fluence dependent as well as they are affected by the polymer properties, in particular, by radiation stability yielding different nanostructures for the implanted PI and PMMA. Shallow synthesized......Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyimide (PI) samples are implanted by 40 keV Cu+ ions with high fluences in order to synthesize copper nanoparticles in shallow polymer layers. The produced metal/polymer nanocomposites are studied using atomic force and scanning electron microscopies as well...... nanoparticles are observed to partly tower above the sample surface due to a side effect of high-fluence irradiation leading to considerable sputtering of polymers. Implantation and particle formation significantly change optical properties of both polymers reducing transmittance in the UV-visible range due...

  16. Stress Analysis on Single Cobalt/Chrome Prosthesis With a 15-mm Cantilever Placed Over 10/13/15-mm-length Implants: A Simulated Photoelastic Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, José Fábio Guastelli; Pimentel, Angélica Castro; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sendyk, Wilson Roberto; Laganá, Dalva Cruz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to assess the stress around 10/13/15-mm implants in the mandibular area with a 15-mm cantilevered acrylic-resin-coated prostheses following the application force, using the photoelasticity method. Three photoelastic mandibular models were created containing 10-, 13-, and 15-mm implants in length and 3.75 mm in diameter. The implants had bore internal hex connections and were placed parallel to the intermental region. Abutments with 1-mm high cuffs were placed over the implants, and a single cobalt/chrome metallic prosthesis with a 15-mm cantilever, coated with thermoplastic acrylic resin, was placed on top. Loads of 1.0 and 3.0 bars were applied, and the images were photographed and assessed by photoelasticity method. The greatest stress levels were observed for the 10-mm implants. The stress pattern was the same regardless of implant length; only the magnitude of the stress along the implant body revealed changes. Increased implant length played a role in reducing stress on the investigated area of the model, and the 15-mm implants exhibited the best performance in regard to stress distribution. The highest stress levels were found in the implants closest to the cantilever and the central implant. The longest implants were more favorable in regard to the stress distribution on the peri-implant support structures in the 15-mm cantilevered prosthesis under loads.

  17. Mechanical loss of ion-implanted tantala layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Bastian; Komma, Julius; Hofmann, Gerd; Schwarz, Christian; Heinert, Daniel; Seidel, Paul; Schnohr, Claudia; Nawrodt, Ronny [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, FSU Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The sensitivity of future gravitational wave detectors will be limited by Brownian thermal noise of the optical components. One approach is to utilize low mechanical loss materials for the substrates and coatings as well as cryogenic temperatures. However, high performance dielectric layers for high-reflectivity coatings - like tantala or silica - show large mechanical losses and thus high Brownian thermal noise at low temperatures due to their amorphous nature. It was found that co-doping of tantala layers with titania significantly reduces the mechanical loss and thus the Brownian thermal noise. We present detailed studies of the mechanical loss of post-deposition ion-implanted tantala coatings and of the influence of heat treatments. These measurements give evidence that it is possible to reduce the mechanical loss of the tantala layers by ion-implantation.

  18. Influence of heavy ion implantation on the microhardness of lif

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Alazm, S M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented microhardness measurements for pure lithium fluoride (LiF) implanted with Ar, Kr and Xe at doses ranged from 10 sup 9 up to 10 sup 1 2 ion/cm sup 2. Measurements were also performed for the microhardness after irradiation by electron and gamma rays. The data exhibited a large increase of microhardness of LiF using heavy ions in comparison with the unimplanted and irradiated samples with electrons and gamma rays. The influence of annealing the samples on the microhardness is also studied. The obtained results were interpreted according to the formation of F-centers in LiF.

  19. Dental implant suprastructures using cobalt-chromium alloy compared with gold alloy framework veneered with ceramic or acrylic resin: a retrospective cohort study up to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teigen, Kyrre; Jokstad, Asbjørn

    2012-07-01

    An association between the long-term success and survival of implant-supported prostheses as a function of biomaterial combinations has not been established. The use of cast cobalt-chromium for the suprastructure framework may be an alternative to the conventional approach of using type 3 gold alloys. A retrospective chart audit of all patients who had received implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDP) before 1996 was identified in a private practice clinic. Data were recorded for FDPs made from four combinations of alloy frameworks and veneering material, i.e. type 3 gold and cobalt-chromium with ceramic or prefabricated acrylic teeth. The extracted data from the charts were subjected to explorative statistical tests including Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Patients (n=198) with 270 short and extensive FDPs supported entirely by 1117 implants were identified. The average follow-up observation periods varied between 4 and 220 months, with an average of 120 months. The success and survival, as well as event rates and types of biological and technical complications, were similar for implant-supported FDPs using cobalt-chromium and type 3 gold alloy frameworks veneered with ceramics or prefabricated acrylic teeth. An influence of the suprastructure biomaterial combination on the clinical performance of the individual supporting implants could not be established. Implant-supported FDPs made from type 3 gold or cobalt-chromium frameworks and veneered with ceramic or prefabricated acrylic teeth demonstrate comparable clinical performance. The biomaterial combinations do not appear to influence the success or survival of the individual implants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Swept Line Electron Beam Annealing of Ion Implanted Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    a pre- liminary study using silicon solar cells. This work was undertaken in cooperation with Dr. J. Eguren of the Instituto De Energia Solar , Madrid...device fabrication has been attempted. To date, resistors, capacitors, diodes, bipolar transistors, MOSFEs, and solar cells have been fabricated with...34 " 48 *Si Solar Cells Ruby PL P+ Ion-Implanted 49 Ruby PL Pulsed Diffused 50 :C

  1. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  2. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation; Dopage du carbure de silicium par implantation ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimbert, J

    1999-03-04

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  3. Mesoporous ethanesilica materials with bimodal and trimodal pore-size distributions synthesised in the presence of cobalt ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alufelwi M. Tshavhungwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous organosilica materials containing ethane groups in their framework were formed with two and three pore sizes (i.e. bimodal and trimodal pores when synthesised by the sol-gel method in the presence of cobalt ions. The compounds 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane and tetraethylorthosilicate were used as silicon sources and the reactions were done in the presence of a surfactant, which served as a template. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed that organic functional groups were incorporated into the ethanesilica. Powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption data indicated that the mesophase and textural properties (surface area, pore volume, pore diameter of the materials were dependent on the ageing temperature, the amount/ratio of silica precursors and cobalt ion incorporation. Secondary mesopores were drastically reduced by changing the ratio of silicon precursors.

  4. Ion implanted GaAs nanowire pn junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Katharina; Stichtenoth, Daniel; Ronning, Carsten [II. Institute of Physics, University of Goettingen (Germany); Gutsche, Christoph; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz Josef [Solid-State Electronics Department, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ion beam doping of materials offers advantages in comparison to doping during growth or by diffusion. First, the impurity concentration as well as the lateral and depth distributions of the dopants are precisely controllable, and secondly, almost all elements can be implanted isotope-selective even beyond any solubility limit. We present studies on ion implanted gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire pn junctions. Nominal intrinsic GaAs nanowires were grown by the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles on top of GaAs(100) substrates. Sulphur, being a donor in GaAs, was implanted into the nanowires using different ion energies resulting in a uniform concentration profile. The now n-type doped nanowires were then reinserted into the metal organic vapour phase epitaxy system. After an annealing procedure, the growth of the nanowires was continued under the addition of an acceptor. Finally, the fabricated nanowire pn junctions were shaved from the growth substrate and processed with contacts on top of insulating carrier substrates. First results on the electrical characterization of these structures are shown.

  5. Stabilization of organic thin film transistors by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraboni, B., E-mail: beatrice.fraboni@unibo.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cosseddu, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy and CNR-INFM S3 via Campi 213/a 41100 Modena (Italy); Wang, Y.Q.; Schulze, R.K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-K771 Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Cavallini, A. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-K771 Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Bonfiglio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy and CNR-INFM S3 via Campi 213/a 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation (N and Ne) in the reduction and control of the degradation of pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) due to the exposure to atmosphere (i.e. oxygen and water). We have observed that a controlled damage depth distribution preserves the functionality of the devices, even if ion implantation induces significant molecular structure modifications, in particular a combination of dehydrogenation and carbonification effects. No relevant changes in the pentacene thin film thickness have been observed. The two major transport parameters that characterize OTFT performance are the carrier mobility and the threshold voltage. We have monitored the effectiveness of this process in stabilizing the device by monitoring the carrier mobility and the threshold voltage over a long time (over 2000 h). Finally, we have assessed by depth resolved X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy analyses that, by selectively implanting with ions that can react with the hydrocarbon matrix (e.g. N{sup +}), it is possible to locally modify the charge distribution within the organic layer.

  6. Target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by method of stable ion beam implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M

    The ionization efficiency is one of the most important parameters of an on-line used target-ion source system exploited for production of exotic radioactive beams. The ionization efficiency value determination as a characteristic of a target-ion source unit in the stage of its normalizing before on-line use is a very important step in the course of the preparation for an on-line experiment. At the IRIS facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina) a reliable and rather precise method of the target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by the method of stable beam implantation has been developed. The method worked out exploits an off-line mass-separator for the implantation of the ion beams of selected stable isotopes of different elements into a tantalum foil placed inside the Faraday cup in the focal plane of the mass-separator. The amount of implanted ions has been measured with a high accuracy by the current integrator connected to the Faraday cup. After the implantation of needed a...

  7. Prospective registry evaluating safety and efficacy of cobalt-chromium stent implantation in patients with de novo coronary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszman, Paweł; Trznadel, Stanisław; Zurakowski, Aleksander; Milewski, Krzysztof; Kinasz, Leszek; Król, Marek; Kondys, Marek

    2007-09-01

    Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) stents are a new type of endovascular prostheses characterised by better mechanical properties than traditional stainless steel stents. To assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) using the new Co-Cr Kos stent (Balton, Poland). A total of 59 patients with coronary artery diseases (76% men, aged 60+/-9 years, diabetes - 16.9%, smoking - 62.7%, 11.8% - acute myocardial infarction) underwent PCI for de novo lesions in native coronary vessels. The patients were followed for 6 months for the occurrence of cardiac events. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at baseline and after 6 months. In total, we implanted 62 stents in 59 coronary arteries. The mean diameter of the stents was 3.18+/-0.18 mm, and length - 14.62+/-2.12 mm. During a one-month follow-up period no cardiac events were noted. During a 6-month follow-up no death or new myocardial infarction were recorded. Control angiography was done in 55 (92%) subjects. Repeated target vessel revascularisation due to recurrent angina or in-stent restenosis was required in 10 (17%) patients; however, off-line core evaluation found significant re-narrowing in implanted stents (>50% diameter stenosis) only in 6 cases (10.9%). The mean late vessel lumen loss was 0.55+/-0.6 mm and stenosis 25.2+/-17.9%. Implantation of the new Co-Cr Kos stent during PCI is safe and effective.

  8. Antibacterial properties and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 stainless steels implanted by silver and copper ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-wei; Zhang, Han-shuang; Chen, Rong-sheng; Zhan, Wei-ting; Huo, Kai-fu; Zuo, Zhen-yu

    2012-04-01

    Silver or copper ions are often chosen as antibacterial agents. But a few reports are concerned with these two antibacterial agents for preparation of antibacterial stainless steel (SS). The antibacterial properties and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 stainless steel implanted by silver and copper ions were investigated. Due to the cooperative antibacterial effect of silver and copper ions, the Ag/Cu implanted SS showed excellent antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) at a total implantation dose of 2×1017 ions/cm2. Electrochemical polarization curves revealed that the corrosion resistance of Ag/Cu implanted SS was slightly enhanced as compared with that of un-implanted SS. The implanted layer was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Core level XPS spectra indicate that the implanted silver and copper ions exist in metallic state in the implanted layer.

  9. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  10. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  11. Improved adhesion of ultra-hard carbon films on cobalt-chromium orthopaedic implant alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catledge, Shane A; Vaid, Rishi; Diggins, Patrick; Weimer, Jeffrey J; Koopman, Mark; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-02-01

    While interfacial graphite formation and subsequent poor film adhesion is commonly reported for chemical vapor deposited hard carbon films on cobalt-based materials, we find the presence of O(2) in the feedgas mixture to be useful in achieving adhesion on a CoCrMo alloy. Nucleation studies of surface structure before formation of fully coalesced hard carbon films reveal that O(2) feedgas helps mask the catalytic effect of cobalt with carbon through early formation of chromium oxides and carbides. The chromium oxides, in particular, act as a diffusion barrier to cobalt, minimizing its migration to the surface where it would otherwise interact deleteriously with carbon to form graphite. When O(2) is not used, graphitic soot forms and films delaminate readily upon cooling to room temperature. Continuous 1 μm-thick nanostructured carbon films grown with O(2) remain adhered with measured hardness of 60 GPa and show stable, non-catastrophic circumferential micro-cracks near the edges of indent craters made using Rockwell indentation.

  12. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  13. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  14. Binding energies of hydrated cobalt hydroxide ion complexes: A guided ion beam and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Rebecca A.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2017-08-01

    The sequential bond energies of CoOH+(H2O)x complexes, where x = 1-4, are measured by threshold collision-induced dissociation using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The primary dissociation pathway for all reactants consists of loss of a single water molecule. This is followed by the sequential loss of additional water molecules at higher collision energies for the x = 2-4 complexes, whereas the x = 1 reactant loses the OH ligand competitively with the H2O ligand. The kinetic energy dependent cross sections for dissociation of CoOH+(H2O)x complexes are modeled to obtain 0 and 298 K binding energies. Our experimental results agree well with theoretically determined bond dissociation energies (BDEs) at the B3LYP, B3LYP-GD3BJ, B3P86, and MP2(full) levels of theory with a 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis set using geometries and vibrational frequencies determined at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Thermochemical information for the loss of OH from CoOH+(H2O)x where x = 0-4 is also derived by combining the present experimental HO-Co+(H2O) and water loss BDEs from CoOH+(H2O)x with those for Co+(H2O)y from the literature. These BDEs are also compared to theory with mixed results.

  15. The effect of metal ion implantation on the surface mechanical properties of Mylar (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Yao, X.; Brown, I.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation of polymers leads to the formation of new carbonaceous materials, the revolution during implantation of various species consists of (1) ion beam induced damage: chain scission, crosslinking, molecular emission of volatile elements and compounds, stoichiometric change in the surface layer of pristine polymers; and (2) chemical effect between ion and target materials: microalloying and precipitation. Literature regarding ion implanted polymers shows that the reorganisation of the carbon network after implantation can dramatically modify several properties of pristine polymers solubility, molecular weight, and electrical, optical and mechanical properties. However, ion implantation of polymers is actually a very complex interaction which depends on not only ion species, implantation condition, but also polymer type and specific structure. In this paper the effect of Ag or Ti ions implantation on surface mechanical properties of PET (polyethylenne terephthalate) polymer is reported. There was a clear deterioration in wear resistance after implantation of both Ag and Ti ions. It is suggested that the increment of wear after implantation may result from not only ion damage but also chemical effect between ion and target material. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Nanoparticle silver ion coatings inhibit biofilm formation on titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secinti, Kutsal Devrim; Özalp, Hakan; Attar, Ayhan; Sargon, Mustafa F

    2011-03-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on the surface of implanted metal objects is a major clinical problem. The antibacterial and antifungal effect of silver ions has been long known, and seems to give silver the capability to inhibit biofilm formation. To test the effect of silver ions, 20 New Zealand rabbits had bacteria applied to a screw insertion site at the iliac crest, and were then randomly divided into two groups: Group I, which had silver-coated screws applied, and Group II, which had uncoated titanium screws. After the rabbits were sacrificed on day 28, we examined the screws, the bone adjacent to the screws, and the liver, kidneys, brain and corneas of both groups under transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also analysed microbiological samples from the screw holes. All silver-coated screws, but only 10% of uncoated titanium screws, were sterile. All tissue samples appeared ultrastructurally normal in both groups. Biofilm formation was inhibited on all silver-coated screws, but all uncoated screws developed a biofilm on their surfaces. Our findings suggest that nanoparticle silver ion-coated implants are as safe as uncoated titanium screws and that they can help prevent both biofilm formation and infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved bio-tribology of biomedical alloys by ion implantation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, C.; Lutz, J.; Mändl, S.; García, J. A.; Martínez, R.; Rodríguez, R. J.

    2009-05-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials by conventional ion implantation (II) and plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) are innovative methods to improve the biocompatibility of these advanced materials. This paper describes the biocompatibility improvements of Ti6Al4V and Co28Cr6Mo implanted with N and O in a conventional implantation and a plasma immersion ion implantation processes. Tribo-corrosion friction and wear tests were performed in a realistic environment - in Hank's solution - to investigate the introduced modifications. The wear performance was only slightly improved due to a thin layer thickness, whereas, in contrast, the corrosion rate was significantly reduced.

  18. Enhancing antibacterial properties of UHMWPE via ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, Vincenzo; Delle Side, Domenico; Velardi, Luciano; Alifano, Pietro; Talà, Adelfia; Maurizio Tredici, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, the demand for biomaterials of antimicrobial quality sensibly increased. The essential properties of these materials must be the biocompatibility, wettability, durability and their antibacterial characteristics. One of the most important biomaterial for medical applications is the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) that it is used to make components of prosthetic knee, hip and shoulder. It is well known that the presence in UHMWPE of Ag atoms increase its antibacterial properties while Cu and its alloys are known as natural antimicrobial materials. In this work it is proposed a dedicated laser ion source (LIS) accelerator to perform ion implantation together with a systematic study of the surface properties of UHMWPE samples treated with different metals in order to modify their antibacterial characteristics. The proposed technique consists in the application of a dose of specific ions inside the first layer of the sample to be treated. This goal can be effectively achieved if the ions are preventively accelerated. This technique seems to be interesting, since it can open the way to an easier realization of antibacterial materials using various metal ions.

  19. Helium implantation induced metal gettering in silicon at half of the projected ion range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeva, A.; Fichtner, P. F. P.; Behar, M.; Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W.

    2001-04-01

    Damage has been found in 40 keV He + ion-implanted Si away from the projected ion range Rp, mainly around Rp/2. Cu gettering has been used for detecting implantation induced defects which are formed during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of 800°C/10 min. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs show no visible defects at Rp/2. The Cu gettering peak at Rp/2 is well known for MeV-ion-implanted and annealed Si ( Rp/2 effect). In this study, the corresponding effect is observed for low-energy implantation of a light ion-like He.

  20. Mass and energy deposition effects of implanted ions on solid sodium formate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiangqin E-mail: clshao@mail.ipp.ac.cn; Shao Chunlin; Yao Jianming; Yu Zengliang

    2000-07-01

    Solid sodium formate was implanted by low energy N{sup +}, H{sup +}, and Ar{sup +} ions. Measured with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), it was observed that new -CH{sub 2}-, -CH{sub 3}- groups and COO{sup -} radical ion were produced in the implanted sodium formate. Analyzing with the highly sensitive ninhydrin reaction, it was found that a new -NH{sub 2} functional group was formed upon N{sup +} ion implantation, and its yield increased along with implantation dose but decreased with the ion's energy.

  1. Cellular responses to cobalt-chrome and CP titanium--an in vitro comparison of frameworks for implant-retained oral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Lars; Smedberg, Jan-Ivan; Aronsson, Gunilla; Wennerberg, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The responses of cell types in peri-implant tissues to cobalt-chrome and titanium were studied in vitro. Cylinders were made from both a cobalt-chrome alloy and commercially pure titanium (length 6 mm, diameter 7.9 mm). Plastic tubes were placed over the cylinders to create cell culture wells, in which human epithelial cells or mouse fibroblasts were cultivated. Cell viability was studied using the Alamar Blue method. The surface structure of two samples of each material was analyzed with optical interferometry. The morphology of cells grown on cylinders of each material was studied with scanning electronic microscopy. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts in the titanium group were more viable than those in the cobalt-chrome group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000, respectively). The titanium surfaces had a greater height deviation (S(a), p = 0.027) but were less dense (S(ds), p = 0.044) than the cobalt-chrome group. The scanning electronic microscopy revealed no major deviations from normal cell morphology. Within the limitations of the present study, the findings indicate that epithelial cells as well as fibroblasts have a stronger negative response to cobalt-chrome alloy than to titanium. We suggest that these differences can be explained only bythe material per se and not by the minor differences in surface structure. Further and clinical studies are needed to confirm the significance of these findings.

  2. Phosphonate ligands encourage a platonic relationship between cobalt(II) and alkali metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Tolis, Evangelos I; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2004-01-21

    Two new cobalt(ii) cages are reported where the metal core has a high symmetry related to a Platonic solid; the choice of alkali metal used in the base used for deprotonation appears to influence the resulting structures.

  3. Lindqvist Polyoxoniobate Ion-Assisted Electrodeposition of Cobalt and Nickel Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YuPing; Guo, Si-Xuan; Ding, Liang; Ohlin, C André; Bond, Alan M; Zhang, Jie

    2015-08-05

    A method has been developed for the efficient electrodeposition of cobalt and nickel nanostructures with the assistance of the Lindqvist ion [Nb6O19](8-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and a range of electrochemical techniques have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, catalytic water oxidation activity and stability of the films in alkaline solution. SEM images show that films consisting of nanoparticles with diameters of ca. 30 to 40 nm are formed after 40-50 potential cycles of deposition. Nb and Co/Ni are detected in the films by EDX. ICP-MS results show an elemental ratio of 1:1 for Co:Nb and 1:3 for Ni:Nb, respectively. Raman spectra reveal the presence of both [Nb6O19](8-) and Co(OH)2/Ni(OH)2. The films exhibit excellent stability and efficiency for electrocatalytic water oxidation in alkaline solution. Turnover frequencies of 12.9 and 13.2 s(-1) were determined by rotating ring disk electrode voltammetry at an overpotential of 480 mV for Co and Ni films, respectively. Fourier transformed large amplitude alternating current (FTAC) voltammetry reveals an additional underlying oxidation process for Co under catalytic turnover conditions, which indicates that a Co(IV) species is involved in the efficient catalytic water oxidation reactions. FTAC voltammetric data also suggest that the Ni films undergoes a clear phase transformation upon aging in aqueous 1 M NaOH and the electrogenerated higher oxidation state Ni from β-NiOOH is the more active form of the catalyst.

  4. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikolian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests, ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model, state of charge (SoC estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT and world harmonized light vehicle profiles have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL and aged (95%, 90% state of health ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro, polarization resistance (Rp, activation resistance (Rp2 and time constants (τ is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C. The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed.

  5. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu, Hongqin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Lan, Ming-Ying [Division of Rhinology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  6. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  7. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  8. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries; Recuperacao de cobalto e de litio de baterias ion-litio usadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busnardo, Natalia Giovanini; Paulino, Jessica Frontino; Afonso, Julio Carlos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica]. E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    The 'active mass' (cathode + anode + electrolyte) of spent Li-ion batteries was submitted to one of the following procedures: (a) it was calcined (500 deg C) and submitted to extraction with water to recover lithium salts. The residual solid was treated with sulfuric acid containing hydrogen peroxide. Cobalt was recovered as sulfate; (b) the 'active mass' was treated with potassium hydrogen sulfate (500 deg C) and dissolved in water. Cobalt was precipitated together with copper after addition of sodium hydroxide. Lithium was partially recovered as lithium fluoride. Co-processing of other battery components (aluminum and copper foils) affected negatively the behavior of the recovery procedures. Previous segregation of battery components is essential for an efficient and economical processing of the 'active mass'. (author)

  9. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  11. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada, Olga M., E-mail: O.M.PosadaEstefan@leeds.ac.uk [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Gilmour, Denise [Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Tate, Rothwelle J., E-mail: r.j.tate@strath.ac.uk [Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Grant, M. Helen [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  12. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co–Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-jian [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Yu-hua, E-mail: wangyuhua@wust.edu.cn [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zhang, Xiao-jian [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Song, Shu-peng [State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu [Hubei province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zheng, Li-rong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Co–Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by ion implantation in silica glass. • The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. • EXAFS, AFM and TEM have been used to study the local structural information of imetallic nanoparticles. • With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Three oscillations are determined. - Abstract: Co–Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co–O, Co–Co and Co–Au coordination are determined.

  13. Hydroxyapatite coating on cobalt alloys using electrophoretic deposition method for bone implant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatun; M, Shovita; I, Chintya K.; H, Dyah; W, Dwi

    2017-05-01

    Damage on bone due to osteoporosis and cancer triggered high demand for bone implant prosthesis which is a permanent implant. Thus, a prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) is required because it is osteoconductive that can trigger the growth of osteoblast cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of HA suspension in terms of the surface morphology, coating thickness, adhesion strength and corrosion rate resulting in the HA coating with the best characteristics for bone implant. Coating using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method with concentrations of 0.02M, 0.04M, 0.06M, 0.08M, and 0.1M was performed on the voltage and time of 120V and 30 minutes respectively. The process was followed by sintering at the temperature of 900 °C for 10 minutes. The results showed that the concentration of HA suspension influences the thickness and the adhesion of layer of HA. The higher the concentration of HA-ethanol suspension the thicker the layer of HA, but its coating adhesion strength values became lower. The concentration of HA suspension of 0.04 M is the best concentration, with characteristics that meet the standards of the bone implant prosthesis. The characteristics are HA coating thickness of 199.93 ± 4.85 μm, the corrosion rate of 0.0018 mmpy and adhesion strength of 4.175 ± 0.716 MPa.

  14. Mechanical and structural properties of fluorine-ion-implanted boron suboxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available depth and does not appear to influence the 1016 ion/cm2 1017 ion/cm2 Ion dose Ion implantation Laser or thermal annealing Sputtering Substrate Supersaturation Nucleation Growth Ostwald ripening Coalescence Figure 5: An illustration of the basic...

  15. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors electrical and physiochemical characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance in the future as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer afterhigh temperature annealing.Electrical and Physicochemical Characterization focuses on the physics of the annealing kine

  16. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Min [DIO Corporation, 66, Centum seo-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bo-Young [Department of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery, Wonkwang University Daejeon Dental Hospital, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation

  17. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb.

  18. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, L; Grosseau-Poussard, J L; Dinhut, J F

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced.

  19. Optical waveguides in TiO₂ formed by He ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhuan-Fang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiu-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Mei; Dong, Ming-Ming; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Wu, Xiang-Long; Wang, Ke-Ming

    2012-03-12

    We report on the formation and the optical properties of the planar and ridge optical waveguides in rutile TiO₂ crystal by He+ ion implantation combined with micro-fabrication technologies. Planar optical waveguides in TiO₂ are fabricated by high-energy (2.8 MeV) He+-ion implantation with a dose of 3 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm² and triple low energies (450, 500, 550) keV He+-ion implantation with all fluences of 2 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm² at room temperature. The guided modes were measured by a modal 2010 prism coupler at wavelength of 1539 nm. There are damage profiles in ion-implanted waveguides by Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channeling measurements. The refractive-index profile of the 2.8 MeV He+-implanted waveguide was analyzed based on RCM (Reflected Calculation Method). Also ridge waveguides were fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation on 2.8 MeV ion implanted planar waveguide and Ar ion beam etching on the basis of triple keV ion implanted planar waveguide, separately. The loss of the ridge waveguide was estimated. The measured near-field intensity distributions of the planar and ridge modes are all shown.

  20. Implantation of cobalt in SnO2 thin films studied by TDPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Schell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC results of Co-doped SnO2 thin films. Making use of stable Co and radioactive 111In implanted at the Bonn Radioisotope Separator with energies of 80 keV and 160 keV, respectively, it was possible to study the dopant incorporation and its lattice location during annealing. The hyperfine parameters have been probed as a function of temperature in vacuum. Two quadrupole interactions were observed. At high temperatures the dominant fraction for the probe nuclei can be assigned to the Cd-incorporation at the cation substitutional site in a highly disordered structure, obtained after implantation, to high crystallinity for the measurements at 873 K and 923 K. The similarity in TDPAC spectra obtained in undoped SnO gives indirect evidence that In and Co diffuse to different depths during the annealing process. Other interpretations will be discussed.

  1. Separation of no-carrier-added {sup 66,67}Ga produced in heavy ion-induced cobalt target using alginate biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Dalia [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Banerjee, Anupam [University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata-700019 (India); Lahiri, Susanta [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.in

    2007-08-15

    Heavy ion activation of natural cobalt foil with 84 MeV {sup 12}C results in the formation of no-carrier-added (nca) {sup 66,67}As radionuclides, along with their corresponding decay products, {sup 66,67}Ge and {sup 66,67}Ga, in the matrix. Because arsenic and germanium radionuclides are short-lived, after a cooling period of 10 h only nca gallium radionuclides remain in the matrix. We attempted to separate the nca gallium radionuclides from the target matrix cobalt by biopolymeric calcium alginate (CA) and Fe-doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads. A complete separation has been achieved by adsorbing {sup 66,67}Ga and a lesser amount of bulk cobalt at pH 3 on Fe-CA beads, followed by desorbing cobalt from the beads with 0.4 M NaNO{sub 2}.

  2. Dependence of the depth distribution of implanted silver ions on the temperature of irradiated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, A L

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of the glass ion implantation by the silver ions in dependence on the substrate temperature within the interval of 20-100 deg C are studied. Modeling the profiles of the implanted ions distribution in depth with an account of the thermostimulated increase in the admixture diffusion mobility is carried out. It is shown, that increase in the substrate temperature leads to the diffusion wash-out of the introduced admixture ions distribution. The analysis of the modeling results indicates the necessity of strict control of the substrate temperature by the dielectrics implantation for obtaining the conditions for the metal nanoparticles synthesis

  3. A simple ion implanter for material modifications in agriculture and gemmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Wijaikhum, A. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Phanchaisri, B.; Techarung, J. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Rhodes, M.W.; Suwankosum, R.; Rattanarin, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In our efforts in developing ion beam technology for novel applications in biology and gemmology, an economic simple compact ion implanter especially for the purpose was constructed. The designing of the machine was aimed at providing our users with a simple, economic, user friendly, convenient and easily operateable ion implanter for ion implantation of biological living materials and gemstones for biotechnological applications and modification of gemstones, which would eventually contribute to the national agriculture, biomedicine and gem-industry developments. The machine was in a vertical setup so that the samples could be placed horizontally and even without fixing; in a non-mass-analyzing ion implanter style using mixed molecular and atomic nitrogen (N) ions so that material modifications could be more effective; equipped with a focusing/defocusing lens and an X–Y beam scanner so that a broad beam could be possible; and also equipped with a relatively small target chamber so that living biological samples could survive from the vacuum period during ion implantation. To save equipment materials and costs, most of the components of the machine were taken from decommissioned ion beam facilities. The maximum accelerating voltage of the accelerator was 100 kV, ideally necessary for crop mutation induction and gem modification by ion beams from our experience. N-ion implantation of local rice seeds and cut gemstones was carried out. Various phenotype changes of grown rice from the ion-implanted seeds and improvements in gemmological quality of the ion-bombarded gemstones were observed. The success in development of such a low-cost and simple-structured ion implanter provides developing countries with a model of utilizing our limited resources to develop novel accelerator-based technologies and applications.

  4. Intravascular brachytherapy with radioactive stents produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombeck, M.-A.; Heise, S.; Schloesser, K. E-mail: schloesser@hzy.fzk.de; Schuessler, B.; Schweickert, H

    2003-05-01

    About 1 million patients are treated for stenosis of coronary arteries by percutaneous balloon angioplasty annually worldwide. In many cases a so called stent is inserted into the vessel to keep it mechanically open. Restenosis is observed in about 20-30% of these cases, which can be treated by irradiating the stented vessel segment. In our approach, we utilized the stent itself as radiation source by ion implanting {sup 32}P. Investigations of the surface properties were performed with special emphasis on activity retention. Clinical data of about 400 patients showed radioactive stents can suppress instent restenosis, but a so called edge effect appeared, which can be avoided by the new 'drug eluting stents'.

  5. Intravascular brachytherapy with radioactive stents produced by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombeck, M.-A.; Heise, S.; Schloesser, K.; Schuessler, B.; Schweickert, H.

    2003-05-01

    About 1 million patients are treated for stenosis of coronary arteries by percutaneous balloon angioplasty annually worldwide. In many cases a so called stent is inserted into the vessel to keep it mechanically open. Restenosis is observed in about 20-30% of these cases, which can be treated by irradiating the stented vessel segment. In our approach, we utilized the stent itself as radiation source by ion implanting 32P. Investigations of the surface properties were performed with special emphasis on activity retention. Clinical data of about 400 patients showed radioactive stents can suppress instent restenosis, but a so called edge effect appeared, which can be avoided by the new "drug eluting stents".

  6. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  7. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  8. Modification of plasma polymer films by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cristina Ribeiro dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, thin polymer films were prepared from acetylene and argon radiofrequency (13.56 MHz, 80 W glow discharges. Post-deposition treatment was performed by plasma immersion ion implantation in nitrogen or helium glow discharges (13.56 MHz, 70 W. In these cases, samples were biased with 25 kV negative pulses. Exposure time to the bombardment plasma, t, ranged from 900 to 7200 s. Chemical composition of the film surfaces was investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the resistance to oxidation by the etching process, in reactive oxygen plasmas. Oxygen and nitrogen were detected in all the samples. While the concentration of the former continuously changed with t, that of N kept practically constant in small proportions. The film is predominantly formed by sp² states, but the proportion of sp³ hybridization slightly increased with t. The etching rate dropped under certain conditions of nitrogen bombardment whereas helium implantation has not significantly improved it. These results are ascribed to the crosslinking degree of the polymeric chains, ruled by the total amount of energy delivered to the film.

  9. Impact of total stent length after cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stent implantation on 3-year clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromasa, Takashi; Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yohei; Domei, Takenori; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to assess whether total stent length (TSL) after cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) implantation was associated with long-term clinical outcomes. The impact of TSL after CoCr-EES implantation on long-term clinical outcomes remained unclear. A total of 1,007 consecutive patients with 1,382 lesions treated only with CoCr-EES were analyzed. Patients and lesions were divided into tertile group: TSL per patient (TSL-P) (PA [8-23 mm], n = 382; PB [23-46 mm], n = 312; and PC [46-204 mm], n = 313), and TSL per lesion (TSL-L) (LA [8-18 mm], n = 486; LB [18-28 mm], n = 475; and LC [28-140 mm], n = 421). The cumulative 3-year incidence of clinically driven target-lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) and definite stent thrombosis (ST) based on TSL-P and TSL-L groupings were accessed. After inverse probability of weighted adjustment, the cumulative 3-year incidence of CD-TLR for the TSL-P and TSL-L were higher in the PC and LC groups than in the other groups (hazard ratio [HR] 2.92, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.66-5.15, P < 0.001 vs. PA; HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.47-4.20, P < 0.001 vs. PB; HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.15-3.28, P = 0.01 vs. LA; HR 2.80, 95% CI 1.73-4.54, P < 0.001 vs. LB, respectively). No significant differences in the cumulative 3-year incidence of definite ST were observed in both TSL-P and TSL-L groups. TSL after CoCr-EES implantation has significantly impact on CD-TLR rate through 3 years, but it is not associated with an increased incidence of definite ST. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Exfoliation and Reassembly of Cobalt Oxide Nanosheets into a Reversible Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    assembly,[13] spin -coating,[14] and vacuum-assisted self-assembly (VASA),[15,16] among others. Herein, we present the exfoliation of cobalt oxide...Hillsboro, OR). Samples were coated with 6 nm of osmium using an OPC-60A osmium plasma coater (Structure Probe, Inc. Supplies, West Chester, PA

  11. Critical issues in the formation of quantum computer test structures by ion implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Schenkel, T; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C.D.; Schuh, A.; Persaud, A.; Bokor, J.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of quantum computer test structures in silicon by ion implantation enables the characterization of spin readout mechanisms with ensembles of dopant atoms and the development of single atom devices. We briefly review recent results in the characterization of spin dependent transport and single ion doping and then discuss the diffusion and segregation behaviour of phosphorus, antimony and bismuth ions from low fluence, low energy implantations as characterized through depth profil...

  12. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors optical and photothermal characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer after high temperature annealing. The editors of this volume and Volume 45 focus on the physics of the annealing kinetics of the damaged layer. An overview of characterization tehniques and a critical comparison of the information on annealing kinetics is also presented. Key Features * Provides basic knowledge of ion implantation-induced defects * Focuses on physical mechanisms of defect annealing * Utilizes electrical, physical, and optical characterization tools for processed semiconductors * Provides the basis for understanding the problems caused by the defects g...

  13. Heavy-ion sources: The Star, or the Cinderella, of the ion-implantation firmament? (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Harry

    2000-02-01

    The Star, because of the invaluable contribution which the heavy-ion source has already made to the successful development of semiconductor implantation. And the Star, too, because it is evident that the key characteristics of such sources, which are now used on a quite routine industrial basis—their reliability, their ease of operation and, above all, their extraordinary versatility—have still not been fully exploited. This ensures that there is still scope, at least in the short term, for further optimization, which will go some way to meet the increasingly stringent industrial doping requirements. The Cinderella, because of my belief that these heavy-ion sources have now contributed to the successful operation of ion implanters so well, and for so long, that their present level of performance is mistakenly taken for granted. The result has been a paucity of meaningful research and development. Despite this, in this article I aim to show that, like Cinderella, who was so neglected that her true merit was long overlooked, there is the prospect too of achieving the significantly larger improvements in beam quality which the semiconductor industry will eventually be seeking.

  14. Improvement of in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility of biodegradable Fe surface modified by Zn ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn; Jiang, Chengbao

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO oxides were formed on the surface of Zn implanted pure Fe samples. • The corrosion rate of the pure Fe in SBF was increased after Zn implantation. • Cytocompatibility of the pure Fe was improved by Zn ion implantation. - Abstract: Pure Fe was surface-modified by Zn ion implantation to improve the biodegradable behavior and cytocompatibility. Surface topography, chemical composition, corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility were investigated. Atomic force microscopy, auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that Zn was implanted into the surface of pure Fe in the depth of 40–60 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO oxides were formed on the outmost surface. Electrochemical measurements and immersion tests revealed an improved degradable behavior for the Zn-implanted Fe samples. An approximately 12% reduction in the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) and a 10-fold increase in the corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) were obtained after Zn ion implantation with a moderate incident ion dose, which was attributed to the enhanced pitting corrosion. The surface free energy of pure Fe was decreased by Zn ion implantation. The results of direct cell culture indicated that the short-term (4 h) cytocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 cells was promoted by the implanted Zn on the surface.

