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Sample records for coatings suspension plasma

  1. Sintering of Fine Particles in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Coatings

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    Leszek Latka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying is a process that enables the production of finely grained nanometric or submicrometric coatings. The suspensions are formulated with the use of fine powder particles in water or alcohol with some additives. Subsequently, the suspension is injected into plasma jet and the liquid additives evaporate. The remaining fine solids are molten and subsequently agglomerate or remain solid, depending on their trajectory in the plasma jet. The coating’s microstructure results from these two groups of particles arriving on a substrate or previously deposited coating. Previous experimental studies carried out for plasma sprayed titanium oxide and hydroxyapatite coatings enabled us to observe either a finely grained microstructure or, when a different suspension injection mode was used, to distinguish two zones in the microstructure. These two zones correspond to the dense zone formed from well molten particles, and the agglomerated zone formed from fine solid particles that arrive on the substrate in a solid state. The present paper focuses on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the formation process of the agglomerated zone. The experimental section establishes the heat flux supplied to the coating during deposition. In order to achieve this, calorimetric measurements were made by applying experimental conditions simulating the real coatings’ growth. The heat flux was measured to be in the range from 0.08 to 0.5 MW/m2,depending on the experimental conditions. The theoretical section analyzes the sintering during the coating’s growth, which concerns the fine particles arriving on the substrate in the solid state. The models of volume, grain boundary and surface diffusion were analyzed and adapted to the size and chemistry of the grains, temperature and time scales corresponding to the suspension plasma spraying conditions. The model of surface diffusion was found to best describe the sintering during suspension

  2. Development of YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying

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    Dapeng Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The axial injection of the suspension in the atmospheric plasma spraying process (here called axial suspension plasma spraying is an attractive and advanced thermal spraying technology especially for the deposition of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs. It enables the growth of columnar-like structures and, hence, combines advantages of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD technology with the considerably cheaper atmospheric plasma spraying (APS. In the first part of this study, the effects of spraying conditions on the microstructure of yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ top coats and the deposition efficiency were investigated. YSZ coatings deposited on as-sprayed bond coats with 5 wt % solid content suspension appeared to have nicely-developed columnar structures. Based on the preliminary results, the nicely developed columnar coatings with variations of the stand-off distances and yttria content were subjected to thermal cycling tests in a gas burner rig. In these tests, all columnar structured TBCs showed relatively short lifetimes compared with porous APS coatings. Indentation measurements for Young’s modulus and fracture toughness on the columns of the SPS coatings indicated a correlation between mechanical properties and lifetime for the SPS samples. A simplified model is presented which correlates mechanical properties and lifetime of SPS coatings.

  3. Recent Developments in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Titanium Oxide and Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, R.; Pawlowski, L.; Pierlot, C.; Roudet, F.; Kozerski, S.; Petit, F.

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims at reviewing of the recent studies related to the development of suspension plasma sprayed TiO2 and Ca5(PO4)3OH (hydroxyapatite, HA) coatings as well as their multilayer composites obtained onto stainless steel, titanium and aluminum substrates. The total thickness of the coatings was in the range 10 to 150 μm. The suspensions on the base of distilled water, ethanol and their mixtures were formulated with the use of fine commercial TiO2 pigment crystallized as rutile and HA milled from commercial spray-dried powder or synthesized from calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate in an optimized reaction. The powder was crystallized as hydroxyapatite. Pneumatic and peristaltic pump liquid feeders were applied. The injection of suspension to the plasma jet was studied carefully with the use of an atomizer injector or a continuous stream one. The injectors were placed outside or inside of the anode-nozzle of the SG-100 plasma torch. The stream of liquid was tested under angle right or slightly backwards with regard to the torch axis. The sprayed deposits were submitted to the phase analysis by the use of x-ray diffraction. The content of anatase and rutile was calculated in the titanium oxide deposits as well as the content of the decomposition phases in the hydroxyapatite ones. The micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to visualize the area of appearance of some phases. Scratch test enabled to characterize the adhesion of the deposits, their microhardness and friction coefficient. The electric properties including electron emission, impedance spectroscopy, and dielectric properties of some coatings were equally tested.

  4. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

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    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  5. Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling

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    Gupta, Mohit; Kumara, Chamara; Nylén, Per

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the topcoat-bondcoat interface where high stresses are generated due to thermal cycling. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the topcoat-bondcoat interface could be beneficial to enhance thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs. In this work, a bilayer coating system consisting of first a dense layer near the topcoat-bondcoat interface followed by a porous columnar layer was fabricated by SPS using Yttria-stabilised zirconia suspension. The objective of this work was to investigate if the bilayer topcoat architecture could enhance the thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs through experiments and to understand the effect of the column gaps/vertical cracks and the dense layer on the generated stresses in the TBC during thermal cyclic loading through finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the bilayer TBC had significantly higher lifetime than the single-layer TBC. The modeling results show that the dense layer and vertical cracks are beneficial as they reduce the thermally induced stresses which thus increase the lifetime.

  6. Dry Sliding Behavior of Sub-Micrometer-Sized Suspension Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Oxide Coatings

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    Darut, Geoffrey; Ben-Ettouil, Fadhel; Denoirjean, Alain; Montavon, Ghislain; Ageorges, Hélène; Fauchais, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Almost half of the energy produced by an automotive engine is dissipated by friction in the cylinders, the clutch, etc. In the context of reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to mitigate climate global warming (CGW), reduction of energy losses due to friction is a critical issue. Surface treatments appear in such a context, as never than before, to be able to provide pertinent solutions to improve sliding behavior of mechanical parts. Numerous studies have clearly shown that decreasing the scale of coating structure below the micrometer scale was leading to an improvement of its tribological behavior in terms of friction coefficient and wear rate thanks to improved mechanical properties, the toughness in particular. Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) appears as a thermal spray process to be able to manufacture thick (i.e., a few tens of micrometers) coatings exhibiting a sub-micrometer-sized or even a nanometer-sized architecture, while keeping the versatility and flexibility of the thermal spray routes: i.e., the ability to process a wide range of material natures onto a wide range of substrate materials of various geometries. This article aims at studying the tribological behavior of several ceramic oxide composite coatings under dry conditions. The structural scale and the effect of composition are considered in particular.

  7. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

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    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  8. Erosion Performance of Gadolinium Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Processed by Suspension Plasma Spray

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    Mahade, Satyapal; Curry, Nicholas; Björklund, Stefan; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    7-8 wt.% Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the standard thermal barrier coating (TBC) material used by the gas turbines industry due to its excellent thermal and thermo-mechanical properties up to 1200 °C. The need for improvement in gas turbine efficiency has led to an increase in the turbine inlet gas temperature. However, above 1200 °C, YSZ has issues such as poor sintering resistance, poor phase stability and susceptibility to calcium magnesium alumino silicates (CMAS) degradation. Gadolinium zirconate (GZ) is considered as one of the promising top coat candidates for TBC applications at high temperatures (>1200 °C) due to its low thermal conductivity, good sintering resistance and CMAS attack resistance. Single-layer 8YSZ, double-layer GZ/YSZ and triple-layer GZdense/GZ/YSZ TBCs were deposited by suspension plasma spray (SPS) process. Microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A columnar microstructure was observed in the single-, double- and triple-layer TBCs. Phase analysis of the as-sprayed TBCs was carried out using XRD (x-ray diffraction) where a tetragonal prime phase of zirconia in the single-layer YSZ TBC and a cubic defect fluorite phase of GZ in the double and triple-layer TBCs was observed. Porosity measurements of the as-sprayed TBCs were made by water intrusion method and image analysis method. The as-sprayed GZ-based multi-layered TBCs were subjected to erosion test at room temperature, and their erosion resistance was compared with single-layer 8YSZ. It was shown that the erosion resistance of 8YSZ single-layer TBC was higher than GZ-based multi-layered TBCs. Among the multi-layered TBCs, triple-layer TBC was slightly better than double layer in terms of erosion resistance. The eroded TBCs were cold-mounted and analyzed by SEM.

  9. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for particles as they travel towards the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate are investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power are studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle are examined. The model used in current study takes high temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, s...

  10. Numerical Study of Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Coyle, Thomas W.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study of suspension plasma spraying is presented in the current work. The liquid suspension jet is replaced with a train of droplets containing the suspension particles injected into the plasma flow. Atomization, evaporation, and melting of different components are considered for droplets and particles as they travel toward the substrate. Effect of different parameters on particle conditions during flight and upon impact on the substrate is investigated. Initially, influence of the torch operating conditions such as inlet flow rate and power is studied. Additionally, effect of injector parameters like injection location, flow rate, and angle is examined. The model used in the current study takes high-temperature gradients and non-continuum effects into account. Moreover, the important effect of change in physical properties of suspension droplets as a result of evaporation is included in the model. These mainly include variations in heat transfer properties and viscosity. Utilizing this improved model, several test cases have been considered to better evaluate the effect of different parameters on the quality of particles during flight and upon impact on the substrate.

  11. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

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    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  12. Controlling Microstructure of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Prepared from Suspensions and Solutions by Plasma Spraying with High Feed Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Radek; Medricky, Jan; Tesar, Tomas; Kotlan, Jiri; Pala, Zdenek; Lukac, Frantisek; Illkova, Ksenia; Hlina, Michal; Chraska, Tomas; Sokolowski, Pawel; Curry, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Introduction of suspension and solution plasma spraying led to a breakthrough in the deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings and enabled preparation of new types of layers. However, their deposition with high feed rates needed, for example, for the deposition of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on large-scale components, is still challenging. In this study, possibility of high-throughput plasma spraying of YSZ coatings is demonstrated for the latest generation of high-enthalpy hybrid water-stabilized plasma (WSP-H) torch technology. The results show that microstructure of the coatings prepared by WSP-H may be tailored for specific applications by the choice of deposition conditions, in particular formulation of the liquid feedstock. Porous and columnar coatings with low thermal conductivity (0.5-0.6 W/mK) were prepared from commercial ethanol-based suspension. Dense vertically cracked coatings with higher thermal conductivity but also higher internal cohesion were deposited from suspension containing ethanol/water mixture and coarser YSZ particles. Spraying of solution formulated from diluted zirconium acetate and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate led also to the successful deposition of YSZ coating combining regions of porous and denser microstructure and providing both low thermal conductivity and improved cohesion of the coating. Enthalpy content, liquid-plasma interaction and coating buildup mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

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    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  14. Application of the aqueous coating suspension for the protection of Gas Turbine Engine parts from corrosion

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    E. G. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the physical nature of receiving diffusion coatings from aqueous suspensions of various alloys for various conditions and their further exploitation. Structure of coatings, advantages and features of the production of coatings from aqueous suspensions are shown. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic reactions in the systems of elements formulations of aqueous suspensions were developed and practical recommendations for their application to the parts of gas turbine engine were given.

  15. On reactive suspension plasma spraying of calcium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Mušálek, Radek; Ctibor, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2016), s. 4607-4615 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Suspensions * X-raymethods * Perovskites * Substrates * Suspension plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics , Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884215022646

  16. Coatings and surface treatments for enhanced performance suspensions for future gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, R.; Cumming, A. V.; Campsie, P.; Gibson, D.; Hammond, G. D.; Hough, J.; Martin, I. W.; Reid, S.; Rowan, S.; Song, S.; Talbot, C.; Vine, D.; Wallace, G.

    2017-12-01

    Further improvements in the low frequency sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors are important for increasing the observable population of astrophysical sources, such as intermediate mass compact black hole binary systems. Improvements in the lower stage mirror and suspension systems will set challenging targets for the required thermal noise performance of the cantilever blade springs, which provide vertical softness and, thus, isolation to the mirror suspension stack. This is required due to the coupling between the vertical and horizontal axes due to the curvature of the Earth. This can be achieved through use of high mechanical Q materials, which are compatible with cryogenic cooling, such as crystalline silicon. However, such materials are brittle, posing further challenges for assembly/jointing and, more generally, for long-term robustness. Here, we report on experimental studies of the breaking strength of silicon at room temperature, via both tensile and 4-point flexural testing; and on the effects of various surface treatments and coatings on durability and strength. Single- and multi-layer DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings, together with magnetron-sputtered silica and thermally-grown silica, are investigated, as are the effects of substrate preparation and argon plasma pre-treatment. Application of single- or multi-layer DLC coatings can significantly improve the failure stress of silicon flexures, in addition to improved robustness for handling (assessed through abrasion tests). Improvements of up to 80% in tensile strength, a twofold increase in flexural strength, in addition to a 6.4 times reduction in the vertical thermal noise contribution of the suspension stack at 10 Hz are reported (compared to current Advanced LIGO design). The use of silicon blade springs would also significantly reduce potential ‘crackling noise’ associated with the underlying discrete events associated with plastic deformation in loaded flexures.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE SUSPENSIONS FOR NON-STICK COATINGS FOR FOUNDRY

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    T. Gil’manshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at figuring out dependence of the technological properties (density, thickness of the coating, reduced strength and sedimentation stability of the suspensions for nonstick coatings on the for activation time powder quartz graphite filler. It is shown that with increasing activation time to 10 minutes all the basic properties of graphite suspension powder quartz were improved. The paper presents the results of comparative studies of technological properties of suspensions of activated graphite oxide compositions prepared on the basis of activated aluminum oxide and periclase. The resulting suspension may be recommended for cast iron and non-ferrous castings.

  18. Thermal Conductivity in Suspension Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganvir, Ashish; Kumara, Chamara; Gupta, Mohit; Nylen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) can generate microstructures with higher porosity and pores in the size range from submicron to nanometer. ASPS thermal barrier coatings (TBC) have already shown a great potential to produce low thermal conductivity coatings for gas turbine applications. It is important to understand the fundamental relationships between microstructural defects in ASPS coatings such as crystallite boundaries, porosity etc. and thermal conductivity. Object-oriented finite element (OOF) analysis has been shown as an effective tool for evaluating thermal conductivity of conventional TBCs as this method is capable of incorporating the inherent microstructure in the model. The objective of this work was to analyze the thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs using experimental techniques and also to evaluate a procedure where OOF can be used to predict and analyze the thermal conductivity for these coatings. Verification of the model was done by comparing modeling results with the experimental thermal conductivity. The results showed that the varied scaled porosity has a significant influence on the thermal conductivity. Smaller crystallites and higher overall porosity content resulted in lower thermal conductivity. It was shown that OOF could be a powerful tool to predict and rank thermal conductivity of ASPS TBCs.

  19. Plasma Processes: Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 55; Issue 5-6. Plasma ... Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. ... As a result, the design of the beam loss monitor ion chamber for CAT could be simplified by coating the outer surface of the HT electrode with alumina.

  20. Scattering from isotropic plasma coated nihility sphere

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    Hussan, M. M.; Ghaffar, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.; Naz, M. Y.; Ur Rehman, Sajjad; Khan, Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, it is observed that when an isotropic collisional plasma coating layer is produced on a nihility sphere, its back scattering efficiency becomes non-zero. Field equations, at each interface, are expanded in terms of spherical wave vector functions (SWVFs) by enforcing the extended classical wave scattering theory. Electromagnetic boundary conditions are applied at both interfaces, i.e., free space-plasma and plasma layer-nihility sphere core to obtain the scattering coefficients. The obtained scattering coefficients are used to calculate the forward scattering, back scattering, and extinction efficiencies. The obtained computational results show that an increase in collisional frequency causes a decrease in both forward and backscattered efficiencies and an increase in extinction efficiency. Furthermore, the numerical results indicate that an increase in plasma density causes an increase in both forward and backscattered efficiencies and a decrease in extinction efficiency.

  1. Plasma sprayed coatings for RF wave absorption

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    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, J.; Žáček, F.; Stőckel, J.; Chráska, P.; Brožek, V.

    2002-12-01

    High requirements for fusion reactor materials and for experimental fusion devices have led within the fusion community to the development and testing of various coatings of the surfaces of in-vessel components and biological shields for microwave heating systems. Based on contacts with ITER, W7X and the Spanish Stellarator TJ-II, IPP Prague has initiated a development, production and test program on various low- Z materials. This paper reports on the production, development and properties of B 4C, Si and Al 2O 3 coatings sprayed by water stabilized plasma. Main focus is on their radio frequency wave reflection properties. Further characterization includes the coating structure by microscopy, phase composition by X-ray diffraction and oxygen content measurement by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results are discussed with respect to processing conditions as well as potential application.

  2. Plasma sprayed coatings for RF wave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matejicek, J. E-mail: jmatejic@ipp.cas.cz; Zacek, F.; Stockel, J.; Chraska, P.; Brozek, V

    2002-12-01

    High requirements for fusion reactor materials and for experimental fusion devices have led within the fusion community to the development and testing of various coatings of the surfaces of in-vessel components and biological shields for microwave heating systems. Based on contacts with ITER, W7X and the Spanish Stellarator TJ-II, IPP Prague has initiated a development, production and test program on various low-Z materials. This paper reports on the production, development and properties of B{sub 4}C, Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings sprayed by water stabilized plasma. Main focus is on their radio frequency wave reflection properties. Further characterization includes the coating structure by microscopy, phase composition by X-ray diffraction and oxygen content measurement by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results are discussed with respect to processing conditions as well as potential application.