  15. Quartz modification by Zn ion implantation and swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, Vladimir [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, Vaclav [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Didyk, Alexander; Skuratov, Vladimir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Steinman, Edward; Tereshchenko, Alexey; Kolesnikov, Nikolay [Institute of Solid-State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Trifonov, Alexey; Sakharov, Oleg [National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ksenich, Sergey [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    The quartz slides were implanted by {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 100 keV. After implantation, the amorphous metallic Zn nanoparticles with an average radius of 3.5 nm were created. The sample surface becomes nonuniform, its roughness is increased and its values rise up to 6 nm compared to virgin state, and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.8 nm. The surface is made up of valleys and hillocks which have a round shape with an average diameter about 200 nm. At the center of these hillocks are pores with a depth up to 6 nm and a diameter of about 20 nm. After implantation in UV-vis diapason, the optical transmission decreases while PL peak (apparently due to oxygen deficient centers) at wavelength of 400 nm increases. Then the samples were subjected to swift Xe ion irradiation with the fluences of 1 x 10{sup 12}-7.5 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 167 MeV. After Xe irradiation, the sample surface roughness shat down to values of 0.5 nm and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.1 nm. Optical transmission in UV-vis diapason increases. The PL peak at wavelength of 400 nm is decreased while a PL peak at wavelength of 660 nm is raised. This peak is presumably due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers or/and NPs with structure Si(core)/SiO{sub 2}(shell). HRTEM image of Zn-implanted quartz subsurface layer. One can see the Zn amorphous nanoparticles, which confirms the electron diffraction pattern (insert). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Pulsed ion sheath dynamics in a cylindrical bore for inner surface grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jiu Li; Fan Song Hua; Yang Wu Bao; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    Based on authors' recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for inner surface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, the authors present the corresponding theoretical studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindrical bore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energy distribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionless ions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can further verify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique

  17. Enhancement of thermoelectric power of PbTe thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Bhogra, Anuradha; Khan, Saif A.; Tripathi, Tripurari S.; Tripathi, Surya K.; Avasthi, Devesh K.; Asokan, Kandasami

    2017-06-01

    Enhancement of the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials is the topic of current research in energy studies. We report an enhancement in the thermoelectric power (TEP) of thermally evaporated PbTe thin films by low energy Ag ion implantation. This implantation results in PbTe:Ag nanocomposites. Implantations were carried out at a 130 keV Ag ion beam with ion fluences of 3 × 1015, 1.5 × 1016, 3 × 1016, and 4.5 × 1016 ions/cm2. The atomic concentrations were determined using Rutherford backscattering and found to be 1 at. %, 5 at. %, 10 at. %, and 14 at. % in the implanted PbTe films. Scanning electron microscopy images show the presence of fine cracks on the surface of as-deposited PbTe thin films that get shortened and suppressed and finally disappear at higher fluences of Ag ion implantation. The TEP measurements, from 300 K to 400 K, show ˜25% enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient of the Ag ion implanted films in comparison to the pristine PbTe thin film. The synchrotron based high resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations reveal the formation of Ag2Te in the surface layer after Ag ion implantation.

  18. Improving Passivation Process of Si Nanocrystals Embedded in SiO2 Using Metal Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhovani Bornacelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photoluminescence (PL of Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs embedded in SiO2 obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy. The Si-NCs are formed at high depth (1-2 μm inside the SiO2 achieving a robust and better protected system. After metal ion implantation (Ag or Au, and a subsequent thermal annealing at 600°C under hydrogen-containing atmosphere, the PL signal exhibits a noticeable increase. The ion metal implantation was done at energies such that its distribution inside the silica does not overlap with the previously implanted Si ion . Under proper annealing Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs could be nucleated, and the PL signal from Si-NCs could increase due to plasmonic interactions. However, the ion-metal-implantation-induced damage can enhance the amount of hydrogen, or nitrogen, that diffuses into the SiO2 matrix. As a result, the surface defects on Si-NCs can be better passivated, and consequently, the PL of the system is intensified. We have selected different atmospheres (air, H2/N2 and Ar to study the relevance of these annealing gases on the final PL from Si-NCs after metal ion implantation. Studies of PL and time-resolved PL indicate that passivation process of surface defects on Si-NCs is more effective when it is assisted by ion metal implantation.

  19. Lattice location of platinum ions implanted into single crystal zirconia and their annealing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D.X. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Single crystal samples of (100) oriented cubic zirconia stabilised with 9.5 mol % yttria were implanted with platinum ions, using a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion implanter, to a nominal dose of 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed isothermally in air ambient at 1200 deg C, from 1-24 hours. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Channeling (RBSC) of 2 MeV He ions are employed to determine depth distributions of ion damage, Pt ions and substitutionality of Pt ions before and after annealing. The damage behaviour, Pt migration and lattice location are discussed in terms of metastable phase formation and solid solubility considerations. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  20. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF COMMERCIALLY PURE TITANIUM AFTER NITROGEN ION IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of fatigue life has become an interesting issue in biomaterial engineering and design for reliability and quality purposes, particularly for biometallic material with modified surfaces. Commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti implanted with nitrogen ions is a potential metallic biomaterial of the future. The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on fatigue behavior of Cp-Ti was investigated by means of axial loading conditions. The as-received and nitrogen-ion implanted specimens with the energy of 100 keV and dose of 2 × 1017 ions cm-2, were used to determine the fatigue properties and to predict the life cycle of the specimens. The effect of nitrogen ion implantation indicated revealed improved the tensile strength due to the formation of nitride phases, TiN and Ti2N. The fatigue strength of Cp-Ti and Nii-Ti was 250 and 260 MPa, respectively. The analytical results show good agreement with experimental results.

  1. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C.; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-10-19

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li0) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li0) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0x0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  2. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel-Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R; Thackeray, Michael Makepeace

    2016-10-04

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3●(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li(0)) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li(0)) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0≤x≤0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 °C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  3. Hybrid framework with cobalt-chromium alloy and gold cylinder for implant superstructure: Bond strength and corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Masao; Uzawa, Shinobu; Komiyama, Yataro

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate tensile bond strengths and corrosion resistance of CoCr alloys joined with gold cylinder by a soldering system in comparison with the conventional cast-joining system. CoCr alloys joined with gold cylinder by a soldering system using a high-fusing gold solder (CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder), gold alloy joined with gold cylinder by a cast joining system (Gold alloy/Gold cylinder) and CoCr castings were fabricated. The tensile bond strength and corrosion resistance in 0.9% NaCl solution (pH 7.4 and pH 2.3) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surface and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the joined interfaces were also performed. The tensile bond strengths of the CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder specimens showed similar values as the Gold alloy/Gold cylinder specimens. SEM observation and EPMA analyses suggested firm bonding between the CoCr alloy and gold cylinder. The released elements from the CoCr/Solder/Gold cylinder specimens were similar to ones from CoCr castings. Results showed that superstructures made of CoCr alloys joined with the gold cylinder using a high-fusing gold solder had sufficient bond strength and high corrosion resistance. These hybrid frameworks with cobalt-chromium alloy and gold cylinder are promising prosthesis for implant superstructures with the low cost and favorable mechanical properties instead of conventional high-gold alloys. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction between coordinated metal ions and a metal substrate: Differently substituted cobalt porphyrins on Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yun; Buchner, Florian; Schmid, Martin; Kellner, Ina; Vollnhals, Florian; Marbach, Hubertus; Steinrueck, Hans-Peter; Gottfried, J. Michael [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Adsorbed metalloporphyrins are of increasing interest due to their potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis and in sensor systems. Previous studies from our group have suggested the existence of an electronic interaction between the metal centers of the adsorbed porphyrin complexes of iron and cobalt and the underlying substrate surface, which plays an important role in modifying the electronic structure and, thereby, the reactivity of these metal centers. However, with the previously used tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) ligands, the adsorbed complexes undergo saddle-shape distortion, which could also influence the electronic structure. To separate the effects of distortion on the one hand and the coupling to the substrate on the other, we have studied cobalt octaethylporphyrin, which adsorbs in a flat, undistorted conformation on Ag(111). Comparison of our XPS, UPS, and STM results with previous CoTPP data confirms that indeed the metal center plays an essential role in the electronic interaction between the porphyrin complexes and the substrate.

  5. Corrosion resistance study of grey cast iron implanted with C, N, Cr and Cu ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, O. Yu; Maryushin, L. A.; Kazantsev, A. Yu; Dyukova, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron implanted with C, N, Cr and Cu ions in sodium chloride solution and sulfuric acid solution. The potentiodynamic research was conducted in atmosphere, simulating corrosion conditions: in 3% sodium chloride solution and in 0,1 N sulfuric acid solution. Potentiodynamic curves were obtained and surfaces of samples were observed. The research proves that the implantation of ions with N and Cr leads to an increase in the corrosion resistance of cast iron in sodium chloride solution, and the implantation of ions with N and Cu leads to increased corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid solution.

  6. Carbon Ion Implantation: A Good Method to Enhance the Biocompatibility of Silicone Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Chen, Xing; Mao, Tong-cun; Li, Xiang; Shi, Xiao-hua; Fan, Dong-li; Zhang, Yi-ming

    2016-04-01

    Silicone rubber and silicone rubber-based materials have been used as medical tissue implants in the field of plastic surgery for many years, but there are still some reports of adverse reactions to long-term implants. Earlier studies have shown that ion implantation could enhance the biocompatibility of biomaterials. However, whether ion implantation has a good effect on silicone rubber is unknown. Three types of carbon ion silicone rubber were obtained by implanting three doses of carbon ions. Then, the antibacterial adhesion properties and the in vivo host responses were evaluated. The antibacterial adhesion properties were examined by plate colony counting, fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopic observation. The host responses were evaluated by surveying inflammation and fiber capsule formation that developed after subcutaneous implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats for 7, 30, 90, and 180 days. In addition, the possible mechanism by which ion implantation enhanced the biocompatibility of the biomaterial was investigated and discussed. Carbon ion silicone rubber exhibits less bacterial adhesion, less collagen deposition, and thinner and weaker tissue capsules. Immunohistochemical staining results for CD4, tumor necrosis factor-α, α-smooth muscle actin, and elastin showed the possible mechanism enhancing the biocompatibility of silicone rubber. These data indicate that carbon ion silicone rubber exhibits good antibacterial adhesion properties and triggers thinner and weaker tissue capsules. In addition, high surface roughness and high zeta potential may be the main factors that induce the unique biocompatibility of carbon ion silicone rubber. Ion implantation should be considered for further investigation and application, and carbon ion silicone rubber could be a better biomaterial to decrease silicone rubber-initiated complications.

  7. Synthesis of cobalt ferrite with enhanced magnetostriction properties by the sol−gel−hydrothermal route using spent Li-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lu, E-mail: yaolu1020@126.com [Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang Henan 453003 (China); Xi, Yuebin [Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Xi, Guoxi, E-mail: yaolu001@163.com [Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Feng, Yong [Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environment and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2016-09-25

    The combination of a sol–gel method and a hydrothermal method was successfully used for synthesizing the nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite powders with a spinel structure using spent Li-ion batteries as the raw materials. The phase composition, microstructure, magnetic properties and magnetostriction coefficient of cobalt ferrite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), magnetometer and magnetostrictive measurement instrument. The microstructure of the products exhibited hedgehog-like microspheres with particle size of approximately 5 μm. The different crystalline sizes and the microstructure of cobalt ferrites precursor were controlled by varying the hydrothermal time, which significantly affected the super-exchange and the deflection direction of the magnetic domain, and led to the change of the magnetic properties of sintered cylindrical samples. The saturation magnetization and maximum magnetostriction coefficient were 81.7 emu/g and −158.5 ppm, respectively, which was larger than that of products prepared by the sol-gel sintered method alone. - Graphical abstract: The magnetostriction of cobalt ferrites with a spinel structure was successfully prepared using the sol–gel–hydrothermal route using spent Li-ion batteries. On the basis of the aforementioned SEM observation, the formation of a hedgehog-like microsphere structure might involve two important steps: Ostwald ripening and self-assembly. - Highlights: • The cobalt ferrites were prepared by the sol–gel–hydrothermal route. • The cobalt ferrites show hedgehog-like microsphere particles in shape. • The microspheres size increased with increasing hydrothermal time. • The magnetostriction properties of the cobalt ferrite were enhanced.

  8. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA) Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James; Chouchelamane, Gael Henri; Lyness, Christopher; Taylor, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA) 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV) application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2380 standard. This vibration tes...

  9. Investigate the ultrasound energy assisted adsorption mechanism of nickel(II) ions onto modified magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Multivariate optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Fatemeh; Alipanahpour Dil, Ebrahim

    2017-07-01

    In present study, magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles modified with (E)-N-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-2-(2-(2-nitrophenyl)imidazolidine-1-yl) ethaneamine (CoFe2O4-NPs-NBNPIEA) was synthesized and applied as novel adsorbent for ultrasound energy assisted adsorption of nickel(II) ions (Ni2+) from aqueous solution. The prepared adsorbent characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dependency of adsorption percentage to variables such as pH, initial Ni2+ ions concentration, adsorbent mass and ultrasound time were studied with response surface methodology (RSM) by considering the desirable functions. The quadratic model between the dependent and independent variables was built. The proposed method showed good agreement between the experimental data and predictive value, and it has been successfully employed to adsorption of Ni2+ ions from aqueous solution. Subsequently, the experimental equilibrium data at different concentration of Ni2+ ions and 10mg amount of adsorbent mass was fitted to conventional isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and it was revealed that the Langmuir is best model for explanation of behavior of experimental data. In addition, conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first and second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion were applied and it was seen that pseudo-second-order equation is suitable to fit the experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Decrease of Staphylococcal adhesion on surgical stainless steel after Si ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Calzado-Martín, Alicia [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Multigner, Marta [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Broncano, Luis Labajos-; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M. [Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); González-Carrasco, José Luis [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); and others

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Si ion implantation of AISI 316LVM medical grade alloy might reduce bacterial adhesion and colonization. • Si ion implantation does not impair the attachment, viability and matrix maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells. • Nano-topography and surface chemistry changes account for the Si ion implantation induced effects. - Abstract: 316LVM austenitic stainless steel is often the material of choice on temporal musculoskeletal implants and surgical tools as it combines good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance to the physiologic media, being additionally relatively inexpensive. This study has aimed at improving the resistance to bacterial colonization of this surgical stainless steel, without compromising its biocompatibility and resistance. To achieve this aim, the effect of Si ion implantation on 316LVM has been studied. First, the effect of the ion implantation parameters (50 keV; fluence: 2.5–5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}; angle of incidence: 45–90°) has been assessed in terms of depth profiling of chemical composition by XPS and nano-topography evaluation by AFM. The in vitro biocompatibility of the alloy has been evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus on these surfaces has been assessed. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on Si implanted 316LVM is dependent on the implantation conditions as well as the features of the bacterial strains, offering a promising implantable biomaterial in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and resistance to bacterial colonization. The effects of surface composition and nano-topography on bacterial adhesion, directly related to ion implantation conditions, are also discussed.

  11. Microstructure characteristics of steel M50 implanted with nitrogen by plasma-based ion implantation at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shuyan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box 433, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma Xinxin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box 433, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: maxin@hit.edu.cn; Sun Mingren [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box 433, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun Yue [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Box 433, Harbin 150001 (China); Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara-Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Steel M50 was modified by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) at different temperatures. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicate that PBII at elevated temperature can reduce both grain size of substrate and precipitates in the implanted layer and remove the network microstructure of carbides in the substrate. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GXRD) analysis indicates that the elevated temperature is in favor of the formation of nitrides. The diffraction peaks of nitrides are obvious when the temperature is higher than 300 {sup o}C with implantation voltage of 25 kV.

  12. Synergistic effect of nanotopography and bioactive ions on peri-implant bone response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingmin; Komasa, Satoshi; Li, Peiqi; Nishizaki, Mariko; Chen, Luyuan; Terada, Chisato; Yoshimine, Shigeki; Nishizaki, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Joji

    2017-01-01

    Both bioactive ion chemistry and nanoscale surface modifications are beneficial for enhanced osseointegration of endosseous implants. In this study, a facile synthesis approach to the incorporation of bioactive Ca2+ ions into the interlayers of nanoporous structures (Ca-nano) formed on a Ti6Al4V alloy surface was developed by sequential chemical and heat treatments. Samples with a machined surface and an Na+ ion-incorporated nanoporous surface (Na-nano) fabricated by concentrated alkali and heat treatment were used in parallel for comparison. The bone response was investigated by microcomputed tomography assessment, sequential fluorescent labeling analysis, and histological and histomorphometric evaluation after 8 weeks of implantation in rat femurs. No significant differences were found in the nanotopography, surface roughness, or crystalline properties of the Ca-nano and Na-nano surfaces. Bone–implant contact was better in the Ca-nano and Na-nano implants than in the machined implant. The Ca-nano implant was superior to the Na-nano implant in terms of enhancing the volume of new bone formation. The bone formation activity consistently increased for the Ca-nano implant but ceased for the Na-nano implant in the late healing stage. These results suggest that Ca-nano implants have promising potential for application in dentistry and orthopedics. PMID:28184162

  13. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  14. Characterisation of polystyrene coatings after plasma immersion ion implantation and adsorption of protein

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, S; Steel, B; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R; James, M

    2012-01-01

    A polystyrene film spun onto polished silicon substrates was implanted with either nitrogen or argon ions using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and subsequently investigated by X-ray and neutron reflectometry, UV-VIS and FTIR ellipsometry, as well as by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The depth profile of the densified carbon structures resulting from the ion collision cascades in the polystyrene coating are clearly observed by both X-ray and neutron reflectometry. Argon ions produce a higher density modified layer at a shallower depth than nitrogen ions. The thickness measured for these graded layers agrees with the expected depths of ion implantation as calculated by SRIM. The sensitivity of X-ray and neutron reflectometry allows resolution of density and hydrogen content gradients within the graphitized layers. The treated layers were found to covalently immobilized protein directly from solution. The tropoelastin protein monolayers immobilized on the surface were characterized. Tropoelastin remained...

  15. Influence of implantation of three metallic ions on the mechanical properties of two polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.V. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Perry, A.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Treglio, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) with various high energy metallic ions at 70 kV to dose of 3 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm 2 have been made. Measurements of the mechanical properties of the polymers before and after implantation have been made with an ultra microindentation system using both pointed and a small (2 nm) radiused spherical tipped indenter. Significant differences have been observed between the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces and those of the Au and W implanted surfaces. For both the PET and PS the resistance to indenter penetration at very low loads was much greater for the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces. The estimated hardness and modulus versus depth of penetration for both indenters shows that the spherical indenter produces more consistent and less controversial values that are somewhat lower than the optimistic estimates from pointed indenters. 8 refs., 2 fig.

  16. Multifunctions of dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium on osteogenesis, angiogenesis and bacteria inhibition for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqiang; Jin, Guodong; Xue, Yang; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Jiao

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the osseointegration and long-term survival of dental implants, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional titanium surface which would simultaneously have osteogeneic, angiogeneic and antibacterial properties. In this study, a potential dental implant material-dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium (Zn/Mg-PIII) was developed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The Zn/Mg-PIII surfaces were found to promote initial adhesion and spreading of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) via the upregulation of the gene expression of integrin α1 and integrin β1. More importantly, it was revealed that Zn/Mg-PIII could increase Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations in rBMSCs by promoting the influx of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ and inhibiting the outflow of Zn 2+ , and then could enhance the transcription of Runx2 and the expression of ALP and OCN. Meanwhile, Mg 2+ ions from Zn/Mg-PIII increased Mg 2+ influx by upregulating the expression of MagT1 transporter in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then stimulated the transcription of VEGF and KDR via activation of hypoxia inducing factor (HIF)-1α, thus inducing angiogenesis. In addition to this, it was discovered that zinc in Zn/Mg-PIII had certain inhibitory effects on oral anaerobic bacteria (Pg, Fn and Sm). Finally, the Zn/Mg-PIII implants were implanted in rabbit femurs for 4 and 12weeks with Zn-PIII, Mg-PIII and pure titanium as controls. Micro-CT evaluation, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis and push-out test consistently demonstrated that Zn/Mg-PIII implants exhibit superior capacities for enhancing bone formation, angiogenesis and osseointegration, while consequently increasing the bonding strength at bone-implant interfaces. All these results suggest that due to the multiple functions co-produced by zinc and magnesium, rapid osseointegration and sustained biomechanical stability are enhanced by the novel Zn/Mg-PIII implants, which have the potential

  17. Modification effects in ion-implanted SiO[sub 2] spin-on-glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, N.; Kalish, R. (Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)); Shacham-Diamond, Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The effects of ion-implantation on both polysiloxane and silicate spin-on-glass thin films were studied and are reported here. The authors have shown, using various analysis techniques, that the damage induced by the implantation drastically modified the film properties. A pronounced volume shrinkage was observed in polysiloxane films after the implantation and a respective increase in the effective refractive index of the oxide layer was measured. An infrared transmission study of the samples suggests that the ion-implanted samples have fewer carbon-based components and less hydrogen than the unimplanted samples. Similar measurements using silicate-type spin-on-glass films have shown only a slight variation of the thickness, the refractive index, and the infrared transmission spectrum. Both material types change their etching characteristics in wet reagents after ion-implantation. The etch rate in HF solutions of the spin-on SiO[sub 2] materials was lowered after the implant, and occasionally an inhibition period before any etching could be observed. Metal-isolator-silicon (MIS) capacitors with spin-on oxide additionally were tested before and after the implantation and the results are reported and discussed here. Stress characterization indicates that a lower overall internal stress exists in the ion-implanted films compared to the as-deposited layers. Based on the results presented, the authors conclude that the ion-implantation densifies the spin-on SiO[sub 2] film and reduces the carbon content in the layer. They suggest that these material modifications are related to the radiation damage induced by the implantation and to a reordering state of the atomic structure during the implantation process.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES IN CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE IMPLANTED WITH 25Mg+ IONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Weilin; Spurgeon, Steven R.; Liu, Jia; Edwards, Danny J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2016-09-26

    The aim of this study is to characterize precipitates in Mg+ ion implanted and high-temperature annealed cubic silicon carbide using scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and atom probe tomography.

  19. Shallow nitrogen ion implantation: Evolution of chemical state and defect structure in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manojkumar, P.A., E-mail: manoj@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chirayath, V.A.; Balamurugan, A.K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Ilango, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Amarendra, G.; Tyagi, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Raj, Baldev [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Low energy nitrogen ion implantation in titanium was studied. • Chemical and defect states were analyzed using SIMS, XPS and PAS. • SIMS and depth resolved XPS data showed good agreement. • Depth resolved defect and chemical states information were revealed. • Formation of 3 layers of defect states proposed to fit PAS results. - Abstract: Evolution of chemical states and defect structure in titanium during low energy nitrogen ion implantation by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) process is studied. The underlying process of chemical state evolution is investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation induced defect structure evolution as a function of dose is elucidated using variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were corroborated with chemical state. Formation of 3 layers of defect state was modeled to fit PAS results.

  20. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  1. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part I: physicochemical properties in patient and simulator studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Liong, Monty; Kovochich, Michael; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Oberdörster, Günter

    2015-07-01

    The objective of Part I of this analysis was to identify the relevant physicochemical characteristics of wear particles from cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implant patients and simulator systems. For well-functioning MoM hip implants, the volumetric wear rate is low (<1mm(3) per million cycles or per year) and the majority of the wear debris is composed of oxidized Cr nanoparticles (<100nm) with minimal or no Co content. For implants with surgical malpositioning, the volumetric wear rate is as high as 100mm(3) per million cycles or per year and the size distribution of wear debris can be skewed to larger sizes (up to 1000nm) and contain higher concentrations of Co. In order to obtain data suitable for a risk assessment of wear debris in MoM hip implant patients, future studies need to focus on particle characteristics relevant to those generated in patients or in properly conducted simulator studies. Metallic implants are very common in the field of orthopedics. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised about the implications of nano-sized particles generated from the wear of these implants. In this two-part review, the authors first attempted to identify and critically evaluate the relevant physicochemical characteristics of CoCr wear particles from hip implant patients and simulator systems. Then they evaluated in vitro and animal toxicology studies with respect to the physicochemistry and dose-relevance to metal-on-metal implant patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Platelet adhesion and plasma protein adsorption control of collagen surfaces by He{sup +} ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurotobi, K. E-mail: kurotobi@postman.riken.go.jp; Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Suzuki, H.; Iwaki, M

    2003-05-01

    He{sup +} ion implanted collagen-coated tubes with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} were exhibited antithrombogenicity. To investigate the mechanisms of antithrombogenicity of these samples, plasma protein adsorption assay and platelet adhesion experiments were performed. The adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) was minimum on the He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Platelet adhesion (using platelet rich plasma) was inhibited on the He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and was accelerated on the untreated collagen and ion implanted collagen with fluences of 1 x 10{sup 13}, 1 x 10{sup 15} and 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Platelet activation with washed platelets was observed on untreated collagen and He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and was inhibited with fluences of 1 x 10{sup 13}, 1 x 10{sup 15} and 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Generally, platelets can react with a specific ligand inside the collagen (GFOGER sequence). The results of platelets adhesion experiments using washed platelets indicated that there were no ligands such as GFOGER on the He{sup +} ion implanted collagen over a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. On the 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} implanted collagen, no platelet activation was observed due to the influence of plasma proteins. >From the above, it is concluded that the decrease of adsorbed Fg and vWf caused the antithrombogenicity of He{sup +} ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} and that plasma protein adsorption took an important role repairing the graft surface.

  3. Complementary vertical bipolar transistor process using high-energy ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragay, F.W.; Ragay, F.W.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wallinga, Hans

    1991-01-01

    High-energy ion implantation is used as a key processing step in the formation of a complementary bipolar process with both transistor types being vertical. Both n-p-n and p -n-p transistors are made vertically with a deep implanted collector region. Combinations of epitaxial and buried layers are

  4. Effects of vanadium ion implantation on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of TiN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Tao, Ye; Guo, Deliang

    2012-09-01

    TiN coatings were deposited on the substrates of cemented carbide (WC-TiC-Co) by Magnetic Filter Arc Ion Plating (MFAIP) and then implanted with vanadium through Metal Vacuum Vapor Arc (MEVVA) ion source with the doses of 1 × 1017 and 5 × 1017 ions/cm2 at 40 kV. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the V-implanted TiN coatings were investigated using Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), together with the mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were characterized using nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the diffraction peaks of the V-implanted TiN coatings at the doses of 5 × 1017 ions/cm2 shifted to higher angles and became broader. The hardness and elastic modulus of TiN coatings increased after V ion implantation. The wear mechanism for both un-implanted and V-implanted TiN coatings against GCr15 steel ball was adhesive wear, and the V-implanted TiN coatings had a lower friction coefficient as well as a better wear resistance

  5. Immobilization of extracellular matrix on polymeric materials by carbon-negative-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sommani, Piyanuch; Muto, Takashi; Utagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Shun; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2005-08-01

    Effects of ion implantation into polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber (SR) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) have been investigated for immobilization of extracellular matrix. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PS and SR sheets at various energies between 5-30 keV and various doses between 1.0 × 1014-1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. Contact angles of pure water on C-implanted surfaces of PS and SR were decreased as increase in ion energy and in dose due to formation of functional groups such as OH and C-O. Selective attachment of nerve cells was observed on C-implanted them at 10 keV and 3 × 1015 ions/cm2 after in vitro cell culture of nerve cells of PC-12 h. Neurite outgrowth also extended over the implanted area. After dipping in a serum medium and in a fibronectin solution for 2 h, the detection of N 1s electrons by X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) revealed a significant distinction of protein adhesion on the implanted area. Thus, immobilization of proteins on surface is used for considering the selective cell-attachment. For PLA, the selective attachment of cells and protein depended on the implantation conditions.

  6. Single ion implantation for single donor devices using Geiger mode detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielejec, E.; Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic devices that are designed to use the properties of single atoms such as donors or defects have become a reality with recent demonstrations of donor spectroscopy, single photon emission sources, and magnetic imaging using defect centers in diamond. Ion implantation, an industry standard for atom placement in materials, requires augmentation for single ion capability including a method for detecting a single ion arrival. Integrating single ion detection techniques with the single donor device construction region allows single ion arrival to be assured. Improving detector sensitivity is linked to improving control over the straggle of the ion as well as providing more flexibility in lay-out integration with the active region of the single donor device construction zone by allowing ion sensing at potentially greater distances. Using a remotely located passively gated single ion Geiger mode avalanche diode (SIGMA) detector we have demonstrated 100% detection efficiency at a distance of >75 µm from the center of the collecting junction. This detection efficiency is achieved with sensitivity to ~600 or fewer electron-hole pairs produced by the implanted ion. Ion detectors with this sensitivity and integrated with a thin dielectric, for example a 5 nm gate oxide, using low energy Sb implantation would have an end of range straggle of 98% for counting one and only one ion for a false count probability of 10-4 at an average ion number per gated window of 0.015.

  7. [Study on effect of seed vigor and agronomic characters of Cassia seeds implanted with low energy nitrogen ion beans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on seed germination and agronomic characters. Different doses of low energy nitrogen ion implantation were implanted into fresh Cassia seed embryos. Seed germination, seedling growth and field agronomic characters were observed. The seeds after ion implantation showed significant reduction in germination energy, germination percentage and germination index, besides the significant decreasement in root length, fresh weight and vigor index of seedling. Plant height decreased despite the increase in grain size and grain weight. The low energy nitrogen ion implantation have significant effect on Cassia seeds, and being of great significance on Cassia artificial cultivation.

  8. Modification in surface properties of poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39 implanted by Au+ ions at different fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagheer Riffat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion implantation has a potential to modify the surface properties and to produce thin conductive layers in insulating polymers. For this purpose, poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39 was implanted by 400 keV Au+ ions with ion fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The chemical, morphological and optical properties of implanted CR-39 were analyzed using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of implanted samples was determined through four-point probe technique. Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of carbonaceous structures in the implanted layer of CR-39. From FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, changes in functional groups of CR-39 after ion implantation were observed. AFM studies revealed that morphology and surface roughness of implanted samples depend on the fluence of Au ions. The optical band gap of implanted samples decreased from 3.15 eV (for pristine to 1.05 eV (for sample implanted at 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The electrical conductivity was observed to increase with the ion fluence. It is suggested that due to an increase in ion fluence, the carbonaceous structures formed in the implanted region are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity.

  9. Development and experimental study of large size composite plasma immersion ion implantation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falun, SONG; Fei, LI; Mingdong, ZHU; Langping, WANG; Beizhen, ZHANG; Haitao, GONG; Yanqing, GAN; Xiao, JIN

    2018-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) overcomes the direct exposure limit of traditional beam-line ion implantation, and is suitable for the treatment of complex work-piece with large size. PIII technology is often used for surface modification of metal, plastics and ceramics. Based on the requirement of surface modification of large size insulating material, a composite full-directional PIII device based on RF plasma source and metal plasma source is developed in this paper. This device can not only realize gas ion implantation, but also can realize metal ion implantation, and can also realize gas ion mixing with metal ions injection. This device has two metal plasma sources and each metal source contains three cathodes. Under the condition of keeping the vacuum unchanged, the cathode can be switched freely. The volume of the vacuum chamber is about 0.94 m3, and maximum vacuum degree is about 5 × 10‑4 Pa. The density of RF plasma in homogeneous region is about 109 cm‑3, and plasma density in the ion implantation region is about 1010 cm‑3. This device can be used for large-size sample material PIII treatment, the maximum size of the sample diameter up to 400 mm. The experimental results show that the plasma discharge in the device is stable and can run for a long time. It is suitable for surface treatment of insulating materials.

  10. Generation of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond with Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Ming; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Fan, Le-Le; Gong, Zhao-Jun; Zou, Chong-Wen; Sun, Fang-Wen; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy defect color centers are created in a high purity single crystal diamond by nitrogen-ion implantation. Both optical spectrum and optically detected magnetic resonance are measured for these artificial quantum emitters. Moreover, with a suitable mask, a lattice composed of nitrogen-vacancy centers is fabricated. Rabi oscillation driven by micro-waves is carried out to show the quality of the ion implantation and potential in quantum manipulation. Along with compatible standard lithography, such an implantation technique shows high potential in future to make structures with nitrogen-vacancy centers for diamond photonics and integrated photonic quantum chip.

  11. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Ramakrishnan, V. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvanthapuram (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E{sub 2} (TO) and the A{sub 1} (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  12. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses.

  13. An Auger Sputter Profiling Study of Nitrogen and Oxygen Ion Implantations in Two Titanium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, B. D., Pope, L. E., Wittberg, T. N.

    1989-07-31

    Samples of two titanium alloys, Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3A1, were ion implanted with a combination of nitrogen (N+) and oxygen (O+). For each alloy, implantation parameters were chosen to give implanted nitrogen concentrations of approximately 10 or 50 atomic percent, from a depth of 100 nanometers to a depth of 400 nanometers. In all but one case, dual energy (200 keV and 90 keV) implantations of nitrogen were used to give a relatively uniform nitrogen concentration to a depth of 300 nanometers. In each case, oxygen was implanted at 35 keV, following the nitrogen implantation, to give an oxygen-enriched region near the surface. The implanted samples were then examined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with argon ion sputtering. In order to determine the stoichiometry of the nitrogen implanted regions, it was necessary to determine the N (KVV) contribution to the overlapping N (KVV) and Ti (LMM) Auger transitions. It was also necessary to correct for the ion-bombardment-induced compositional changes which have been described in an earlier study of titanium nitride thin films. The corrected AES depth profiles were in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  14. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-05-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14-10 16 ions/cm 2. Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80° and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3×10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90°. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1×10 15 ions/cm 2.

  15. Effects of sequential tungsten and helium ion implantation on nano-indentation hardness of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D. E. J.; Edmondson, P. D.; Roberts, S. G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-24

    To simulate neutron and helium damage in a fusion reactor first wall sequential self-ion implantation up to 13 dpa followed by helium-ion implantation up to 3000 appm was performed to produce damaged layers of {approx}2 {mu}m depth in pure tungsten. The hardness of these layers was measured using nanoindentation and was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Substantial hardness increases were seen in helium implanted regions, with smaller hardness increases in regions which had already been self-ion implanted, thus, containing pre-existing dislocation loops. This suggests that, for the same helium content, helium trapped in distributed vacancies gives stronger hardening than helium trapped in vacancies condensed into dislocation loops.

  16. Formation of Wear Resistant Steel Surfaces by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mändl, S.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2003-08-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a versatile and fast method for implanting energetic ions into large and complex shaped three-dimensional objects where the ions are accelerated by applying negative high voltage pulses to a substrate immersed in a plasma. As the line-of-sight restrictions of conventional implanters are circumvented, it results in a fast and cost-effective technology. Implantation of nitrogen at 30 - 40 keV at moderate temperatures of 200 - 400 °C into steel circumvents the diminishing thermal nitrogen activation encountered, e.g., in plasma nitriding in this temperature regime, thus enabling nitriding of additional steel grades. Nitride formation and improvement of the mechanical properties after PIII are presented for several steel grades, including AISI 316Ti (food industry), AISI D2 (used for bending tools) and AISI 1095 (with applications in the textile industry).

  17. Urchin-like hollow-structured cobalt oxides with excellent anode performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chunyu, E-mail: chunyu6zhu@gmail.com; Saito, Genki; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2015-10-15

    Urchin-like CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow structures with potential use as anodes in lithium ion batteries were synthesized via the facile thermal decomposition of precipitated amorphous cobalt carbonate hydroxide under either Ar or air. The morphology and, consequently, electrochemical properties of the samples were highly dependent on the precipitation temperature. The cobalt oxides, as derived from precursors that were obtained at room temperature, exhibited superior activity to those obtained at 50 °C and 80 °C because of their unique nanosized architecture. Meanwhile, CoO samples demonstrated much better cyclability and rate capability than Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples, as they exhibited much higher coulombic efficiency and lower hysteresis for lithium insertion/extration. The curved, short, and closely entangled nanowires of CoO sample, which was derived from room temperature precursor, yielded excellent electrochemical performance. The sample displayed a high reversible capacity of about 850 mAh g{sup −1} at a current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}, a good stability through 50 cycles with a high coulombic efficiency of about 98%, and a high rate capability of 610 mAh g{sup −1} even at a rate of 3000 mA g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Urchin-like CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow structures were produced for LIB anodes. • CoO samples showed better cyclability and rate capability than Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples. • The best CoO sample showed a high capacity of about 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 500 mA g{sup −1}. • A high rate capability for the CoO sample was obtained.

  18. Page 1 Effect of ion implantation on the refractive index of glass 107 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thompson. 1969). The nature of the damage is also ... blocks combine only at the corners through the bridging oxygen atoms. During implantation, the incident ions displace the non-bridging oxygen ions and the consequent change in polarisability of ...

  19. Nanoscale magnetization reversal caused by electric field-induced ion migration and redistribution in cobalt ferrite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Zhu, Xiaojian; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Gang; Feng, Yuan Ping; Ding, Jun; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-04-28

    Reversible nanoscale magnetization reversal controlled merely by electric fields is still challenging at the moment. In this report, first-principles calculation indicates that electric field-induced magnetization reversal can be achieved by the appearance of unidirectional magnetic anisotropy along the (110) direction in Fe-deficient cobalt ferrite (CoFe(2-x)O4, CFO), as a result of the migration and local redistribution of the Co(2+) ions adjacent to the B-site Fe vacancies. In good agreement with the theoretical model, we experimentally observed that in the CFO thin films the nanoscale magnetization can be reversibly and nonvolatilely reversed at room temperature via an electrical ion-manipulation approach, wherein the application of electric fields with appropriate polarity and amplitude can modulate the size of magnetic domains with different magnetizations up to 70%. With the low power consumption (subpicojoule) characteristics and the elimination of external magnetic field, the observed electric field-induced magnetization reversal can be used for the construction of energy-efficient spintronic devices, e.g., low-power electric-write and magnetic-read memories.