  3. Growth kinetics and morphology of plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfanifar, Eliyas; Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood, E-mail: maliofkh@gmail.com; Fakhr Nabavi, Houman; Sharifi, Hossein; Rouhaghdam, Alireza Sabour

    2017-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out on AA1190 aluminum alloy in mixed silicate-phosphate-based electrolyte in order to fabricate ceramic coating under constant current density. The variations of PEO coating duration with kinetics, surface roughness, amount and size of discharge channels were studied with respect to PEO processing time. The growth mechanism of the ceramic coating was described considering a variation of volume and diameters of discharge channels and pancakes during the PEO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and roughness tester were used to study the plasma discharge channels of the PEO coatings. In addition, the effect of alumina nanoparticles in the electrolyte as the suspension was studied on the geometric parameters of discharge channels. It seems that the nanoparticles are adsorbed to the locations of erupted molten oxide, where the dielectric breakdown occurs. Nanoparticles were embedded in the dense oxide layer and were adsorbed at the walls of voids and coatings surface. As a result, they caused significant changes in roughness parameters of the samples containing nanoparticles compared to those without nanoparticles. The obtained results showed that growth kinetics followed a linear trend with respect to PEO coating duration. It was also observed that in the absence of alumina nanoparticles, the average volume of the pancakes is 150% greater than the ones fabricated in the suspension of nanoparticles. Besides, increasing the PEO coating duration leads to adsorbing more nanoparticles on the coating surface, filling the voids, and flattening the surface, and alterations in R{sub v}, R{sub sk}, and R{sub lo} parameters. Correlation between the diameter of discharge channel (d{sub c}) and thickness of the pancake (h) also showed a linear relation. - Highlights: • Precise calculation of thickness of pancake with AFM. • Study of different roughness parameters for PEO coating. • Calculation

  4. Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yanfeng; Song Lei; Liu Xiaoguang; Huang Yi; Huang Tao; Wu Yao; Chen Jiyong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Wu Fang, E-mail: fwu@scu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

  5. Suspensions Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Hybrid Water-Stabilized Plasma Technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mušálek, Radek; Medřický, Jan; Tesař, T.; Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš; Curry, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, 1-2 (2017), s. 37-46 ISSN 1059-9630. [ISTC 2016: International Thermal Spray Conference. Shanghai, 10.05.2016-12.05.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : alumina * ceramics * dense * hybrid plasma torch * suspension plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma * yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11666-016-0493-6

  6. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Kendall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pena, Maria I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  7. Dispersion and Stabilization of Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension for Coatings Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle coatings, it is desirable that the nanoparticles are dispersed into a liquid solution and remain stable for a certain period of time. Controlling the dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles is crucial to exploit the advantages of the nanometer-sized TiO2 particles. In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed and stabilized in aqueous suspensions using two common dispersants which were polyacrylic acid (PAA and ammonium polymethacrylate (Darvan C. The effect of parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude and type and amount of dispersants on the dispersibility and stability of the TiO2 aqueous suspensions were examined. Rupture followed by erosion was determined to be the main break up mechanisms when ultrasonication was employed. The addition of dispersant was found to produce more dispersed and more stabilized aqueous suspension. 3 wt.% of PAA with average molecular weight (Mw of 2000 g/mol (PAA 2000 was determined to produce the best and most stable dispersion. The suspensions were then coated on quartz glass, whereby the photocatalytic activity of the coatings was studied via the degradation of formaldehyde gas under UV light. The coatings were demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.

  8. Modification of the manufacturing process of tritium powered self-illuminating devices using a suspension coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander

    Tritium powered self-illuminating lights (TPSILs) are used to provide illumination in low light conditions without the use of an external power source. The manufacturing process of TPSIL devices was modified and a new suspension coating method was developed. The modification of the current process included analyzing the heat treatment applied to the device and the alteration of the phosphor particle size distribution. Both modifications yielded lower emission intensity from the TPSIL devices. The suspension coating method was developed to reduce the labour cost associated with the current dry powder coating method. The properties of the phosphor particles within an aqueous polymer suspension were analyzed and the emission intensity of the dried suspension coatings. Although the emission intensity of the suspension coatings did not match the emission intensity of the dry powder coatings with further refinement the suspension coating method could potentially be used to replace the dry powder coating method. Keywords: Tritium, ZnS:Cu,AI, Self-illuminating, Suspension, TPSIL, Emission Intensity

  9. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane C. Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  10. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan; Coyle, Thomas W.; Azimi, Gisele; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature, chemical inertness, high temperature stability, and good mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The effects of various spraying conditions including standoff distance, torch power, number of torch passes, types of solvent and plasma velocity were investigated. The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured surface topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature. The water contact angle on the SPPS superhydrophobic coating was up to 65% higher than on smooth REO surfaces.

  11. STUDY ON HYDROXYAPATITE COATING ON BIOMATERIALS BY PLASMA SPRAY METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hanumantharaju H. G; Dr. H.K.Shivanand; Prashanth K. P; K. Suresh Kumar; S. P. Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    In plasma spray coating process the hydroxyapatite powder particles are melted in a high temperature plasma flame and propelled towards the substrate material thus forming a coating. The thin hydroxyapatitecoatings have shown better adhesion to substrates and are more stable in the biological environment because they have more uniform structure and composition. Samples are tested for Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis, to find the uniform coating and bonding strength. From the XRD analysis...

  12. Liquid Feedstock Plasma Spraying: An Emerging Process for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markocsan, Nicolaie; Gupta, Mohit; Joshi, Shrikant; Nylén, Per; Li, Xin-Hai; Wigren, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Liquid feedstock plasma spraying (LFPS) involves deposition of ultrafine droplets of suspensions or solution precursors (typically ranging from nano- to submicron size) and permits production of coatings with unique microstructures that are promising for advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. This paper reviews the recent progress arising from efforts devoted to development of high-performance TBCs using the LFPS approach. Advancements in both suspension plasma spraying and solution precursor plasma spraying, which constitute the two main variants of LFPS, are presented. Results illustrating the different types of the microstructures that can be realized in LFPS through appropriate process parameter control, model-assisted assessment of influence of coating defects on thermo-mechanical properties and the complex interplay between pore coarsening, sintering and crystallite growth in governing thermal conductivity are summarized. The enhancement in functional performances/lifetime possible in LFPS TBCs with multilayered architectures and by incorporating new pyrochlore chemistries such as gadolinium zirconate, besides the conventional single 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia insulating ceramic layer, is specifically highlighted.

  13. Use of Repeated Fluoropolymer Suspensions to Obtain Composite Electrochemical Coating Based on Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikhina, T. A.; Zemtsova, E. A.; Fuks, C. L.

    2017-11-01

    This article deals with the issues of utilization of the waste products of fluoropolymers, namely, the suspensions of fluoroplasts that have lost their consumer properties. Such waste is recommended to be used as a filler of zinc coatings to provide increased corrosion resistance. Using the method of mathematical planning of the experiment, the authors establish the optimal compositions of galvanizing chloride-ammonium electrolytes to obtain the corrosion-resistant composite electrochemical coatings (CEC) of zinc-fluoropolymer. As a result, coatings with a finely crystalline structure were obtained differing in the distribution pattern on the surface of the samples and depending on the variation in the zinc concentration in the electrolytes. The samples of steel reinforcement with the zinc-fluoropolymer coating were tested on corrosion resistance. The increase of anticorrosive properties in CEC zinc-fluoropolymer and a slight decrease in microhardness were indicated.

  14. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    plasma system[4]. The system named SoftPlasma™ is equipped with unique three-phase pulsed AC voltage. Low energy plasma polymerization has almost no thermal load for sensitive polymer materials[5]. Plasma polymerized coatings are highly cross-linked, pin-hole free and provide hydrophilic or hydrophobic...... synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)[3]. This enabled a surface segregation of the more hydrophilic block to the polymer/air interface and enrichment of the surface with PMEA. Here we present another way to modify a surface with this material - plasma polymerization in a low energy...... properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  15. Durability of multi layered plasma and HVOF coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mutairi, Sultan A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of variable compositional coating layers on their mechanical and chemical behaviour under certain environments typically experienced in the Oil and Gas Industry. The research centers on using thermal spray coating techniques such as the HVOF and plasma spray equipment. The coating was applied onto selected carbon steel substrates (API-5L, Schedule-40, Grade-B) to simulate the material application used in oil and gas components that subjec...

  16. PROCESSING AND CHARACTERISATION OF HIGH-VELOCITY SUSPENSION FLAME SPRAYED (HVSFS BIOACTIVE GLASS COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNI BOLELLI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The High-Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS technique was employed in order to deposit bioactive glass coatings onto titanium substrates. Two different glass compositions were examined: the classical 45S5 Bioglass and a newly-developed SiO2–CaO–K2O–P2O5 glass, labelled as “Bio-K”. Suitable raw materials were melted in a furnace and fritted by casting into water. The frit was dry-milled in a porcelain jar and subsequently attrition-milled in isopropanol. The resulting micronsized powders were dispersed in a water+isopropanol mixture, in order to prepare suitable suspensions for the HVSFS process. The deposition parameters were varied; however, all coatings were obtained by performing three consecutive torch cycles in front of the substrate. The thickness and porosity of the coatings were significantly affected by the chosen set of deposition parameters; however, in all cases, the layer produced during the third torch cycle was thicker and denser than the one produced during the first cycle. As the system temperature increases during the spraying process, the particles sprayed during the last torch cycle remain at T > Tg while they spread, so that interlamellar viscous flow sintering takes place, favouring the formation of such denser microstructure. Both coatings are entirely glassy; however, micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that, whereas the 45S5 coating is structurally identical to the corresponding bulk glass, the “Bio-K” coating is somewhat different from the bulk one.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR PLASMA SPRAY CERAMIC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Develop a set equipment for plasma forming ceramic coatings. The article presents characteristics and parameters of the developed complex equipment for formation of plasma ceramic coatings as well as results of its testing. Methods of research is based on studies of structural elements composite plasma coatings system ZrO2 – Y2O3  obtained  using  developed complex equipment. One of the most effective ways to protect the components from high temperature corrosion and oxidation is formation on the surface of plasma thermal barrier coatings. For thermal barrier coating has very strict requirements: сharacterized by a smooth change of physico-mechanical properties (porosity, microhardness, elastic modulus in the cross section of the metal substrate to the outer ceramic layer; to withstand multiple cycles of thermal cycling from room temperature to the operating temperature; to maintain gastightness under operating conditions and thus ensure a sufficiently high level of adhesive strength. For realization of new technological schemes applying thermal barrier coatings with high operational characteristics was developed, patented and manufactured a range of new equipment. The experiments show that authors developed PBG-1 plasmatron and powder feeder PPBG-04 have at least 2–3 times the service life during the deposition of ceramic materials compared to the standard equipment of the company "Plasma-Technik", by changing the structure of the cathode-anode plasma torch assembly and construction of the delivery unit of the feeder to facilitate the uniform supply of the powder into the plasma jet and the best of his penetration. The result is better plasma coatings with improved operational characteristics: adhesion strength is increased to 1.3–2 times, material utilization in 1.5–1.6 times microhardness 1.2–1.4 times the porosity is reduced by 2–2.5 times.

  18. Antifouling coatings for dental implants: Polyethylene glycol-like coatings on titanium by plasma polymerization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buxadera-Palomero, Judit; Canal, Cristina; Torrent-Camarero, Sergi; Garrido, Beatriz; Javier Gil, Francisco; Rodríguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper is the development of a polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating on the titanium surface by plasma polymerization to obtain a novel improved surface with suitable low bacterial adhesion and adequate cell response...

  19. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a ...

  20. Erosion of marker coatings exposed to Pilot-PSI plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, P.; Hakola, A.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.; Aints, M.; I. Jõgi,; Kiisk, M.; Kozlova, J.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Lissovski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study plasma-induced erosion processes. Samples with ITER-relevant coatings were exposed to controlled plasma fluxes whose parameters were characteristic to those occurring in the reactor walls. After the experiments,

  1. Photocatalytic Degradation of NOM for Power Plant Feedwater using Coating and Suspension of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Eman A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of coating and suspension of Degussa P25 TiO2 photocatalyst to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from surface water for use as power plant feedwater. The catalyst yield, transmittance intensity and X-ray pattern as a function of the number of coatings were characterized. In addition, P25 coating photocatalytic activity was studied. The photocatalytic activity also of P25 suspension with different catalyst concentrations and the reusing of the catalyst without and with regeneration was investigated. Results obtained show that the P25 coatings were transparent with good adhesion to the glass substrate. P25 suspension was found to be more effective in the NOM photodegradation and gave a higher rate constant compared to P25 coating. The maximum rate constants were 0.028 and 0.015 min(-1) at 0.7 g/L P25 suspension and 4 coatings, respectively. After four runs without regeneration and three runs with regeneration of P25 reusing, the photoactivity to remove NOM was still significant.

  2. Preparation of suspensions of phospholipid-coated microbubbles by coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farook, U; Stride, E; Edirisinghe, M J

    2009-03-06

    The use of phospholipid-coated microbubbles for medical applications is gaining considerable attention. However, the preparation of lipid-coated microbubble suspensions containing the ideal size and size distribution of bubbles still represents a considerable challenge. The most commonly used preparation methods of sonication and mechanical agitation result in the generation of polydisperse microbubbles with diameters ranging from less than 1 microm to greater than 50 microm. Efforts have been made via distinctly different techniques such as microfluidic and electrohydrodynamic bubbling to prepare lipid-coated microbubbles with diameters less than 10 microm and with a narrow size distribution, and recent results have been highly promising. In this paper, we describe a detailed investigation of the latter method that essentially combines liquid and air flow, and an applied electric field to generate microbubbles. A parametric plot was constructed between the air flow rate (Qg) and the lipid suspension flow rate (Ql) to identify suitable flow rate regimes for the preparation of phospholipid-coated microbubbles with a mean diameter of 6.6 microm and a standard deviation of 2.5 microm. The parametric plot has also helped in developing a scaling equation between the bubble diameter and the ratio Qg/Ql. At ambient temperature (22 degrees C), these bubbles were very stable with their size remaining almost unchanged for 160 min. The influence of higher temperatures such as the human body temperature (37 degrees C) on the size and stability of the microbubbles was also explored. It was found that the mean bubble diameter fell rapidly to begin with but then stabilized at 1-2 microm after 20 min.

  3. Stiffness of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiladitya Paul

    2017-01-01

    .... In this paper, the Young’s modulus of TBC top coat, measured using different techniques, such as four-point bending, indentation and impulse excitation is reported, along with a brief description of how the techniques probe...

  4. Plasma-sprayed self-lubricating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H. H.; Logan, W. R.; Harada, Y.

    1982-01-01

    One of the most important criterion for acceptable commercial application of a multiple phase composition is uniformity and reproducibility. This means that the performance characteristics of the coat - e.g., its lubricating properties, bond strength to the substrate, and thermal properties - can be readily predicted to give a desired performance. The improvement of uniformity and reproducibility of the coats, the oxidation behavior at three temperature ranges, the effect of bond coat and the effect of preheat treatment as measured by adhesive strength tests, coating examination procedures, and physical property measurements were studied. The following modifications improved the uniformity and reproducibility: (1) changes and closer control in the particle size range of the raw materials used, (2) increasing the binder content from 3.2% to 4.1% (dried weight), and (3) analytical processing procedures using step by step checking to assure consistency.

  5. Instability of dilute suspensions in a channel coated with porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Wu, Zhenxing

    2017-11-01

    We present the linear instability analysis of plane Poiseuille flow of low concentrated suspensions in a channel coated with random soft porous media. The system consists of low concentrated suspensions over soft random porous media at low Reynolds numbers. We used the linear stability analysis, carried out via spectral methods to model perturbations from the coupled Brinkman and suspension models. To calibrate our code and our calculation procedure, we compared our data to the classical plane Poiseuille flow of previous works. Our results are in good agreement with Orszag's result to solve the Orr-Sommerfeld instability equation. In the limit when Reynolds number is very low and there is no porous media in the channel, we found stability in the system, i.e., the characteristics of incompressible Newtonian flows in a smooth Poiseuille flow. However, we found the depth ratio between free fluid and porous medium, the porosity, and permeability of porous medium have critical effect on instability. Depending on these parameters, the instability occurs in the so-called fluid mode or porous mode. Supported by ARO No. W911NF-17-1-0406.

  6. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  7. Liquid Plasma Synthesis of Carbon Coated Iron Oxide Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Aysegul; Hershkowitz, Noah; Eren, Esin; Uygun, Emre; Celik Cogal, Gamze; Yurdabak Karaca, Gozde; Manolache, Sorin; Sundaram, Gunasekaran; Sadak, Omer; Oksuz, Lutfi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, magnetic metal or metal oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon are important in biomedical applications. The relevant reason to study toxicity of the magnetic nanoparticles coated by carbon is that they have great potential to contribute to cancer treatment. In this work, the synthesis of iron oxide nano-particles coated by graphitic carbon shells using pulsed plasma in liquid method. Short duration of RF plasma discharge, low electrical energy and fast quenching of the surrounding media can let to synthesize various kinds of pure nanoparticles. Corresponding author: ayseguluygun@sdu.edu.tr, lutfioksuz@sdu.edu.tr.

  8. Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. The major drawback of these ceramic components is their inherent brittleness. Ion chambers, in which these ceramic spacers are replaced by metallic components with plasma spray coated alumina, have been developed in our ...

  9. Plasma-synthesised carbon-based coatings for cardiovascular applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current cardiovascular stent platforms interact poorly with the human vasculature and still rely on drug therapy to avoid early failure due to blood clotting. A drug-free coating technology that could fully integrate an implanted stent through a combination of hemocompatibility and differential regulation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells would present a clear advantage over existing clinical approaches. Plasma discharges have been used as a coating technology in a wide range of applications over the last decades. Carbon-based thin films prepared by different plasma deposition methods are usually regarded as biocompatible materials as they are able to prevent the adhesion and activation of platelets and preferentially promote the adsorption of albumin over fibrinogen. However, the available literature seldom addresses entirely the aspects of biocompatibility and the challenging mechanical demands of such materials for stent coating. Recent advances suggest that plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition can be used to prepare carbon-based thin films that allow for the linker-free immobilization of bioactive molecules. If successfully applied to a stent these coatings could represent a step towards stent specific biofunctionalization. This review examines the feasibility of using plasma discharges for the synthesis of carbon-based biocompatible materials for cardiovascular implantable devices, particularly stents.

  10. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  11. Stable Aqueous Suspension and Self-Assembly of Graphite Nanoplatelets Coated with Various Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs with an average thickness of 1–10 nm present an inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes in many applications. In this paper, stable aqueous suspension of xGnP was achieved by noncovalent functionalization of xGnP with polyelectrolytes. The surfactants and polyelectrolytes were compared with respect to their ability to suspend graphite nanoplatelets. The surface charge of the nanoplatelets was characterized with zeta potential measurements, and the bonding strength of the polymer chains to the surface of xGnP was characterized with Raman spectroscopy. This robust method opens up the possibility of using this inexpensive nanomaterial in many applications, including electrochemical devices, and leads to simple processing techniques such as layer-by-layer deposition. Therefore, the formation of xGnP conductive coatings using layer-by-layer deposition was also demonstrated.

  12. Program for plasma-sprayed self-lubricating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for preparing composite powders of the three coating components was developed and a procedure that can be used in applying uniform coatings of the composite powders was demonstrated. Composite powders were prepared by adjusting particle sizes of the components and employing a small amount of monoaluminum phosphate as an inorganic binder. Quantitative microscopy (image analysis) was found to be a convenient method of characterizing the composition of the multiphase plasma-sprayed coatings. Area percentages and distribution of the components were readily obtained by this method. The adhesive strength of the coating to a nickel-chromium alloy substrate was increased by about 40 percent by a heat treatment of 20 hours at 650 C.

  13. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 4 ... The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same ...