  20. Application of Coaxial Ion Gun for Film Generation and Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Mikio; Asai, Tomohiko; Kurumi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) is here utilized for deposition on high-melting-point metals. MCPGs have hitherto been studied mostly in the context of nuclear fusion research, for particle and magnetic helicity injection and spheromak formation. During spheromak formation, the electrode materials are ionized and mixed into the plasmoid. In this study, this ablation process by gun-current sputtering is enhanced for metallic thin-film generation. In the proposed system geometry, only ionized materials are electromagnetically accelerated by the self-Lorentz force, with ionized operating gas as a magnetized thermal plasmoid, contributing to the thin-film deposition. This reduces the impurity and non-uniformity of the deposited thin-film. Furthermore, as the ions are accelerated in a parallel direction to the injection axis, vertical implantation of the ions into the substrate surface is achieved. To test a potential application of the developed system, experiments were conducted involving the formation of a buffer layer on hard ceramics, for use in dental materials.

  1. The production of optical waveguides by ion implantation: the case of rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickards, J.; Trejo L, R.; Flores R, E.; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa, G., E-mail: rickards@fisica.unam.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    With the purpose of developing optoelectronic devices, optical waveguides have been produced by ion implantation in many solids. The implantation process creates a damaged layer near the end of the ion trajectories, with a consequent reduction of density and index of refraction. This produces an optical barrier at a depth of a few microns, depending on the type of ion and its energy. The barrier and the surface constitute a planar waveguide. Rutile (TiO{sub 2} tetragonal structure) single crystals were implanted with 7 MeV carbon ions using the Physics Institute 3 MV Pelletron Accelerator, in the (100) and (001) directions, and Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (P ADC) as detection material. The waveguides were observed using the coupled prism technique, which indicated differences in the waveguides produced for different directions due to crystal anisotropy. (Author)

  2. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace copper, nickel, and cobalt ions in water samples using solid phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yugao; Zhao, He; Han, Yelin; Liu, Xia; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Qingyin; Bian, Xihui

    2017-02-01

    A simultaneous spectrophotometric determination method for trace heavy metal ions based on solid-phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches was developed. In the proposed method, trace metal ions in aqueous samples were adsorbed by cation exchange fibers and desorbed by acidic solution from the fibers. After the ion preconcentration process, the enriched solution was detected by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). Then, the concentration of heavy metal ions were quantified by analyzing ultraviolet and visible spectrum with the help of partial least squares (PLS) approaches. Under the optimal conditions of operation time, flow rate and detection parameters, the overlapped absorption peaks of mixed ions were obtained. The experimental data showed that the concentration, which can be calculated through chemometrics method, of each metal ion increased significantly. The heavy metal ions can be enriched more than 80-fold. The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes of copper ions (Cu2 +), cobalt ions (Co2 +) and nickel ions (Ni2 +) mixture was 0.10 μg L- 1, 0.15 μg L- 1 and 0.13 μg L- 1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 5%. The performance of the solid-phase extraction can enrich the ions efficiently and the combined method of spectrophotometric detection and PLS can evaluate the ions concentration accurately. The work proposed here is an interesting and promising attempt for the trace ions determination in water samples and will have much more applied field.

  3. Investigation of Donor and Acceptor Ion Implantation in AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osinsky, Andrei [Agnitron Technology Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

    2015-09-16

    AlGaN alloys with high Al composition and AlN based electronic devices are attractive for high voltage, high temperature applications, including microwave power sources, power switches and communication systems. AlN is of particular interest because of its wide bandgap of ~6.1eV which is ideal for power electronic device applications in extreme environments which requires high dose ion implantation. One of the major challenges that need to be addressed to achieve full utilization of AlN for opto and microelectronic applications is the development of a doping strategy for both donors and acceptors. Ion implantation is a particularly attractive approach since it allows for selected-area doping of semiconductors due to its high spatial and dose control and its high throughput capability. Active layers in the semiconductor are created by implanting a dopant species followed by very high temperature annealing to reduce defects and thereby activate the dopants. Recovery of implant damage in AlN requires excessively high temperature. In this SBIR program we began the investigation by simulation of ion beam implantation profiles for Mg, Ge and Si in AlN over wide dose and energy ranges. Si and Ge are implanted to achieve the n-type doping, Mg is investigated as a p-type doping. The simulation of implantation profiles were performed in collaboration between NRL and Agnitron using a commercial software known as Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). The simulation results were then used as the basis for ion implantation of AlN samples. The implanted samples were annealed by an innovative technique under different conditions and evaluated along the way. Raman spectroscopy and XRD were used to determine the crystal quality of the implanted samples, demonstrating the effectiveness of annealing in removing implant induced damage. Additionally, SIMS was used to verify that a nearly uniform doping profile was achieved near the sample surface. The electrical characteristics

  4. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry studies of 100 keV nitrogen ion implanted polypropylene polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Mahak; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu

    2017-09-01

    The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structure and composition in polypropylene (PP) polymer has been studied. Implantation was carried out using 100 keV N+ ions at different fluences of 1 × 1015, 1 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 ions cm-2 with beam current density of ∼0.65 μA cm-2. Surface morphological changes in the pre- and post-implanted PP specimens have been studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The spatial distribution of implantation induced modification in the form of carbonization and dehydrogenation in the near surface region of PP matrix, the projected range, retained dose of implanted nitrogen, the various elements present in the implanted layers and their differential cross-sections have been analyzed using RBS spectra. RUMP simulation yielded an increase in the concentration of carbon near the surface from 33 at.% (virgin) to 42 at.% at fluence of 1 × 1017 N+ cm-2. Further, optical absorption has been found to increase with a shift in the absorption edge from UV towards visible region with increasing fluence. UV-Vis absorption spectra also indicate a drastic decrease in optical energy gap from 4.12 eV (virgin) to 0.25 eV (1 × 1017 N+ cm-2) indicating towards the formation of carbonaceous network in the implanted region. All these changes observed using UV-Visible have been further correlated with the outcomes of the RBS characterization.

  5. Improvement of in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility of biodegradable Fe surface modified by Zn ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Li, Yan; Jiang, Chengbao

    2017-05-01

    Pure Fe was surface-modified by Zn ion implantation to improve the biodegradable behavior and cytocompatibility. Surface topography, chemical composition, corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility were investigated. Atomic force microscopy, auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that Zn was implanted into the surface of pure Fe in the depth of 40-60 nm and Fe2O3/ZnO oxides were formed on the outmost surface. Electrochemical measurements and immersion tests revealed an improved degradable behavior for the Zn-implanted Fe samples. An approximately 12% reduction in the corrosion potential (Ecorr) and a 10-fold increase in the corrosion current density (icorr) were obtained after Zn ion implantation with a moderate incident ion dose, which was attributed to the enhanced pitting corrosion. The surface free energy of pure Fe was decreased by Zn ion implantation. The results of direct cell culture indicated that the short-term (4 h) cytocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 cells was promoted by the implanted Zn on the surface.

  6. The biomedical properties of polyethylene terephthalate surface modified by silver ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Li Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Shen Liru [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Ling Ren [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Xu Zejin [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Zhao Ansha [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Leng Yongxiang [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang Nan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technologies of Materials of Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)]. E-mail: nhuang@263.net

    2007-04-15

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film is modified by Ag ion implantation with a fluence 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that silver has been successfully implanted into the surface of PET. The PET samples modified by silver ion implantation have significantly bactericidal property. The capacity of the staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) adhered on the Ag{sup +} implanted PET surface is 5.3 x 10{sup 6} CFU/ml, but the capacity of the SE adhered on the untreated PET film is 2.23 x 10{sup 7} CFU/ml. The thromboembolic property is evaluated by in vitro platelet adhesion test, and there is not statistically difference between the untreated PET and the Ag{sup +} implanted PET for the number of adhered and activated platelets. The PET implanted by silver ion has not acute toxicity to endothelial cell (EC) which was evaluated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test.

  7. Analysis of a battery management system (BMS) control strategy for vibration aged nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bruen, Thomas; Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James; Gama, Miguel; Chouchelamane, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS). In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO) were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles...

  8. Patch test reactivity to a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy and stainless steel in metal-allergic patients in correlation to the metal ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Burkhard; Fink, Ulrich; Zeller, Richard; Rueff, Franziska; Maier, Sonja; Roider, Gabriele; Thomas, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Nickel, chromium, and cobalt released from stainless steel and CoCrMo alloys have been postulated to trigger hypersensitivity reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the ion release from a CoCrMo alloy and stainless steel in vitro and the cutaneous reactivity to it by patch test. 52 metal-allergic patients and 48 non-allergic controls were patch tested to stainless steel and CoCrMo discs. In addition, using atomic absorption spectrometry, the release of nickel, cobalt, and chromium from both materials was assessed upon 2-day exposure to distilled water, artificial sweat (AS), and cell culture medium. There was low nickel ion release from stainless steel (0.3-0.46 microg/cm(2)/2 days) and CoCrMo discs (up to 0.33 microg/cm(2)/2 days) into the different elution media. Chromium release from the 2 materials was also very low (0.06-0.38 microg/cm(2)/2 days from stainless steel and 0.52-1.36 microg/cm(2)/2 days from CoCrMo alloy). In contrast, AS led to abundant cobalt release (maximally 18.94 microg/cm(2)/2 days) from the CoCrMo discs, with concomitant eczematous reaction upon patch testing: 0 of the 52 metal-allergic patients reacted to stainless steel discs and 5 of the 52 patients to CoCrMo discs (all 5 patients were cobalt allergic and 3 also nickel and chromium allergic). None of the controls reacted to the discs. Apart from nickel being a focus of allergological research, our results point to the possibly underestimated association of cobalt release and potential hyperreactivity to CoCrMo alloy.

  9. Silicon defects characterization for low temperature ion implantation and RTA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martirani Paolillo, Diego; Margutti, Giovanni; De Biase, Marco [LFoundry s.r.l. Avezzano (Italy); Barozzi, Mario; Giubertoni, Damiano [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento (Italy); Spaggiari, Claudio [Axcelis Technologies Srl, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    In the last years a lot of effort has been directed in order to reduce silicon defects eventually formed during the ion implantation/anneal sequence used in the fabrication of CMOS devices. In this work we explored the effect of ion implant dose rate and temperature on the formation of silicon defects for high fluence {sup 49}BF{sub 2} implantations. The considered processes (implantation and annealing) conditions are those typically used to form the source/drain regions of p-channel transistors in the submicron technology node and will be detailed in the document. Characterization of implant damage and extended silicon defects left after anneal has been performed by TEM. Dopant distribution and dopant activation has been investigated by SIMS and SRP analysis. We have verified that implant dose rate and temperature modulate the thickness of the amorphous silicon observed after implant, as well as the concentrations of silicon defects left after anneal. Effect of high dose rate low temperature implantation on product device was also evaluated, showing a reduction of leakage current on p-channel transistors. Experimental set up, results and possible explanation will be reported and discussed in the paper.

  10. Spectroscopic capture and reactivity of a low-spin cobalt(IV)-oxo complex stabilized by binding redox-inactive metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seungwoo; Pfaff, Florian Felix; Kwon, Eunji; Wang, Yong; Seo, Mi-Sook; Bill, Eckhard; Ray, Kallol; Nam, Wonwoo

    2014-09-22

    High-valent cobalt-oxo intermediates are proposed as reactive intermediates in a number of cobalt-complex-mediated oxidation reactions. Herein we report the spectroscopic capture of low-spin (S=1/2) Co(IV)-oxo species in the presence of redox-inactive metal ions, such as Sc(3+), Ce(3+), Y(3+), and Zn(2+), and the investigation of their reactivity in C-H bond activation and sulfoxidation reactions. Theoretical calculations predict that the binding of Lewis acidic metal ions to the cobalt-oxo core increases the electrophilicity of the oxygen atom, resulting in the redox tautomerism of a highly unstable [(TAML)Co(III)(O˙)](2-) species to a more stable [(TAML)Co(IV)(O)(M(n+))] core. The present report supports the proposed role of the redox-inactive metal ions in facilitating the formation of high-valent metal-oxo cores as a necessary step for oxygen evolution in chemistry and biology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Rigid versus Flexible Ligands on Carbon Nanotubes for the Enhanced Sensitivity of Cobalt Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Pingping; Kraut, Nadine D.; Feigel, Ian Matthew; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-26

    Carbon nanotubes have shown great promise in the fabrication of ultra-compact and highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors. Additional chemical functionalization schemes can controllably improve selectivity of the carbon nanotube-based sensors; however the exact transduction mechanism is still under debate. In this article we detail the synthesis and selective response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with polyazomethine (PAM) polymer towards the application of a specific trace metal ion detector. The response of the polymer system was compared to shape persistent macrocycle (MAC) comprised of identical ion coordination ligands. While ion detection with rigid MAC/SWNT chemiresistor was comparable to bare SWNT, flexible PAM offers significant SWNT signal amplification, allowing for picomolar detection of Co{sup 2+} ions with both selectivity and a fast response. We hypothesized that rearrangement of the flexible PAM on the SWNT network is a sensing mechanism which allows for ultrasensitive detection of metal ions. The electron transfer and polymer rearrangement on the SWNT was studied by a combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical measurements - ultimately allowing for a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms that prompt device response.

  12. Microstructural investigation of alumina implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikha, Deep; Jha, Usha; Sinha, S. K.; Barhai, P. K.; Sarkhel, G.; Nair, K. G. M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2007-11-01

    Among ceramics, alumina is being widely used as biomaterials now these days. It is being used as hip joints, tooth roots etc. Ion implantation has been employed to modify its surface without changing it bulk properties. 30 keV nitrogen with varying ion dose ranging from 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 to 5 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 is implanted in alumina. Surface morphology has been studied with optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). Improvement in brittleness has been observed with the increase in ion dose. Compound formation and changes in grain size have been studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD). AlN compound formation is also observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The change in the grain size is related with the nanohardness and Hall-Petch relationship is verified.

  13. Analysis of surface morphological change in PET films induced by tungsten ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, G., E-mail: guzhou@bnu.edu.c [Analysis and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, R.; Zhang, T.H. [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Surface morphological changes and metal nanograin formation of polyethylene terephthalate films with tungsten ion implantation were studied. Tungsten ions were accelerated with a voltage of 40 kV and implanted at fluences from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 2 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} using a metal vapor vacuum arc implanter. Scanning electron micrographs at the highest fluence show semi-spherical hills, indicating formation of tungsten nanograins on the polymer. The tungsten nanograin formation in the polymer film is confirmed by cross-sectional observation using transmission electron microscopy. Depth profiles of tungsten atoms obtained from energy dispersive X-ray spectra indicate densification and sputtering of the polymer surface layer during implantation. These results indicate that surface morphological change is related with the effects of a critical fluence and tungsten nanograin formation.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of ion implanted aluminium alloy in 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.W.; Evans, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used in industry because of their light weight, high strength and good corrosion resistance which is due to the formation of a protective oxide layer. However, under saline conditions such as those encountered in marine environments, this group of metals are vulnerable to localised degradation in the form of pitting corrosion. This type of corrosion involves the adsorption of an anion, such as chlorine, at the oxide solution interface. Ion implantation of metal ions has been shown to improve the corrosion resistance of a variety of materials. This effect occurs : when the implanted species reduces anion adsorption thereby decreasing the corrosion rate. In this paper we report on the pitting behavior of Ti implanted 2011 Al alloy in dilute sodium chloride solution. The Ti implanted surfaces exhibited an increased pitting potential and a reduced oxygen uptake. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Biofunctionalization of surfaces by energetic ion implantation: Review of progress on applications in implantable biomedical devices and antibody microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Marcela M. M.

    2014-08-01

    Despite major research efforts in the field of biomaterials, rejection, severe immune responses, scar tissue and poor integration continue to seriously limit the performance of today's implantable biomedical devices. Implantable biomaterials that interact with their host via an interfacial layer of active biomolecules to direct a desired cellular response to the implant would represent a major and much sought after improvement. Another, perhaps equally revolutionary, development that is on the biomedical horizon is the introduction of cost-effective microarrays for fast, highly multiplexed screening for biomarkers on cell membranes and in a variety of analyte solutions. Both of these advances will rely on effective methods of functionalizing surfaces with bioactive molecules. After a brief introduction to other methods currently available, this review will describe recently developed approaches that use energetic ions extracted from plasma to facilitate simple, one-step covalent surface immobilization of bioactive molecules. A kinetic theory model of the immobilization process by reactions with long-lived, mobile, surface-embedded radicals will be presented. The roles of surface chemistry and microstructure of the ion treated layer will be discussed. Early progress on applications of this technology to create diagnostic microarrays and to engineer bioactive surfaces for implantable biomedical devices will be reviewed.

  16. Antibacterial TiO2 Coating Incorporating Silver Nanoparticles by Microarc Oxidation and Ion Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang; Zhiguo Zhang; Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Infection associated with titanium implants remains the most common serious complication in hard tissue replacement surgery. Since such postoperative infections are usually difficult to cure, it is critical to find optimal strategies for preventing infections. In this study, TiO2 coating incorporating silver (Ag) nanoparticles were fabricated on pure titanium by microarc oxidation and ion implantation. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by exposing the specimens to Staphylococcus aureus...

  17. Formation of Si/SiC multilayers by low-energy ion implantation and thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovolskiy, S.; Yakshin, A.E.; Yakshin, Andrey; Tichelaar, F.D.; Verhoeven, J.; Louis, E.; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    Si/SiC multilayer systems for XUV reflection optics with a periodicity of 10–20 nm were produced by sequential deposition of Si and implantation of 1 keV View the MathML source ions. Only about 3% of the implanted carbon was transferred into the SiC, with a thin, 0.5–1 nm, buried SiC layer being

  18. Trans-projected-range gettering of copper in high-energy ion-implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Mücklich, A.; Panknin, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.

    2000-12-01

    Strong gettering of Cu atoms beyond the projected ion range RP has been found in single-crystal Si implanted with P+ and As+ ions at MeV energies. We call this phenomenon the "trans-RP effect." The formation of a separate Cu gettering band below RP, as detected by secondary ion mass spectrometry, indicates the presence of a significant amount of defects therein. These defects have not been detected by transmission electron microscopy and we suggest that they are small interstitial clusters. The amount of Cu atoms gettered beyond RP is, particularly for the P implants, much greater than that in the gettering layer at RP, indicating that the gettering ability of the point defects beyond RP is higher than that of the extended defects at RP. A mechanism responsible for their formation and clustering in the trans-RP region is proposed, and an explanation is given of the differences in the results for the P and As implants.

  19. High-Efficiency Si Solar Cell Fabricated by Ion Implantation and Inline Backside Rounding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel, high-throughput processing method to produce high-efficiency solar cells via a backside rounding process and ion implantation. Ion implantation combined with a backside rounding process is investigated. The ion implantation process substituted for thermal POCl3 diffusion performs better uniformity (<3%. The U-4100 spectrophotometer shows that wafers with backside rounding process perform higher reflectivity at long wavelengths. Industrial screen printed (SP Al-BSF on different etching depth groups was analyzed. SEMs show that increasing etch depth improves back surface field (BSF. The - measurement revealed that etching depths of 6 μm ± 0.1 μm due to having the highest and , it has the best performance. SEMs also show that higher etching depths also produce uniform Al melting and better BSF. This is in agreement with IQE response data at long wavelengths.

  20. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. The effect of ion implantation on the tribomechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistica, R.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Janardhana, M.N. [Deakin University, Geelong, VIC (Australia). School of Engineering and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Graphite fibre reinforced epoxy composite material (GFRP) is used extensively in the aerospace and other industries for structural application. The trend is to address the 20 to 30 year life endurance of this material in service. Mechanical joints in air crafts are exposed to dynamic loads during service and wear may be experienced by the composite material joint. Generally it has been shown that graphite fibre reinforced polymers have superior wear and friction properties as compared with the unfilled polymers. In the described experiment, ion implantation was used as a novel surface treatment. Wear and friction of a polymer composite material (GFRP) was studied and ion implantation was used in order to observe the effect on the tribomechanical properties of the material. It was found that ion implantation of C on GFRP sliding against Ti changes the tribological properties of the system, and in particular decreases the coefficient of friction and wear. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. High power density vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with ion implanted isolated current aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akira; Naito, Hideyuki; Torii, Kousuke; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Takenori; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2012-02-13

    We report on GaAs-based high power density vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with ion implanted isolated current apertures. A continuous-wave output power of over 380 mW and the power density of 4.9 kW/cm2 have been achieved at 15 °C from the 100-μm-diameter aperture, which is the highest output characteristic ever reported for an ion implanted VCSEL. A high background suppression ratio of over 40 dB has also been obtained at the emission wavelength of 970 nm. The ion implantation technique provides an excellent current isolation in the apertures and would be a key to realize high power output from a VCSEL array.

  3. Effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the structural and optical properties of indium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M., E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Kumar, Pravin [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Khan, Sameen Ahmed [Department of Mathematics and Sciences, College of Arts and Applied Sciences (CAAS) Dhofar University, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2016-06-10

    : We report here synthesis and subsequent nitrogen ion implantation of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films. The films were implanted with 25 keV N{sup +} beam for different ion doses between 3E15 to 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}. The resulting changes in structural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, SEM-EDAX and UV-Vis Spectrometry. XRD studies reveal decrease in crystallite size from 20.06 to 12.42 nm with increase in ion dose. SEM micrographs show an increase in the grain size from 0.8 to 1.35 µm with increase in ion dose because of the agglomeration of the grains. Also, from EDAX data on pristine and N-implanted thin films the presence of indium and oxygen without any traces of impurity elements could be seen. However, at lower ion doses such as 3E15 and 5E15 ions/cm{sup 2}, no evidence of the presence of nitrogen ion was seen. However, for the ion dose of 1E16 ions/cm{sup 2}, evidence of presence of nitrogen can be seen in the EDAX data. Band gap calculations reveal a decrease in band gap from 3.54 to 3.38 eV with increasing ion dose. However, the band gap was found to again show an increase to 3.58 eV at the highest ion dose owing to quantum confinement effect.

  4. Introduction of the SHX-III System, a Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Michiro; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Kabasawa, Mitsuaki; Ishikawa, Koji; Murooka, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2008-11-01

    The SHX-III system, categorized as a single-wafer high-current ion implanter, has been developed by SEN Corporation in order to meet all the requirements for high dose and relatively high mid-dose applications, including high-tilted multi-step implantation. Recently the three major advanced device types, namely logic devices, memory and imagers, started to require high-current ion implanters in diverse ways. The SHX-III is designed to fulfill such a variety of requirements in one system. The SHX-III has the same end station as the MC3-II/WR, SEN's latest medium current implanter, which has a mechanical throughput of 450 WPH. This capability and precise dose control system of the SHX-III causes dramatic productivity enhancement for application of mid-high dose, ranged between 5E13 to 2E14 atoms/cm2, usually performed by medium current ion implanters. In this paper the concept and performance of the SHX-III will be described, concerning influence of device characteristics. A concept and performance data of the SHX figure that this system can provide implant quality and productivity as far as the 32 nm node.

  5. Improvement of corrosion resistance of M50 bearing steel by implantation with metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B. R.; Torp, B.; Rangel, C. M.; Simplicio, M. H.; Consiglieri, A. C.; DaSilva, M. F.; Paszti, F.; Soares, J. C.; Dodd, A.; Kinder, J.; Pitaval, M.; Thevenard, P.; Wing, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    With the overall objective to improve the service life and reliability of gas turbine engine bearings by increasing their corrosion resistance and rolling contact fatigue life a collaborative project under the EEC BRITE/EURAM programme has been initiated. The project is aimed at developing an ion implantation technique to implant bearing components with metallic species and to optimise the process particularly for applications where salt-water contamination of the lubricating oil might occur. Prior to implanting into bearing components, test specimens of M50 bearing steel implanted with Cr + and Ta + at several doses have been characterised by various techniques. This article reports on the implantation work, the RBS and NRA analysis for depth profiling and independent dose measurement, and the corrosion resistance measurements which have been performed in order to determine the optimum treatment.

  6. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chenlong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Wang, Guangfu, E-mail: 88088@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Beijing Radiation Center, 100875 Beijing (China); Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    Highlights: • The radiation effect has a greater influence than doping effect on the hydrophilicity of RTV SR. • The implanted ions result in a new surface atomic bonding state and morphology. • Generating hydrophilic functional groups is a reason for the improved cell biocompatibility. • The micro roughness makes the hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect. • Cell culture demonstrates that negative-ion implantation can improve biocompatibility. - Abstract: A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C{sub 1}{sup −} implantation dose was increased to 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, and the effects of C{sub 1}{sup −}, C{sub 2}{sup −} and O{sub 1}{sup −} implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Si−CH{sub 3}, Si−O−Si, C−H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (−COOH, −OH, Si−(O){sub x} (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method

  7. Peculiarities and application perspectives of metal-ion implants in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Gonella, F. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Arnold, G.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaglin, G. [Venice Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica; Bertoncello, R. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation in insulators causes modifications in the refractive-index as a result of radiation damage, phase separation, or compound formation. As a consequence, light waveguides may be formed with interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics. Recently implantation of metals ions (e.g. silver, copper, gold, lead,...) showed the possibility of small radii colloidal particles formation, in a thin surface layer of the glass substrate. These particles exhibit an electron plasmon resonance which depends on the optical constants of the implanted metal and on the refractive-index of the glass host. The non-linear optical properties of such colloids, in particular the enhancement of optical Kerr susceptibility, suggest that the, ion implantation technique may play an important role for the production of all-optical switching devices. In this paper an analysis of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field will be presented in the framework of ion implantation in glass physics and chemistry.

  8. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J. [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H.; Morita, Y.; Ohshima, T.

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  9. Balancing microbial and mammalian cell functions on calcium ion-modified implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Tejero, Ricardo; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Calderón, María Coronada; Delgado-Rastrollo, María; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Troya, María; Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro; González-Martín, María Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Implant integration is a complex process mediated by the interaction of the implant surface with the surrounding ions, proteins, bacteria, and tissue cells. Although most implants achieve long-term bone-tissue integration, preventing pervasive implant-centered infections demands further advances, particularly in surfaces design. In this work, we analyzed classical microrough implant surfaces (only acid etched, AE; sandblasted then acid etching, SB + AE) and a new calcium-ion-modified implant surface (AE + Ca) in terms of soft- and hard-tissue integration, bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation. We cultured on the surfaces primary oral cells from gingiva and alveolar bone, and three representative bacterial strains of the oral cavity, emulating oral conditions of natural saliva and blood plasma. With respect to gingiva and bone cells and in the presence of platelets and plasma proteins, AE + Ca surfaces yielded in average 86% higher adhesion, 44% more proliferation, and triggered 246% more synthesis of extracellular matrix biomolecules than AE-unmodified controls. Concomitantly, AE + Ca surfaces regardless of conditioning with saliva and/or blood plasma showed significantly less bacterial adhesion (67% reduction in average) and biofilm formation (40% reduction in average) than unmodified surfaces. These results highlight the importance of a calcium-rich hydrated interface to favor mammalian cell functions over microbial colonization at implant surfaces. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 421-432, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A Case Study of Ion Implant In-Line Statistical Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Ramczyk, Kenneth; Hall, Darcy; Wang, Linda

    2005-09-01

    Ion implantation is one of the most critical processes in the front-end-of-line for ULSI manufacturing. With more complexity in device layout, the fab cycle time can only be expected to be longer. To ensure yield and consistent device performance it is very beneficial to have a Statistical Process Control (SPC) practice that can detect tool issues to prevent excursions. Also, implanters may abort a process due to run-time issues. It requires human intervention to dispose of the lot. Since device wafers have a fixed flow plan and can only do anneal at certain points in the manufacturing process, it is not practical to use four-point probe to check such implants. Pattern recognition option on some of the metrology tools, such as ThermaWave (TWave), allows user to check an open area on device wafers for implant information. The two cited reasons prompted this work to look into the sensitivity of TWave with different implant processes and the possibility of setting up an SPC practice in a high-volume manufacturing fab. In this work, the authors compare the test wafer result with that of device wafers with variations in implant conditions such as dose, implant angle, energy, etc. The intention of this work is to correlate analytical measurement such as sheet resistance (Rs) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) with device data such as electrical testing and sort yield. For a ± 1.5% TWave control limit with the tested implant processes in this work, this translates to about 0.5° in implant angle control or 2% to 8% dose change, respectively. It is understood that the dose sensitivity is not good since the tested processes are deep layer implants. Based on the statistics calculation, we assess the experimental error bar is within 1% of the measured values.

  11. Effective stress reduction in diamond films on alumina by carbon ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Fang Zhi Jun; Wang Li; Zhang Wei; Ma Zhe Guo; Zhang Ming

    2002-01-01

    The authors show the effective stress reduction in diamond films by implanting carbon ions into alumina substrates prior to the diamond deposition. Residual stresses in the films are evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and a more reliable method for stress determination is presented for the quantitative measurement of stress evolution. It is found that compressive stresses in the diamond films can be partly offset by the compressive stresses in the alumina substrates, which are caused by the ion pre-implantation. At the same time, the difference between the offset by the pre-stressed substrates and the total stress reduction indicates that some other mechanisms are also active

  12. Magnetization control for bit pattern formation of spinel ferromagnetic oxides by Kr ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Eiji, E-mail: kita@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Liu, Yang; Utsumi, Yuji; Morishita, Jumpei; Niizeki, Tomohiko; Yanagihara, Hideto [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Oshima, Daiki; Kato, Takeshi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Mibu, Ko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    As a first step toward the development of bit-patterned magnetic media made of oxides, we investigated the effectiveness of magnetism control by Kr implantation in a typical spinel ferromagnetic oxide, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We implanted Kr ions accelerated at 30 kV on 13-nm-thick Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films at dosages of (1–40) × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Magnetization decreased with increase in ion dosages and disappeared when irradiation was greater than 2 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} of Kr ions. These dosages are more than ten times smaller than that used in the N{sub 2} implantation for metallic and oxide ferromagnets. Both the temperature dependence of magnetization and the Mössbauer study suggest that the transition of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic took place sharply due to Kr ion irradiation, which produces two-phase separation—ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic with insufficient dosage of Kr ions.

  13. GaAs FET Device Fabrication and Ion Implantation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-25

    NRL has centered on the growth of high purity undoped semi-insulating GaAs by 1 the pyrolytic boron nitride encapsulation technique. NRL ion...and Subtitle) ! 23A’.!WVRD .0 GR a .FEV GOCP.SSPONTNO.. PERFORING A IZ NAM AD1RIE.ATION AND ELEMENTNPROJET, TASImPLA A•ION,,ECHNOLOGY Qc Q epD ]&79

  14. Process for improving mechanical properties of epoxy resins by addition of cobalt ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A resin product useful as an adhesive, composite or casting resin is described as well as the process used in its preparation to improve its flexural strength mechanical property characteristics. Improved flexural strength is attained with little or no change in density, thermal stability or moisture resistance by chemically incorporating 1.2% to 10.6% by weight Co(3) ions in an epoxidized resin system.

  15. The air oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zirconium at 500 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, D Q; Chen, X W; Zhou, Q G

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of lanthanum ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zirconium at 500 deg. C has been studied. Zirconium specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions using a MEVVA source at energy of 40 keV with a fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at maximum temperature of 130 deg. C, The weight gain curves were measured after being oxidized in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min, which showed that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of zirconium ion implanted with lanthanum compared with that of the as-received zirconium. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; and then the depth distributions of the elements in the surface of the samples were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3 deg. incident angles was employed to examine the modification of its phase transformation because of the lanthanum ion implantation in the oxide films. It was obviously fou...

  16. Fe-ion implantation in pulse laser deposited La0⋅75Ca0⋅25MnO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    change of normalized resistance becomes faster. Inte- restingly, after implantation, at all the studied fluences, the resistance more or less remains constant below 180 K. Another observation is that, the implanted films do not show CMR effect. This is probably due to the fact that the heavy ion implantation leads to formation ...

  17. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Christian, E-mail: christian.reichel@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Feldmann, Frank; Müller, Ralph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Reedy, Robert C.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Passivated contacts (poly-Si/SiO{sub x}/c-Si) doped by shallow ion implantation are an appealing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells, especially for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells where a masked ion implantation facilitates their fabrication. This paper presents a study on tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by low-energy ion implantation into amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers and examines the influence of the ion species (P, B, or BF{sub 2}), the ion implantation dose (5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} to 1 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}), and the subsequent high-temperature anneal (800 °C or 900 °C) on the passivation quality and junction characteristics using double-sided contacted silicon solar cells. Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iV{sub oc}) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. For p-type passivated contacts, BF{sub 2} implantations into intrinsic a-Si yield well passivated contacts and allow for iV{sub oc} of 690 mV, whereas implanted B gives poor passivation with iV{sub oc} of only 640 mV. While solar cells featuring in-situ B-doped selective hole contacts and selective electron contacts with P implanted into intrinsic a-Si layers achieved V{sub oc} of 690 mV and fill factor (FF) of 79.1%, selective hole contacts realized by BF{sub 2} implantation into intrinsic a-Si suffer from drastically reduced FF which is caused by a non-Ohmic Schottky contact. Finally, implanting P into in-situ B-doped a-Si layers for the purpose of overcompensation (counterdoping) allowed for solar cells with V{sub oc} of 680 mV and FF of 80.4%, providing a simplified and promising fabrication process for IBC solar cells featuring passivated contacts.

  18. Ion Implantation of In0.53Ga0.47As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almonte, Marlene Isabel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the effects of implanation in In0.53Ga0.47As due to damage by implantation of Ne+ ions and to compensation by implantation of Fe+ ions are reported in this thesis.

  19. Effects of Mn Ion Implantation on XPS Spectroscopy of GaN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Abdul; Ahmad, Naeem; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Ali, Fekri Abdulraqeb Ahmed; Zhu, Jianjun

    2018-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin film was deposited onto a sapphire substrate and then implanted with 250 keV Mn ions at two different doses of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. The as-grown and post-implantation-thermally-annealed samples were studied in detail using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS peaks of Ga 3 d, Ga 2 p, N 1 s, Mn 2 p and C 1 s were recorded in addition to a full survey of the samples. The doublet peaks of Ga 2 p for pure GaN were observed blue-shifted when compared with elemental Ga, and appeared further shifted to higher energies for the implanted samples. These observations point to changes in the bonds and the chemical environment of the host as a result of ion implantation. The results revealed broadening of the N 1 s peak after implantation, which is interpreted in terms of the presence of N-Mn bonds in addition to N-Ga bonds. The XPS spectra of Mn 2 p recorded for ion-implanted samples indicated splitting of Mn 2 p 1/2 and Mn 2 p 3/2 peaks higher than that for metallic Mn, which helps rule out the possibility of clustering and points to substitutional doping of Mn. These observations provide a framework that sheds light on the local environment of the material for understanding the mechanism of magnetic exchange interactions in Mn:GaN based diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  20. I. Heteroepitaxy on Silicon. I. Ion Implantation in Silicon and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gang

    The themes of this thesis, heteroepitaxy and ion implantation, are two areas that have been very actively researched in the last two decades. Heterostructures made of III-V compound semiconductors by MBE and OMVPE have been used extensively in the fabrication of optoelectronics devices such as high-speed transistors and semiconductor lasers. Heterostructures on Si, which is the focus of part I of this thesis, have the advantage of compatibility with Si-based VLSI and promise to have impact on the microelectronics industry. Studies on the structural, elastic, thermal, and electrical properties of heteroepitaxial CoSi_2, ReSi _2, and GeSi films grown on Si constitute the backbone of this thesis. Some new characteristics of heterostructures were discovered as a result of this investigation. Among them are the observation and modeling of misorientation effects on an epitaxial film grown on a vicinal substrate; the misorientation induced by interfacial misfit dislocation arrays; the experimental measurements and phenomenological analysis of thermal strain, dislocation generation, and strain relaxation; and illustrative measurements of elastic, thermal, and structural properties of epitaxial films. Ion implantation is an important process in the fabrication of integrated circuits. The second part of this thesis deals with the production and annealing of damage produced by ion implantation in semiconductors. The defect production, stability, microstructure, and the induced strain in implanted bulk Si crystals were quantitatively investigated as a function of ion species, dose, and implantation temperature. Many new features, such as the rapid rise of damage near the amorphization threshold, the correlation between the strain and defect concentration, and the scaling behavior of the damage with ion species and implantation temperature, are revealed. The last chapter concerns the effects of ion implantation in CoSi_2, ReSi_2 , and GeSi/Si heterostructures, which is a

  1. Presence of cobalt and chromium ions in the seminal fluid of young patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Petit, Alain; Zukor, David J; Papanastasiou, Constantine; Huk, Olga L; Antoniou, John

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of metal ions on the semen of males of child fathering age with metal-on-metal (MM) total hip arthroplasty (THA). Semen was collected form 11 patients with MM THA and 5 control of comparable age. Cobalt and chromium concentrations were measured in both the seminal plasma and in the blood of patients. Results showed that cobalt level was higher in the seminal plasma of MM THA patients (2.89 μg/L) compared to control patients (1.12 μg/L) (P = .011). The ejaculate volume, the sperm density, the total sperm count, the pH, and the percentage of cells with normal morphology were in the range of the World Health Organization criteria for fertile population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The formation of silver metal nanoparticles by ion implantation in silicate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vytykačová, S.; Švecová, B.; Nekvindová, P.; Špirková, J.; Macková, Anna; Mikšová, Romana; Bottger, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 245-255 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : silicate glasses * silver nanoparticles * ion implantation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  3. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Cutroneo Mariapompea; Torrisi Lorenzo; Ullschmied Jiri; Dudzak Roman

    2016-01-01

    The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high ...

  4. Highly selective potentiometric and colorimetric determinations of cobalt (II) ion using thiazole based ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Divya; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Upadhyay, Anjali

    2014-12-01

    New PVC-membrane electrodes were prepared by using 2-((thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol (L1) and 2-((thiazol-2-ylamino)methyl)phenol (L2) and explored as Co(II) selective electrodes. The effect of various plasticizers and anion excluder was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. It was found that the electrode based on L1 shows better response characteristics in comparison to L2. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane electrode having a composition of L1:NaTPB:DBP:PVC≡2:8:78:62 (w/w, mg). The performance of PME based on L1 was compared with that of CGE. The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Co(II) ions with a limit of detection of 6.91×10(-7) mol L(-1) for PME and 7.94×10(-8) mol L(-1) for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 15s and 12 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent in the pH range 3.0-9.0 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 90 days. The CGE was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of EDTA with Co(2+) ion. Further the selectivity of the L1 and L2 was also confirmed by the UV-vis and colorimetric studies and found that L1 is more selective for Co(II) ion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of ion implantation on fatigue strength of martensitic stainless steel and surface hardness evaluation by ultra micro hardness tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Tsuneshichi [Ritsumeikan Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, Hideaki; Kato, Masahiko

    1995-02-01

    The effect of surface modification by ion implantation on the fatigue strength of 13Cr martensitic stainless steel was first described. Then the relationship between the fatigue performance and the surface microhardness of the material was dealt with. N{sup +} ions were implanted into the specimen surface with doses in the range of 5x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} - 5x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} with energy level of 350 keV. The results of out-of-plane bending fatigue tests revealed that the fatigue strength was improved by the ion implantation with implantation doses more than 2x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, and that the further increase of fatigue strength was attained by the post heat treatment following the ion implantation. The microhardness of ultra-thin surface layer of submicron order was evaluated by the method previously proposed by the authors. The results indicated that the surface layer was hardened by the ion implantation and the hardness was increased by the post heat treatment. A remarkable increase in hardness was observed at the surface layer after the fatigue test, and this increase of the microhardness well coincides with the improvement of fatigue strength by ion implantation and post heat treatment. (author).

  6. Studies on the surface modification of TiN coatings using MEVVA ion implantation with selected metallic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, L.P., E-mail: liam.ward@rmit.edu.au [School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Purushotham, K.P. [Nanometrology Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Manory, R.R. [M& H Materials Pty Ltd, PO Box 1033, Elsternwick, Vic 3185 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    Highlights: • Reduced surface roughness was observed after ion implantation. • W implantation increased residual stress. • Reduced friction and wear accompanied Mo implantation. • Mo implanted layer was more resistant to breakdown during wear testing. • Ion implantation effects can be complex on various implanting species properties. - Abstract: Improvement in the performance of TiN coatings can be achieved using surface modification techniques such as ion implantation. In the present study, physical vapor deposited (PVD) TiN coatings were implanted with Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and W using the metal evaporation vacuum arc (MEVVA) technique at a constant nominal dose of 4 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2} for all species. The samples were characterized before and after implantation, using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Friction and wear studies were performed under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc CSEM Tribometer at 1 N load and 450 m sliding distance. A reduction in the grain size and surface roughness was observed after implantation with all five species. Little variation was observed in the residual stress values for all implanted TiN coatings, except for W implanted TiN which showed a pronounced increase in compressive residual stress. Mo-implanted samples showed a lower coefficient of friction and higher resistance to breakdown during the initial stages of testing than as-received samples. Significant reduction in wear rate was observed after implanting with Zr and Mo ions compared with unimplanted TiN. The presence of the Ti{sub 2}N phase was observed with Cr implantation.

  7. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  8. Present developments of research MeV Pelletron ion implantation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, G. A.; Daniel, R. E.; Loger, R. L.; Schroeder, J. B.

    1989-02-01

    National Electrostatics Corp. has manufactured 79 ion beam systems. 17 of these Pelletron systems were designed with MeV ion implantation capability as a primary objective. Of these system, 8 were designed specifically for production ion implantation with a maximum beam energy of 4 MeV. For research applications, ion beam masses from carbon through gold have been accelerated with a maximum observed energy of 38 MeV from a 3 MV tandem S-series Pelletron. This paper will present performance charts which describe the observed ion beam capabilities of existing 3 MV tandem Pelletrons. In addition, the performance of the new high current, four charging chain, S-Series accelerator, currently in manufacture, will be given. A new 4 MV tandem S-Series Pelletron has been proposed, its expected capabilities will be stated. The NEC electrostatics raster scanner which is in use for MeV implantation provides uniform deposition at a maximum scan angle of ± 3.0 ° for 4 MeV doubly charged ions. The output wave form at ±10 kV scanning potential will be shown.

  9. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties: Influence of cobalt and chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, Anton H; van der Mei, Henny C; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm formation has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how Co-Cr ions affect bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and architecture. A collection of clinically isolated and commercially available bacterial strains were exposed to Co-Cr concentrations as found in serum and above as found in adjacent tissue. Planktonic growth of bacteria was inhibited by concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L Co-Cr. Co-Cr concentrations up to 20/9.3 microg/L as reported to occur in serum revealed no consistent influence on biofilm formation, but higher concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus and CNS biofilm formation. As indicated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, no dead bacteria were encountered in the biofilms, and the metal ion concentrations used must be classified as growth-inhibiting and not bactericidal. Long-term clinical data on infection rates for Co-Cr MOM-bearings are not yet available, but the current results suggest that Co-Cr ions may yield these prostheses less prone to biofilm formation and subsequent infection. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Electronic Transport and Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Ion-Implanted Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Turatti, A. M.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Balzaretti, N. M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.

    2017-10-01

    We report on Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity, and in-plane magnetoresistance experiments in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) implanted with As and Mn. A pristine sample was also studied for comparison. Two different fluences were applied, φ = 0.5× 10^{16} ions/cm2 and φ = 1.0× 10^{16} ions/cm2 . The implantations were carried out with 20 keV ion energy at room temperature. The Raman spectroscopy results reveal the occurrence of drastic changes of the HOPG surface as a consequence of the damage caused by ionic implantation. For the higher dose, the complete amorphization limit is attained. The resistivity and magnetoresistance results were obtained placing electrical contacts on the irradiated sample surface. Owing to the strong anisotropy of HOPG, the electrical current propagates mostly near the implanted surface. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in the magnetoresistance at low temperatures. These results allow the extraction of the fundamental SdH frequencies and the carriers' effective masses. In general, the resistivity and magnetoresistance results are consistent with those obtained from Raman measurements. However, one must consider that the electrical conduction in our samples occurs as in a parallel association of a largely resistive thin sheet at the surface strongly modified by disorder with a thicker layer where damage produced by implantation is less severe. The SdH oscillations do not hint to significant changes in the carrier density of HOPG.

  11. Synthesis of nonepitaxial multilayer silicene assisted by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Hsiao, Ching-Hung; Chen, Chia-Wei; Ouyang, Hao; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    2016-05-01

    Nonepitaxial multilayer silicene with a lonsdaleite structure was synthesized from a 4H-SiC substrate using an implantation-assisted process. An sp3-like bonding signal was fitted in a lonsdaleite Si XPS spectrum. The multilayer silicene was directly observed and the derived interplanar distances were found to be nearly consistent with the theoretical values.Nonepitaxial multilayer silicene with a lonsdaleite structure was synthesized from a 4H-SiC substrate using an implantation-assisted process. An sp3-like bonding signal was fitted in a lonsdaleite Si XPS spectrum. The multilayer silicene was directly observed and the derived interplanar distances were found to be nearly consistent with the theoretical values. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02274j

  12. Atomistic modeling of ion implantation technologies in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqués, Luis A., E-mail: lmarques@ele.uva.es; Santos, Iván; Pelaz, Lourdes; López, Pedro; Aboy, María

    2015-06-01

    Requirements for the manufacturing of electronic devices at the nanometric scale are becoming more and more demanding on each new technology node, driving the need for the fabrication of ultra-shallow junctions and finFET structures. Main implantation strategies, cluster and cold implants, are aimed to reduce the amount of end-of-range defects through substrate amorphization. During finFET doping the device body gets amorphized, and its regrowth is more problematic than in the case of conventional planar devices. Consequently, there is a renewed interest on the modeling of amorphization and recrystallization in the front-end processing of Si. We present multi-scale simulation schemes to model amorphization and recrystallization in Si from an atomistic perspective. Models are able to correctly predict damage formation, accumulation and regrowth, both in the ballistic and thermal-spike regimes, in very good agreement with conventional molecular dynamics techniques but at a much lower computational cost.

  13. A study of the behaviour of copper in different types of silicate glasses implanted with Cu+ and O+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švecová, B.; Vařák, P.; Vytykáčová, S.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Böttger, R.

    2017-09-01

    Glasses containing copper are promising photonic materials for lasing devices and all-optical components. It has already been shown that the oxidation state of the implants depends on many factors. This paper is going to report on one of them, i.e. the influence of the composition of a silicate glass matrix on the behaviour of the implanted Cu ions before and after a subsequent implantation of oxygen ions. Three types of silicate glasses having a different extent of cross-linking were implanted with copper ions with an energy of 330 keV and a fluence 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. Then the glasses were implanted with oxygen ions with an energy of 110 keV into the same depth as the already implanted Cu ions. The concentration depth profiles of Cu in the glasses were studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. After the implantation, the samples were characterised by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The samples were annealed in ambient atmosphere for 1 h at 600 °C, which is near the transformation temperature of those glasses. The effect of annealing on the distribution of the implants and on the absorption and emission spectra of the as-implanted glasses will be discussed as well.

  14. Compositional, structural, and optical changes of polyimide implanted by 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikšová, R.; Macková, A.; Pupikova, H.; Malinský, P.; Slepička, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ion irradiation leads to deep structural and compositional changes in the irradiated polymers. Ni+ ions implanted polymers were investigated from the structural and compositional changes point of view and their optical properties were investigated. Polyimide (PI) foils were implanted with 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions at room temperature with fluencies of 1.0 × 1013-1.0 × 1015 cm-2 and two different ion implantation currents densities (3.5 and 7.2 nA/cm2). Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) were used for determination of oxygen and hydrogen escape in implanted PI. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to follow surface roughness modification after the ion implantation and UV-Vis spectroscopy was employed to check the optical properties of the implanted PI. The implanted PI structural changes were analysed using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). High energy Ni-ion implantation causes only a minor release of hydrogen and oxygen close to the polymer sub-surface region in about 60 nm thick layer penetrated by the ion beam; especially at ion fluencies below 1.0 × 1014 cm-2. The mostly pronounced structural changes of the Ni implanted PI were found for the samples implanted above ion fluence 1.0 × 1015 cm-2 and at the ion current density 7.2 nA/cm2, where the optical band gap significantly decreases and the reduction of more complex structural unit of PI monomer was observed.

  15. Effects of electronic and recoil processes in polymers during ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Lewis, M.B.; Mansur, L.K. (Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6376 (United States))

    1994-04-01

    It has been shown that ion implantation produces remarkable improvements in surface-sensitive mechanical properties, as well as other physical and chemical properties in polymers. To understand mechanisms underlying such property changes, various polymeric materials were subjected to bombardment by energetic ions in the range of 200 keV to 2 meV. The magnitude of property changes is strongly dependent upon ion species, energy, and dose. Analysis indicated that hardness and electrical conductivity increased by employing ion species with larger electronic cross sections and with increasing ion energy and dose. The results showed that electronic stopping or linear energy transfer (LET, energy deposited per unit track length per ion) for ionization was the most important factor for the enhancement of hardness, while nuclear stopping or linear energy transfer for displacement generally appeared to reduce hardness.

  16. Lattice sites of ion implanted Cu atoms in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bharuth-Ram, K; Correia, J G

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive $^{67}$Cu atoms were accelerated to 60 keV at the online isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN, and implanted into a type IIa natural diamond sample to a dose of 2 $\\times 10^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$. The channeling of $\\beta^{-}$-particles and conversion electrons emitted in the decay of $^{67}$Cu and $^{67}$Zn*, respectively, were monitored about the three major axial directions with a two dimensional position-sensitive detector. The electron emission channeling data were collected from the room temperature implanted sample and after annealing at 1200$^\\circ$ K. The observed channeling patterns were fitted with simulations based on the many beam formalism of electron motion through a crystal lattice. In the as-implanted sample, 25% of the Cu atoms were located a mean, isotropic displacement of 0.25(5) from substitutional sites, and the remainder, fR=75%, at sites that gave an isotropic emission yield. Annealing at 1200$^\\circ$ K results in enhanced axial and planar channeling effects. The fits to the data yie...

  17. The influence of silver-ion doping using ion implantation on the luminescence properties of Er–Yb silicate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staněk, S.; Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Vytykáčová, S.; Míka, M.; Oswald, Jiří; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Špirková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, Mar (2016), s. 350-354 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion implantation * silicate glass * silver * nanoparticles * erbium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (UJF-V) Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  18. Threshold shifting of nmos transitions by arsenic ion implantation prior to gate oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Joel Pereira de; Charry, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the threshold adjustment of NMOS transistors by arsenic ion implantation in the channel region directly into bare silicon just before the gate oxidation. Experimental results showed very good uniformity and reproducibility of the threshold voltages, low body effect, and high mobility values.

  19. The micro-magnetic structures of Mn sup + ion-implanted GaSb

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Fu Qiang; Liu Zhi Kai

    2003-01-01

    The micro-magnetic structures of Mn sup + ion-implanted GaSb are studied using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). MFM images reveal that there are many magnetic domains with different magnetization directions in our samples. The magnetic domain structures and the magnetization direction of typical MFM patterns are analyzed by numeric simulation. (author)

  20. Blistering in alloy Ti–6Al–4V from H+ ion implantation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6Al–4V, was studied, following H+ ion implantation of 150 keV and 250 keV energy to fluence of 2.6 × 1018 cm-2 and 2.5 × 1019 cm-2, respectively at ambient temperature. No detectable change was observed in surface features of either of the ...

  1. Dose rate effects on damage formation in ion-implanted gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T.E.; Holland, O.W.

    1990-09-01

    The residual damage in GaAs was measured by ion channeling following implantation of either 100 keV {sup 30}Si{sup +} at temperatures of 300K or 77K, or 360 keV {sup 120}Sn{sup +} at 300K. For room-temperature Si implants and fluences between 1 and 10 {times} 10{sup 14} Si/cm{sup 2}, the amount of damage created was strongly dependent upon the ion current density, which was varied between 0.05 and 12 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Two different stages of damage growth were identified by an abrupt increase in the damage growth rate as a function of fluence, and the threshold fluence for the onset of the second stage was found to be dependent on the dose rate. The dose rate effect on damage was substantially weaker for {sup 120}Sn{sup +} implants and was negligible for Si implants at 77K. The damage was found to be most sensitive to the average current density, demonstrating that the defects which are the precursors to the residual dose-rate dependent damage have active lifetimes of at least 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s. The dose rate effect and its variation with ion mass and temperature are discussed in the context of homogeneous nucleation and growth of damage during ion irradiation.

  2. The examination of calcium ion implanted alumina with energy filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, E.M.; Hampikian, J.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Evans, N.D. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Ion implantation can be used to alter in the optical response of insulators through the formation of embedded nano-sized particles. Single crystal alumina has been implanted at ambient temperature with 50 keV Ca{sup +} to a fluence of 5 {times} 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion channeling, Knoop microhardness measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the alumina surface layer was amorphized by the implant. TEM also revealed nano-sized crystals {approx}7--8 nm in diameter. These nanocrystals are randomly oriented, and exhibit a face-centered cubic structure (FCC) with a lattice parameter of 0.409 nm {+-} 0.002 nm. The similarity between this crystallography and that of pure aluminum suggests that they are metallic aluminum nanocrystals with a slightly dilated lattice parameter, possibly due to the incorporation of a small amount of calcium. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) provides an avenue by which to confirm the metallic nature of the aluminum involved in the nanocrystals. EFTEM has confirmed that the aluminum present in the particles is metallic in nature, that the particles are oxygen deficient in comparison with the matrix material and that the particles are deficient in calcium, and therefore not likely to be calcia. The particles thus appear to be FCC Al (possibly alloyed with a few percent Ca) with a lattice parameter of 0.409nm. A similar result was obtained for yttrium ion implantation into alumina.

  3. Ion implanted photodiode detectors in epitaxial /Ga/x/In/1-x//As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmera, P. K.; Hauser, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Ion implanted p-n junction photodiodes in epitaxially grown (Ga(x)In(1-x))As material are reported on here. Photoresponse in these diodes was investigated for approximately the entire composition range of x between zero and one. High values for quantum efficiency were obtained for the devices with a high value of x.

  4. (n,p) emission channeling measurements on ion-implanted beryllium

    CERN Multimedia

    Jakubek, J; Uher, J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to perform emission-channeling measurements using thermal neutron induced proton emission from ion-implanted $^{7}$Be. The physics questions addressed concern the beryllium doping of III-V and II-VI semiconductors and the host dependence of the electron capture half-life of $^{7}$Be.

  5. Direct determination of sizes of excitations from optical measurements on ion-implanted GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspnes, D.E.; Kelso, S.M.; Olson, C.G.; Lynch, D.W.

    1982-06-28

    Using a simple model that describes the decrease of the amplitudes of optical structures in ion-implanted crystals, projected areas of several valence and core excitons in GaAs are determined. The last remnant of crystal-related optical structure vanishes for crystallite areas less than (16 A)/sup 2/.

  6. Comparative investigation of damage induced by diatomic and monoatomic ion implantation in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohner, T.; Lohner, T.; Toth, L.; Toth, L.; Fried, M.; Fried, M.; Khanh, N.Q.; Yang, Gen Qing; Lu, Lin Chen; Zou, Shichang; Hanekamp, L.J.; Hanekamp, L.J.; van Silfhout, Arend; Gyulai, J.

    1994-01-01

    The damaging effect of mono- and diatomic phosphorus and arsenic ions implanted into silicon was investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and high-depth-resolution Rutherford backscattering and channeling techniques. A comparison was made between the two methods to check the capability of

  7. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of GaAs ion-implanted structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privalov E. N.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A noniterative numerical method is proposed to calculate the barrier capacitance of GaAs ion-implanted structures as a function of the Schottky barrier bias. The features of the low- and high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures which are due to the presence of deep traps are elucidated.

  8. n{sup +}/p diodes by ion implantation: Dopant, extended defects, and impurity concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Venables, D.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The present study is concerned with the formation of defect structures resulting from phosphorus ion implantation into p-type, <100> silicon and with the rearrangement as well as removal of defect structures following high temperature annealing. The problematic interaction of background impurities with extended defects also is included in this study, as are the non-illuminated and illuminated electrical characteristics of n+/p diodes that are fabricated using ion implantation. Wafers and diodes that are fabricated using a phosphorus planar diffusion technique are run in parallel and serve as the controls. In this contribution, preliminary results for the cases of a 50 keV implant followed by an anneal at 900{degrees}C/30 min and a diffusion at 825{degrees}C/60 min are summarized.

  9. Graphene on silicon dioxide via carbon ion implantation in copper with PMMA-free transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Jan; Spemann, Daniel; Hamza Hatahet, M.; Mändl, Stephan; Mensing, Michael; Finzel, Annemarie; Varga, Aron; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a synthesis method for the growth of low-defect large-area graphene using carbon ion beam implantation into metallic Cu foils is presented. The Cu foils (1 cm2 in size) were pre-annealed in a vacuum at 950 °C for 2 h, implanted with 35 keV carbon ions at room temperature, and subsequently annealed at 850 °C for 2 h to form graphene layers with the layer number controlled by the implantation fluence. The graphene was then transferred to SiO2/Si substrates by a PMMA-free wet chemical etching process. The obtained regions of monolayer graphene are of ˜900 μm size. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy performed at room temperature demonstrated a good quality and homogeneity of the graphene layers, especially for monolayer graphene.

  10. Formation of nanocrystalline CrSi 2 layers in Si by ion implantation and pulsed annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalov, R. I.; Bayazitov, R. M.; Valeev, V. F.; Galkin, N. G.; Goroshko, D. L.; Galkin, K. N.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Gaiduk, P. I.; Ivlev, G. D.; Gatskevich, E. I.

    In this work buried nanocrystalline CrSi2 layers were synthesized by ion implantation, pulsed annealing and MBE. The structural, optical and thermoelectrical properties of CrSi2 layers were studied by methods of SEM, TEM, RBS, PL and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The characteristic features of pulsed nanosecond annealing of Cr-implanted Si and epitaxial growth of triple Si/nc-CrSi2/Si heterostructures were established. It is shown that grown Si/nc-CrSi2/Si heterostructures, which preliminary implanted with the high-dose (ϕ = 6 × 1016cm-2) of Cr+ ions, have the noticeable low temperature (T = 10 - 100 K) photoluminescence signal at 1450-1600 nm and the large Seebeck coefficient (-(60-300) μV/K) in the temperature range of T = 340 - 415 K.

  11. Structured back gates for high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems using oxygen ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berl, M., E-mail: mberl@phys.ethz.ch; Tiemann, L.; Dietsche, W.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Karl, H. [Lehrstuhl für Experimentalphysik IV, Universität Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)

    2016-03-28

    We present a reliable method to obtain patterned back gates compatible with high mobility molecular beam epitaxy via local oxygen ion implantation that suppresses the conductivity of an 80 nm thick silicon doped GaAs epilayer. Our technique was optimized to circumvent several constraints of other gating and implantation methods. The ion-implanted surface remains atomically flat which allows unperturbed epitaxial overgrowth. We demonstrate the practical application of this gating technique by using magneto-transport spectroscopy on a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with a mobility exceeding 20 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. The back gate was spatially separated from the Ohmic contacts of the 2DES, thus minimizing the probability for electrical shorts or leakage and permitting simple contacting schemes.

  12. Novel Si ion implantation technique for improving the radiation hardness of SOI pseudo-MOS transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwei [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Huixiang; Bi, Dawei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tang, Minghua, E-mail: mhtang@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Zhang, Zhengxuan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-01-15

    The pseudo-MOS transistor is a quick and effective technique for characterizing the electrical properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. We investigated the total ionizing dose (TID) response of pseudo-MOS transistors fabricated on SOI wafers hardened by single or multiple step Si ion implantation. It is demonstrated that the two Si ion implantation methods can both improve the radiation hardness of SOI wafers owing to the generation of deep electron traps in the buried oxide (BOX). However, the lattice damage of top silicon film caused by the single step implantation compared with the multiple degenerates the electrical properties of transistors, especially for the sub-threshold swing. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to observe the lattice quality.

  13. Induction of hepatic and renal ornithine decarboxylase by cobalt and other metal ions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Numazawa, S; Kuroiwa, Y

    1986-01-01

    We previously showed that Cd2+ is able to induce hepatic and renal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). In addition to Cd2+, the administration of Co2+ and other metal ions such as Se2+, Zn2+ and Cr2+ produced a significant increase of hepatic and/or renal ODC activity. Of the metal ions used in this study, Co2+ produced the greatest increase of ODC activity. The maximum increases in hepatic and renal ODC activity, to respectively 70 and 14 times the control values in male rats, were observed 6 h after the administration of Co2+. A similar response was seen in the liver, but not in the kidney, of female rats. Thereafter, ODC activity gradually returned to control values in the liver, but it was profoundly decreased to 7% of the control value at 24 h in the kidney. The pretreatment of animals with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide almost completely blocked the Co2+-mediated increase of ODC activity. Co2+ complexed with either cysteine or glutathione (GSH) failed to induce ODC. Depletion of hepatic GSH content by treatment of rats with diethyl maleate greatly enhanced the inducing effect of Co2+ on ODC. The inhibitors of ODC, 1,3-diaminopropane and alpha-difluoromethylornithine, were able to inhibit the induction of the enzyme, without affecting the induction of haem oxygenase by Co2+. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, significantly inhibited the Co2+-mediated induction of both ODC and haem oxygenase. It is suggested that the inducing effects of Co2+ on ODC and haem oxygenase are brought about in a similar manner. PMID:3754136

  14. Immobilization of calcium and phosphate ions improves the osteoconductivity of titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Toita, Riki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-11-01

    In this work, to elevate weak osteoconductivity of titanium (Ti) implant, we prepared a Ti implant having both calcium and phosphate ions on its surface. To modify calcium and phosphate ions onto Ti, phosphate ions were first immobilized by treating the Ti with a NaH2PO4 solution, followed by CaCl2 treatment to immobilize calcium ions, which created the calcium and phosphate ions-modified Ti (Ca-P-Ti). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thin-layer X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that both phosphate and calcium ions were co-immobilized onto the Ti surface on the molecular level. Three-hour after seeding MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cells on substrates, cell number on Ca-P-Ti was much larger than that of Ti and phosphate-modified Ti (P-Ti), but was similar to that of calcium-modified Ti (Ca-Ti). Also, MC3T3-E1 cells on Ca-P-Ti expressed larger amount of vinculin, a focal adhesion protein, than those on other substrates, probably resulting in larger cell size as well as greater cell proliferation on Ca-P-Ti than those on other substrates. Alkaline phosphatase activity of cells on Ca-P-Ti was greater than those on Ti and P-Ti, but was almost comparable to that of Ca-Ti. Moreover, the largest amount of bone-like nodule formation was observed on Ca-P-Ti. These results provide evidence that calcium and phosphate ions-co-immobilization onto Ti increased the osteoconductivity of Ti by stimulating the responses of pre-osteoblast cells. This simple modification would be promising technique for bone tissue implant including dental and orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cobalt poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cobalt may also be found in: Alloys Batteries Chemistry/crystal sets Drill bits, saw blades, and other ... amounts of drilling, polishing, or other processes release fine particles containing cobalt into the air. Breathing in ...

  16. Failure of total hip implants: metals and metal release in 52 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Lidén, Carola; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    cobalt, nickel and chromium(VI) release from, and the metal composition of, failed metal-on-ethylene total hip replacements. Materials/methods . Implant components from 52 revision cases were evaluated with spot tests for free nickel, cobalt, and chromium (VI) ions. Implant composition was determined...... with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and information on the reason for revision and complications in relation to surgery was collected from the medical charts whenpossible (72%). For 10 implants, corrosion was further characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Results . We detected cobalt release...... from three of 38 removed femoral heads and from one of 24 femoral stems. Nickel release was detected from one of 24 femoral stems. No chromium(VI) release was detected. Conclusions . We found that cobalt and nickel were released from some failed total hip arthroplasties, and corrosion was frequently...

  17. Ore genesis constraints on the Idaho Cobalt Belt from fluid inclusion gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; Landis, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    The Idaho cobalt belt is a 60-km-long alignment of deposits composed of cobaltite, Co pyrite, chalcopyrite, and gold with anomalous Nb, Y, Be, and rare-earth elements (REEs) in a quartz-biotite-tourmaline gangue hosted in Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Lemhi Group. It is the largest cobalt resource in the United States with historic production from the Blackbird Mine. All of the deposits were deformed and metamorphosed to upper greenschist-lower amphibolite grade in the Cretaceous. They occur near a 1377 Ma anorogenic bimodal plutonic complex. The enhanced solubility of Fe, Co, Cu, and Au as chloride complexes together with gangue biotite rich in Fe and Cl and gangue quartz containing hypersaline inclusions allows that hot saline fluids were involved. The isotopes of B in gangue tourmaline are suggestive of a marine source, whereas those of Pb in ore suggest a U ± Th-enriched source. The ore and gangue minerals in this belt may have trapped components in fluid inclusions that are distinct from those in post-ore minerals and metamorphic minerals. Such components can potentially be identified and distinguished by their relative abundances in contrasting samples. Therefore, we obtained samples of Co and Cu sulfides, gangue quartz, biotite, and tourmaline and post-ore quartz veins as well as Cretaceous metamorphic garnet and determined the gas, noble gas isotope, and ion ratios of fluid inclusion extracts by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. The most abundant gases present in extracts from each sample type are biased toward the gas-rich population of inclusions trapped during maximum burial and metamorphism. All have CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of evolved crustal fluids, and many yield a range of H2-CH4-CO2-H2S equilibration temperatures consistent with the metamorphic grade. Cretaceous garnet and post-ore minerals have high RH and RS values suggestive of reduced sulfidic conditions. Most extracts have anomalous 4He produced by decay of U and Th and

  18. Chitosan-based hydrogel implants enriched with calcium ions intended for peripheral nervous tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotek, Katarzyna; Tylman, Michał; Rudnicka, Karolina; Balcerzak, Jacek; Kamiński, Kamil

    2016-01-20

    A new method for fabrication of chitosan-based hydrogel implants intended for peripheral nervous tissue regeneration was developed. The method is based on an electrodeposition phenomenon from a solution of chitosan and organic acid. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the implant, the solution was enriched with hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite served as a source of calcium ions too. The influence of the concentration of the polymer and the additive on chemical, mechanical as well as biological properties of the obtained implant was evaluated. The study showed great dependence of the initial solution composition mainly on the physicochemical properties of the resulting structure. Basic in vitro cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory assays showed biocompatibility of manufactured implants, therefore, animal experimentations may be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An unconventional ion implantation method for producing Au and Si nanostructures using intense laser-generated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Mackova, A.; Lavrentiev, V.; Pfeifer, M.; Krousky, E.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper describes measurements of ion implantation by high-intensity lasers in an innovative configuration. The ion acceleration and implantation were performed using the target normal sheath acceleration regime. Highly ionized charged ions were generated and accelerated by the self-consistent electrostatic accelerating field at the rear side of a directly illuminated foil surface. A sub-nanosecond pulsed laser operating at an intensity of about 1016 W cm-2 was employed to irradiate thin foils containing Au atoms. Multi-energy and multi-species ions with energies of the order of 1 MeV per charge state were implanted on exposed substrates of monocrystalline silicon up to a concentration of about 1% Au atoms in the first superficial layers. The target, laser parameters and irradiation conditions play a decisive role in the dynamic control of the characteristics of the ion beams to be implanted. The ion penetration depth, the depth profile, the integral amount of implanted ions and the concentration-depth profiles were determined by Rutherford back-scattering analysis. Ion implantation produces Si nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles and induces physical and chemical modifications of the implanted surfaces.

  20. Characterization of junctions produced by medium-energy ion implantation in silicon; Caracterisation de jonctions obtenues par implantation d'ions de moyenne energie dans le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfret, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    Characteristics of diodes made by implanting 20 keV boron and phosphorus ions into silicon are reviewed. Special features of theses diodes are presented, and correlation with technology is studied. This paper includes three parts: - in the first part, the theory of range distribution is considered for both amorphous and single-crystal targets, - In the second part, a brief description of the experimental conditions is given. - In the third part, the experimental results are presented. The results lead to a schematic model of the component. They also show the influence of cleaning and annealing treatments from which optimized process of fabrication can be determined. In this study, the influence of a two stage annealing process is shown. For phosphorus and boron implants, the first stage is performed at 150 deg. C while the second stage is 450 deg. C for phosphorus and 550 deg. C for boron implants. The implanted diodes are found to exhibit good electrical characteristics. Comparisons with standard diffused diodes are quite favourable. (author) [French] On examine les caracteristiques de diodes obtenues par implantation d'ions bore et phosphore de 20 keV dans le silicium. On met en evidence le comportement particulier de ces diodes et on presente certaines correlations avec la technologie. L'expose comprend trois parties: - la premiere partie est consacree au calcul du profil de dopage en mode canalise ou non. - Dans la deuxieme partie, on decrit l'appareillage et les conditions experimentales d'implantation. - Dans la troisieme partie, on presente les resultats experimentaux. On propose un modele schematique pour expliquer le comportement des tenues en tension des diodes. L'etude des courants de fuite en fonction de la preparation des echantillons et des traitements thermiques permet de determiner des conditions optimales d'elaboration. Au cours de cette etude on met en evidence l'influence de deux stades de recuit: le premier a

  1. Seeding of silicon by copper ion implantation for selective electroless copper plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhansali, S.; Sood, D.K.; Zmood, R.B. [Microelectronic and Materials Technology Centre, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technolgy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    We report on the successful use of copper(self) ion implantation into silicon to seed the electroless plating of copper on silicon (100) surfaces. Copper ions have been implanted to doses of 5E14-6.4E16 ions/cm{sup 2} using a MEEVA ion implanter at extraction voltage of 40kV. Dose was varied in fine steps to determine the threshold dose of 2E15 Cu ions/cm{sup 2} for `seed` formation of copper films on silicon using a commercial electroless plating solution. Plated films were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, EDX and profilometry . The adhesion of films was measured by `scotch tape test`. The adhesion was found to improve with increasing dose. However thicker films exhibited rather poor adhesion and high internal stress. SEM results show that the films grow first as isolated islands which become larger and eventually impinge into a continuous film as the plating time is increased. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. The Use of Ion Implantation for Materials Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-06

    to this Ill V. Ashworth, D. Baxter , W.A. Grant and R.P.M. Procter. sample. Corr. Sci. 17 (1977) 947. [2] N.E.W. Hartley and J.K. Hirvonen. Nucl. Instr...reciprocating sliding. A likely source of N is debris that was 108 worn fro the implanted surface-then entrapped in the scar. Cui lu-Zhai, - at. al. 144] provided...and for Pennington, NJ). assisting in the Auger analysis, Dan Popgo- 14 V. Ashworth, D. Baxter , W. A. Grant and R. P. M. Procter, Corros. Sci., 17

  3. High Density Ion Implanted Contiguous Disk Bubble Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-31

    change through implantation 1 4. The films were epitaxially grown on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates. GGG is a non-magnetic garnet with an...not appear. x W d ALUMINUM PAD 13 / V+ Si Si"- -A10 3 (SAPPHIRE) - Figure 5-2: SOS magnetodiode structure. d = base length, w = base width, b = film...ambient at 8500C, open contacts to the n+ and p+ regions, deposit aluminum , and pattern the aluminum layer to form 3 the necessary electrodes. The

  4. The Use of Ion Implantation for Materials Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-23

    procedure gave the depths at which several composi- zation process. tion profiles had been terminated . Since no differences were ihis dependence of [C] on...surface. For the implanted species and proposed a binding energy correction factor de- the average surface binding energy was termining the partial... Proceo -.uLs and Pat-dysie l3i; ,Vol. . 23 ’[rcatisc ol M’at or l . Sc ien’ce and Ic’chlio(lIoy , Ed . . C. Scmi: ly . Aca dleii c P rc’:, J nc.*, .oi dol

  5. W ion implantation boosting visible-light photoelectrochemical water splitting over ZnO nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Zhou, Wu; Ren, Feng; Chen, Jie; Cai, Guangxu; Liu, Yichao; Guan, Xiangjiu; Shen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    W ions were doped into ZnO nanorod arrays hydrothermally grown on the F-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrates via an advanced ion implantation technique for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light. It was found that W incorporation could narrow the bandgap of ZnO and shift the optical absorption into visible light regions obviously, with the one-dimensional nanorod structure maintained for superior charge transfer. As a result, the W-doped ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit considerable PEC performance relative to ZnO nanorod arrays under visible light illumination (λ>420 nm), with photocurrent density achieved up to 15.2 μA/cm2 at 1.0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The obtained PEC properties indicate that ion implantation can be an alternative approach to develop unique materials for efficient solar energy conversion.

  6. Pulsed laser irradiation-induced microstructures in the Mn ion implanted Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Muneyuki, E-mail: naito22@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashi-Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Yamada, Ryo; Machida, Nobuya [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashi-Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Koshiba, Yusuke; Sugimura, Akira; Aoki, Tamao; Umezu, Ikurou [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashi-Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    We have examined microstructures induced by pulsed-laser-melting for the Mn ion implanted Si using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) wafers were irradiated with 65 keV and 120 keV Mn ions to a fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The ion beam-induced amorphous layers in the as-implanted samples were melted and resolidified by pulsed YAG laser irradiation. After laser irradiation with appropriate laser fluence, the surface amorphous layers recrystallize into the single crystalline Si. The Mn concentration becomes higher in the near-surface region with increasing the number of laser shots. The migrated Mn atoms react with Si atoms and form the amorphous Mn–Si in the Si matrix.

  7. Radiation damage in urania crystals implanted with low-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tien Hien, E-mail: tien-hien.nguyen@u-psud.fr [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM – UMR 8609), CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Garrido, Frédérico; Debelle, Aurélien; Mylonas, Stamatis [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM – UMR 8609), CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Nowicki, Lech [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Thomé, Lionel; Bourçois, Jérôme; Moeyaert, Jérémy [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM – UMR 8609), CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2014-05-01

    Implantations with low-energy ions (470-keV Xe and 500-keV La with corresponding ion range Rp ∼ 85 nm and range straggling ΔRp ∼ 40 nm) have been performed to investigate both radiation and chemical effects due to the incorporation of different species in UO{sub 2} (urania) crystals. The presence of defects was monitored in situ after each implantation fluence step by the RBS/C technique. Channelling data were analysed afterwards by Monte-Carlo simulations with a model of defects involving (i) randomly displaced atoms (RDA) and (ii) distorted rows, i.e. bent channels (BC). While increasing the ion fluence, the accumulation of RDA leads to a steep increase of the defect fraction in the range from 4 to 7 dpa regardless of the nature of bombarding ions followed by a saturation plateau over a large dpa range. A clear difference of 6% in the yield of saturation plateaus between irradiation with Xe and La ions was observed. Conversely, the evolutions of the fraction of BC showed a similar regular increase with increasing ion fluence for both ions. Moreover, this increase is shifted to a larger fluence in comparison to the sharp increase step of RDA. This phenomenon indicates a continuous structural modification of UO{sub 2} crystals under irradiation unseen by the measurement of RDA.

  8. Ta-ion implantation induced by a high-intensity laser for plasma diagnostics and target preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, M.; Malinsky, P.; Mackova, A.; Matousek, J.; Torrisi, L.; Slepicka, P.; Ullschmied, J.