  14. Advanced Nanoscale Coatings with Plasma Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atteridge, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A secondary research charter developed as this program proceeded was the assessment of the feasibility of using cored wire filled with WE-Co powder as a feed-stock for both plasma spray and twin-wire-arc spray (TWAS...

  15. Mineral-Based Coating of Plasma-Treated Carbon Fibre Rovings for Carbon Concrete Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kai; Lieboldt, Matthias; Liebscher, Marco; Fröhlich, Maik; Hempel, Simone; Butler, Marko; Schröfl, Christof; Mechtcherine, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon fibre roving were modified by means of a low temperature plasma treatment to improve their bonding with mineral fines; the latter serving as an inorganic fibre coating for the improved mechanical performance of carbon reinforcement in concrete matrices. Variation of the plasma conditions, such as gas composition and treatment time, was accomplished to establish polar groups on the carbon fibres prior to contact with the suspension of mineral particles in water. Subsequently, the rovings were implemented in a fine concrete matrix and their pull-out performance was assessed. Every plasma treatment resulted in increased pull-out forces in comparison to the reference samples without plasma treatment, indicating a better bonding between the mineral coating material and the carbon fibres. Significant differences were found, depending on gas composition and treatment time. Microscopic investigations showed that the samples with the highest pull-out force exhibited carbon fibre surfaces with the largest areas of hydration products grown on them. Additionally, the coating material ingresses into the multifilament roving in these specimens, leading to better force transfer between individual carbon filaments and between the entire roving and surrounding matrix, thus explaining the superior mechanical performance of the specimens containing appropriately plasma-treated carbon roving. PMID:28772719

  16. Mixed alumina and cobalt containing plasma electrolytic oxide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, G. Sh; Ved', M. V.; Karakurkchi, A. V.; Sakhnenko, N. D.

    2017-06-01

    Principles of plasma electrolytic oxidation of the AL25 aluminum alloy in diphosphate alkali solutions containing cobalt(2+) cations are discussed. It has been established that a variation in the concentration of the electrolyte components provides the formation of mixed-oxide coatings consisting of the basic matrix materials and the cobalt oxides of different content. An increase in the cobalt oxide content in the coating is achieved by the variation in electrolysis current density as well as the treatment time due to both the electrochemical and thermo-chemical reactions at substrate surface and in spark region. Current density intervals that provide micro-globular surface formation and uniform cobalt distribution in the coating are determined. The composition and morphology of the surface causes high catalytic properties of synthesized materials, which confirmed the results of testing in model reaction CO and benzene oxidation as well as fuel combustion for various modes of engine operation.

  17. A Study of the Influence of the Surrounding Gas on the Plasma Jet and Coating Quality during Plasma Spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Taikai; Ansar, Asif; Arnold, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Coating quality is affected by arc and plume instabilities during plasma spraying. In closed chamber plasma spraying, gradual drift is one of the intermediate instabilities, which is mainly due to the electrode erosion. This work focuses on the source of the gradual drift of the plasma jet and the influence on coating quality. The ambient state inside the chamber was controlled by a ventilation system and a vacuum system. The variation in the plasma jet was observed by a particle flux image (...

  18. Plasma Response to Lithium-Coated Plasma-Facing Components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.G. Bell, H.W. Kugel, R. Kaita, L.E. Zakharov, H. Schneider, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Bell, R. Maingi, S. Ding, S.M. Kaye, S.F. Paul, S.P. Gerhardt, J.M. Canik, J.C. Hosea, G. Taylor and the NSTX Research Team

    2009-08-20

    Experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have shown beneficial effects on the performance of divertor plasmas as a result of applying lithium coatings on the graphite and carbonfiber- composite plasma-facing components. These coatings have mostly been applied by a pair of lithium evaporators mounted at the top of the vacuum vessel which inject collimated streams of lithium vapor towards the lower divertor. In NBI-heated, deuterium H-mode plasmas run immediately after the application of lithium, performance modifications included decreases in the plasma density, particularly in the edge, and inductive flux consumption, and increases in the electron and ion temperatures and the energy confinement time. Reductions in the number and amplitude of ELMs were observed, including complete ELM suppression for periods up to 1.2 s, apparently as a result of altering the stability of the edge. However, in the plasmas where ELMs were suppressed, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities, although not of lithium itself which remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. The impurity buildup could be inhibited by repetitively triggering ELMs with the application of brief pulses of an n = 3 radial field perturbation. The reduction in the edge density by lithium also inhibited parasitic losses through the scrape-off layer of ICRF power coupled to the plasma, enabling the waves to heat electrons in the core of H-mode plasmas produced by NBI. Lithium has also been introduced by injecting a stream of chemically stabilized, fine lithium powder directly into the scrape-off layer of NBI-heated plasmas. The lithium was ionized in the SOL and appeared to flow along the magnetic field to the divertor plates. This method of coating produced similar effects to the evaporated lithium but at lower amounts.

  19. Preparation and corrosion resistance of a nanocomposite plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on Mg-1%Ca alloy formed in aluminate electrolyte containing titania nano-additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daroonparvar, Mohammadreza; Yajid, M. A. M.; Yusof, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles were utilized as suspension in alkaline aluminate electrolyte to form nanocomposite coatings on magnesium alloy containing 1 wt% calcium by plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Microhardness, wettability, potentiodynamic polarization, wettability, electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS), and immersion tests were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution to study corrosion behavior of the coated samples in reference to the uncoated Mg alloy. The coating with 4 g/L concentration of nanoparticles showed the highest microhardness, lowest hydrophilic properties and highest corrosion...... resistance. This coating substantially diminishes the Mg dissolution in the in 3.5% NaCl solution and increases the charge transfer resistance of the Mg alloy. Although higher concentrations of nanoparticles enhanced the defect density in the coating, they resulted in lower corrosion resistance. © 2016...

  20. Negative plasma potential in a multidipole chamber with a dielectric coated plasma boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Negative plasma potentials with respect to a grounded wall that was coated with a dielectric have been achieved in an electropositive plasma confined by a multidipole device. A Langmuir probe was used to measure the density and temperatures of the bi-Maxwellian distribution electrons and an emissive probe was used to measure the plasma potential profile near the plasma boundary. For many discharge parameters, the potential profile was that of a typical electropositive sheath, but it was shifted negative due to negative charge accumulated on the plasma-surface boundary. A virtual cathode was observed near the boundary when the neutral pressure, primary electron energy, and/or discharge current were low ({approx}2 x 10{sup -4} Torr, {approx}60 eV, and 80 mA, respectively). The behavior of the sheath potential was shown to be consistent with that predicted by particle balance and a qualitative mechanism for wall charging is presented.

  1. Synthesis of CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle and dispersion stability of its suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Xiaolan [Department of Inorganic Materials, School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)], E-mail: xlsong@hnu.cn; Jiang Nan; Li Yukun; Xu Dayu; Qiu Guanzhou [Department of Inorganic Materials, School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2008-07-15

    SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle prepared through sol-gel method was directly coated with CeO{sub 2} by means of chemical precipitation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), infrared (IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) were used to characterize the CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle. XRD patterns showed that the core region of the composite particles was amorphous SiO{sub 2}, and the shell region was fluorite-structured CeO{sub 2}. IR results indicated that the coating of the SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle with CeO{sub 2} evidently induced the presence of new bands at 960 cm{sup -1}, due to the vibration of Ce-O-Si. Isoelectric point of the CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle was about 5.6, which displayed a significant shift toward pure CeO{sub 2}. SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle showed a spherical morphology with the diameter about 300 nm and a uniform particle size. Dispersion behaviors of CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle under different conditions were studied in water suspension by investigating its zeta potential and absorbance. The results indicated that zeta potential was higher when pH value was about 10, corresponding to better dispersion stability. The dispersion effect of ultrasonic wave on CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle was markedly superior compared with mechanical stirring. The zeta potential grew up evidently with the increasing of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 concentration. A suspension with CeO{sub 2}-coated SiO{sub 2} at 0.02 wt.% was added in 0.05 g l{sup -1} anionic surfactant SDBS, and its pH value was adjusted within the range of 10-10.5. In this condition, the stable suspension without sedimentation time was successfully obtained.

  2. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  3. Polymerization of Vinylpyrrolidone to Form a Neutral Coating on Anionic Nanomaterials in Aqueous Suspension for Rapid Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P. C. Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials in water present an array of identifiable potential hazards to ecological and human health. There is no general consensus about the influence of anionic or cationic charge on the toxicity of nanomaterials on environmental ecology. One challenge is the limited number of scalable technologies available for the removal of charged nanomaterials from water. A new method based on polymer coating has been developed in our laboratory for rapid sedimentation of nanomaterials in aqueous suspension. Using colloidal silica as a model inorganic oxide, coating of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP around the SiO2 nanoparticles produced SiO2@PVP particles, as indicated by a linear increase of nephelometric turbidity. Purification of the water sample was afforded by total sedimentation of SiO2@PVP particles when left for 24 h. Characterization by capillary electrophoresis (CE revealed nearly zero ionic charge on the particles. Further coating of polydopamine (PDA around those particles in aqueous suspension produced an intense dark color due to the formation of SiO2@PVP@PDA. The SiO2@PVP@PDA peak appeared at a characteristic migration time of 4.2 min that allowed for quantitative CE-UV analysis to determine the original SiO2 concentration with enhanced sensitivity and without any ambiguous identity.

  4. Influence of plasma modification on hygienic properties of textile fabrics with nonporous membrane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesensky, E. F.; Ibragimov, R. G.; Vishnevskaya, O. V.; Sisoev, V. A.; Lutfullina, G. G.; Tihonova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    The work investigated the possibility of using plasma modification to improve the hygienic properties of textile materials with nonporous membrane coating to improve vapor-, air-permeability and water-resistant. Determined that, after plasma modification changes degree of supramolecular orderliness of the polymers nonporous membrane coating and the base fabric.

  5. Preparation and Performance of Plasma/Polymer Composite Coatings on Magnesium Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Hamzah, E.; Bagheriyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    A triplex plasma (NiCoCrAlHfYSi/Al2O3·13%TiO2)/polycaprolactone composite coating was successfully deposited on a Mg-1.2Ca alloy by a combination of atmospheric plasma spraying and dip-coating techniques. The NiCoCrAlHfYSi (MCrAlHYS) coating, as the first layer, contained a large number of voids,...

  6. Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

  7. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    2010-01-01

    . This configuration enables a gentle treatment of sensitive materials like low-density polyethylene foils and biodegradable materials. SiOx coatings deposited in the novel setup were compared with other state of the art plasma coatings and were found to possess equally good or better barrier properties. The barrier...... effect of single-layer coatings deposited under different reaction conditions was studied. The coating thickness and the carbon content in the coatings were found to be the critical parameters for the barrier property. The novel barrier coating was applied on different polymeric materials...

  8. Equipment and technologies of air-plasma spraying of functional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a short description of the DC plasma torch "PNK-50" structural features (ITAM SB RAS, Novosibirsk used for spraying of functional coatings with powder materials as well as gives the results of thermophysical and technological studies of spraying regimes. We present preliminary results of the plasma torch supersonic modification development and the results of industrial approbation of the plasma torch and of multi-purposes functional coatings deposition processes.

  9. Failure behaviors of vacuum plasma sprayed tungsten coatings for plasma facing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, F. L.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Zheng, X. B.

    2009-04-01

    About 1 mm vacuum plasma sprayed tungsten (VPS-W) coatings were fabricated on the copper chromium zirconium (CuCrZr) alloys substrate. The failure behaviors were studied by means of the steady state and transient heat load using the electron beam facility and the Nd: YAG laser, respectively. The results indicated that the columnar crystals grew up and then micro-cracks between the lamellar layers were observed. Macro-cracks and delamination appeared with the fatigue cycles increase. Finally, the coating failed. The surface cracks were also observed and propagated during the fatigue tests. The failure behaviors of the transient heat load are as follows: the homogeneous melting and micro-cracks, melting tungsten ejection which enhanced the erosion of tungsten due to the splash and evaporation. In addition, the physical properties of W coatings such as porosity, Vickers hardness were degraded. The roughing phenomenon was not easy to be observed due to the rough surface characteristic of VPS-W coatings.

  10. Performance of coated columbium and tantalum alloys in plasma arc reentry simulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Merutka, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The evaluation of coated refractory metals screened in stagnation model plasma arc tests is reported. Columbium alloys FS-85, C-129Y, and Cb-752 coated with Si-20Cr-20Fe (R512E) were tested at 1390 C. Three silicide coatings on Ta-10W were tested at 1470 C. Half-hour cycles and a 6500 N/sqm stagnation pressure were used. The best R512E coated columbium alloy was FS-85 with first local coating breakdowns occurring in 12 to 50 cycles. At coating defects, low metal recession rates (0.005 mm/min) were generally observed on coated columbium alloys while high rates (0.15 mm/min) were observed on coated Ta-10W. Coated columbium suffered large emittance losses (to below 0.7) due to surface refractory metal pentoxide formation.

  11. Rheological and physical properties of gelatin suspensions containing cellulose nanofibers for potential coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ricardo D; Skurtys, Olivier; Osorio, Fernando; Zuluaga, Robin; Gañán, Piedad; Castro, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Rheological and physical properties of edible coating formulations containing gelatin, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), and glycerol are characterized. Measured properties are analyzed in order to optimize edible coating thickness. Results show that coating formulations density increases linearly with gelatin concentration in presence of CNFs. Surface tension decreases with either gelatin or CNF concentration increases. Power law model well described the rheological behavior of edible coating formulations since determination coefficient was high (R(2 )> 0.98) and standard error was low (SE gelatin concentrations but it decreases with glycerol concentrations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Antibacterial Silver Coating on Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Hang, Ruiqiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to endow the commercial pure titanium dental implant material with antibacterial property and aimed at avoiding the invalidation that is caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface, a silver coating was fabricated via double glow plasma surface alloying. The antibacterial property of the silver coating was assessed via in vitro estimation. The results showed that a continuous and compact coating was formed. The silver coating had absolute superiority in antibacterial property to raw commercial pure titanium. Double glow plasma surface alloying with silver on commercial pure titanium dental implant material could be considered as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial adhesion.

  13. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  14. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-09-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  15. Plasma of a vacuum-arc discharge for obtaining carbon-based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikus, M. I.; Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.; Trifonov, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Formation of the carbon films and coatings of different structural modifications can be efficiently achieved by sputtering graphite in a vacuum-arc plasma source. In this case the plasma flux is shaped in a form of a current-carrying jet with fairly distinct lateral borders. Spectral analysis shows that this plasma flux contains positively charged, excited and neutral carbon particles. In this paper is shown that for a technological cycle of deposition of a carbon-based coating it is possible to form a sublayer of the substrate material carbide, providing a possibility for the later growth of a well-formed coating.

  16. Effect of gun current on the microstructure and crystallinity of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morks, M.F. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)]. E-mail: magdimorks@hotmail.com; Kobayashi, A. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)

    2007-06-30

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material because its chemical structure is close to the natural bone. Its bioactive properties make it attractive material in biomedical applications. Gas tunnel type plasma spraying (GTPS) technique was employed in the present study to deposit HA coatings on SUS 304 stainless steel substrate. GTPS is composed of two plasma sources: gun which produces internal low power plasma (1.3-8 kW) and vortex which produces the main plasma with high power level (10-40 kW). Controlling the spraying parameters is the key role for spraying high crystalline HA coatings on the metallic implants. In this study, the arc gun current was changed while the vortex arc current was kept constant at 450 A during the spraying process of HA coatings. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of gun current on the microstructure, phase crystallinity and hardness properties of HA coatings. The surface morphology and microstructure of as-sprayed coatings were examined by scanning electron microscope. The phase structure of HA coatings was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. HA coatings sprayed at high gun current (100 A) are dense, and have high hardness. The crystallinity of HA coatings was decreased with the increasing in the gun current. On the other hand, the hardness was slightly decreased and the coatings suffer from some porosity at gun currents 0, 30 and 50 A.

  17. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating with Bond Coat Species in Cyclic Thermal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungyu Paik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the bond coat species on the delamination or fracture behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was investigated using the yclic thermal fatigue and thermal-shock tests. The interface microstructures of each TBC showed a good condition without cracking or delamination after flame thermal fatigue (FTF for 1429 cycles. The TBC with the bond coat prepared by the air-plasma spray (APS method showed a good condition at the interface between the top and bond coats after cyclic furnace thermal fatigue (CFTF for 1429 cycles, whereas the TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS methods showed a partial cracking (and/or delamination and a delamination after 780 cycles, respectively. The TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the APS, HVOF and LPPS methods were fully delaminated (>50% after 159, 36, and 46 cycles, respectively, during the thermal-shock tests. The TGO thickness in the TBCs was strongly dependent on the both exposure time and temperature difference tested. The hardness values were found to be increased only after the CFTF, and the TBC with the bond coat prepared by the APS showed the highest adhesive strength before and after the FTF.

  18. Improving adhesion of powder coating on PEEK composite: Influence of atmospheric plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Aurélie; Ho, Thu Huong; Fahs, Ahmad; Lafabrier, Aurore; Louarn, Guy; Bacharouche, Jalal; Airoudj, Aissam; Aragon, Emmanuel; Chailan, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    In aeronautic industries, powder coatings are increasingly used because of environmental considerations. During the deposition of such a coating on a substrate piece, the main objective is to obtain a good coating/substrate adhesion. In this study, the targeted substrate is a Poly-(Ether EtherKetone)-(PEEK) based composite material. Due to the poor surface energy of PEEK, a surface treatment is necessary in order to enhance its adhesion with the coating. In this purpose, atmospheric plasma treatment has been chosen and the influence of plasma parameters has been studied. Four scan speed nozzles and three gases (Air, N2 and Argon) plasma has been tested. The increase of adhesion with increasing wettability, polarity and nanoroughness has been evidenced. A particular study of the type of grafted polar functionalities according to gas nature allowed to better understand the plasma mechanism and the cross-impact of polarity and nanoroughness in adhesion enhancement.

  19. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Wells, Russell P.; Craven, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ion because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi SB.; Fathi MH. BS; MSC; Feizi Gh; Mortazavi V

    2001-01-01

    Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular cani...

  1. Composite ion-plasma coatings with nanodisperse reinforced phase: scientific and practical aspects of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzhozovskii, B.; Martynov, V.; Zinina, E.; Brovkova, M.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the main aspects of the synthesis of composite coatings in the surface layer of figurine-shaped product using low-temperature plasma of combined discharge. The example of cutting tools shows the benefits of using the coatings in extreme conditions that occur in machining of materials by cutting.