    2015-12-01

    The present work is focused on the implantation of Ta ions into silicon substrates covered by a silicon dioxide layer 50-300 nm thick. The implantation is achieved using sub-nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (1015 W/cm2) with the objective of accelerating non-equilibrium plasma ions. The accelerated Ta ions are implanted into the exposed silicon substrates at energies of approximately 20 keV per charge state. By changing a few variables in the laser pulse, it is possible to control the kinetic energy, the yield and the angular distribution of the emitted ions. Rutherford Back-Scattering analysis was performed using 2.0 MeV He+ as the probe ions to determine the elemental depth profiles and the chemical composition of the laser-implanted substrates. The depth distributions of the implanted Ta ions were compared to SRIM 2012 simulations. The evaluated results of energy distribution were compared with online techniques, such as Ion Collectors (IC) and an Ion Energy Analyser (IEA), for a detailed identification of the produced ion species and their energy-to-charge ratios (M/z). Moreover, XPS (X-ray Photon Spectroscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analyses were carried out to obtain information on the surface morphology and the chemical composition of the modified implanted layers, as these features are important for further application of such structures.

  9. Ta-ion implantation induced by a high-intensity laser for plasma diagnostics and target preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutroneo, M., E-mail: cutroneo@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Malinsky, P.; Mackova, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Matousek, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 981 66 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    The present work is focused on the implantation of Ta ions into silicon substrates covered by a silicon dioxide layer 50–300 nm thick. The implantation is achieved using sub-nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) with the objective of accelerating non-equilibrium plasma ions. The accelerated Ta ions are implanted into the exposed silicon substrates at energies of approximately 20 keV per charge state. By changing a few variables in the laser pulse, it is possible to control the kinetic energy, the yield and the angular distribution of the emitted ions. Rutherford Back-Scattering analysis was performed using 2.0 MeV He{sup +} as the probe ions to determine the elemental depth profiles and the chemical composition of the laser-implanted substrates. The depth distributions of the implanted Ta ions were compared to SRIM 2012 simulations. The evaluated results of energy distribution were compared with online techniques, such as Ion Collectors (IC) and an Ion Energy Analyser (IEA), for a detailed identification of the produced ion species and their energy-to-charge ratios (M/z). Moreover, XPS (X-ray Photon Spectroscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analyses were carried out to obtain information on the surface morphology and the chemical composition of the modified implanted layers, as these features are important for further application of such structures.

  10. A Biodistribution and Toxicity Study of Cobalt Dichloride-N-Acetyl Cysteine in an Implantable MRI Marker for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Johansen, Mary J. [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Martirosyan, Karen S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at Brownsville, Texas (United States); Gagea, Mihai; Van Pelt, Carolyn S.; Borne, Agatha [Department of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery, and Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Carmazzi, Yudith; Madden, Timothy [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: C4, a cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl cysteine complex, is being developed as a positive-signal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker to localize implanted radioactive seeds in prostate brachytherapy. We evaluated the toxicity and biodistribution of C4 in rats with the goal of simulating the systemic effects of potential leakage from C4 MRI markers within the prostate. Methods and Materials: 9-μL doses (equivalent to leakage from 120 markers in a human) of control solution (0.9% sodium chloride), 1% (proposed for clinical use), and 10% C4 solution were injected into the prostates of male Sprague-Dawley rats via laparotomy. Organ toxicity and cobalt disposition in plasma, tissues, feces, and urine were evaluated. Results: No C4-related morbidity or mortality was observed in the biodistribution arm (60 rats). Biodistribution was measurable after 10% C4 injection: cobalt was cleared rapidly from periprostatic tissue; mean concentrations in prostate were 163 μg/g and 268 μg/g at 5 and 30 minutes but were undetectable by 60 minutes. Expected dual renal-hepatic elimination was observed, with percentages of injected dose recovered in tissues of 39.0 ± 5.6% (liver), >11.8 ± 6.5% (prostate), and >5.3 ± 0.9% (kidney), with low plasma concentrations detected up to 1 hour (1.40 μg/mL at 5-60 minutes). Excretion in urine was 13.1 ± 4.6%, with 3.1 ± 0.54% recovered in feces by 24 hours. In the toxicity arm, 3 animals died in the control group and 1 each in the 1% and 10% groups from surgical or anesthesia-related complications; all others survived to scheduled termination at 14 days. No C4-related adverse clinical signs or organ toxicity were observed. Conclusion: C4-related toxicity was not observed at exposures at least 10-fold the exposure proposed for use in humans. These data demonstrating lack of systemic toxicity with dual routes of elimination in the event of in situ rupture suggest that C4 warrants further investigation as an MRI marker for prostate

  11. The JANNUS Saclay facility: A new platform for materials irradiation, implantation and ion beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, S.; Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, É.; Martin, H.; Chaâbane, N.; Vaubaillon, S.; Gallien, J. P.; Beck, L.

    2012-02-01

    The third accelerator of the multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and NUclear Simulation), a 6SDH-2 Pelletron from National Electrostatic Corporation, Middleton was installed at Saclay in October 2009. The first triple beam irradiation combining Fe, He and H ion beams has been performed in March 2010. In the first part of this paper, we give a technical description of the triple beam facility, its performances and experimental capabilities. Typically, damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 h irradiation with heavy ion beams, with or without simultaneous bombardment by protons, helium-4 ions or any other heavy ion beam. In the second part of this paper, we illustrate some IBA results obtained after irradiation and implantation experiments.

  12. The JANNUS Saclay facility: A new platform for materials irradiation, implantation and ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, S., E-mail: stephanie.pellegrino@cea.fr [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, E.; Martin, H. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chaabane, N.; Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, J.P.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    The third accelerator of the multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and NUclear Simulation), a 6SDH-2 Pelletron from National Electrostatic Corporation, Middleton was installed at Saclay in October 2009. The first triple beam irradiation combining Fe, He and H ion beams has been performed in March 2010. In the first part of this paper, we give a technical description of the triple beam facility, its performances and experimental capabilities. Typically, damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 h irradiation with heavy ion beams, with or without simultaneous bombardment by protons, helium-4 ions or any other heavy ion beam. In the second part of this paper, we illustrate some IBA results obtained after irradiation and implantation experiments.

  13. Formation of optical properties of intermetallic nanoclusters formed by sequential ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Magruder, R.H. III; Anderson, T.S. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Applied and Engineering Sciences

    1997-09-01

    Recent demonstrations that large third order nonlinear responses can be achieved in metal nanocluster glass composites are of significant interest because of their potential for use in all optical switching networks. These composite materials exhibit picosecond switching and relaxation times, thermal and chemical stability, high laser damage thresholds, and low two photon absorption. Ion implantation has been shown to be a useful fabrication method to form these nanoclusters in silica because of its ability to produce thin films in waveguide configurations containing a high volume fraction (> 1%) of metal colloids with well defined vertical and horizontal dimensional control. Using sequential ion implantation of more than one element the authors can modify the composition and microstructure of the composites by forming intermetallic metal colloids. In this work the authors report on the improved optical response of metallic nanocluster composites formed by sequential implantation of Cd and Ag and Sb and Ag. Characterization of the samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that approximately spherical metallic colloids are formed for all implanted species during the implantation process. Selected area diffraction patterns indicate that the colloids formed are intermetallic in composition. Linear optical absorption measurements made at room temperature in air from 900 to 200 nm show significant changes in both the magnitude and wavelength of the surface plasmon resonance. The formation of intermetallic nanoclusters results in changes in both the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the composite material that are not possible with single element colloids alone. The results are explained in terms of effective medium theory.

  14. Sequential multiple-step europium ion implantation and annealing of GaN

    KAUST Repository

    Miranda, S. M C

    2014-01-20

    Sequential multiple Eu ion implantations at low fluence (1×1013 cm-2 at 300 keV) and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) steps (30 s at 1000 °C or 1100 °C) were performed on high quality nominally undoped GaN films grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and medium quality GaN:Mg grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). Compared to samples implanted in a single step, multiple implantation/annealing shows only marginal structural improvement for the MOCVD samples, but a significant improvement of crystal quality and optical activation of Eu was achieved in the HVPE films. This improvement is attributed to the lower crystalline quality of the starting material, which probably enhances the diffusion of defects and acts to facilitate the annealing of implantation damage and the effective incorporation of the Eu ions in the crystal structure. Optical activation of Eu3+ ions in the HVPE samples was further improved by high temperature and high pressure annealing (HTHP) up to 1400 °C. After HTHP annealing the main room temperature cathodo- and photoluminescence line in Mg-doped samples lies at ∼ 619 nm, characteristic of a known Mg-related Eu3+ centre, while after RTA treatment the dominant line lies at ∼ 622 nm, typical for undoped GaN:Eu. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Juan, E-mail: doctorxue@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China) and Stomatological Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang (China); Ding Gang [Department of Stomatology, Yidu Central Hospital, Weifang, Shandong (China); Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Li Jinlu; Yang Shenhui; Fang Bisong [Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun Hongchen, E-mail: hcsun@jlu.edu.cn [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China); Zhou Yanmin, E-mail: zhouym62@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  16. Lattice disorder produced in GaN by He-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Peng, Jinxin; Li, Bingsheng; Wang, Zhiguang; Wei, Kongfang; Shen, Tielong; Sun, Jianrong; Zhang, Limin; Yao, Cunfeng; Gao, Ning; Gao, Xing; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin; Chang, Hailong; Cui, Minghuan; Luo, Peng; Sheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Li; Fang, Xuesong; Zhao, Sixiang; Jin, Jin; Huang, Yuxuan; Liu, Chao; Tai, Pengfei; Wang, Dong; He, Wenhao

    2017-09-01

    The lattice disorders induced by He-ion implantation in GaN epitaxial films to fluences of 2 × 1016, 5 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature (RT) have been investigated by a combination of Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), nano-indentation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results present that Raman intensity decreases with increasing fluence. Raman frequency ;red shift; occurs after He-ion implantation. Strain increases with increasing fluence. The hardness of the highly damaged layer increases monotonically with increasing fluence. Microstructural results demonstrate that the width of the damage band and the number density of observed dislocation loops increases with increasing fluence. High-resolution TEM images exhibit that He-ion implantation lead to the formation of planar defects and most of the lattice defects are of interstitial-type basal loops. The relationships of Raman intensity, lattice strain, swelling and hardness with He-implantation-induced lattice disorders are discussed.

  17. Ion Implantation in Ge: Structural and electrical investigation of the induced lattice damage & Study of the lattice location of implanted impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Decoster, Stefan; Wahl, Ulrich

    The past two decades, germanium has drawn international attention as one of the most promising materials to replace silicon in semiconductor applications. Due to important advantages with respect to Si, such as the increased electron and hole mobility, Ge is well on its way to become an important material in future high-speed integrated circuits. Although the interest in this elemental group IV semiconductor is increasing rapidly nowadays, the number of publications about this material is still relatively scarce, especially when compared to Si. The most widely used technique to dope semiconductors is ion implantation, due to its good control of the dopant concentration and profile, and the isotopic purity of the implanted species. However, there is a major lack of knowledge of the fundamental properties of ion implantation in Ge, which has triggered the research presented in this thesis. One of the most important and generally unwanted properties of ion implantation is the creation of damage to the crystal la...

  18. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  19. Comparison of long-term clinical outcomes after the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stents implantation in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients: a subgroup analysis from the prospective FOCUS registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Ji'e; Qian, Juying; Ge, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ge, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) was broadly acknowledged as a risk factor for adverse events after coronary stent implantation. However, the role of DM in patients treated with second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-SES) was less known. A total of 4720 patients available for 3-year follow-up in the prospective FOCUS registry were subdivided into the DM group and the non-DM group to assess the effect of DM on the clinical outcomes after CoCr-SES implantation both before and after propensity score matching. The rates of major adverse cardiovascular event was low (stents.

  20. Low-energy ion implantation: Large mass fractionation of argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, K. V.; Graf, TH.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The isotropic signatures of noble gases in the atmospheres of the Earth and other planets are considerably evolved when compared to signatures observed in the solar wind. The mechanisms driving the evolution of planetary volatiles from original compositions in the solar accretion disk are currently poorly understood. Modeling of noble-gas compositional histories requires knowledge of fractionating processes that may have operated through the evolutionary stages. Since these gases are chemically inert, information on noble-gas fractionation processes can be used as probes. The importance of understanding these processes extends well beyond 'noble-gas planetology.' Trapped argon acquired by low-energy implantation (approximately less than 100 eV) into solids is strongly mass fractionated (approximately greater than or equal to 3 percent/amu). This has potential implications for the origin and evolution of terrestrial planet atmospheres.

  1. Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of InP Quantum Dots Formed by Sequential Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. S.; Ueda, A.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed sequential ion implantation of indium and phosphorus into silica combined with controlled thermal annealing to fabricate InP quantum dots in a dielectric host. Electronic and vibrational spectra were measured for the as-implanted and annealed samples. The annealed samples show a peak in the infrared spectra near 320/cm which is attributed to a surface phonon mode and is in good agreement with the value calculated from Frolich's theory of surface phonon polaritons. The electronic spectra show the development of a band near 390 nm that is attributed to quantum confined InP.

  2. Real time, in situ particle monitoring of the Applied Materials PI9200 ion implanter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Samuel; Adibi, Babak; Moffatt, Steve; Fishkin, Boris; Kinney, Pat

    1991-04-01

    Real time monitoring of particles in the process chamber and the roughing line of high current implanters has recently been of invaluable assistance to equipment manufacturers and fabrication Une process engineers. Earlier in situ particle monitors were limited in their performance by the size (>0.5 μm), velocity ( 0.22 μm, installed in a PI9200 ion implanter are discussed here. It is demonstrated that an equipment engineer can study, test, and improve autoclean cycles with the effect of any hardware change. The development of SPC charts and possible processing interlocks are discussed.

  3. Low-temperature technique of thin silicon ion implanted epitaxial detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordyasz, A.J.; Bednarek, A. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Merrer, Y.; Vient, E. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Casini, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Valdre, S.; Scarlini, E.; Pasquali, G.; Pastore, G.; Piantelli, S.; Stefanini, A.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S. [INFN Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Kowalczyk, M. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Frankland, J.D.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Gruyer, D. [CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, GANIL, Caen-Cedex 05 (France); Borderie, B.; Ademard, G.; Edelbruck, P.; Rivet, M.F.; Salomon, F. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay-Cedex (France); Boiano, A.; Rosato, E.; Meoli, A.; Ordine, A.; Spadaccini, G.; Tortone, G.; Vigilante, M.; Vanzanella, E. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Bruno, M.; Serra, S.; Morelli, L.; Guerzoni, M. [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alba, R.; Santonocito, D.; Maiolino, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, LNS, Catania (Italy); Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN LNL Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Twarog, T.; Sosin, Z. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Gasior, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Silesian University, Katowice (Poland); Sarnecki, J.; Lipinski, D.; Wodzinska, H.; Brzozowski, A.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Zagojski, A.; Krzyzak, K. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tarasiuk, K.J. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Khabanowa, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kordyasz, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, Institute of Mikromechanics and Photonics, Department of Design of Precision Devices, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    A new technique of large-area thin ion implanted silicon detectors has been developed within the R and D performed by the FAZIA Collaboration. The essence of the technique is the application of a low-temperature baking process instead of high-temperature annealing. This thermal treatment is performed after B{sup +} ion implantation and Al evaporation of detector contacts, made by using a single adjusted Al mask. Extremely thin silicon pads can be therefore obtained. The thickness distribution along the X and Y directions was measured for a prototype chip by the energy loss of α-particles from {sup 241}Am (left angle E{sub α} right angle = 5.5 MeV). Preliminary tests on the first thin detector (area ∼ 20 x 20 mm{sup 2}) were performed at the INFN-LNS cyclotron in Catania (Italy) using products emitted in the heavy-ion reaction {sup 84}Kr (E = 35 A MeV) + {sup 112}Sn. The ΔE - E ion identification plot was obtained using a telescope consisting of our thin ΔE detector (21 μm thick) followed by a typical FAZIA 510 μm E detector of the same active area. The charge distribution of measured ions is presented together with a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the Z resolution. The threshold is lower than 2 A MeV depending on the ion charge. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis of graphene and graphene nanostructures by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaotie; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Appleton, Bill R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Berke, Kara; Hebard, Arthur F. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 3261 (United States); Venkatachalam, Dinesh K.; Elliman, Robert G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Fridmann, Joel [Nanoscience Institute for Medical and Engineering Technology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601 (United States); Raith USA, Incorporated, Ronkonkoma, New York 11779 (United States); Ren, Fan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 3261 (United States); Gila, Brent P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Nanoscience Institute for Medical and Engineering Technology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    In this paper, we report a systematic study that shows how the numerous processing parameters associated with ion implantation (II) and pulsed laser annealing (PLA) can be manipulated to control the quantity and quality of graphene (G), few-layer graphene (FLG), and other carbon nanostructures selectively synthesized in crystalline SiC (c-SiC). Controlled implantations of Si{sup −} plus C{sup −} and Au{sup +} ions in c-SiC showed that both the thickness of the amorphous layer formed by ion damage and the doping effect of the implanted Au enhance the formation of G and FLG during PLA. The relative contributions of the amorphous and doping effects were studied separately, and thermal simulation calculations were used to estimate surface temperatures and to help understand the phase changes occurring during PLA. In addition to the amorphous layer thickness and catalytic doping effects, other enhancement effects were found to depend on other ion species, the annealing environment, PLA fluence and number of pulses, and even laser frequency. Optimum II and PLA conditions are identified and possible mechanisms for selective synthesis of G, FLG, and carbon nanostructures are discussed.

  5. Effect of Mo Ion Implantation on Stability of Nanocrystalline Copper Surface Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XI Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface of pure copper was modified using the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT method, and molybdenum ions were implanted in the nanosurface using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA. The results of the SMAT were observed by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An obvious nanocrystalline layer and a deformation region exist on the surface. The size of the nanocrystalline layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicate remarkable suppression on grain size, the nanocrystalline layer grows to 163nm after annealing and reduces to only 72nm due to the Mo ion implantation. In addition, the hardness of the topmost surface of the material is 3.5 times that of the SMATed copper, which is about 7 times of the value of the matrix. The above improvements most likely result from the dispersion of the Mo ions and the reactions of the crystal defects due to the SMAT and ion implantation.

  6. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide ion implantation in AISI 304 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, A.; Decker, M.; Klein, O.; Karl, H., E-mail: helmut.karl@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of highly chemically inert titanium dioxide synthesized by ion beam implantation for corrosion protection of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. More specifically, the prevention of galvanic corrosion between carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and AISI 304 was investigated. Corrosion performance of TiO{sub 2} implanted AISI 304 – examined for different implantation and annealing parameters – is strongly influenced by implantation fluence. Experimental results show that a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} (Ti{sup +}) and 1 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} (O{sup +}) is sufficient to prevent pitting corrosion significantly, while galvanic corrosion with CFRP can already be noticeably reduced by an implantation fluence of 5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} (Ti{sup +}) and 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} (O{sup +}). Surface roughness, implantation energy and annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C show only little influence on the corrosion behavior. TEM analysis indicates the existence of stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} inside the steel matrix for medium fluences and the formation of a separated metal oxide layer for high fluences.

  7. Ion implantation effects on surface-mechanical properties of metals and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    Fatigue of 8 complex alloys based on Fe-13Cr-15Ni-2Mo-2Mn-0.2Ti-0.8Si- 0.06C, and single-crystal Fe-15Cr-15Ni, implanted with 400-keV B[sup +] and 550-keV N[sup +] (total dose 2.3[times]10[sup 16] ions/cm[sup 2]) was examined. 600 C creep was also examined. The dual implantation increased hardness but decreased fatigue life of the 8 complex alloys. An optimum strengthening level and a shift to grain boundary cracking were determined. The single crystals also showed reduced fatigue life after implantation. High temperature creep of E1 and B1 alloys were improved by the dual implantation. Four polymers (PE, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethersulfone) were implanted with 200keV B[sup +] to 3 different doses. PS was also implanted with both B[sup +] and Ar[sup +]. Near-surface hardness and tribological properties were measured. The hardness increased with dose and energy; wear also improved, with an optimum dose. (DLC)

  8. Ion implantation effects on surface-mechanical properties of metals and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    Fatigue of 8 complex alloys based on Fe-13Cr-15Ni-2Mo-2Mn-0.2Ti-0.8Si- 0.06C, and single-crystal Fe-15Cr-15Ni, implanted with 400-keV B{sup +} and 550-keV N{sup +} (total dose 2.3{times}10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) was examined. 600 C creep was also examined. The dual implantation increased hardness but decreased fatigue life of the 8 complex alloys. An optimum strengthening level and a shift to grain boundary cracking were determined. The single crystals also showed reduced fatigue life after implantation. High temperature creep of E1 and B1 alloys were improved by the dual implantation. Four polymers (PE, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethersulfone) were implanted with 200keV B{sup +} to 3 different doses. PS was also implanted with both B{sup +} and Ar{sup +}. Near-surface hardness and tribological properties were measured. The hardness increased with dose and energy; wear also improved, with an optimum dose. (DLC)

  9. Synthesis of endohedral iron-fullerenes by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Asaji, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1, Komatsu Suou Oshima-city Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we discuss the results of our study of the synthesis of endohedral iron-fullerenes. A low energy Fe{sup +} ion beam was irradiated to C{sub 60} thin film by using a deceleration system. Fe{sup +}-irradiated C{sub 60} thin film was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We investigated the performance of the deceleration system for using a Fe{sup +} beam with low energy. In addition, we attempted to isolate the synthesized material from a Fe{sup +}-irradiated C{sub 60} thin film by high performance liquid chromatography.

  10. Synthesis of endohedral iron-fullerenes by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minezaki, H; Ishihara, S; Uchida, T; Muramatsu, M; Rácz, R; Asaji, T; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Biri, S; Yoshida, Y

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the results of our study of the synthesis of endohedral iron-fullerenes. A low energy Fe(+) ion beam was irradiated to C60 thin film by using a deceleration system. Fe(+)-irradiated C60 thin film was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We investigated the performance of the deceleration system for using a Fe(+) beam with low energy. In addition, we attempted to isolate the synthesized material from a Fe(+)-irradiated C60 thin film by high performance liquid chromatography.

  11. Real World Experience With Ion Implant Fault Detection at Freescale Semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C.; Breeden, Terry; Fakhreddine, Hassan; Gladwin, Steven; Locke, Jason; McHugh, Jim; Rendon, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The Freescale automatic fault detection and classification (FDC) system has logged data from over 3.5 million implants in the past two years. The Freescale FDC system is a low cost system which collects summary implant statistics at the conclusion of each implant run. The data is collected by either downloading implant data log files from the implant tool workstation, or by exporting summary implant statistics through the tool's automation interface. Compared to the traditional FDC systems which gather trace data from sensors on the tool as the implant proceeds, the Freescale FDC system cannot prevent scrap when a fault initially occurs, since the data is collected after the implant concludes. However, the system can prevent catastrophic scrap events due to faults which are not detected for days or weeks, leading to the loss of hundreds or thousands of wafers. At the Freescale ATMC facility, the practical applications of the FD system fall into two categories: PM trigger rules which monitor tool signals such as ion gauges and charge control signals, and scrap prevention rules which are designed to detect specific failure modes that have been correlated to yield loss and scrap. PM trigger rules are designed to detect shifts in tool signals which indicate normal aging of tool systems. For example, charging parameters gradually shift as flood gun assemblies age, and when charge control rules start to fail a flood gun PM is performed. Scrap prevention rules are deployed to detect events such as particle bursts and excessive beam noise, events which have been correlated to yield loss. The FDC system does have tool log-down capability, and scrap prevention rules often use this capability to automatically log the tool into a maintenance state while simultaneously paging the sustaining technician for data review and disposition of the affected product.

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in cubic GaN epilayers implanted with Mn+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, V. A.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Fernandez, J. R. L.; Duarte, C. A.; Leite, J. R.; Schikora, D.; As, D. J.; Lischka, K.; Abramof, E.

    2004-10-01

    Mn ions were implanted in p-type cubic GaN at doses from 0.6 to 2.4×1016cm-2 at 200 keV energy. A 200-nm-thick epitaxial layer, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) substrate, is used for the Mn implantation. The Mn implanted samples were subjected to an annealing at 950 °C for 1-5 min. The structural quality of the samples was investigated by high resolution x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The annealing procedure leads to a significant increasing of the crystalline quality of the samples. Hysteresis loops were observed for all cubic GaMnN annealed samples and ferromagnetism was detected up to room temperature.

  13. Si+ ion implantation reduces the bacterial accumulation on the Ti6Al4V surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A. M.; Pacha-Olivenza, M. A.; Perera-Núñez, J.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; González-Martín, M. L.

    2010-11-01

    Ti6Al4V is one of the most commonly used biomaterials in orthopedic applications due to its interesting mechanical properties and reasonable biocompatibility. Nevertheless, after the implantation, microbial adhesion to its surface can provoke severe health problems associated to the development of biofilms and subsequent infectious processes. This work shows a modification of the Ti6Al4V surface by Si+ ion implantation which reduces the bacterial accumulation under shear forces. Results have shown that the number of bacteria remaining on the surface at the end of the adhesion experiments decreased for silicon-treated surface. In general, the new surface also behaved as less adhesive under in vitro flow conditions. Since no changes are observed in the electrical characteristics between the control and implanted samples, differences are likely related to small changes observed in hydrophobicity.

  14. Copper gettering at half the projected ion range induced by low-energy channeling He implantation into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, P. F. P.; Behar, M.; Kaschny, J. R.; Peeva, A.; Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W.

    2000-08-01

    He+ ions were implanted at 40 keV into Si channel direction at room temperature (RT) and at 350 °C. The Si samples were subsequently doped with Cu in order to study the gettering of Cu atoms at the defective layer. A subsequent annealing at 800 °C was performed in order to anneal the implantation damage and redistribute the Cu into the wafer. The samples were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering channeling and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The Cu distribution was measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The SIMS experiments show that, while the 350 °C implant induces gettering at the He projected range (Rp) region, the same implant performed at RT has given as a result, gettering at both the Rp and Rp/2 depths. Hence, this work demonstrates that the Rp/2 effect can be induced by a light ion implanted at low energy into channeling direction.

  15. Near-interface doping by ion implantation in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarstrich, J., E-mail: jakob.haarstrich@uni-jena.de [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Metzner, H.; Ronning, C. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Rissom, T.; Kaufmann, C.A.; Schock, H.W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Solar Energy Research, Institute for Technology, Lise-Meitner-Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Mannstadt, W.; Rudigier-Voigt, E.; Scheumann, V. [Schott AG, Hattenbergstrasse 10, 55122 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers were implanted with 20 keV Cd ions in order to investigate the influence of changes in the near-interface doping profile. Modifications in this region are shown by AMPS-1D simulations to have substantial impact on solar cell properties. Ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing steps were monitored by SIMS measurements to control the thermal diffusion of the dopant. Solar cells both with and without CdS buffer layer were made from the implanted absorbers and characterized by j-V and EQE measurements. These experimental results in conjunction with simulations of the quantum efficiency show that a well-defined type-inversion of the implanted layer can be achieved by low-energy ion implantation.

  16. Effects of carbon dioxide plasma immersion ion implantation on the electrochemical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy in physiological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ruizhen; Yang, Xiongbo; Zhang, Xuming; Wang, Mei; Li, Penghui; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Guosong; Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2013-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is conducted to improve the intrinsically poor corrosion properties of biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Carbon dioxide is implanted into the samples and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterize the materials. The corrosion properties are systematically studied by potentiodynamic polarization tests in two simulated physiological environments, namely simulated body fluids and cell culture medium. The plasma-implanted materials exhibit a lower initial corrosion rate. Being a gaseous ion PIII technique, conformal ion implantation into an object with a complex shape such as an orthopedic implant can be easily accomplished and CO{sub 2} PIII is a potential method to improve the biological properties of magnesium and its alloys in clinical applications.

  17. An experiment on the dynamics of ion implantation and sputtering of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, G. M.; Barnard, H. A.; Kesler, L. A.; Peterson, E. E.; Stahle, P. W.; Sullivan, R. M.; Whyte, D. G.; Woller, K. B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A major impediment towards a better understanding of the complex plasma-surface interaction is the limited diagnostic access to the material surface while it is undergoing plasma exposure. The Dynamics of ION Implantation and Sputtering Of Surfaces (DIONISOS) experiment overcomes this limitation by uniquely combining powerful, non-perturbing ion beam analysis techniques with a steady-state helicon plasma exposure chamber, allowing for real-time, depth-resolved in situ measurements of material compositions during plasma exposure. Design solutions are described that provide compatibility between the ion beam analysis requirements in the presence of a high-intensity helicon plasma. The three primary ion beam analysis techniques, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection, and nuclear reaction analysis, are successfully implemented on targets during plasma exposure in DIONISOS. These techniques measure parameters of interest for plasma-material interactions such as erosion/deposition rates of materials and the concentration of plasma fuel species in the material surface.

  18. Dose-rate and temperature dependent statistical damage accumulation model for ion implantation into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: jesus.hernandez.mangas@tel.uva.es; Arias, J. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Marques, L.A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Ruiz-Bueno, A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Bailon, L. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are extensive atomistic studies that model some characteristics of the damage buildup due to ion irradiation (e.g. L. Pelaz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 2038-2040). Our interest is to develop a novel statistical damage buildup model for our BCA ion implant simulator (IIS) code in order to extend its ranges of applicability. The model takes into account the abrupt regime of the crystal-amorphous transition. It works with different temperatures and dose-rates and also models the transition temperature. We have tested it with some projectiles (Ge, P) implanted into silicon. In this work we describe the new statistical damage accumulation model based on the modified Kinchin-Pease model. The results obtained have been compared with existing experimental results.

  19. Gettering centres in high-energy ion-implanted silicon investigated by point defect recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Werner, P.; Skorupa, W.; Gösele, U.

    2001-04-01

    Self-interstitials were introduced by additional Si + implantation into the vacancy-dominated depth range around half of the projected ion range, RP/2, of high-energy ion-implanted Si in order to balance radiation-induced excess vacancies. The undesired gettering of Cu atoms in this region ( RP/2 effect) could be suppressed. The threshold was determined necessary to remove the Cu gettering at RP/2. It does approximately agree with the number of the calculated excess vacancies. Additional interstitial-type dislocation loops were formed during annealing at RP/2 as the Si + fluence exceeds this threshold. Interstitial clusters were not proven to be the gettering centres for Cu trapping.

  20. High precision measurements of arsenic and phosphorous implantation dose in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, P H; McKinley, J M; Stevie, F A; Granger, C N

    2002-01-01

    The metrology section of the 1999 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors specifies in-line dopant profile concentration precision requirements ranging from a value of 5% in 1999 to a value of 2% in 2008. These values are to be accomplished with ''low systematic error.'' Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has demonstrated the capability to meet these requirements for B, As, and P. However, the detailed analytical protocols required to achieve these goals have not been completely specified. This article reports the parameters that must be controlled to make highly repeatable dose measurements of As and P implants in Si with magnetic sector SIMS instruments. Instrument conditions that were investigated include analytical species, matrix ion species, energy bandpass, and sample holder design. With optimized settings, we demonstrate the ability to distinguish As or P implant doses differing by 5%.

  1. Examining metallic glass formation in LaCe:Nb by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisson Richard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to combine niobium (Nb with lanthanum (La and cerium (Ce, Nb ions were deposited within a thin film of these two elements. According to the Hume-Rothery rules, these elements cannot be combined into a traditional crystalline metallic solid. The creation of an amorphous metallic glass consisting of Nb, La, and Ce is then investigated. Amorphous metallic glasses are traditionally made using fast cooling of a solution of molten metals. In this paper, we show the results of an experiment carried out to form a metallic glass by implanting 9 MeV Nb 3+ atoms into a thin film of La and Ce. Prior to implantation, the ion volume distribution is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation using the SRIM tool suite. Using multiple methods of electron microscopy and material characterization, small quantities of amorphous metallic glass are indeed identified.

  2. Investigation of low-resistivity from hydrogenated lightly B-doped diamond by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xia Yan et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implanted boron (B ions (dosage: 5×1014 cm-2 into diamond and then hydrogenated the sample by implantating hydrogen ions at room temperature. A p-type diamond material with a low resistivity of 7.37 mΩ cm has been obtained in our experiment, which suggests that the hydrogenation of B-doped diamond results in a low-resistivity p-type material. Interestingly, inverse annealing, in which carrier concentration decreased with increasing annealing temperature, was observed at annealing temperatures above 600 °C. In addition, the formation mechanism of a low-resistivity material has been studied by density functional theory calculation using a plane wave method.

  3. Corrosion behavior of ion implanted nickel-titanium orthodontic wire in fluoride mouth rinse solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Endo, Kazuhiko; Muguruma, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion properties of ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy Ionguard) in artificial saliva and fluoride mouth rinse solutions (Butler F Mouthrinse, Ora-Bliss). Non ion implanted nickel-titanium wire (Neo Sentalloy) was used as control. The anodic corrosion behavior was examined by potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The surfaces of the specimens were examined with SEM. The elemental depth profiles were characterized by XPS. Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in artificial saliva and Butler F Mouthrinse (500 ppm) had a lower current density than Neo Sentalloy. In addition, breakdown potential of Neo Sentalloy Ionguard in Ora-Bliss (900 ppm) was much higher than that of Neo Sentalloy although both wires had similar corrosion potential in Ora-Bliss (450 and 900 ppm). The XPS results for Neo Sentalloy Ionguard suggested that the layers consisted of TiO(2) and TiN were present on the surface and the layers may improve the corrosion properties.

  4. Understanding and engineering of NiGe/Ge junction formed by phosphorus ion implantation after germanidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Hiroshi, E-mail: oka@asf.mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-11

    Modulation of the effective electron Schottky barrier height (eSBH) of NiGe/Ge contacts induced by phosphorus ion implantation after germanide formation was investigated by considering local inhomogeneity in the eSBH. Systematic studies of NiGe/Ge contact devices having various germanide thicknesses and ion implantation areas indicated the threshold dopant concentration at the NiGe/Ge interface required for eSBH modulation and negligible dopant diffusion even at NiGe/Ge interface during drive-in annealing, leading to variation in the eSBH between the bottom and sidewall portions of the NiGe regions. Consequently, this method makes it possible to design source/drain contacts with low-resistivity Ohmic and ideal rectifying characteristics for future Ge-based transistors.

  5. Doping of two-dimensional MoS2 by high energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhao, Yuda; Lin, Ziyuan; Long, Yan; Wang, Yi; Chan, Mansun; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been demonstrated to be promising candidates for next generation electronic circuits. Analogues to conventional Si-based semiconductors, p- and n-doping of 2D materials are essential for building complementary circuits. Controllable and effective doping strategies require large tunability of the doping level and negligible structural damage to ultrathin 2D materials. In this work, we demonstrate a doping method utilizing a conventional high-energy ion-implantation machine. Before the implantation, a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) protective layer is used to decelerate the dopant ions and minimize the structural damage to MoS2, thus aggregating the dopants inside MoS2 flakes. By optimizing the implantation energy and fluence, phosphorus dopants are incorporated into MoS2 flakes. Our Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results show that only negligibly structural damage is introduced to the MoS2 lattice during the implantation. P-doping effect by the incorporation of p+ is demonstrated by Photoluminescence (PL) and electrical characterizations. Thin PMMA protection layer leads to large kinetic damage but also a more significant doping effect. Also, MoS2 with large thickness shows less kinetic damage. This doping method makes use of existing infrastructures in the semiconductor industry and can be extended to other 2D materials and dopant species as well.

  6. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation for Interdigitated Back Passivated Contact (IBPC) Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Theingi, San; Young, Matthew; Aguiar, Jeffery; Lee, Benjamin G.; Stradins, Paul

    2016-11-21

    We present progress to develop low-cost interdigitated back contact solar cells with pc-Si/SiO2/c-Si passivated contacts formed by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). PIII is a lower-cost implantation technique than traditional beam-line implantation due to its simpler design, lower operating costs, and ability to run high doses (1E14-1E18 cm-2) at low ion energies (20 eV-10 keV). These benefits make PIII ideal for high throughput production of patterned passivated contacts, where high-dose, low-energy implantations are made into thin (20-200 nm) a-Si layers instead of into the wafer itself. For this work symmetric passivated contact test structures grown on n-Cz wafers with PH3 PIII doping gave implied open circuit voltage (iVoc) values of 730 mV with Jo values of 2 fA/cm2. Samples doped with B2H6 gave iVoc values of 690 mV and Jo values of 24 fA/cm2, outperforming BF3 doping, which gave iVoc values in the 660-680 mV range. Samples were further characterized by photoluminescence and SIMS depth profiles. Initial IBPC cell results are presented.

  7. The microstructure and surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy implanted with nitrogen ions at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcak, Petr, E-mail: petr.vlcak@fs.cvut.cz [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Cerny, Frantisek [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Drahokoupil, Jan [Department of Metals, Institute of Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Sepitka, Josef [Department of Mechanics, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Tolde, Zdenek [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • The Ti6Al4V samples were implanted with 90 keV nitrogen ions. • The samples were annealed at 500 °C during the ion implantation process. • An elevated temperature increases the mobility of the atoms and the quantity of TiN. • The hardness showed a significant increase compared to room temperature implantation. - Abstract: The effect of an elevated temperature during nitrogen ion implantation on the microstructure and on the surface hardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy was examined. The implantation process was carried out at fluences of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17}, 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 6 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} and at ion energy 90 keV. The implanted samples were annealed at 500 °C during the implantation process. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to obtain a phase characterization and a phase quantification in the implanted sample surface. The surface hardness was investigated by nanoindentation testing, and the nitrogen depth distribution was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. Elevated temperature led to increased formation of a TiN compound. It was found that a mixture of TiN and an α-Ti(+N) solid solution had a predominant amount of TiN for samples with fluence of 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} or higher. Elevated temperature during ion implantation caused an increase in surface hardening more towards the depth of the substrate in comparison with room temperature implantation. The hardness showed a remarkably significant increase at a fluence of 1 ⋅ 10{sup 17} and 2.7 ⋅ 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} compared to samples implanted at the same fluences and at room temperature. There is a discussion of such mechanisms that explain the observed hardening more towards the depth of the substrate, and the increase in hardness.

  8. Impurity/defect interactions during MeV Si{sup +} ion implantation annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, A.; Koveshnikov, S.; Christensen, K. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Ion implantation of dopant atoms at MeV energies is currently being explored in several integrated circuit device manufacturing processes. MeV implantation offers immediate advantages such as vertical well modulation, latch-up protection, device structure isolation, and reduced temperature processing. Simultaneously, it presents an opportunity to achieve {open_quotes}proximity{close_quotes} gettering of impurities from the active device region by placing high impurity solubility and/or secondary defect gettering sites within microns of the surface. If the MeV implanted species is a dopant ion, all three gettering mechanisms, i.e, segregation, relaxation and injection, can be involved in the gettering process, complicating the analysis and optimization of the process. However, investigation of gettering using non-dopant Si{sup +} ion damage allows the relaxation component of the gettering process to be isolated and examined separately. In general, gettering is verified by a reduction in impurity concentration in the region of interest, usually the device region, and/or a build-up of concentration/precipitation in a non-device sink region. An alternate and more meaningful approach is to use simple devices as materials characterization probes via changes in the electrical activity of the gettering sites. Device space charge probes also allow the evolution of the defect sites upon contamination to be tracked. We report here results of the electrical, structural, and chemical characterization of MeV implanted Si{sup +} damage using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). The damage has been characterized both as a function of annealing from 600 to 1100{degrees}C for 1 hr, and after contamination with Fe followed by low temperature gettering annealing.

  9. Synergistic effect of nanotopography and bioactive ions on peri-implant bone response

    OpenAIRE

    Su Y; Komasa S; Li P; Nishizaki M; Chen L; Terada C; Yoshimine S; Nishizaki H; Okazaki J

    2017-01-01

    Yingmin Su,1 Satoshi Komasa,1 Peiqi Li,2 Mariko Nishizaki,1 Luyuan Chen,1 Chisato Terada,1 Shigeki Yoshimine,1 Hiroshi Nishizaki,1 Joji Okazaki1 1Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 2Department of Oral Implantology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Both bioactive ion chemistry and nanoscale surface modifications are beneficial for enhanced osseointegration of endosseous implants. In this study, a facile synthesis approach to the incorporation of bi...

  10. Surface modification of biomaterials using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tao; Qiao, Yuqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2012-01-01

    Although remarkable progress has been made on biomaterial research, the ideal biomaterial that satisfies all the technical requirements and biological functions is not available up to now. Surface modification seems to be a more economic and efficient way to adjust existing conventional biomaterials to meet the current and ever-evolving clinical needs. From an industrial perspective, plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an attractive method for biomaterials owing to it...

  11. Study of structural modifications induced by ion implantation in austenitic stainless steel; Etude des modifications structurales induites par implantation ionique dans les aciers austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudognon, J

    2006-12-15

    Ion implantation in steels, although largely used to improve the properties of use, involves structural modifications of the surface layer, which remain still prone to controversies. Within this context, various elements (N, Ar, Cr, Mo, Ag, Xe and Pb) were implanted (with energies varying from 28 to 280 keV) in a 316LVM austenitic stainless steel. The implanted layer has a thickness limited to 80 nm and a maximum implanted element concentration lower than 10 % at. The analysis of the implanted layer by grazing incidence X ray diffraction highlights deformations of austenite lines, appearance of ferrite and amorphization of the layer. Ferritic phase which appears at the grain boundaries, whatever the implanted element, is formed above a given 'threshold' of energy (produced of fluency by the energy of an ion). The formation of ferrite as well as the amorphization of the implanted layer depends only on energy. In order to understand the deformations of austenite diffraction lines, a simulation model of these lines was elaborated. The model correctly describes the observed deformations (broadening, shift, splitting) with the assumption that the expansion of the austenitic lattice is due to the presence of implanted element and is proportional to the element concentration through a coefficient k'. This coefficient only depends on the element and varies linearly with its radius. (author)

  12. Normal and reverse defect annealing in ion implanted II-VI oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexander; Galeckas, Augustinas; Wendler, Elke; Ellingsen, Josef; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2017-09-01

    Post-implantation annealing is typically used to remove structural defects and electrically activate implanted dopants in semiconductors. However, ion-induced defects and their interaction with dopants in group II oxide semiconductors are not fully understood. Here, we study defect evolution in the course of annealing in CdO and ZnO materials implanted with nitrogen which is one of the most promising candidates for p-type doping. The results of photoluminescence and ion channeling measurements revealed a striking difference in defect behavior between CdO and ZnO. In particular, the defect annealing in CdO exhibits a two stage behavior, the first stage accounting for efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters, while the second one involves gradual disappearance of extended defects where the sample decomposition can play a role. In contrast, a strong reverse annealing occurs for ZnO with a maximum defect concentration around 900 °C. This effect occurs exclusively for nitrogen ions and is attributed to efficient growth of extended defects promoted by the presence of nitrogen.

  13. First tests of the ion irradiation and implantation beamline at the CMAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Rey, D. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, EURATOM/CIEMAT, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Benedicto, M.; Muñoz-Martín, A. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Bachiller-Perea, D. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Dpto. de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Olivares, J. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Dpto. de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, EURATOM/CIEMAT, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, Calle Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Dpto. de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    The implantation and irradiation beamline of the Tandem ion accelerator of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), in Madrid, has been recently completed with a beam sweep and monitoring system, and a cryostat/furnace. These new implementations convert the beamline into a versatile tool to implant ions, between H and Au{sub 2}, in different materials with precise control of the sample temperature, which may be varied between −180 °C and 600 °C. The size of the swept area on target may be as large as 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. The implantation chamber also allows carrying out in situ or/and on line analyses during the irradiations by means of advanced optical measurements, as well as ion beam analyses (IBA). These advancements can be employed in novel applications such as the fabrication of optical waveguides and irradiation tests of structural and functional materials for future fusion reactors. The results of beam tests and first experiments are shown.

  14. First tests of the ion irradiation and implantation beamline at the CMAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rey, D.; Benedicto, M.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Bachiller-Perea, D.; Olivares, J.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Ferrer, B.; Rodríguez, A.; Narros, J.; Maira, A.; Álvarez, J.; Nakbi, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; de Aragón, F.; García, J. M.; Vila, R.

    2014-07-01

    The implantation and irradiation beamline of the Tandem ion accelerator of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), in Madrid, has been recently completed with a beam sweep and monitoring system, and a cryostat/furnace. These new implementations convert the beamline into a versatile tool to implant ions, between H and Au2, in different materials with precise control of the sample temperature, which may be varied between -180 °C and 600 °C. The size of the swept area on target may be as large as 10 × 10 cm2. The implantation chamber also allows carrying out in situ or/and on line analyses during the irradiations by means of advanced optical measurements, as well as ion beam analyses (IBA). These advancements can be employed in novel applications such as the fabrication of optical waveguides and irradiation tests of structural and functional materials for future fusion reactors. The results of beam tests and first experiments are shown.

  15. Effect of Silicon, Titanium, and Zirconium Ion Implantation on NiTi Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Meisner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to study the effect of high-dose ion implantation (HDII of NiTi surface layers with Si Ti, or Zr, on the NiTi biocompatibility. The biocompatibility was judged from the intensity and peculiarities of proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on the NiTi specimen surfaces treated by special mechanical, electrochemical, and HDII methods and differing in chemical composition, morphology, and roughness. It is shown that the ion-implanted NiTi specimens are nontoxic to rat MSCs. When cultivated with the test materials or on their surfaces, the MSCs retain the viability, adhesion, morphology, and capability for proliferation in vitro, as evidenced by cell counting in a Goryaev chamber, MTT test, flow cytometry, and light and fluorescence microscopy. The unimplanted NiTi specimens fail to stimulate MSC proliferation, and this allows the assumption of bioinertness of their surface layers. Conversely, the ion-implanted NiTi specimens reveal properties favorable for MSC proliferation on their surface.

  16. p-Type Quasi-Mono Silicon Solar Cell Fabricated by Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-type quasi-mono wafer is a novel type of silicon material that is processed using a seed directional solidification technique. This material is a promising alternative to traditional high-cost Czochralski (CZ and float-zone (FZ material. Here, we evaluate the application of an advanced solar cell process featuring a novel method of ion implantation on p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. The ion implantation process has simplified the normal industrial process flow by eliminating two process steps: the removal of phosphosilicate glass (PSG and the junction isolation process that is required after the conventional thermal POCl3 diffusion process. Moreover, the good passivation performance of the ion implantation process improves Voc. Our results show that, after metallization and cofiring, an average cell efficiency of 18.55% can be achieved using 156 × 156 mm p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. Furthermore, the absolute cell efficiency obtained using this method is 0.47% higher than that for the traditional POCl3 diffusion process.

  17. Helium behaviour in UO{sub 2} through low fluence ion implantation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P., E-mail: philippe.garcia@cea.fr [CEA – DEN/DEC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gilabert, E. [Centre d’Et' udes Nucleáires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan (France); Martin, G.; Carlot, G.; Sabathier, C. [CEA – DEN/DEC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Sauvage, T.; Desgardin, P.; Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS-CEMHTI, UPR3079, 45071 Orleáns (France)

    2014-05-01

    In this work we focus on experiments involving implantation of 500 keV {sup 3}He ions in sintered polycrystalline material. Samples are implanted at low fluences (∼2 ×10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) and subsequently isothermally annealed in a highly sensitive thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) device PIAGARA (Plateforme Interdisciplinaire pour l’Analyse des GAz Rares en Aquitaine). The helium fluencies studied are two to three orders of magnitude lower than previous Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) experiments carried out on identical samples implanted at identical energies. The fractional release of helium obtained in the TDS experiments is interpreted using a three-dimensional axisymmetric diffusion model which enables results to be quantitatively compared to previous NRA data. The analysis shows that helium behaviour is qualitatively independent of ion fluency over three orders of magnitude: helium diffusion appears to be strongly inhibited below 1273 K within the centre of the grains presumably as a result of helium bubble precipitation. The scenario involving diffusion at grain boundaries and in regions adjacent to them observed at higher fluencies is quantitatively confirmed at much lower doses. The main difference lies in the average width of the region in which uninhibited diffusion occurs.

  18. Improvement of Vitamin K2 Production by Escherichia sp. with Nitrogen Ion Beam Implantation Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Gong, Guohong; Wu, Hefang; Liu, Hongxia; Tan, Mu; Li, Zhemin

    2015-02-01

    Low-energy ion implantation as a novel mutagen has been increasingly applied in the microbial mutagenesis for its higher mutation frequency and wider mutation spectra. In this work, N+ ion beam implantation was used to enhance Escherichia sp. in vitamin K2 yield. Optimization of process parameters under submerged fermentation was carried out to improve the vitamin K2 yield of mutant FM5-632. The results indicate that an excellent mutant FM5-632 with a yield of 123.2±1.6 μg/L, that is four times that of the original strain, was achieved by eight successive implantations under the conditions of 15 keV and 60×2.6×1013 ions/cm2. A further optimization increased the yield of the mutant by 39.7%, i.e. 172.1±1.2 μg/L which occurred in the mutant cultivated in the optimal fermentation culture medium composed of (per liter): 15.31 g glycerol, 10 g peptone, 2.89 g yeast extract, 5 g K2HPO4, 1 g NaCl, 0.5 g MgSO4·7H2O and 0.04 g cedar wood oil, incubated at 33 °C, pH 7.0 and 180 rpm for 120 h.

  19. Clean waveguides in lithium niobate thin film formed by He ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Mei; Jiang, Yun-Peng; Jiao, Yang

    2017-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of channel waveguides by He ion implantation in a single-crystal LiNbO3 film bonded to a SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate. The planar waveguides were also formed under the same conditions to show the refractive index changes and the thermal annealing properties of ion-implanted LiNbO3 thin film. Using a moderate implantation energy, the formed channel waveguides were clean because He ions passed through the LiNbO3 thin film and deposited into the SiO2 layer. The optical propagation properties of channel waveguides were measured using an end-face coupling method, and the theoretical results were simultaneously calculated for comparison. The mode sizes and end-face reflectivities of channel waveguides with different widths were numerically calculated. The propagation losses were also estimated at approximately 12.2 and 14.3 dB/cm for 7 μm- and 5 μm-wide waveguides, respectively, by the Fabry-Perot method.

  20. 2nd International Conference on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, Physics and Technology, Fundamental and Applied Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Graul, Jürgen

    1971-01-01

    In recent years great progress has been made in the field of ion implantation, particularly with respect to applications in semiconductors. It would be impos­ sible not to note the growing interest in this field, both by research groups and those directly concerned with production of devices. Furthermore, as several papers have pointed out, ion implantation and its associated technologies promise exciting advances in the development of new kinds of devices and provide power­ ful new tools for materials investigations. It was, therefore, appropriate to arrange the II. International Conference on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors within the rather short time of one year since the first conference was held in 1970 in Thousand Oaks, California. Although ori­ ginally planned on a small scale with a very limited number of participants, more than two hundred scientists from 15 countries participated in the Conference which was held May 24 - 28, 1971 at the Congress Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. This volume c...

  1. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  2. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration.

  3. Rapid Prototyping for In Vitro Knee Rig Investigations of Prosthetized Knee Biomechanics: Comparison with Cobalt-Chromium Alloy Implant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schröder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retropatellar complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA such as anterior knee pain and subluxations might be related to altered patellofemoral biomechanics, in particular to trochlear design and femorotibial joint positioning. A method was developed to test femorotibial and patellofemoral joint modifications separately with 3D-rapid prototyped components for in vitro tests, but material differences may further influence results. This pilot study aims at validating the use of prostheses made of photopolymerized rapid prototype material (RPM by measuring the sliding friction with a ring-on-disc setup as well as knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure on a knee rig. Cobalt-chromium alloy (standard prosthesis material, SPM prostheses served as validation standard. Friction coefficients between these materials and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE were additionally tested as this latter material is commonly used to protect pressure sensors in experiments. No statistical differences were found between friction coefficients of both materials to PTFE. UHMWPE shows higher friction coefficient at low axial loads for RPM, a difference that disappears at higher load. No measurable statistical differences were found in knee kinematics and retropatellar pressure distribution. This suggests that using polymer prototypes may be a valid alternative to original components for in vitro TKA studies and future investigations on knee biomechanics.

  4. Thermal annealing behavior of nano-size metal-oxide particles synthesized by ion implantation in Fe-Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Descoins, M.; Mangelinck, D.; Dalle, F.; Arnal, B.; Delauche, L.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are promising structural materials for the next generation nuclear reactors, as well as fusion facilities. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides during ODS steel production would strongly contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties and the optimization of manufacturing of ODS steels, with a potentially strong economic impact for their industrialization. A useful tool for the experimental study of nano-oxide precipitation is ion implantation, a technique that is widely used to synthesize precipitate nanostructures in well-controlled conditions. Earlier, we have demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing aluminum-oxide particles in the high purity Fe-10Cr alloy by consecutive implantation with Al and O ions at room temperature. This paper describes the effects of high-temperature annealing after the ion implantation stage on the development of the aluminum based oxide nanoparticle system. Using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments, we demonstrate that post-implantation heat treatment induces the growth of the nano-sized oxides in the implanted region and nucleation of new oxide precipitates behind the implantation zone as a result of the diffusion driven broadening of implant profiles. A tentative scenario for the development of metal-oxide nano-particles at both ion implantation and heat treatment stages is suggested based on the experimental observations.

  5. Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, M.; Ahmad, A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, 54890 Lahore (Pakistan); Deen, K.M. [Corrosion Control Research Cell, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, CEET, University of the Punjab, 54590 Lahore (Pakistan); Haider, W., E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted on cp-Ti. • Increase in surface roughness with increase in ions dose was confirmed by AFM. • TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2−x} nitride phases were formed and validated by XRD. • The ions implantation reduced the corrosion rate and stabilized the passive film. • Surface roughness greatly affected the morphology and growth of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. - Abstract: Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelerator with beam energy of 0.25 MeV.The atomic force microscopy of bare and nitrogen implanted specimens confirmed increase in surface roughness with increase in nitrogen ions concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns of ions implanted surfaces validated the formation of TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2-x}nitride phases. The tendency to form passive film and electrochemical behavior of these surfaces in ringer lactate (RL) solution was evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy respectively. It is proved that nitrogen ions implantation was beneficial to reduce corrosion rate and stabilizing passive film by increasing charge transfer resistance in RL. It was concluded that morphology and proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on nitrogen ions implanted surfaces strongly depends on surface roughness and nitride phases.

  6. Low flux and low energy helium ion implantation into tungsten using a dedicated plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecoste, Lucile [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Thomann, Anne-Lise, E-mail: anne-lise.thomann@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Melhem, Amer; Caillard, Amael; Cuynet, Stéphane; Lecas, Thomas; Brault, Pascal [GREMI, CNRS/Université d’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex2 (France); Desgardin, Pierre; Barthe, Marie-France [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex2 (France)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the first stages of defect formation in tungsten (W) due to the accumulation of helium (He) atoms inside the crystal lattice. To reach the required implantation conditions, i.e. low He ion fluxes (10{sup 11}–10{sup 14} ions.cm{sup 2}.s{sup −1}) and kinetic energies below the W atom displacement threshold (about 500 eV for He{sup +}), an ICP source has been designed and connected to a diffusion chamber. Implantation conditions have been characterized by means of complementary diagnostics modified for measurements in this very low density helium plasma. It was shown that lowest ion fluxes could only be reached for the discharge working in capacitive mode either in α or γ regime. Special attention was paid to control the energy gained by the ions by acceleration through the sheath at the direct current biased substrate. At very low helium pressure, in α regime, a broad ion energy distribution function was evidenced, whereas a peak centered on the potential difference between the plasma and the biased substrate was found at higher pressures in the γ mode. Polycrystalline tungsten samples were exposed to the helium plasma in both regimes of the discharge and characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy in order to detect the formed vacancy defects. It was found that W vacancies are able to be formed just by helium accumulation and that the same final implanted state is reached, whatever the operating mode of the capacitive discharge.

  7. Energetic metallic ion implantation in polymers via cost-effective laser-driven ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Bilal; Rafique, M. Shahid; Ahmed, Rabia; Rafique, M.; Iqbal, Tahir; Hasan, Ali

    2017-07-01

    This research work reports the ions emission from the plasma generated by Nd:YAG laser having wavelength 1.064 μm, power 1.1 MW, pulse energy 10 mJ and intensity 1011 W/cm2 irradiated at 70° with respect to the target normal to the ions. These ions were accelerated through a home-made extraction assembly by means of a high voltage DC power supply. The energy of these ions were measured using Thomson parabola technique which utilizes Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (CR-39) and confirmed by Faraday cup as well that exploits a well-known technique known as time of flight. Interestingly, a significant increase in energy (from 490 to 730 keV) was observed with a discrete increase in acceleration potential from 0 to 18 kV. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene were exposed to this recently developed ion source facility, to authenticate the reliability of this facility. The surface of the polymer is affected when energy of the irradiated ion is increased, which is evident from the optical micrographs. An increase in electrical conductivity was also observed with the increase in ion energy.

  8. Comparison of metal ion concentrations and implant survival after total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal versus metal-on-polyethylene articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrand, Henrik; Stark, André; Wick, Marius C; Anissian, Lucas; Hailer, Nils P; Weiss, Rüdiger J

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Large metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations are associated with metal wear and corrosion, leading to increased metal ion concentrations and unacceptable revision rates. There are few comparative studies of 28-mm MoM articulations with conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) couplings. We present a long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing MoM versus MoP 28-mm articulations, focused on metal ions and implant survival. Patients and methods - 85 patients with a mean age of 65 years at surgery were randomized to a MoM (Metasul) or a MoP (Protasul) bearing. After 16 years, 38 patients had died and 4 had undergone revision surgery. 13 patients were unavailable for clinical follow-up, leaving 30 patients (n = 14 MoM and n = 16 MoP) for analysis of metal ion concentrations and clinical outcome. Results - 15-year implant survival was similar in both groups (MoM 96% [95% CI 88-100] versus MoP 97% [95% CI 91-100]). The mean serum cobalt concentration was 4-fold higher in the MoM (1.5 μg/L) compared with the MoP cohort (0.4 μg/L, p MoM (2.2 μg/L) compared with the MoP cohort (1.0 μg/L, p = 0.05). Mean creatinine levels were similar in both groups (MoM 93 μmol/L versus MoP 92 μmol/L). Harris hip scores differed only marginally between the MoM and MoP cohorts. Interpretation - This is the longest follow-up of a randomized trial on 28-mm MoM articulations, and although implant survival in the 2 groups was similar, metal ion concentrations remained elevated in the MoM cohort even in the long term.

  9. The effects on γ-LiAlO2 induced by nuclear energy losses during Ga ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Hong-Lian; Qiao, Mei; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2017-09-01

    To explore the evolution of γ-LiAlO2 under ion irradiation at low energy, we implanted Ga ions of 30, 80 and 150 keV at fluences of 1 × 1014 and 1 × 1015 ions/cm2 in z-cut γ-LiAlO2 samples, respectively. The implantation resulted in damage regions dominated by nuclear energy losses at depth of 232 Å, 514 Å, and 911 Å beneath the surface, respectively, which was simulated by the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter program. The irradiated γ-LiAlO2 were characterized with atomic force microscope, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering in a channeling mode for morphology evolution, structure information and damage profiles. The interesting and partly abnormal results showed the various behaviors in modification of surface by Ga ions implantation.

  10. Growth of DySi sub 2 layers on Si surface by high-current Dy-ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X Q

    2003-01-01

    We report, in this paper, the synthesis of DySi sub 2 layers on Si surfaces by high-current Dy-ion implantation in Si wafers using a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. It was found that the continuous DySi sub 2 layers could grow at a relatively low formation temperature of 190degC and that the surface morphology varied with the variation of the implantation parameters. The formation mechanism of the equilibrium DySi sub 2 phase as well as the continuous DySi sub 2 layer on Si surface is proposed in terms of ion beam heating and the effect of ion dose on the Dy-ion implantation process. (author)

  11. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, M., E-mail: majap@vinca.rs; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Changes in structural and optical properties of TiN films induced by Ag ions. • The formation of Ag metallic clusters inside of TiN layers was observed. • The SPR of Ag particles was confirmed by a broad band in the spectra. • As the Ag ions fluence increases the n also increase and k values decrease. • With increasing ion fluence the TiN film becomes more metallic. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3–476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  12. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Xiao-teng; Gan, Cai-ling; Fang, Yan-qiong; Zhang, Meng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N+ with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N+ beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 × 1016 to 15 × 1016 ions cm-2 severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 × 1016 ion cm-2, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 × 1016 ions cm-2 may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  13. Removal of ion-implanted photoresists on GaAs using two organic solvents in sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunseok; Na, Jihoon; Lee, Seunghyo; Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Two-step photoresist removal process using two organic solvents was developed. • Photoresist on trench patterned GaAs was removed by two-step sequence. • Acetonitrile with dimethyl sulfoxide removed implanted photoresists at 30 °C. • Affinity and permeability of solvent through photoresist determine photoresist removal. - Abstract: Organic solvents can effectively remove photoresists on III–V channels without damage or etching of the channel material during the process. In this study, a two-step sequential photoresist removal process using two different organic solvents was developed to remove implanted ArF and KrF photoresists at room temperature. The effects of organic solvents with either low molar volumes or high affinities for photoresists were evaluated to find a proper combination that can effectively remove high-dose implanted photoresists without damaging GaAs surfaces. The performance of formamide, acetonitrile, nitromethane, and monoethanolamine for the removal of ion-implanted ArF and KrF photoresists were compared using a two-step sequential photoresist removal process followed by treatment in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Among the various combinations, the acetonitrile + DMSO two-step sequence exhibited the best removal of photoresists that underwent ion implantation at doses of 5 × 10{sup 13}–5 × 10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2} on both flat and trench-structured GaAs surfaces. The ability of the two-step process using organic solvents to remove the photoresists can be explained by considering the affinities of solvents for a polymer and its permeability through the photoresist.

  14. Axial Ligation and Redox Changes at the Cobalt Ion in Cobalamin Bound to Corrinoid Iron-Sulfur Protein (CoFeSP or in Solution Characterized by XAS and DFT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer Schrapers

    Full Text Available A cobalamin (Cbl cofactor in corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CoFeSP is the primary methyl group donor and acceptor in biological carbon oxide conversion along the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. Changes of the axial coordination of the cobalt ion within the corrin macrocycle upon redox transitions in aqua-, methyl-, and cyano-Cbl bound to CoFeSP or in solution were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS at the Co K-edge in combination with density functional theory (DFT calculations, supported by metal content and cobalt redox level quantification with further spectroscopic methods. Calculation of the highly variable pre-edge X-ray absorption features due to core-to-valence (ctv electronic transitions, XANES shape analysis, and cobalt-ligand bond lengths determination from EXAFS has yielded models for the molecular and electronic structures of the cobalt sites. This suggested the absence of a ligand at cobalt in CoFeSP in α-position where the dimethylbenzimidazole (dmb base of the cofactor is bound in Cbl in solution. As main species, (dmbCoIII(OH2, (dmbCoII(OH2, and (dmbCoIII(CH3 sites for solution Cbl and CoIII(OH2, CoII(OH2, and CoIII(CH3 sites in CoFeSP-Cbl were identified. Our data support binding of a serine residue from the reductive-activator protein (RACo of CoFeSP to the cobalt ion in the CoFeSP-RACo protein complex that stabilizes Co(II. The absence of an α-ligand at cobalt not only tunes the redox potential of the cobalamin cofactor into the physiological range, but is also important for CoFeSP reactivation.

  15. Surface, electrical and mechanical modifications of PMMA after implantation with laser produced iron plasma ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Qazi Salman; Bashir, Shazia, E-mail: shaziabashir@gcu.edu.pk; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Mahmood, Khaliq; Akram, Mahreen; Khalid, Ayesha; Yaseen, Nazish; Arshad, Atiqa

    2016-07-01

    Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) was employed as an ion source for the modifications in surface, electrical and mechanical properties of poly methyl (methacrylate) PMMA. For this purpose Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 6 ns, 10 Hz) at a fluence of 12.7 J/cm{sup 2} was employed to generate Fe plasma. The fluence and energy measurements of laser produced Fe plasma ions were carried out by employing Thomson Parabola Technique in the presence of magnetic field strength of 0.5 T, using CR-39 as Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). It has been observed that ion fluence ejecting from ablated plasma was maximum at an angle of 5° with respect to the normal to the Fe target surface. PMMA substrates were irradiated with Fe ions of constant energy of 0.85 MeV at various ion fluences ranging from 3.8 × 10{sup 6} ions/cm{sup 2} to 1.8 × 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2} controlled by varying laser pulses from 3000 to 7000. Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were utilized for the analysis of surface features of irradiated PMMA. Results depicted the formation of chain scission, crosslinking, dendrites and star like structures. To explore the electrical behavior, four probe method was employed. The electrical conductivity of ion irradiated PMMA was increased with increasing ion fluence. The surface hardness was measured by shore D hardness tester and results showed the monotonous increment in surface hardness with increasing ion fluence. The increasing trend of surface hardness and electrical conductivity with increasing Fe ion fluence has been well correlated with the surface morphology of ion implanted PMMA. The temperature rise of PMMA surface due to Fe ion irradiation is evaluated analytically and comes out to be in the range of 1.72 × 10{sup 4} to 1.82 × 10{sup 4} K. The values of total Linear Energy Transfer (LET) or stopping power of 0.8 MeV Fe ions in PMMA is 61.8 eV/Å and their range is 1.34 μm evaluated by SRIM simulation.

  16. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-10-05

    In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350°C, PVC/LiCoO2 ratio 3:1, time 30min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350°C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO2 subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental and numerical optical characterization of plasmonic copper nanoparticles embedded in ZnO fabricated by ion implantation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Khai Q. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Nguyen, Hieu P.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ 07102 (United States); Ngo, Quang Minh [Institute of Material Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Canimoglu, Adil [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Nigde (Turkey); Can, Nurdogan, E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-05

    Here we describe the successfully fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting copper (Cu) ions into single zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals with ion energy of 400 keV at ion doses of 1 × 10{sup 16} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation and post-annealing treatment, the Cu implanted ZnO produces a broad range of luminescence emissions, ranging from green to yellow. A green luminescence peak at 550 nm could be ascribed to the isolated Cu ions. The changes in luminescence emission bands between the initial implant and annealed suggest that the implants give rise to clustering Cu nanoparticles in the host matrix but that the annealing process dissociates these. Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed to simulate their optical properties including the extinction cross section, electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence. We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances corresponding to the generation of multiple resonances, while the isolation of nanoparticles results in intensity amplification. - Highlights: • We present the fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting Cu into ZnO. • The luminescence properties were studied at different annealing temperature. • Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed. • We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances.

  18. Plasma immersion ion implantation of polyurethane shape memory polymer: Surface properties and protein immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinying; Kondyurin, Alexey; Bao, Shisan; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Ye, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Polyurethane-type shape memory polymers (SMPU) are promising biomedical implant materials due to their ability to recover to a predetermined shape from a temporary shape induced by thermal activation close to human body temperature and their advantageous mechanical properties including large recovery strains and low recovery stresses. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a surface modification process using energetic ions that generates radicals in polymer surfaces leading to carbonisation and oxidation and the ability to covalently immobilise proteins without the need for wet chemistry. Here we show that PIII treatment of SMPU significantly enhances its bioactivity making SMPU suitable for applications in permanent implantable biomedical devices. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, surface energy measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterise the PIII modified surface, including its after treatment aging kinetics and its capability to covalently immobilise protein directly from solution. The results show a substantial improvement in wettability and dramatic changes of surface chemical composition dependent on treatment duration, due to the generation of radicals and subsequent oxidation. The SMPU surface, PIII treated for 200s, achieved a saturated level of covalently immobilized protein indicating that a full monolayer coverage was achieved. We conclude that PIII is a promising and efficient surface modification method to enhance the biocompatibility of SMPU for use in medical applications that demand bioactivity for tissue integration and stability in vivo.

  19. Cd doping of AlN via ion implantation studied with perturbed angular correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Patrick; Miranda, Sérgio MC; Simon, R; Correia, João Guilherme; Johnston, Karl; Vianden, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    AlN with a wide bandgap of 6.2 eV is a promising candidate for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. However, the production of the required p-type AlN is still challenging. As a possible dopant Cd was suggested among other Group II atoms (Be, Mg, and Zn). In this study the annealing condition of implanted Cd in AlN was investigated with the method of the perturbed angular correlation (PAC). Therefore radioactive $^{117}$Cd or $^{111m}$Cd ions were implanted into thin AlN films on sapphire substrate with an energy of 30 keV and fluences in the range of 10$^{11}$ ions/cm$^{2}$. After thorough annealing with a proximity cap of the same material most of the Cd-probes occupy substitutional lattice sites and almost all implantation damage can be annealed. This results in a distinct frequency in the PAC spectra which increases with temperature. In contrast to the formation of an indium nitrogen-vacancy complex observed with the probe $^{111}$In on substitutional Al-sites no defects are bound to substi...

  20. Corrosion resistance enhancement of SAE 1020 steel after Chromium implantation by nitrogen ion recoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Francisco Gomes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available SAE 1020 construction steel is widely used as mortar reinforcement and small machine parts, but aside good surface properties as high ductility, hardness and wear resistance, its surface is prone to severe corrosion. As it is known, Chromium in amount over 12%-13% in the Fe alloys renders them resistance to several corrosive attacks. SAE 1020 samples were recovered with Chromium film and then bombarded either by nitrogen Ion Beam (IB or Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII to recoil implant Cr atoms in the Fe matrix. Samples treated by 100 keV N+ IB showed irregular, thin Cr profile, remaining a part of the film on the surface, to about 10 nm. Samples treated by 40 kV N PIII presented Cr layer of about 18% at., ranging to around 90 nm. Cr of the film was implanted in the Fe matrix in an almost flat profile. Results of corrosion test showed good performance of the PIII treated sample. The IB treated sample showed some enhancement over the non-treated reference and the only Cr film deposited sample showed no modification on the corrosion behavior as compared to the non-treated reference sample.

  1. Periprocedural (30-day) risk of myocardial infarction after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation: a meta-analysis comparing cobalt-chromium and stainless steel drug-eluting coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Raul; Jimenez-Valero, Santiago; Sanchez-Recalde, Angel; Galeote, Guillermo; Calvo, Luis; Martin-Reyes, Roberto; Sabate, Manuel; Plaza, Ignacio; Macaya, Carlos; Lopez-Sendon, Jose-Luis

    2011-03-01

    Because of the reduction in the rate events related with in-stent restenosis, most events after drug-eluting stent implantation occur shortly after coronary stenting. Cobalt-chromium alloys allow to reduce strut thickness and improve flexibility and deliverability of coronary stent platforms, and thus could be associated with lower short-term events after stenting. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that drug-eluting coronary stents with a cobalt-chromium platform reduce the incidence of periprocedural (30-day) myocardial infarction in comparison with stainless steel drug-eluting coronary stents. A meta-analysis from nine randomised trials comparing cobalt-chromium and stainless steel drug-eluting coronary stents that overall included 11,313 patients was performed. The incidence of myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and cardiac death at 30 days was compared between both types of stents. At 30 days, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction was significantly lower in patients allocated to cobalt-chromium drug-eluting stents (2.3% vs. 3.9%, respectively; p=0.006; odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.91), due to a significant reduction in the rate of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.88). The incidence of stent thrombosis was similar between both groups of patients, (0.5% vs. 0.5%, p=0.76; odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.63-1.89). Drug-eluting coronary stents that use cobalt-chromium stent platforms have a better safety profile at 30 days in comparison with stainless steel drug-eluting stents, due to a significant reduction in the rate of myocardial infarction.

  2. Synthesis of sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi{sub 3} surface by 200 keV Ar ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Vantari; Datta, D.P. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050 (India); Chatterjee, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sahoo, Pratap K., E-mail: pratap.sahoo@niser.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Jatni 752050 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • A sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi{sub 3} surface has been synthesized using 200 keV Ar ion implantation. • A competition between amorphization and re-crystallization was observed in the existing phases owing to comparable magnitudes of nuclear and electronic energy depositions. • The relation between hydrophobic nature and sponge-like NiBi{sub 3} phase seems interesting, which is attributed to ion beam induced sputtering and mixing of the layers. - Abstract: Sponge-like nanostructures develop under Ar-ion implantation of a Ni–Bi bilayer with increasing ion fluence at room temperature. The surface morphology features different stages of evolution as a function of ion fluence, finally resulting in a planar surface at the highest fluence. Our investigations on the chemical composition reveal a spontaneous formation of NiBi{sub 3} phase on the surface of the as deposited bilayer film. Interestingly, we observe a competition between crystallization and amorphization of the existing poly-crystalline phases as a function of the implanted fluence. Measurements of contact angle by sessile drop method clearly show the ion-fluence dependent hydrophobic nature of the nano-structured surfaces. The wettability has been correlated with the variation in roughness and composition of the implanted surface. In fact, our experimental results confirm dominant effect of ion-sputtering as well as ion-induced mixing at the bilayer interface in the evolution of the sponge-like surface.

  3. Argon ion beam polishing: a preparation technique for evaluating the interface of osseointegrated implants with high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüner, Daniel; Fäldt, Jenny; Jansson, Kjell; Shen, Zhijian

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of ion beam polishing for preparing cross sections suitable for high-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation of dental implants with a brittle porous oxide layer and of bone/implant interfaces. Thirteen Nobel Biocare TiUnite implants were placed in minipigs. After 4 weeks, the implant and surrounding bone were removed en bloc and the implant was cut axially into two halves. The cross section was then polished with an argon ion beam. Additionally, ion beam-polished cross sections were prepared from four as-received implants. Ion beam-polished surfaces were studied with a field emission SEM (FE-SEM). With FE-SEM, up to 1 mm along the interface of ion beam-polished implant surfaces can be studied with a resolution of a few nanometers. Filled and unfilled pores of the porous TiUnite coating can be distinguished, providing information on pore accessibility. Implant-bone interfaces can be analyzed using backscattered electron images, where titanium, the oxide layer, mineralized extracellular matrix, and osteocyte lacunae/resin/soft tissue can easily be distinguished as a result of atomic number contrast and the sharp boundaries between the different materials. Filled and unfilled pores can be distinguished. Characterization of local chemistry is possible with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and bone growth into small pores (FE-SEM complements the established methods for the characterization of interfaces and bridges the wide gap in accessible length scale and resolution between the observations of mechanically polished interfaces by optical or scanning electron microscopes and the observation of focused ion beam-milled sections in a transmission electron microscope.