  2. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  3. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  4. Analysis of scattering wave for a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bo; Yang, Feng; Hao, Honggang; Li, Changyong

    2013-05-01

    Object coated with plasma has stimulated great interests of many people because of its stealth capability. The study on a conducting cylinder coated with coaxial plasma is very much, but there are little works on a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric plasma. In this article, a model for a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric unmagnetized plasma is set up, the scattering cross section of the object cylinder is studied by adopting the superposition of cylindrical wave functions and the coordinate transformation, where these wave functions are the solutions of Maxwell's equations with boundary conditions in cylindrical coordinates. The results show that the radar cross section for a conducting cylinder coated with eccentric plasma in every direction decrease obviously with an increase of the distance between two eccentric axes, but is almost not impacted by electron-neutral collision frequency of plasma, and the backscattering cross section of the target reduce with the increase of electron density. Comparing with the coaxial model, the backscattering cross section of the eccentric model has a smaller value in a wide frequency band. This is of significance for the target plasma stealth technology in practice.

  5. [In vitro comparison of antibacterial properties of plasma sprayed wollastonite coatings loading silver and gentamicin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-qi; Li, Bao-e; Liu, Xuan-yong; Feng, Yu; Cao, Cong

    2008-12-15

    To develop antibacterial coatings for orthopedic implants with a sustained release of drugs. Wollastonite coatings were deposited on the titanium substrates by an atmospheric plasma spray system. After soaking in weight percent of 5% AgNO(3) solution for 24 h, the wollastonite coatings loading silver were obtained. Gentamicin were loaded on the wollastonite coatings by collagen grafting process. The release rates of drugs from wollastonite coatings were investigated by the in vitro solution soaking test. One strain of S. aureus was used in zone of inhibition test to evaluate the antibacterial properties of drug loaded wollastonite coatings, and the cell culture test was used to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Silver and gentamicin loaded wollastonite coatings were successfully prepared. The release of silver ions from the silver loaded wollastonite coatings lasted 50 d in deionized water, effectively inhibiting the growth of S. aureus for 40 d. While an initial burst release of gentamicin was found during the in vitro solution soaking test. The gentamicin released from gentamicin loaded wollastonite coatings can inhibit the growth of S. aureus for 18 d. Both the two kinds of antibacterial wollastonite coatings showed no adverse effect on cellular adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression. Compared with gentamicin loaded wollastonite coatings, silver loaded wollastonite coatings may have more promising clinical applications due to the even and long-time antibacterial agent release.

  6. Ion-Plasma Diffusion Aluminide Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades (Structure and Properties)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.; Budinovskii, S. A.; Terekhova, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    An ion-plasma method for depositing alloy diffusion aluminide coatings on high-temperature alloys, which favorably differs from the traditional processes, is considered. The special features of formation of ion-plasma diffusion coatings on the surface of high-temperature alloys in single-stage and double-stage processes are considered. The process of formation of such coatings and their effect on the long-term high-temperature strength of nickel-base alloys is studied. Examples of advantages of the new method are presented.

  7. Properties and structure of coatings from PG-SR powders prepared by a plasma method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. G.

    1998-08-01

    In recent years, a plasma method for obtaining coatings with the use of a controlled electric arc instead of an uncontrolled welding arc has found wide application in various branches of industry. The Laboratory of Materials Science at the Institute of Coal of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences is working on the possibility of using plasma strengthening coatings for increasing the wear resistance of parts of mining equipment. A whole spectrum of coated parts for hydraulic supports and the equipment of concentration plants with an increased service life and wear resistance has been suggested.

  8. Large-aperture plasma-assisted deposition of inertial confinement fusion laser coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, James B; Kupinski, Pete; Rigatti, Amy L; Schmid, Ansgar W; Lambropoulos, John C; Papernov, Semyon; Kozlov, Alexei; Spaulding, John; Sadowski, Daniel; Chrzan, Z Roman; Hand, Robert D; Gibson, Desmond R; Brinkley, Ian; Placido, Frank

    2011-03-20

    Plasma-assisted electron-beam evaporation leads to changes in the crystallinity, density, and stresses of thin films. A dual-source plasma system provides stress control of large-aperture, high-fluence coatings used in vacuum for substrates 1m in aperture.

  9. Preparation of Lanthanum Zirconate Coatings by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. Z.; Coyle, T.; Zhao, D.

    2014-06-01

    Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) can synthesize powders and deposit the coatings synchronously. The lanthanum zirconate coatings are deposited by SPPS in the present study, and the dense coating can be obtained through changing the precursor solution. The addition of urea can change the heat exchange process for some precursor mixtures. However, almost no effect can be found on the microstructure of powder and coating by the addition of urea. The extra heat energy caused by the addition of urea is so small, as compared with the heat input by the present plasma jet, so that the heating effect can be ignored. The porosity of coatings increase when the LaCl3·7H2O instead of La(NO3)3·6H2O reacts with Zr(CH3CO2)4.

  10. Vacuum Plasma Spraying W-coated Reduced Activation Structural Steels for Fusion Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are considered as candidate materials for plasma facing materials of the first wall and diverter components in fusion reactor systems because of high sputtering resistance and low tritium retention in a fusion environment. Therefore, it is considered that the joining between W and reduced activation structural steels, and its evaluation, are critical issues for the development of fusion reactors. However, the joining between these materials is a very challenging process because of significant differences in their physical properties, particularly the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). For instance, the CTE of pure W is known to be about 4.3Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1}; however, that of martensitic steels reaches over three times, about 12-14Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1} at room temperature even up to 373K. Nevertheless, several joining techniques have been developed for joining between W and structural steels, such as a vapor deposition method, brazing and diffusion bonding. Meanwhile, vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) is supposed to be one of the prospective methods to fabricate a sufficient W layer on the steel substrates because of the coating of a large area with a relatively high fabricating rate. In this study, the VPS method of W powders on reduced activation steels was employed, and its microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. ODS ferritic steels and F82H steel were coated by VPS-W, and the microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. A microstructure analysis revealed that pure W was successfully coated on steel substrates by the VPS process without an intermediate layer, in spite of a mismatch of the CTE between dissimilar materials. After neutron irradiation, irradiation hardening significantly occurred in the VPSW. However, the hardening of VPS-W was lesser than that of bulk W irradiated HFIR at 773K. Substrate materials, ODS ferritic steels, and F82H steel, did not show irradiation hardening

  11. Effect of plasma nitriding on electrodeposited Ni–Al composite coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daemi, N.; Mahboubi, F.; Alimadadi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    In this study plasma nitriding is applied on nickel–aluminum composite coating, deposited on steel substrate. Ni–Al composite layers were fabricated by electro-deposition process in Watt’s bath containing Al particles. Electrodeposited specimens were subjected to plasma atmosphere comprising of N2....... The corrosion resistance of composite coatings was measured by potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. The obtained results show that plasma nitriding process leads to an increase in microhardness and corrosion resistance, simultaneously....

  12. Experimental investigation on erosive wear behaviour of plasma spray coated stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisha, K. G.; Sreenivas Rao, K. V.; Anil, K. C.; Sanman, S.

    2017-04-01

    Slurry erosion is an implicit problem in many engineering industrial components such as ore carrying pipelines, slurry pumps and extruders. Even the water turbine blades are subjected to erosive wear when the water contains considerable amount of silt. In the present study, Al2O3-40%TiO2 powder particles of average particle size of 50 micrometer were deposited on EN56B martenistic stainless steel by atmospheric plasma spray technique. Ni/Cr was pre coated to work as bond coat for good adhesion between coating and the substrate material. A coating thickness of 200 micrometer was achieved. Coated and un-coated substrates were subjected to slurry erosion test as per ASTM G-119 standard. Slurry erosion test rig was used to evaluate the erosion properties at room temperature condition by varying the spindle speed. Scanning electron microphotographs were taken before and after the slurry erosion test. Microstructures reveal uniform distribution of coating materials. Eroded surface shows lip, groove, and crater formation and dense coating resulting in less porosity. Micro hardness test was evaluated and reported. EDX analysis confirms the presence of Al, Ti and O2 particles. It was observed that, Al2O3-40%TiO2 coated substrates exhibit superior erosion resistance as compared to un-coated substrates due to higher hardness and less coating porosity.

  13. Microstructural characterization of radio frequency and direct current plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. C.; Pfender, E.; Dzur, B.; Nutsch, G.

    2000-06-01

    Microstructures of radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings deposited onto steel substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), polarizing optical microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Because RF and DC plasmas produce different particle heating and acceleration, the morphology, phase structure, and fracture modes of the coatings vary substantially. In the case of RF coatings, a clear lamellar microstructure with relatively thick lamellae was observed, which is due to the large particles and the low particle velocities, with α-Al2O3 as the predominant phase and with delamination type of fracture detected on the fracture surface. In contrast, the DC coatings consisted of predominantly metastable γ-Al2O3 as well as amorphous phases, with a mixed fracture mode of the coating observed. In spite of limited interfacial interdiffusion detected by EMPA, TEM showed an interfacial layer existing at the interface between the coating and the substrate for both cases. For RF coatings, the interfacial layer on the order of 1 µm was composed of three sublayers, each of which was different in composition and morphology. However, the interfacial layer for the DC coating consisted primarily of an amorphous phase, containing both coating and substrate materials with or without platelike microcrystals; although in some regions a thick amorphous Al2O3 layer was in direct contact with the substrate.