  4. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga+ implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga+ implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 103 Ω−1m−1 to 1.46 × 104 Ω−1m−1 and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm−1K−1 to 1.22 Wm−1K−1 for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga+ implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga+ point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga+-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  5. Biofilm formation on titanium implants counteracted by grafting gallium and silver ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochis, Andrea; Azzimonti, Barbara; Della Valle, Cinzia; Chiesa, Roberto; Arciola, Carla Renata; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-03-01

    Biofilm-associated infections remain the leading cause of implant failure. Thanks to its established biocompatibility and biomechanical properties, titanium has become one of the most widely used materials for bone implants. Engineered surface modifications of titanium able to thwart biofilm formation while endowing a safe anchorage to eukaryotic cells are being progressively developed. Here surfaces of disks of commercial grade 2 titanium for bone implant were grafted with gallium and silver ions by anodic spark deposition. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface morphology and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for characterization. Gallium-grafted titanium was evaluated in comparison with silver-grafted titanium for both in vivo and in vitro antibiofilm properties and for in vitro compatibility with human primary gingival fibroblasts. Surface-modified materials showed: (i) homogeneous porous morphology, with pores of micrometric size; (ii) absence of cytotoxic effects; (iii) ability to support in vitro the adhesion and spreading of gingival fibroblasts; and (iv) antibiofilm properties. Although both silver and gallium exhibited in vitro strong antibacterial properties, in vivo gallium was significantly more effective than silver in reducing number and viability of biofilm bacteria colonies. Gallium-based treatments represent promising titanium antibiofilm coatings to develop new bone implantable devices for oral, maxillofacial, and orthopedic applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biological effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Jatropha curcas L. seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg335300@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Research and Development of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wang Xiaoteng [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, College of Agricultural, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Gan Cailing; Fang Yanqiong; Zhang Meng [College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed biological effects of N{sup +} implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup +} implantation greatly decreased seedling survival rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At doses beyond 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CAT was essential for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal. POD mainly functioned as seed was severely hurt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAsA-GSH cycle mainly contributed to the regeneration of HAsA. - Abstract: To explore the biological effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on dry Jatropha curcas seed, a beam of N{sup +} with energy of 25 keV was applied to treat the dry seed at six different doses. N{sup +} beam implantation greatly decreased germination rate and seedling survival rate. The doses within the range of 12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} severely damaged the seeds: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), germination rate, seedling survival rate, reduced ascorbate acid (HAsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, and most of the tested antioxidases activity (i.e. catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) reached their lowest levels. At a dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ion cm{sup -2}, biological repair took place: moderate increases were found in TAC, germination rate, seedling survival rate, HAsA and GSH contents, and some antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e. CAT, APX, SOD and GPX). The dose of 18 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2} may be the optimum dose for use in dry J. curcas seed mutation breeding. CAT, HAsA and GSH contributed to the increase of TAC, but CAT was the most important. POD performed its important role as seed was severely damaged. The main role of the HAsA-GSH cycle appeared to be for regeneration of HAsA.

  7. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  8. Synthesis of periodic plasmonic microstructures with copper nanoparticles in silica glass by low-energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, A.L. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover (Germany); Kazan Physical-Technical Institute of RAS, Kazan (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Galyautdinov, M.F.; Nuzhdin, V.I.; Valeev, V.F. [Kazan Physical-Technical Institute of RAS, Kazan (Russian Federation); Evlyukhin, A.B. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover (Germany); Kama State Academy of Engineering and Economics, Naberezhnye Chelny (Russian Federation); Osin, Y.N. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Evlyukhin, E.A. [Universite Paris 13, Institut Galilee, Villetaneuse (France); Kiyan, R.; Chichkov, B.N. [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover (Germany); Kavetskyy, T.S. [Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    Ion implantation was used to locally modify the surface of silica glass to create periodic plasmonic microstructures with Cu nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were synthesized by Cu-ion irradiation of the silica glass at the ion energy of 40 keV, dose of 5 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} and current density of 5 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. This procedure involves low-energy ion implantation into the glass through a mask placed at the surface. Formation of nanoparticles was observed by optical spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The presented results clearly demonstrate how the low-energy ions can be used for the fabrication of photonic microstructures on dielectric surfaces in a single-step process. (orig.)

  9. Gettering of Co in Si by high-energy B ion-implantation and by p/p+ epitaxial Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, J. L.; Boone, T.; Jacobson, D. C.; Rafferty, C. S.

    2000-12-01

    Detection and gettering of Co contamination in processed Si is an important issue in integrated circuit fabrication. In this work, Co was intentionally introduced into Si by ion implantation, and its diffusion monitored by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The surface layer recombination lifetime in p/p+ epitaxial Si is unaffected by the Co at doses of 1×1011cm-2 or 1×1012cm-2. In the case of 2.5 MeV, 4×1014B/cm2 ion implanted bulk Si, two mechanisms for Co redistribution during high temperature furnace, 900 °C, 30 min, processing are evident. First, regions of high boron concentration provide gettering sites for Co contamination. Second, the final distribution of Co in Si reflects ion-implantation induced defect evolution during annealing. Both mechanisms will operate during device processing and will control the effect of the metal on the electrical properties of the Si.

  10. An investigation on the ultra-low energy As ion implantation process and the dopant behaviour during thermal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, S

    2001-01-01

    Characterisation of the ultra-low energy (ULE) As ion implantation profile (dopant and damage distributions) in Si has been achieved using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), in conjunction with a sputter profile deconvolution code (IMPETUS). The Si damage re-growth, dopant substitutionality, diffusion and retention processes that occur during thermal annealing have been investigated as a function of the implant damage and anneal gas ambient. It has been shown that for dopant distributions with a range less than 100A, significant error in the SIMS depth scale occurs when assuming a constant erosion rate throughout sputtering. The sputter depth profile deconvolution code IMPETUS has been used to quantify the errors associated with this assumption. Accurate simulation of the ULE As ion implant process in Si incorporating oxide accumulation effects (segregation) and self-sputtering has been obtained and validated with high resolution MEIS measurements. The code calcula...

  11. Enhancement of interaction of L-929 cells with functionalized graphene via COOH+ ion implantation vs. chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Li; Liu, Xiao-Qi; Cao, Ye; Li, Xi-Fei; Li, De-Jun; Sun, Xue-Liang; Gu, Han-Qing; Wan, Rong-Xin

    2016-11-01

    Low hydrophilicity of graphene is one of the major obstacles for biomaterials application. To create some hydrophilic groups on graphene is addressed this issue. Herein, COOH+ ion implantation modified graphene (COOH+/graphene) and COOH functionalized graphene were designed by physical ion implantation and chemical methods, respectively. The structure and surface properties of COOH+/graphene and COOH functionalized graphene were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurement. Compared with graphene, COOH+/graphene and COOH functionalized graphene revealed improvement of cytocompatibility, including in vitro cell viability and morphology. More importantly, COOH+/graphene exhibited better improvement effects than functionalized graphene. For instance, COOH+/graphene with 1 × 1018 ions/cm2 showed the best cell-viability, proliferation and stretching. This study demonstrated that ion implantation can better improve the cytocompatibility of the graphene.

  12. Emitter tailoring in ion implanted and e-beam annealed silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabilli, E.; Galloni, R.; Lulli, G.; Merli, P. G.; Nipoti, R.; Ostoja, P.; Rizzoli, R.; Servidori, M.; Susi, E.; Zignani, F.

    Ion implanted solar cells, with tailored emitters, have been analyzed both theoretically, by using a one dimensional computer model, and experimentally, in order to improve the collection efficiency by an increased electric field effect, and to decrease the negative influence of residual lattice damage. Annealing in the solid phase regime was performed by e-beam irradiations at power densities between 5 and 40 W/sq cm and times of exposure of 2s and 15s, and by furnace treatments. Electrical measurements and stripping were used, to detect the active dopant profile concentration and the majority carrier mobility profile in the implanted emitter region. X-ray double crystal diffractometry was used to obtain information on residual crystal strain after annealing. Experiments were performed in electronic grade silicon single crystals and preliminary results were also obtained on solar grade poly. Bulk life-time variations after thermal treatment were analyzed and correlated to the oxygen and carbon state in the crystal.

  13. Structural modifications of AlInN/GaN thin films by neon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700 (Pakistan); Husnain, G.; Usman, Muhammad [Experimental Physics Labs, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shakoor, Abdul [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Hassan, Najmul [Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra (Pakistan); Zhu, J.J. [Nano Fabrication Facility, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou (China)

    2013-12-02

    To study ion beam induced modifications into MOCVD grown wurtzite AlInN layers, neon ions were implanted on the samples with four doses ranging from 10{sup 14} to 9×10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) techniques. XRD analysis revealed that GaN related peak for all samples remains at its usual Bragg position of 2θ=34.56° whereas a shift in AlInN peak takes place from its position of 2θ=35.51° for as-grown sample. Rutherford back scattering (RBS) analysis indicated that peak related to Ga atoms in capping layer provided evidence of partial sputtering of GaN cap layers. Moreover, Al peak position is shifted towards lower channel side and width of the signal is increased after implantation, which pointed to the inwards migration of Al atoms away from the AlInN surface. The results suggested that partial sputtering of cap layer has taken place without uncovering the underneath AlInN layer.

  14. Kinetics of post-treatment structural transformations of nitrogen plasma ion immersion implanted polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosobrodova, E., E-mail: elenak@physics.usyd.edu.au; Kondyurin, A.; McKenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface chemistry of a synthetic material in contact with a biological system has a strong influence on the adhesion of proteins to the surface of the material and requires careful consideration in biomedical applications. The structure of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treated polymer and its surface free energy depend on the ion fluence delivered during the treatment and on the time after the PIII treatment. These dependences have been investigated using the example of nitrogen plasma implanted polystyrene (PS). Contact angle measurements, FTIR–ATR spectra and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectra were acquired as a function of ion fluence and time after treatment. The results showed a close relationship to the kinetics of free radicals that had been examined in a previous study. The kinetics of oxidation and surface free energy had two stages, one with a characteristic time of several hours and the other with a characteristic time of several days. The concentration of nitrogen-containing groups decreased with time after PIII treatment, partly, due to their release from the PS surface.

  15. Effect of argon ion implantation on the electrical and dielectric properties of CR-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Mahak, E-mail: mahak.chawla@gmail.com; Shekhawat, Nidhi; Goyal, Meetika; Gupta, Divya; Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra - 136119 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The objective of the present work is to study the effect of 130 keV Ar{sup +} ions on the electrical and dielectric properties of CR-39 samples at various doses 5×10{sup 14}, 1×10{sup 15} and 1×10{sup 16} Ar{sup +} cm{sup −2}. Current-Voltage (I-V characteristics) measurements have been used to study the electrical properties of virgin and Ar{sup +} implanted CR-39 specimens. The current has been found to be increased with increasing voltage as well as with increasing ion dose. The dielectric spectroscopy of these specimens has been done in the frequency range of 100 kHz-100 MHz. The dielectric constant has been found to be decreasing whereas dielectric loss factor increases with increasing ion fluence. These kind of behavior observed in the implanted specimens indicate towards the formation of carbonaceous clusters due to the cross linking, chemical bond cleavage, formation of free radicals. The changes observed in the dielectric behavior have been further correlated with the structural changes observed through I-V characteristics.

  16. Thioglycolic acid-capped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS quantum dots as fluorescent probe for cobalt ion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi, Lili; Huang, Yu [Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, 4 Tongjia Lane, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Lane, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yan, Zhengyu, E-mail: yanzhengyujiang@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, 4 Tongjia Lane, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Lane, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liao, Shenghua, E-mail: liaoshenghuacpu@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, 4 Tongjia Lane, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Lane, Gulou District, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-04-15

    A novel sensing fluorescent probe based on the fluorescence quenching of the thioglycolic acid-capped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS quantum dots (CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS/TGA QDs) was established for cobalt ions detection. The fluorescence quenching of CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS/TGA QDs was due to the increasing surface deficiency and the inner-filter effect, which were attributed to the reaction between Co{sup 2+} and sulfur bonds on the surface of QDs. The quenching curve could be fitted by a typical Stern–Volmer-type equation, with a linear relationship between the quenching efficiency and the concentration of cobalt ions in the range of 0.3012–90.36 μmol L{sup −1}. And the detection limit (S/N=3) for Co{sup 2+} was 0.16 μmol L{sup −1}. Therefore, the established probe provided a simple, rapid, cheap and sensitive method for Co{sup 2+} detection. In a word, this method can be used to detect Co{sup 2+} in the environment. -- Highlights: • The CuInS2/ZnS QDs were used for the first time as a fluorescent probe for Co{sup 2+} detection. • The dramatic color change could be observed when Co{sup 2+} was added into the QDs solution. • The quenching of QDs was due to the increasing surface deficiency and the inner-filter effect. • This rapid, cheap and sensitive method was applied to the detection of Co{sup 2+} in simulated water.

  17. Influence of irradiation spectrum and implanted ions on the amorphization of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Amorphization cannot be tolerated in ceramics proposed for fusion energy applications due to the accompanying large volume change ({approx} 15% in SiC) and loss of strength. Ion beam irradiations at temperatures between 200 K and 450 K were used to examine the likelihood of amorphization in ceramics being considered for the structure (SiC) and numerous diagnostic and plasma heating systems (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) in fusion energy systems. The microstructures were examined following irradiation using cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The materials in this study included ceramics with predominantly covalent bonding (SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and predominantely ionic bonding (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO). The samples were irradiated with a variety of ion beams (including some simultaneous dual ion beam irradiations) in order to investigate possible irradiation spectrum effects. The ion energies were >0.5 MeV in all cases, so that the displacement damage effects could be examined in regions well separated from the implanted ion region.

  18. Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized hydrogen ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, ions drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, hydrogen ions will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, hydrogen ions will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of hydrogen ions in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of hydrogen ions, conductive hydrogen tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching. PMID:27600368

  19. Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized hydrogen ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-09-01

    In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, ions drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, hydrogen ions will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, hydrogen ions will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of hydrogen ions in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of hydrogen ions, conductive hydrogen tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching.

  20. Improvement of the corrosion and tribological properties of CSS-42L aerospace bearing steel using carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhou, Chungen; Zheng, Lijing, E-mail: zhenglijing@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Hu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The corrosion and tribological properties of an aerospace bearing steel CSS-42L was investigated. • Carbon ion implantation was conducted and an amorphous layer formed at the near surface of CSS-42L steel. • The enhanced Cr diffusion and the decreased free electrons are contributed to the improvement of corrosion properties. • The external hard layer has positive effect on the wear resistance. - Abstract: The aerospace bearings steel CSS-42L was ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluxes of 5 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The composition, microstructure and hardness of the carbon implanted samples were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation tests. The corrosion and tribological properties were also evaluated in the present work. The results shown that carbon implantation produced an amorphous layer and graphitic bounds formed at the near surface of CSS-42L steel. In the electrochemical test, the carbon implanted samples suggested lower current densities and corrosion rates. Carbon ion implanted samples shown a relative Cr-enrichment at the surface as compared with nonimplanted samples. The improved corrosion resistance is believed to be related to the formed amorphous layer, the enhancement of Cr diffusion in the carbon implantation layer which contributed the formation of passive film on the surface, the decrease of free electrons which caused by the increase of carbon fraction. The external hard layer had positive effect on the wear resistance, reducing strongly the friction coefficient about 30% and the abrasive-adhesive mechanism present in the unimplanted samples was not modified by the implantation process.

  1. Synthesis of Ag ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} thin films for antibacterial application and photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xinggang, E-mail: hou226@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Ma, Huiyan; Liu, Feng; Deng, Jianhua; Ai, Yukai; Zhao, Xinlei; Mao, Dong; Li, Dejun [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liao, Bin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Implanted TiO{sub 2} films with excellent antibacterial and photocatalytic ability was prepared. • Bactericidal effect of released Ag ions was confirmed using VC as radical scavenger. • Excitation of TiO{sub 2} to visible region is attributed to subtitutional Ag. • Synergetic effect of Ag{sup 3+} and Ag{sup +} accounts for the enhanced ability of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited by spin coating method. Silver ions were implanted into the films using a Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc implanter. The antibacterial ability of implanted films was tested using Escherichia coli removal under fluorescent irradiation and in the dark. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The photocatalytic efficiency of the implanted films was studied by degradation of methyl orange under fluorescent illumination. The surface free energy of the implanted TiO{sub 2} films was calculated by contact angle testing. Vitamin C was used as radical scavengers to explore the antibacterial mechanism of the films. The results supported the model that both generation of reactive oxygen species and release of silver ions played critical roles in the toxic effect of implanted films against E. coli. XPS experimental results demonstrated that a portion of the Ag(Ag{sup 3+}) ions were doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO{sub 2}. As demonstrated by density functional theory calculations, the impurity energy level of subtitutional Ag was responsible for enhanced absorption of visible light. Ag ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} films with excellent antibacterial efficiency against bacteria and decomposed ability against organic pollutants could be potent bactericidal surface in moist environment.

  2. Pulsed laser annealing of high-dose Ag+-ion implanted Si layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalov, R. I.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Vorobev, V. V.; Osin, Yu N.; Ivlev, G. D.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a crystalline composite Ag:Si material with Ag nanoparticles by low-energy (E  =  30 keV) high-dose (D  =  1.5  ×  1017 ion cm‑2) Ag+ implantation into a monocrystalline c-Si substrate followed by nanosecond pulsed laser annealing (PLA) is demonstrated. Compared to traditional thermal annealing, PLA allows us to perform local heating of the sample both for its depth and area, and eliminate implantation-induced defects more efficiently, due to rapid liquid-phase recrystallization. Moreover, dopant diffusion during a nanosecond laser pulse is mainly limited by the molten region, where the dopant diffusion coefficient is several orders of magnitude higher than in the solid state. During PLA by a ruby laser (λ  =  0.694 µm), the optical probing of the irradiated zone at λ  =  1.064 µm with registration of time-dependent reflectivity R(t) was carried out. By scanning electron microscopy, it was established that Ag+ implantation leads to the creation of a thin amorphous Ag:Si layer of porous structure, containing Ag nanoparticles with sizes of 10–30 nm. PLA with energy density W  =  1.2–1.8 J cm‑2 results in the melting of the implanted layer (d ~ 60 nm) and the topmost layers of the c-Si substrate (d  x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy did not show a noticeable change of Ag atomic concentration in the implanted layer after PLA. Spectral dependence R(λ) of Ag:Si layers showed the partial recovery of c-Si bands with maxima at 275 and 365 nm with simultaneous weakening of plasmon band for Ag nanoparticles in Si at 835 nm.

  3. TEM characterization of simultaneous triple ion implanted ODS Fe12Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vanessa de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Briceno, Martha [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Blount’s Court Rd, Sonning Common RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Lozano-Perez, Sergio [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Trocellier, Patrick [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roberts, Steve G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pareja, Ramiro [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Understanding the behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic/martensitic steels under irradiation is vital in the design of advanced fusion reactors. In this work, a simultaneous triple ion implanted ODS Fe12Cr steel was investigated by transmission electron microscopy in order to determine the effect of irradiation on the grain and dislocation structures, oxide nanoparticles and other secondary phases present in the steel. The ODS steel was irradiated at RT with Fe{sup 8+}, He{sup +} and H{sup +} at the JANNUS-Saclay facility to a damage of 4.4 dpa. Results show that ODS nanoparticles appear very stable under these irradiation conditions.

  4. Effect of charge imbalance parameter on LEKW in ion-implanted quantum semiconductor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sandhya; Yadav, Nishchhal; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we present an analytical investigation on the propagation characteristics of electro-kinetic wave modified through quantum correction term and charge imbalance parameter using quantum hydrodynamic model for an ion-implanted semiconductor plasma. The dispersion relation has been analyzed in two distinct velocity regimes. We found that as the number of negative charges resides on the colloids increases, their role become increasing effective. The present investigation is important for understanding of wave and instability phenomena and can be put to various interesting applications.

  5. Enhancing Hydrogen Diffusion in Silica Matrix by Using Metal Ion Implantation to Improve the Emission Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bornacelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient silicon-based light emitters continue to be a challenge. A great effort has been made in photonics to modify silicon in order to enhance its light emission properties. In this aspect silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs have become the main building block of silicon photonic (modulators, waveguide, source, and detectors. In this work, we present an approach based on implantation of Ag (or Au ions and a proper thermal annealing in order to improve the photoluminescence (PL emission of Si-NCs embedded in SiO2. The Si-NCs are obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy and nucleated at high depth into the silica matrix (1-2 μm under surface. Once Si-NCs are formed inside the SiO2 we implant metal ions at energies that do not damage the Si-NCs. We have observed by, PL and time-resolved PL, that ion metal implantation and a subsequent thermal annealing in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere could significantly increase the emission properties of Si-NCs. Elastic Recoil Detection measurements show that the samples with an enhanced luminescence emission present a higher hydrogen concentration. This suggests that ion metal implantation enhances the hydrogen diffusion into silica matrix allowing a better passivation of surface defects on Si NCs.

  6. Fabrication of high-quality strain relaxed SiGe(1 1 0) films by controlling defects via ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M.; Arimoto, K.; Yamanaka, J.; Nakagawa, K.; Sawano, K.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate effects of ion implantation on strain relaxation of SiGe(1 1 0) layers grown on Si(1 1 0) substrates. Ar+ or Si+ ion implantation is carried out before or after the SiGe growth. It is found that the strain relaxation of the SiGe(1 1 0) film is largely enhanced due to implantation-induced defects both for Ar and Si implantation. Particularly, the sample with Si implantation after the SiGe growth allows large strain relaxation and smaller surface roughness than Ar implantation. As a result, a 50-nm-thick Si0.79Ge0.21 or Si0.77Ge0.23(1 1 0) buffer layer with almost full relaxation and rms surface roughness below 0.5 nm was obtained. It is, therefore, expected that high-mobility strained Si/Ge(1 1 0) channels can be realized on the SiGe(1 1 0) relaxed buffer layers fabricated by Si implantation. It is also demonstrated that the local introduction of the implantation defects allows controlling of lateral strain states and dislocation generation, opening new concepts of engineering of both strain and surface orientation.

  7. Modification of low dielectric constant materials for ULSI multilevel interconnection by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alok Nandini Usha

    As integrated circuit (IC) dimensions continue to decrease, RC delay, cross-talk noise, and power dissipation of the interconnect structure become limiting factors for ultra-large-scale integration of integrated circuits. Low dielectric constant materials are being introduced and developed to replace silicon dioxide as inter level dielectrics into current interconnect technologies to meet RC delay goals and minimize cross-talk. These low kappa films generally have dielectric constants less than 3 (vs. 4 for silicon dioxide) and very poor mechanical strength. The elastic modulus (E) of the low kappa film is typically less than 10Gpa, compared with 70Gpa for SiO2. The poor mechanical strength of the low kappa dielectric films increases the risk of thermo-mechanical failures within the Cu/low kappa interconnect structure; e.g. thin film delamination and cracking. Maintaining the mechanical integrity of the low kappa films with the stresses of fab processing, packaging and reliability testing has proven challenging. Therefore, surface hardening is necessary to withstand processing (e.g. CMP). This research work will address the methods to enhance the mechanical strength of low dielectric films. Results of two classes of material (i.e. Xerogel (porous) and methyl silsesquioxane (MSQ (organic)) are discussed. Thin films of Ultra-Low kappa materials such as Xerogel (kappa = 1.76) and porous MSQ (kappa = 2.2) were implanted with argon, neon, nitrogen, carbon and helium with 2 x 1015 cm-2 and 1 x 1016 cm-2 dose at energies varying from 20 to 150 keV at room temperature. In this work we showed that the surface hardness of the porous films can be improved five times as compared to the as-deposited porous films by implanting Ar with 1 x 10 16 cm-2 doses at 50 keV, sacrificing only a slight increase (˜15%) in dielectric constant (e.g., from 1.76 to 2.0). The hardness persists after 450°C annealing. The ion implantation process suppressed the moisture uptake in the porous low

  8. Solvation number and conformation of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N,N-dimethylpropionamide in the coordination sphere of the cobalt(II) ion in solution studied by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Mitsunori; Mitsugi, Takushi; Ogura, Takahiro; Fujii, Kenta; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro; Ishiguro, Shin-ichi

    2007-07-01

    The solvation number and conformation of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) in the coordination sphere of the cobalt(II) ion in solution were studied, and compared with those of N,N-dimethylpropionamide (DMPA) by means of FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Both solvents are present as either the planar cis or nonplanar staggered conformer in equilibrium, and the former is more stable in the bulk. As these solvents solvate the metal ion through the carbonyl O atom of the acryl (DMAA) or propionyl (DMPA) group, the solvation structure around the metal ion is highly congested to reduce the solvation number and/or to lead to a conformational geometry change of solvent. It turns out that the solvation number of the cobalt(II) ion is 4 for both DMAA and DMPA at 298 K, and that DMPA changes its conformation upon solvation, whereas DMAA hardly changes. The enthalpy of conformational change DeltaH degrees for DMPA is 5 kJ mol(-1) in the bulk, and is -9 kJ mol(-1) in the coordination sphere of the cobalt(II) ion. On the other hand, the DeltaH degrees value for DMAA is 9 kJ mol(-1) in the bulk.

  9. Recovery of Cobalt as Cobalt Oxalate from Cobalt Tailings Using Moderately Thermophilic Bioleaching Technology and Selective Sequential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt is a very important metal which is widely applied in various critical areas, however, it is difficult to recover cobalt from minerals since there is a lack of independent cobalt deposits in nature. This work is to provide a complete process to recover cobalt from cobalt tailings using the moderately thermophilic bioleaching technology and selective sequential extraction. It is found that 96.51% Co and 26.32% Cu were extracted after bioleaching for four days at 10% pulp density. The mean compositions of the leach solutions contain 0.98 g·L−1 of Co, 6.52 g·L−1 of Cu, and 24.57 g·L−1 of Fe (III. The copper ion was then recovered by a solvent extraction process and the ferric ions were selectively removed by applying a goethite deironization process. The technological conditions of the above purification procedures were deliberately discussed. Over 98.6% of copper and 99.9% of ferric ions were eliminated from the leaching liquor. Cobalt was finally produced as cobalt oxalate and its overall recovery during the whole process was greater than 95%. The present bioleaching process of cobalt is worth using for reference to deal with low-grade cobalt ores.

  10. Strain profiles in ion implanted ceramic polycrystals: An approach based on reciprocal-space crystal selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palancher, H., E-mail: herve.palancher@cea.fr; Martin, G.; Fouet, J. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Université de Poitiers–ENSMA, SP2MI, F-86360 Chasseneuil (France); Boulle, A. [Science des Procédés Céramiques et Traitements de Surface (SPCTS), CNRS UMR 7315, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Rieutord, F. [CEA, DSM, INAC, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Favre-Nicolin, V. [Université Grenoble-Alpes, F-38041 Grenoble, France, Institut Universitaire de France, F-75005 Paris (France); Blanc, N. [Institut NEEL, CNRS-Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Onofri, C. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); CEMES, CNRS UPR 8011, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2016-01-18

    The determination of the state of strain in implanted materials is a key issue in the study of their mechanical stability. Whereas this question is nowadays relatively easily solved in the case of single crystals, it remains a challenging task in the case of polycrystalline materials. In this paper, we take benefit of the intense and parallel beams provided by third generation synchrotron sources combined with a two-dimensional detection system to analyze individual grains in polycrystals, hence obtaining “single crystal-like” data. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated with implanted UO{sub 2} polycrystals where the in-depth strain profile is extracted for individual grains using numerical simulations of the diffracted signal. The influence of the implantation dose is precisely analyzed for several diffracting planes and grains. This work suggests that, at low fluences, the development of strain is mainly due to ballistic effects with little effect from He ions, independently from the crystallographic orientation. At higher fluences, the evolution of the strain profiles suggests a partial and anisotropic plastic relaxation. With the present approach, robust and reliable structural information can be obtained, even from complex polycrystalline ceramic materials.

  11. Implanted ^3He Targets for Inverse Reaction Studies with Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Graves, S. A.; Sissom, D. J.; Stracener, D. W.; Bardayan, D. W.; Jost, C.; O'Malley, P. D.

    2010-11-01

    Proton transfer reactions, such as (^3He,d), are extremely important for measuring the properties of single particle states and resonances. Many such resonances are important in the rp process of explosive nucleosynthesis, but cannot be measured via resonance scattering directly. For the (^3He,d) reaction, it is necessary to use localized ^3He targets, and gas jet targets are expensive and difficult to construct. An alternative approach is to implant ^3He into thin aluminum foils. We are continuing our projectootnotetextD.J. Sissom et al. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2008.DNP.DA.92^,ootnotetextJ.L. Wheeler et al. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2009.HAW.GB.133 of implanting ^3He into 0.65 μm thick aluminum foils at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL. Target profiles are analyzed using Rutherford backscattering to determine the concentration and distribution of the implanted ^3He. An update of these results and a detailed description of the procedures will be presented. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Low-energy plasma immersion ion implantation to induce DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangwijit, K. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Bang Khen, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Pitakrattananukool, S. [School of Science, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Biotechnology Unit, University of Phayao, Muang, Phayao 56000 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) at low energy was for the first time applied as a novel biotechnology to induce DNA transfer into bacterial cells. Argon or nitrogen PIII at low bias voltages of 2.5, 5 and 10 kV and fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} treated cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, DNA transfer was operated by mixing the PIII-treated cells with DNA. Successes in PIII-induced DNA transfer were demonstrated by marker gene expressions. The induction of DNA transfer was ion-energy, fluence and DNA-size dependent. The DNA transferred in the cells was confirmed functioning. Mechanisms of the PIII-induced DNA transfer were investigated and discussed in terms of the E. coli cell envelope anatomy. Compared with conventional ion-beam-induced DNA transfer, PIII-induced DNA transfer was simpler with lower cost but higher efficiency.

  13. Double Ion Implantation and Pulsed Laser Melting Processes for Third Generation Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric García-Hemme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the third generation of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cell is one of the possible candidates to reach higher efficiencies with a lower processing cost. In this work, we introduce a novel processing method based on a double ion implantation and, subsequently, a pulsed laser melting (PLM process to obtain thicker layers of Ti supersaturated Si. We perform ab initio theoretical calculations of Si impurified with Ti showing that Ti in Si is a good candidate to theoretically form an intermediate band material in the Ti supersaturated Si. From time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, we confirm that we have obtained a Ti implanted and PLM thicker layer of 135 nm. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a single crystalline structure whilst the electrical characterization confirms the transport properties of an intermediate band material/Si substrate junction. High subbandgap absorption has been measured, obtaining an approximate value of 104 cm−1 in the photons energy range from 1.1 to 0.6 eV.

  14. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2015-07-06

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  15. Remaining useful life assessment of lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Ye, Hui; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prognostic study on lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices, in which a hybrid data-driven/model-based method is employed for remaining useful life assessment. The method is developed on and evaluated against data from two sets of lithium-ion prismatic cells used in implantable applications exhibiting distinct fade performance: 1) eight cells from Medtronic, PLC whose rates of capacity fade appear to be stable and gradually decrease over a 10-year test duration; and 2) eight cells from Manufacturer X whose rates appear to be greater and show sharp increase after some period over a 1.8-year test duration. The hybrid method enables online prediction of remaining useful life for predictive maintenance/control. It consists of two modules: 1) a sparse Bayesian learning module (data-driven) for inferring capacity from charge-related features; and 2) a recursive Bayesian filtering module (model-based) for updating empirical capacity fade models and predicting remaining useful life. A generic particle filter is adopted to implement recursive Bayesian filtering for the cells from the first set, whose capacity fade behavior can be represented by a single fade model; a multiple model particle filter with fixed-lag smoothing is proposed for the cells from the second data set, whose capacity fade behavior switches between multiple fade models.

  16. Formation of nanodomain structures during polarization reversal in congruent lithium niobate implanted with Ar ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya; Alikin, Denis O; Ievlev, Anton V; Dolbilov, Mikhail A; Sarmanova, Marina F; Gavrilov, Nikolay V

    2012-09-01

    We present the experimental study of the formation of self-similar nanodomain structures during polarization reversal in single-crystalline congruent lithium niobate (CLN) implanted by Ar ions. The formed dense surface nanodomain structure with charged domain walls differs drastically from the growth of the hexagonal domains in unimplanted CLN. The lack of wall shape stability during sideways domain wall motion was revealed. The analysis of the domain structure images in the bulk, obtained by Raman confocal microscopy, revealed the main stages of the domain structure evolution starting at unimplanted polar surface and consisting of nanodomain chain elongation, merging of isolated domains, and domain widening. The switching current data has been fitted by modification of Kolmogorov-Avrami formula for switching in a linearly increasing field. The observed experimental facts have been attributed to formation of an amorphous thin surface layer and increase of the bulk conductivity resulting from oxygen out-diffusion under radiation heating in vacuum during ion implantation. The formation of the experimentally obtained abnormal domain shapes has been explained while taking into account the step generation at the domain wall in the bulk during switching in a low electric field.

  17. Ultrafast optical phase modulation with metallic nanoparticles in ion-implanted bilayer silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Torres, C [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Z, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, DF, 07738 (Mexico); Tamayo-Rivera, L; Silva-Pereyra, H G; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Crespo-Sosa, A; Cheang-Wong, J C; Oliver, A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rangel-Rojo, R [Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada Apartado Postal 360, Ensenada, BC, 22860 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, R, E-mail: crstorres@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada Unidad Queretaro, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro, 76090 (Mexico)

    2011-09-02

    The nonlinear optical response of metallic-nanoparticle-containing composites was studied with picosecond and femtosecond pulses. Two different types of nanocomposites were prepared by an ion-implantation process, one containing Au nanoparticles (NPs) and the other Ag NPs. In order to measure the optical nonlinearities, we used a picosecond self-diffraction experiment and the femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr gate technique. In both cases, electronic polarization and saturated absorption were identified as the physical mechanisms responsible for the picosecond third-order nonlinear response for a near-resonant 532 nm excitation. In contrast, a purely electronic nonlinearity was detected at 830 nm with non-resonant 80 fs pulses. Regarding the nonlinear optical refractive behavior, the Au nanocomposite presented a self-defocusing effect, while the Ag one presented the opposite, that is, a self-focusing response. But, when evaluating the simultaneous contributions when the samples are tested as a multilayer sample (silica-Au NPs-silica-Ag NPs-silica), we were able to obtain optical phase modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, as a result of a significant optical Kerr effect present in these nanocomposites. This allowed us to implement an ultrafast all-optical phase modulator device by using a combination of two different metallic ion-implanted silica samples. This control of the optical phase is a consequence of the separate excitation of the nonlinear refracting phenomena exhibited by the separate Au and Ag nanocomposites.

  18. 1020 steel coated with Ti/TiN by Cathodic Arc and Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, F.; Quintana, J. P.; Kleiman, A.; Sequeda, F.; Márquez, A.

    2017-01-01

    TiN coatings have been widely studied in order to improve mechanical properties of steels. In this work, thin Ti/TiN films were prepared by plasma based immersion ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) with a cathodic arc on AISI 1020 steel substrates. Substrates were exposed to the discharge during 1 min in vacuum for the deposition of a Tiunderlayer with the aim of improving the adhesion to the substrate. Then, a TiN layer was deposited during 6 min in a nitrogen environment at a pressure of 3xl0-4 mbar. Samples were obtained at room temperature and at 300 °C, and with or without ion implantation in order to analyze differences between the effects of each treatment on the tribological properties. The mechanical and tribological properties of the films were characterized. The coatings deposited by PBII&D at 300 °C presented the highest hardness and young modulus, the best wear resistance and corrosion performance.

  19. Beta-sensitive intraoperative probes utilizing dual, stacked ion-implanted-silicon detectors: proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raylman, R. R.; Wahl, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    Successful development of a beta-sensitive intraoperative probe requires that the device be capable of selectively rejecting or reducing signals from background sources of photons. To address this problem we have designed and tested a unique stacked, dual solid-state detector probe. The first ion-implanted-semiconductor wafer detects a combination of beta particles and background photons, and the second wafer detects just the photon flux, due to the beta shielding effects of the first wafer. Using the data acquired from a positron-emitting source (/sup 18/F), four methods of photon correction were tested. The scheme which incorporated a weighted subtraction of the data from the photon monitoring detector from the front detector was found to optimize performance. Sensitivity to beta particles was 4121.0/spl plusmn/52.3 cps//spl mu/Ci, and the selectivity index was 0.99. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that these values are close to the theoretically optimal values possible, given the probe and source geometries. Additionally, a simulated tumor search utilizing an anthropomorphic torso phantom demonstrated the excellent potential of this device to intraoperatively localize sources of radiotracer-avid disease, such as malignant tumors. In summary, a dual, stacked ion-implanted-silicon detector beta-sensitive probe system has been developed and successfully tested.

  20. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3 nm quantum well width, 1 nm barriers, a 5 nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406 nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (˜16 kA/cm2), a peak output power of ˜12 μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  1. A novel electrode surface fabricated by directly attaching gold nanoparticles onto NH2+ ions implanted-indium tin oxide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenyao; Jiao, Jiao; Chen, Qunxia; Xia, Ji; Li, Shuoqi; Hu, Jingbo; Li, Qilong

    2010-12-01

    A new type of gold nanoparticle attached to a NH2+ ion implanted-indium tin oxide surface was fabricated without using peculiar binder molecules, such as 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. A NH 2/indium tin oxide film was obtained by implantation at an energy of 80 keV with a fluence of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The gold nanoparticle-modified film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques and compared with a modified bare indium tin oxide surface and 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane linked surface, which exhibited a relatively low electron transfer resistance and high electrocatalytic activity. The results demonstrate that NH2+ ion implanted-indium tin oxide films can provide an important route to immobilize nanoparticles, which is attractive in developing new biomaterials.

  2. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zheng, Tongzhang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); Wise, John Pierce, E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  3. Si-nanocrystal-based LEDs fabricated by ion implantation and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perálvarez, M.; Barreto, J.; Carreras, Josep; Morales, A.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Lebour, Y.; Domínguez, C.; Garrido, B.

    2009-10-01

    An in-depth study of the physical and electrical properties of Si-nanocrystal-based MOSLEDs is presented. The active layers were fabricated with different concentrations of Si by both ion implantation and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Devices fabricated by ion implantation exhibit a combination of direct current and field-effect luminescence under a bipolar pulsed excitation. The onset of the emission decreases with the Si excess from 6 to 3 V. The direct current emission is attributed to impact ionization and is associated with the reasonably high current levels observed in current-voltage measurements. This behaviour is in good agreement with transmission electron microscopy images that revealed a continuous and uniform Si nanocrystal distribution. The emission power efficiency is relatively low, ~10-3%, and the emission intensity exhibits fast degradation rates, as revealed from accelerated ageing experiments. Devices fabricated by chemical deposition only exhibit field-effect luminescence, whose onset decreases with the Si excess from 20 to 6 V. The absence of the continuous emission is explained by the observation of a 5 nm region free of nanocrystals, which strongly reduces the direct current through the gate. The main benefit of having this nanocrystal-free region is that tunnelling current flow assisted by nanocrystals is blocked by the SiO2 stack so that power consumption is strongly reduced, which in return increases the device power efficiency up to 0.1%. In addition, the accelerated ageing studies reveal a 50% degradation rate reduction as compared to implanted structures.

  4. Si-nanocrystal-based LEDs fabricated by ion implantation and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralvarez, M; Carreras, Josep; Navarro-Urrios, D; Lebour, Y; Garrido, B [MIND, IN2UB, Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1, PL2, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Barreto, J; DomInguez, C [IMB-CNM, CSIC, Bellaterra, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Morales, A, E-mail: mperalvarez@el.ub.e [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)

    2009-10-07

    An in-depth study of the physical and electrical properties of Si-nanocrystal-based MOSLEDs is presented. The active layers were fabricated with different concentrations of Si by both ion implantation and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Devices fabricated by ion implantation exhibit a combination of direct current and field-effect luminescence under a bipolar pulsed excitation. The onset of the emission decreases with the Si excess from 6 to 3 V. The direct current emission is attributed to impact ionization and is associated with the reasonably high current levels observed in current-voltage measurements. This behaviour is in good agreement with transmission electron microscopy images that revealed a continuous and uniform Si nanocrystal distribution. The emission power efficiency is relatively low, {approx}10{sup -3}%, and the emission intensity exhibits fast degradation rates, as revealed from accelerated ageing experiments. Devices fabricated by chemical deposition only exhibit field-effect luminescence, whose onset decreases with the Si excess from 20 to 6 V. The absence of the continuous emission is explained by the observation of a 5 nm region free of nanocrystals, which strongly reduces the direct current through the gate. The main benefit of having this nanocrystal-free region is that tunnelling current flow assisted by nanocrystals is blocked by the SiO{sub 2} stack so that power consumption is strongly reduced, which in return increases the device power efficiency up to 0.1%. In addition, the accelerated ageing studies reveal a 50% degradation rate reduction as compared to implanted structures.

  5. Investigation of selected optically-active nanosystems fashioned using ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lee

    Opto-electronic semiconductor technology continues to grow at an accelerated pace, as the industry seeks to perfect devices such as light emitting diodes for purposes of optical processing and communication. A strive for greater efficiency with shrinking device dimensions, continually pushes the technology from both a design and materials aspect. Nanosystems such a quantum dots, also face new material engineering challenges as they enter the realm of quantum mechanics, with each system and material having markedly different electronic properties. Traditionally, the semiconductor industry has focused on materials such Group II-VI and III-V compounds as the basis material for future opto-electronic needs. Unfortunately, these material systems can be expensive and have difficulties integrating into current Si-based technology. The industry is reluctant to leave silicon due in part to silicon's high quality oxide, and the enormous amount of research invested into silicon based circuit fabrication. Although recently materials such as GaN are starting to dominate the electro-optical industry since a Si-based substitute has not been found. The purpose of the dissertation was to examine several promising systems that could be easily integrated into current Si-based technology and also be produced using simple inexpensive fabrication techniques such ion implantation. The development of optically active nano-sized precipitates in silica to form the active layer of an opto-electronic device was achieved with ion implantation and thermal annealing. Three material systems were investigated. These systems consisted of carbon, silicon and metal silicide based nanocrystals. The physical morphology and electronic properties were monitored using a variety of material characterization techniques. Rutherford backscattering/channeling were used to monitor elemental concentrations, photoluminescence was used to monitor the opto-electronic properties and transmission electron microscopy

  6. Do cobalt and chromium levels predict osteolysis in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lisa; Schmidt-Braekling, Tom; Faschingbauer, Martin; Boettner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Serum metal ions are part of the regular follow-up routine of patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (MoM-THA). Increased cobalt levels have been suggested to indicate implant failure and corrosion. (1) Is there a correlation between the size of the osteolysis measured on a CT scan and metal ion levels? (2) Can metal ion levels predict the presence of osteolysis in MoM-THA? (3) Are cobalt and chromium serum levels or the cobalt-chromium-ratio diagnostic for osteolysis? CT scans of patients (n = 75) with a unilateral MoM-THA (Birmingham Hip System, Smith & Nephew, TN, USA) implanted by a single surgeon were reviewed to determine the presence of osteolysis. Statistical analysis was performed to detect its association with metal ion levels at the time of the imaging exam. The incidence of osteolysis was the same in men and women (35.6 vs 35.7 %). The cobalt-chromium-ratio correlates with the size of the osteolysis on the CT scan and the femoral component size in the overall study population (p = 0.050, p = 0.001) and in men (p = 0.002, p = 0.001) but not in women (p = 0.312, p = 0.344). The AUC for the cobalt-chromium-ratio to detect osteolysis was 0.613 (p = 0.112) for the overall population, 0.710 for men (p = 0.021) and 0.453 (p = 0.684) for women. The data suggest that a cut off level of 1.71 for the cobalt-chromium-ratio has a sensitivity of 62.5 % and specificity of 72.4 % to identify male patients with osteolysis. The disproportional increase of cobalt over chromium, especially in male patients with large component sizes can not be explained by wear alone and suggests that other processes (corrosion) might contribute to metal ion levels and might be more pronounced in patients with larger component sizes.

  7. Effects of cesium ion-implantation on mechanical and electrical properties of organosilicate low-k films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Pei, D.; Guo, X.; Cheng, M. K.; Lee, S.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Lin, Q. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); King, S. W. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    The effects of cesium (Cs) ion-implantation on uncured plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited organosilicate low dielectric constant (low-k) (SiCOH) films have been investigated and compared with an ultraviolet (UV) cured film. The mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus and hardness, of the SiCOH low-k films are improved by up to 30% with Cs implantation, and further up to 52% after annealing at 400 °C in a N{sub 2} ambient for 1 h. These improvements are either comparable to or better than the effects of UV-curing. They are attributed to an enhancement of the Si-O-Si network structure. The k-value of the SiCOH films increased slightly after Cs implantation, and increased further after annealing. These increases are attributed to two carbon-loss mechanisms, i.e., the carbon loss due to Si-CH{sub 3} bond breakage from implanted Cs ions, and the carbon loss due to oxidation during the annealing. The time-zero dielectric breakdown strength was improved after the Cs implantation and the annealing, and was better than the UV-cured sample. These results indicate that Cs ion implantation could be a supplement to or a substitution for the currently used UV curing method for processing SiCOH low-k films.

  8. Au{sup 3+} ion implantation on FTO coated glasses: Effect on structural, electrical, optical and phonon properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Bindu; Dey, Ranajit; Bajpai, P.K., E-mail: bajpai.pk1@gmail.com

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Effects of 11.00 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses at varying fluence. • Metal clustering near the surface and subsurface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. • Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the tetragonal distortion increases with increasing ion fluence. • Significant surface reconstruction takes place with ion beam fluence; The average roughness also decreases with increasing fluence. • The sheet resistivity increases with increasing fluence. • Raman analysis also corroborates the re-crystallization process inducing due to ion implantation. • Optical properties of the implanted surfaces changes significantly. - Abstract: Effects of 11.00 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions implanted in FTO coated (thickness ≈300 nm) silicate glasses on structural, electrical optical and phonon behavior have been explored. It has been observed that metal clustering near the surface and sub-surface region below glass-FTO interface changes electrical and optical properties significantly. Ion implantation does not affect the crystalline structure of the coated films; however, the unit cell volume decreases with increase in fluence and the tetragonal distortion (c/a ratio) also decreases systematically in the implanted samples. The sheet resistivity of the films increases from 11 × 10{sup −5} ohm-cm (in pristine) to 7.5 × 10{sup −4} ohm-cm for highest ion beam fluence ≈10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The optical absorption decreases with increasing fluence whereas, the optical transmittance as well as reflectance increases with increasing fluence. The Raman spectra are observed at ∼530 cm{sup −1} and ∼1103 cm{sup −1} in pristine sample. The broad band at 530 cm{sup −1} shifts towards higher wave number in the irradiated samples. This may be correlated with increased disorder and strain relaxation in

  9. Cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ions with covalently bonded CMPO groups as selective extraction agents for lanthanide and actinide cations from highly acidic nuclear waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, B.; Plesek, J.; Baca, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Prague (Czech Republic); Cisarova, I. [Charles University, Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED/LCD, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vinas, C. [Institute of Material Sciences, CSIC, Bellaterra (Spain); Selucky, P.; Rais, J. [Nuclear Research Institute plc., Rez near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-10-01

    A new series of boron substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide)(1-) ion (1) derivatives of the general formula [(8-CMPO-(CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}O){sub 2}-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 10})(1',2'-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11})-3,3'-Co]{sup -} (CMPO = Ph{sub 2}P(O)-CH{sub 2}C(O)NR, R = C{sub 4}H{sub 9} (3b), -C{sub 12}H{sub 25} (4b), -CH{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} (5b)) was prepared by ring cleavage of the 8-dioxane-cobalt bis(dicarbollide) (2) bi-polar compound by the respective primary amines and by subsequent reaction of the resulting amino derivatives (3a-5a) with the nitrophenyl ester of diphenyl-phosphoryl-acetic acid. The compounds were synthesized with the aim to develop a new class of more efficient extraction agents for liquid/liquid extraction of polyvalent cations, i.e. lanthanides and actinides, from high-level activity nuclear waste. All compounds were characterized by a combination of {sup 11}B NMR, {sup 1}H high field NMR, Mass Spectrometry with Electro-spray and MALDI TOF ionisation, HPLC and other techniques. The molecular structure of the supramolecular Ln{sup 3+} complex of the anion 5b was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic results proved that the Ln(m) atom is bonded to three functionalized cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions in a charge compensated complex. The cation is tightly coordinated by six oxygen atoms of the CMPO terminal groups (two of each ligand) and by three water molecules completing the metal coordination number to 9. Atoms occupying the primary coordination sphere form a tri-capped trigonal prismatic arrangement. Very high liquid-liquid extraction efficiency of all anionic species was observed. Moreover, less polar toluene can be applied as an auxiliary solvent replacing the less environmentally friendly nitro- and chlorinated solvents used in the current dicarbollide liquid-liquid extraction process. The extraction coefficients are sufficiently high for possible technological applications. (authors)

  10. Temperature and dose dependence of defect complex formation with ion implanted Mn/Fe in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, T E; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Bharuth-Ram, K; Fanciulli, M; Gíslason, H P; Johnston, K; Kobayashi, Y; Langouche, G; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Ólafsson, S; Sielemann, R; Weyer, G

    2009-01-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy following ion implantation of radioactive 57Mn+ ( T1/2=85.4 s) has been applied to study the formation of Fe/Mn implantation-induced defects in ZnO at temperatures between 319 and 390 K. The formation of ferric iron–vacancy complexes is found to depend strongly on the implanted dose and to be faster and more efficient at higher temperatures. The results at these temperatures suggest the mobility of the Zn vacancy, together with vacancy trapping at the substitutional Mn/Fe impurities are responsible for the formation of Fe–VZn complexes

  11. Modification of diamond-like carbon films by nitrogen incorporation via plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flege, S., E-mail: flege@ca.tu-darmstadt.de [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hatada, R.; Hoefling, M.; Hanauer, A.; Abel, A. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Baba, K. [Industrial Technology Center of Nagasaki, Applied Technology Division, Omura, Nagasaki 856-0026 (Japan); Ensinger, W. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen containing diamond-like carbon films were prepared by a plasma ignited by a high voltage. • Variation of preparation method (N{sub 2} implantation, N{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} co-deposition). • Maximum nitrogen content similar for co-deposition and implantation. • Electrical resistivity decreases for small nitrogen contents, increases again for higher contents. - Abstract: The addition of nitrogen to diamond-like carbon films affects properties such as the inner stress of the film, the conductivity, biocompatibility and wettability. The nitrogen content is limited, though, and the maximum concentration depends on the preparation method. Here, plasma immersion ion implantation was used for the deposition of the films, without the use of a separate plasma source, i.e. the plasma was generated by a high voltage applied to the samples. The plasma gas consisted of a mixture of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and N{sub 2}, the substrates were silicon and glass. By changing the experimental parameters (high voltage, pulse length and repetition rate and gas flow ratio) layers with different N content were prepared. Additionally, some samples were prepared using a DC voltage. The nitrogen content and bonding was investigated with SIMS, AES, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Their influence on the electrical resistivity of the films was investigated. Depending on the preparation conditions different nitrogen contents were realized with maximum contents around 11 at.%. Those values were compared with the nitrogen concentration that can be achieved by implantation of nitrogen into a DLC film.

  12. Innovative leaching of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries and simultaneous dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride in subcritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A co-treatment process for recovery of Co and Li and simultaneous detoxification of PVC in subcritical water was proposed. • PVC was used as a hydrochloric acid source. • More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were leached under the optimum conditions. • Neither corrosive acid nor reducing agent was used. • The co-treatment process has technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional recovery processes. - Abstract: In this work, an effective and environmentally friendly process for the recovery of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and simultaneously detoxification of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in subcritical water was developed. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) power from spent LIBs and PVC were co-treated by subcritical water oxidation, in which PVC served as a hydrochloric acid source to promote metal leaching. The dechlorination of PVC and metal leaching was achieved simultaneously under subcritical water oxidation. More than 95% Co and nearly 98% Li were recovered under the optimum conditions: temperature 350 °C, PVC/LiCoO{sub 2} ratio 3:1, time 30 min, and a solid/liquid ratio 16:1 (g/L), respectively. Moreover, PVC was completely dechlorinated at temperatures above 350 °C without any release of toxic chlorinated organic compounds. Assessment on economical and environmental impacts revealed that the PVC and LiCoO{sub 2} subcritical co-treatment process had significant technical, economic and environmental benefits over the traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy processes. This innovative co-treatment process is efficient, environmentally friendly and adequate for Co and Li recovery from spent LIBs and simultaneous dechlorination of PVC in subcritical water.

  13. High-frequency differential piezoelectric photoacoustic investigation of ion-implanted (100) silicon wafers via laser beam position modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccon, J F; Mandelis, A

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory application of position-modulation photoacoustic imaging of ion-implanted (100)-oriented Si wafers was undertaken to assess its potential as a diagnostic probe in semiconductor processing. Wafer scans were performed using acoustooptic modulation of a 1.06-mum Nd(3+):YAG laser beam up to 0.2 MHz with piezoelectric photoacoustic detection. Sensitivity ranges to ion-implanted parameters (ionic species and fluences) were studied and the capability of the technique to monitor processing-induced damage was established. Results indicate that position-modulated photoacoustic detection offers higher sensitivity than single-beam photothermal imaging and has distinct advantages over other analytical techniques.

  14. High-energy ion-implantation-induced gettering of copper in silicon beyond the projected ion range: The trans-projected-range effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Mücklich, A.; Panknin, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.

    2000-11-01

    Five different species, namely B, Si, P, Ge, and As, were implanted at MeV energies into (100)-oriented n-type Czohralski Si, in order to form deep gettering layers during the subsequent annealing. Then the samples were contaminated with Cu by implanting the impurity on the backface and performing additional annealing. The resulting Cu depth distributions were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Strong gettering of Cu atoms beyond the projected ion range RP and formation of a well-defined separate Cu gettering band therein is found for P and As implants. We call this phenomenon the "trans-RP effect." It arises from the presence of a significant amount of defects in the regions much deeper than RP. Their gettering ability is higher than that of the extended defects around RP, as the amount of Cu atoms gettered beyond RP is, especially for the P implants, much greater than that in the implanted gettering layer at RP. These deep defects have not been detected by transmission electron microscopy, and we suggest that they are small interstitial clusters. A mechanism responsible for the migration of self-interstitials from RP into the trans-RP region and their clustering therein is proposed. An explanation is given of the possible reasons for the differences in the results for the P+ and As+ implants.

  15. Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO₄ formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Liu, Tao; Guo, Sha-Sha; Guan, Jing; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2010-08-30

    We report on the optical properties of ZnWO(4) planar waveguides created by ion implantation, and the effect annealing has on these structures. Planar optical waveguides in ZnWO(4) crystals are fabricated by 5.0 MeV carbon ion implantation with a fluence of 1 × 10(15) ions/cm(2) or 500 keV helium ion implantation with the a fluence of 1 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). The thermal stability was investigated by 60 minute annealing cycles at different temperatures ranging from 260°C to 550°C in air. The guided modes were measured by a model 2010 prism coupler at wavelengths of 633 nm and 1539 nm. The reflectivity calculation method (RCM) was applied to simulate the refractive index profile in these waveguides. The near-field light intensity profiles were measured using the end-face coupling method. The absorption spectra show that the implantation processes have almost no influence on the visible band absorption.

  16. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy causes metal accumulation and metallothionein up-regulation in rat liver and kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2007-01-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) metal-on-metal hip prosthesis has had a revival due to their excellent wear properties. However, particulate wear debris and metal ions liberated from the CoCrMo alloys might cause carcinogenicity, hypersensitivity, local and general tissue toxicity, genotoxicity...... in liver and kidney. We found that metal ions are liberated from CoCrMo alloys and suggest that they are released by dissolucytosis, a process where macrophages causes the metallic surface to release metal ions. Animals with intramuscular implants accumulated metal in liver and kidney and metallohionein I...

  17. Osteopontin (OPN is an important protein to mediate improvements in the biocompatibility of C ion-implanted silicone rubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-liang Wang

    Full Text Available Medical device implants are drawing increasing amounts of interest from modern medical practitioners. However, this attention is not evenly spread across all such devices; most of these implantable devices can cause adverse reactions such as inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis, and infection. In this work, the biocompatibility of silicone rubber (SR was improved through carbon (C ion implantation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD results confirmed that these newly generated carbon-implanted silicone rubbers (C-SRs had large, irregular peaks and deep valleys on their surfaces. The water contact angle of the SR surface decreased significantly after C ion implantation. C ion implantation also changed the surface charge distribution, silicone oxygen rate, and chemical-element distribution of SR to favor cell attachment. The dermal fibroblasts cultured on the surface C-SR grew faster and showed more typical fibroblastic shapes. The expression levels of major adhesion proteins, including talin-1, zyxin, and vinculin, were significantly higher in dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR coated plates than in dermal fibroblasts cultured on SR. Those same dermal fibroblasts on C-SRs showed more pronounced adhesion and migration abilities. Osteopontin (OPN, a critical extracellular matrix (ECM protein, was up-regulated and secreted from dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity was also increased. These cells were highly mobile and were able to adhere to surfaces, but these abilities were inhibited by the monoclonal antibody against OPN, or by shRNA-mediated MMP-9 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that C ion implantation significantly improves SR biocompatibility, and that OPN is important to promote cell adhesion to the C-SR surface.

  18. Improvement of Current Gain in Triple Ion Implanted 4H-SiC Bipolar Junction Transistor with Etched Extrinsic Base Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Taku; Nakamura, Tadashi; Satoh, Masataka; Nakamura, Tohru

    We demonstrate triple ion implanted 4H-SiC bipolar junction transistor (BJT). By etching the extrinsic base regions using inductively coupled plasma dry etching, the characteristics of triple ion implanted 4H-SiC BJT were significantly improved. Maximum common emitter current gain was improved from 1.7 to 7.5.

  19. Determining the Cross-Talk between Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages on a Cobalt-Chromium Stent Material Surface using an In Vitro Post-Implantation Co-Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jordan A; Lamichhane, Sujan; Vierhout, Thomas; Engebretson, Daniel

    2017-10-19

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages are important cellular components involved in the development of complications following the implantation of cardiovascular devices. This leads to various disorders such as restenosis, chronic inflammation, and may ultimately result in device failure. In this study, we developed a post-implant stent co-culture model using different ratios of SMCs and macrophages seeded on to cobalt-chromium alloy. The macrophages had an increased affinity to the co-culture surfaces, which resulted in decreased SMC attachment to the alloy surfaces at the initial time point. Once adhered, the macrophages spread freely and displayed advanced stages of inflammation at 48 h when co-cultured with SMCs. This resulted in an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8) by 48 h in the co-culture samples with the greatest increase observed with the high number of macrophages. Therefore, the increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines promoted the growth of SMCs in co-culture to a greater extent than when the SMCs were culture alone. Thus, this study demonstrated the constant cross-talk between SMCs and macrophages occurring on the post-implant stent surface. Similar co-culture models can be used to test the biocompatibility of drugs and biomaterials at possible post-implantation scenarios. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Establishing human heart chromium, cobalt and vanadium concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patrick L; Eckdahl, Steven J; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas C; Murray, David L

    2017-05-01

    Chromium, cobalt, and vanadium are used in metallic joint prosthesis. Case studies have associated elevated heart tissue cobalt concentrations with myocardial injury. To document the long term heart metal ion concentrations, a validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method was needed. The method utilized a closed-vessel microwave digestion system to digest the samples. An ICP-MS method utilizing Universal Cell Technology was used to determine our target analyte concentrations. Accuracy was verified using reference materials. Precision, sensitivity, recovery and linearity studies were performed. This method was used to establish a reference range for a non-implant containing cohort of 80 autopsy human heart tissues RESULTS: This method demonstrated an analytic measurement range of 0.5-100ng/mL for each element. Accuracy was within ±10% of target value for each element. Within-run precision for each element was below 20% CV. The chromium, vanadium and cobalt concentrations (mean±SD) were 0.1523±0.2157μg/g, 0.0094±0.0211μg/g and 0.1039±0.1305μg/g respectively in 80 non-implant containing human heart tissue samples. This method provides acceptable recovery of the chromium, cobalt and vanadium in heart tissue; allowing assessment of the effects of metallic joint prosthesis on myocardial health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Hardness, tribological behaviour and corrosion performance at the very near surface of nitrogen ion-implanted X5CrNi18.10 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intarasiri, S.; Yu, L.D. [Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand). Inst. for Sci.; Chudoba, T.; Reuther, H.; Richter, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics, Materials Research, D-01314, Dresden (Germany); Rammelt, U. [University of Technology Dresden, Institute for Physical Chemistry, Electrochemistry, Mommsen Street 13, D-01062, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-02-23

    The influence of nitrogen ion implantation on the hardness, tribological behaviour and corrosion performance at the very near surface of polished X5CrNi18.10 steel was studied. The specimens were implanted with 120 keV N{sup +} ions to four different fluences ranging from 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup -2}. It was found that hardness, tribological behaviour in terms of wear and friction, and corrosion resistance of the specimens strongly depend on the implantation conditions. The greatest improvement in the surface properties of the steel was achieved at doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} and 5 x 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Although hardness, wear resistance and friction behaviour were improved noticeably by the implantation, N ion implantation tended to reduce the corrosion resistance of the specimens in KNO{sub 3}. (orig.) 13 refs.

  2. Synthesis of sponge-like hydrophobic NiBi3 surface by 200 keV Ar ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, Vantari; Datta, D. P.; Chatterjee, S.; Varma, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, Pratap K.

    2017-07-01

    Sponge-like nanostructures develop under Ar-ion implantation of a Ni-Bi bilayer with increasing ion fluence at room temperature. The surface morphology features different stages of evolution as a function of ion fluence, finally resulting in a planar surface at the highest fluence. Our investigations on the chemical composition reveal a spontaneous formation of NiBi3 phase on the surface of the as deposited bilayer film. Interestingly, we observe a competition between crystallization and amorphization of the existing poly-crystalline phases as a function of the implanted fluence. Measurements of contact angle by sessile drop method clearly show the ion-fluence dependent hydrophobic nature of the nano-structured surfaces. The wettability has been correlated with the variation in roughness and composition of the implanted surface. In fact, our experimental results confirm dominant effect of ion-sputtering as well as ion-induced mixing at the bilayer interface in the evolution of the sponge-like surface.

  3. THE RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY USE FOR MONITORING OF CHANGES IN THE GLASS STRUCTURE OF THE THIN LAYERS CAUSED BY ION IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Nekvindova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have demonstrated the utility of Raman spectroscopy as a technique for the characterisation of changes in the glass structure of the thin layers caused by ion implantation. Various types of silicate glasses were implanted by Au+ ions with energy of 1.7 MeV and a fluence of 1 x 1016 ions.cm-2 to create gold nanoparticles in thin sub-surface layer of the glass. It was proved that the structure of the glass has an indisputable impact on the extent of depolymerisation of the glass network after implantation. It was shown that the degree of glass matrix depolymerisation can be described using the evaluation of Qn factors in the implanted layers from different depths. After analysis of Raman spectra, the relation between nucleation and the resulting parameters of the gold nanoparticles was put into connection with the feasibility of the glass to recover its structure during post-implantation annealing. Also the creation of new bonds in the glass network was discussed.

  4. Ni ion release, osteoblast-material interactions, and hemocompatibility of hafnium-implanted NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinqing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao

    2012-04-01

    Hafnium ion implantation was applied to NiTi alloy to suppress Ni ion release and enhance osteoblast-material interactions and hemocompatibility. The auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscope results showed that a composite TiO(2)/HfO(2) nanofilm with increased surface roughness was formed on the surface of NiTi, and Ni concentration was reduced in the superficial surface layer. Potentiodynamic polarization tests displayed that 4 mA NiTi sample possessed the highest E(br) - E(corr), 470 mV higher than that of untreated NiTi, suggesting a significant improvement on pitting corrosion resistance. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests during 60 days immersion demonstrated that Ni ion release rate was remarkably decreased, for example, a reduction of 67% in the first day. The water contact angle increased and surface energy decreased after Hf implantation. Cell culture and methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium indicated that Hf-implanted NiTi expressed enhanced osteoblasts adhesion and proliferation, especially after 7 days culture. Hf implantation decreased fibrinogen adsorption, but had almost no effect on albumin adsorption. Platelets adhesion and activation were suppressed significantly (97% for 4 mA NiTi) and hemolysis rate was decreased by at least 57% after Hf implantation. Modified surface composition and morphology and decreased surface energy should be responsible for the improvement of cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The post-annealing temperature dependences of electrical properties and surface morphologies for arsenic ion-implanted 4H-SiC at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, J.; Fukuda, K.; Imai, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Tanoue, H.; Okushi, H.; Arai, K.

    2000-06-01

    High-temperature ion implantation of arsenic (As +) into the 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) substrates with high dose of 7×10 15 cm -2 has been investigated as an effective doping method of n-type dopant for SiC power electron devices fabrication. Regardless of the ion implantation temperature, the sheet resistances ( Rs) decrease below 1600°C post-annealing and increase above 1700°C as the post-annealing temperature increases. The low Rs value (213 Ω/□) is achieved in the sample implanted at 500°C and annealed at 1600°C, an order of magnitude smaller than that implanted at room temperature (RT). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reveal that the surface roughness of ion-implanted SiC increases with the increase of post-annealing temperature. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results show that As + dopant depth profiles of the sample implanted at 500°C do not change before and after the post-annealing. On the other hand, for the sample implanted at RT, the As + concentration in the ion-implanted layer decreases due to the outer-diffusion. These results indicate that high-temperature ion implantation is an effective method to prevent the outer-diffusion of As + dopants during high-temperature post-annealing. It is considered that these post-annealing temperature dependences are caused by the evaporation of SiC surface layer.

  6. Fourier transform infra-red characterization of carbon onions produced by carbon-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabioc'h, T.; Kharbach, A.; Le Roy, A.; Rivière, J. P.

    1998-03-01

    Surface layers containing a high density of carbon onions were produced on silver substrates by high-dose carbon-ion implantation at 500°C. The morphology and microstructure were studied by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infra-red experiments were performed to study the vibrational spectrum of these carbon onions and 9 absorption peaks were identified in the wavenumber range 400-1500 cm -1. Two families of vibrations were identified: one corresponding to the C 60 molecule and the other to the C 240 molecule. The results suggest that carbon onions formed with our technique consist of concentric spheres of fullerenes C n ( n=60, 240, …).

  7. Enhancement-mode Ga2O3 MOSFETs with Si-ion-implanted source and drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Nakata, Yoshiaki; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Enhancement-mode β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with low series resistance were achieved by Si-ion implantation doping of the source/drain contacts and access regions. An unintentionally doped Ga2O3 channel with low background carrier concentration that was fully depleted at a gate bias of 0 V gave rise to a positive threshold voltage without additional constraints on the channel dimensions or device architecture. Transistors with a channel length of 4 µm delivered a maximum drain current density (I DS) of 1.4 mA/mm and an I DS on/off ratio near 106. Nonidealities associated with the Al2O3 gate dielectric as well as their impact on enhancement-mode device performance are discussed.

  8. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsarat, W. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Aukkaravittayapun, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Jotikasthira, D. [Department of Odontology-Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of magnesium silicates on titanium implants: Ion migration and silicide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Mohajer, M. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yaghoubi, A., E-mail: yaghoubi@siswa.um.edu.my [Center for High Impact Research, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Ramesh, S., E-mail: ramesh79@um.edu.my [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Bushroa, A.R.; Chin, K.M.C.; Tin, C.C. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chiu, W.S. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2014-07-01

    Magnesium silicates (Mg{sub x}SiO{sub y}) and in particular forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) owing to their low thermal expansion mismatch with metals are promising materials for bioactive coating of implants. Here, we report the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of forsterite onto titanium substrates using different precursors. Unlike bulk samples which achieve full stoichiometry only beyond 1400 °C, non-stoichiometric magnesium silicate rapidly decomposes into magnesium oxide nanowires during sintering. Elemental mapping and X-ray diffraction suggest that oxygen diffusion followed by ion exchange near the substrate leads to formation of an interfacial Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} layer. Pre-annealed forsterite powder on the other hand shows a comparatively lower diffusion rate. Overall, magnesium silicate coatings do not exhibit thermally induced microcracks upon sintering as opposed to calcium phosphate bioceramics which are currently in use.

  10. Chromium single-photon emitters in diamond fabricated by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Castelletto, Stefania; Johnson, Brett C.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Simpson, David A.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Prawer, Steven

    2010-03-01

    Controlled fabrication and identification of bright single-photon emitters is at the heart of quantum optics. Here we demonstrate controlled engineering of a chromium bright single-photon source in bulk diamond by ion implantation. The Cr center has fully polarized emission with a zero-phonon line centered at 749 nm, full width at half maximum of 4 nm, an extremely short lifetime of ˜1ns , and a count rate of 0.5×106counts/s . By combining the polarization measurements and the vibronic spectra, a model of the center has been proposed consisting of one interstitial chromium atom with a transition dipole along one of the ⟨100⟩ directions.

  11. Size-dependent structure of CdSe nanoclusters formed after ion implantation in MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, MA; van Veen, A; Schut, H; Eijt, SWH; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    The band gap as well as the optical and structural properties of semiconductor CdSe nanoclusters change as a function of the nanocluster size. Embedded CdSe nanoclusters in MgO were created by means of sequential Cd and Se ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. Changes during annealing were

  12. STUDY OF ELECTRIC QUADRUPOLE INTERACTIONS OF IN-111 AND CD-111 FOLLOWING ION-IMPLANTATION OF IN-111 INTO GRAPHITE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KASTELEIN, B; VANDERMAREL, HJ; ANDRIESSEN, J; POSTMA, H; PLEITER, F

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear electric quadrupole interaction of In-111 ion-implanted in hightly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been observed by means of low-temperature nuclear orientation and by means of perturbed angular correlations. From the first kind of experiment, it is concluded that a relatively large

  13. A study of the behaviour of copper in different types of silicate glasses implanted with Cu+ and O+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Vařák, P.; Vytykačová, S.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Bottger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 406, SEP (2017), s. 193-198 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : silicate glasses * ion implantation * copper Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  14. Plasma-based ion implantation: a valuable technology for the elaboration of innovative materials and nanostructured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempaire, D.; Pelletier, J.; Lacoste, A.; Béchu, S.; Sirou, J.; Miraglia, S.; Fruchart, D.

    2005-05-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII), invented in 1987, can now be considered as a mature technology for thin film modification. After a brief recapitulation of the principle and physics of PBII, its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to conventional ion beam implantation, are listed and discussed. The elaboration of thin films and the modification of their functional properties by PBII have already been achieved in many fields, such as microelectronics (plasma doping/PLAD), biomaterials (surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible materials), plastics (grafting, surface adhesion) and metallurgy (hard coatings, tribology), to name a few. The major advantages of PBII processing lie, on the one hand, in its flexibility in terms of ion implantation energy (from 0 to 100 keV) and operating conditions (plasma density, collisional or non-collisional ion sheath), and, on the other hand, in the easy transferrability of processes from the laboratory to industry. The possibility of modifying the composition and physical nature of the films, or of drastically changing their physical properties over several orders of magnitude makes this technology very attractive for the elaboration of innovative materials, including metastable materials, and the realization of micro- or nanostructures. A review of the state of the art in these domains is presented and illustrated through a few selected examples. The perspectives opened up by PBII processing, as well as its limitations, are discussed.

  15. Post-litho line edge/width roughness smoothing by ion implantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tristan Y.; Xie, Peng; Godet, Ludovic; Martin, Patrick M.; Campbell, Chris; Xue, Jun; Miao, Liyan; Chen, Yongmei; Dai, Huixiong; Bencher, Christopher; Ngai, Chris S.

    2013-03-01

    Solving the issue of line edge/width roughness (LER/LWR) in chip manufacturing is becoming increasingly urgent as the feature size continues to decrease. Several post-lithography processing techniques have been investigated by the semiconductor industry, but they were often proved to be inadequate in one area or another. In this study, a near isotropic ion implantation process, called Plasma Ribbon Beam Technology, was tuned for photoresist treatment and used to reduce LER/LWR by >30% while minimizing loss in the critical dimension (CD). Different implantation chemistries were evaluated and process parameters including energy, angle, beam current, and dose, were optimized. The LER/LWR measurement was performed on an SEM system designed for CD metrology. SEM images with resist lines of 3μm long were taken to capture more low frequency data. The results showed that, with Ar implantation on 193/193i photoresists, a 27-37% before-etch reduction in LER/LWR was achieved on 65nm and 45nm half-pitch lines whereas the CD change was controlled under +/-1%. Preliminary test results on EUV photoresists have demonstrated similar trend. Compared to untreated photoresist, the LER/LWR power spectral density (PSD) data showed more than a half decade improvement in both the mid-frequency and low-frequency range. The significant low-frequency improvement affords this technique a unique advantage over other competing approaches. Pattern transfer of the LER/LWR improvements has been successfully demonstrated on 193/193i resists using both inorganic and organic ARC (anti-reflective coating).

  16. 3D chiral and 2D achiral cobalt(ii) compounds constructed from a 4-(benzimidazole-1-yl)benzoic ligand exhibiting field-induced single-ion-magnet-type slow magnetic relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Lin; Liu, Cai-Ming; Du, Zi-Yi; Chen, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Yan

    2016-05-04

    Organizing magnetically isolated 3d transition metal ions, which behave as single-ion magnet (SIM) units, in a coordination network is a promising approach to design novel single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Herein 3D chiral and 2D achiral cobalt(ii) coordination compounds based on single metal nodes with a 4-(benzimidazole-1-yl)benzoic acid (Hbmzbc) ligand, namely, [Co(bmzbc)2(1,2-etdio)]n () (1,2-etdio = 1,2-ethanediol) and [Co(bmzbc)2(Hbmzbc)]n (), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The 3D chiral structure with 2-fold interpenetrating qtz topological nets consisting of totally achiral components was obtained via spontaneous resolution, while the achiral structure is a 2D (4,4) net. In both structures, individual cobalt(ii) ions are spatially well separated by the long organic ligands in the well-defined networks. Magnetic measurements on and showed field-induced slow magnetic relaxation resulting from single-ion anisotropy of the individual Co(ii) ions. Analysis of the dynamic ac susceptibilities with the Arrhenius law afforded an anisotropy energy barrier of 16.8(3) and 31.3(2) K under a 2 kOe static magnetic field for and , respectively. The distinct coordination environments of the Co(ii) ions in and lead to the different anisotropic energy barriers.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells for an implantable battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Gregory K.; Aiken, Peter A.; Adams, William A.; Mussivand, Tofy

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance characteristics of 1.08 Ah lithium-ion cells was undertaken utilizing operating conditions similar to that required for an implanted medical device, such as a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart, in order to determine their potential usefulness for this application. The major parameters studied at 22 or 37 °C were discharge-rate capability, specific energy and energy density, surface temperature, self-discharge and cycle life. The discharge loads used in the cycle-life study were either constant or pulsatile, with the constant discharge load being equivalent to the average of the pulsatile load. The lithium-ion cells showed high discharge-rate capability up to 1.5 A at 37 °C, with over 74% of their rated capacity being obtained and a midpoint voltage of over 3.3 V (> 72% of rated capacity and > 3.3 V for up to 1.0 A discharges at 22 °C), before the first indication of cell polarization was noticed. The specific energy and energy density of cells discharged at 0.88 A to 2.5 V at 37 °C was 73 Wh/kg and 190 Wh/l, respectively (64 Wh/kg and 167 Wh/l at 22 °C). The internal resistance of the cells was calculated to be 198 mΩ at 37 °C (316 mΩ at 22 °C), which resulted in a relatively high, 8.0 °C, increase in surface temperature under a 0.88 A discharge load. The self-discharge of the cells at 37 °C was relatively low, with only a 1.3% loss in capacity being observed after 24 h. The lithium-ion cells yielded longer cycle lives at 37 °C (2 239 cycles) compared with 22 °C operation (1539 cycles) under similar 0.88 A discharge loads. The cells performed slightly better under constant discharge loads than under pulsatile loads of equivalent average current (0.83 A average) with cycles lives of 2279 cycles versus 1941 cycles and operating times were 1.6 ± 1.1 min (mean) longer. Preliminary indications are that these lithium-ion cells would be suitable for use in a rechargeable battery pack capable of

  18. Room-temperature vacancy migration in crystalline Si from an ion-implanted surface layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Christensen, Carsten; Petersen, Jon Wulff

    1999-01-01

    Migration of vacancies in crystalline, n-type silicon at room temperature from Ge+-implanted (150 keV, 5×109–1×1011 cm–2) surface layers was studied by traci