  14. Microstructural Characteristics and Performances of Cr2O3 and Cr2O3 -15%TiO2 S-HVOF Coatings Obtained from Water-Based Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Potthoff, Annegret; Barbosa, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Cr2O3-based coatings offer high hardness, excellent sliding wear performance, and corrosion resistance. Therefore, they are widely applied in the paper industry, as well as for pumps and mechanical sealing systems. Compared to the conventional spray processes, the technology of suspension-HVOF spraying (S-HVOF) allows the production of dense, finely structured coatings with smoother surfaces and improved mechanical properties by using submicron-scaled raw materials. This work investigates the microstructure and performances of Cr2O3 and Cr2O3-15%TiO2 coatings obtained by S-HVOF starting from water-based suspensions. For the development of the suspensions with binary composition, two routes were used to produce ready-to-spray suspensions: (a) mixture of two stable suspensions in the desired ratio, and (b) dispersion of an appropriate alloyed material in the solvent. In order to evaluate the potential of suspension spraying over the conventional APS and HVOF processes, the mechanical properties, corrosion, and sliding wear resistances of the S-HVOF coatings were compared with those of the coatings produced from feedstock spray powders. From the experimental results, it was observed that, in most of the cases, the suspension-sprayed coatings showed denser microstructures, enhanced mechanical properties, wear resistance, and superior corrosion performances.

  15. Wettability and Corrosion Behavior of Chemically Modified Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Nanocomposite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, S. S.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Barati Darband, Gh.; Abolhasani, A.; Sabour Rouhaghdam, A.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of potassium stearate on the wettability behavior, corrosion resistance, roughness and thickness of reinforced and unreinforced plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings with Si3N4 nanopowders. Morphological characteristic, corrosion behavior and wetting properties of the coatings were evaluated using SEM, cyclic polarization and Wilhelmy plate method, respectively. In order to obtain a better evaluation of the contact angle, roughness of the coatings was studied by AFM. The results indicated that the nanocomposite hydrophobic coatings have the best corrosion resistance. Potassium stearate could repel water from the holes of coating by reacting with aluminum and producing aluminum stearate. The contact angle of nanocomposite and normal PEO coatings was increased up to 65° due to the addition of potassium stearate. This additive could also increase the hysteresis contact angle up to 51°.

  16. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  17. Effects of carbon impurity on deuterium retention in VPS-tungsten coatings exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, M.; Nakano, T.; Itami, K.; Wada, T.; Ueda, Y.; Tanabe, T.

    2011-08-01

    Carbon eroded from carbon armor tiles during plasma discharge was implanted into and accumulated in tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas. The D/C ratio of 0.06 ± 0.02 evaluated in the tungsten coating was half to one-quarter that in carbon codeposits formed at similar temperature of the tungsten coating. These results suggest that simultaneous use of carbon and tungsten coating would enhance tritium retention in the tungsten coating in future deuterium-tritium fusion devices. To investigate the carbon diffusion mechanism in the tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas, the carbon diffusion coefficient in tungsten coating was measured by tracer methods. Using the apparent carbon diffusion coefficient obtained in this study (˜8 × 10-19 m2/s), the carbon diffusion length in the tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas was evaluated to ˜100 nm. This diffusion length was quite shorter than that observed in the tungsten coating exposed to JT-60U divertor plasmas. Therefore, it remains possible that diffusion of implanted carbon in tungsten coating would be enhanced by other diffusion mechanisms which did not arise in the diffusion experiments or heat loads to the tungsten coating during transient events and plasma discharges with a strike point positioned on the tungsten-coated tiles.

  18. Effect of Al2O3 Reinforcement and Al2O3–13 wt% TiO2 Bond Coat on Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Mittal; Nath, S K; Satya Prakash

    2012-01-01

    In present work an attempt has been made to enhance mechanical properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating by addition of 10 wt% aluminum oxide. A bond coat of Al2O3-13TiO2 has been  applied to improve strength of hydroxyapatite composite coating. Mechanical properties of coatings with addition of alumina and with incorporation of bond coat have been investigated in accordance with the ASTM C 633-79. Results indicate that the tensile bond strength of hydroxyapatite coating increased b...

  19. D. C. plasma-sprayed coatings of nano-structured alumina-titania-silica

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Xian Liang

    2002-01-01

    nano-crystalline powders of omega(Al sub 2 O sub 3) = 95%, omega(TiO sub 2) = 3%, and omega(SiO sub 2) = 2%, were reprocessed into agglomerated particles for plasma spraying, by using consecutive steps of ball milling, slurry forming, spray drying, and heat treatment. D.C. plasma was used to spray the agglomerated nano-crystalline powders, and resultant coatings were deposited on the substrate of stainless steel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the morphology of the agglomerated powders and the cross section of the alumina-titania-silica coatings. Experimental results show that the agglomerated nano-crystalline particles are spherical, with a size from (10-90) mu m. The flow ability of the nano-crystalline powders is greatly improved after the reprocessing. The coatings deposited by the plasma spraying are mainly of nano-structure. Unlike conventional plasma-sprayed coatings, no laminar layer could be found in the nano-structured coatings. Although the nano-structured coatings have a lo...

  20. Remarkably Improved Dispersion Stability and Thermal Conductivity of WO₃-H₂O Suspension by SiO₂ Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bhupender; Mallick, Soumya Suddha; Pal, Bonamali

    2018-05-01

    The long term dispersion stability for an improved thermal conductivity is a challenging issue that needs to be solved for heat transfer applications. Hence, this research investigated that a thin layer of SiO2 coating (2-5 nm) over WO3 nanostructures (SiO2@WO3) of different shapes exhibit superior dispersion (0.01%) stability for longer duration (∼3 days) as evident by steady zeta potential (-30 ↔ -60.70 mV), no significant change in particle-size (139 ↔ 147 nm) distribution, density (1.001 ↔ 0.988 g/cm3) and refractive index (1.335 ↔ 1.332) etc., are indicator for colloidal stability relative to bare WO3 nanoparticles and bulk SiO2 aqueous suspension which quickly settles down within 1-2 hours after 30 min sonication at 23 °C. Thin Si-OH layer over WO3 surface imparts superior hydrophilicity, larger surface area for effective solute-solvent (SiO2@WO3-H2O) interaction for improved colloidal stability showing no sedimentation and color change of SiO2@WO3 dispersion (0.01%) even after 3 days due to repulsive interaction between negatively charged Si-O- particles. Thereby, thermal conductivity is found to be quite stable (0.631 ↔ 0.618 W/m K) up to 3 days, whereas aqueous suspension of bare WO3 and SiO2 particles quickly settle down and thermal conductivity rapidly decreased to a value of 0.584 W/m K for de-ionized water further indicates the significance of SiO2 coating. Depending on the thickness of SiO2 layer and volume fraction of SiO2@WO3, a maximum of 8-10% increment of thermal conductivity was achieved where anisotropic WO3 displayed always more (∼5%) thermal conductivity than typical spherical nanoparticles.

  1. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  2. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  3. B{sub 4}C protective coating under irradiation by QSPA-T intensive plasma fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzhinskij, O. I.; Barsuk, V. A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Begrambekov, L. B., E-mail: lbb@plasma.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Klimov, N. S.; Otroshchenko, V. G.; Putric, A. B. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The effect of the QSPA-T pulsed plasma irradiation on the crystalline boron carbide B{sub 4}C coating was examined. The duration of the rectangular plasma pulses was 0.5 ms with an interval of 5–10 min between pulses. The maximum power density in the central part of plasma stream was 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The coating thickness varied from 20 to 40 μm on different surface areas. Modification of the surface layers and transformation of the coating at elevated temperature under plasma pulse irradiation during four successive series of impulses are described. It is shown that the boron carbide coating withstood the full cycle of tests under irradiation with 100 plasma pulses with peak power density of 1GW/m{sup 2}. Constitutive surface deterioration was not detected and the boron carbide coating kept crystal structure B{sub 4}C throughout the irradiation zone at the surface depth no less 2 μm.

  4. Room-temperature aqueous plasma electrolyzing Al2O3 nano-coating on carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Meng, Yang; Shen, Yonghua; Chen, Weiwei; Cheng, Huanwu; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    A novel room-temperature aqueous plasma electrolysis technique has been developed in order to prepared Al2O3 nano-coating on each fiber within a carbon fiber bundle. The microstructure and formation mechanism of the Al2O3 nano-coating were systematically investigated. The oxidation resistance and tensile strength of the Al2O3-coated carbon fiber was measured at elevated temperatures. It showed that the dense Al2O3 nano-coating was relatively uniformly deposited with 80-120 nm in thickness. The Al2O3 nano-coating effectively protected the carbon fiber, evidenced by the slower oxidation rate and significant increase of the burn-out temperature from 800 °C to 950 °C. Although the bare carbon fiber remained ∼25 wt.% after oxidation at 700 °C for 20 min, a full destruction was observed, evidenced by the ∼0 GPa of the tensile strength, compared to ∼1.3 GPa of the Al2O3-coated carbon fiber due to the effective protection from the Al2O3 nano-coating. The formation mechanism of the Al2O3 nano-coating on carbon fiber was schematically established mainly based on the physic-chemical effect in the cathodic plasma arc zone.

  5. Tuning Surface Chemistry of Polyetheretherketone by Gold Coating and Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Zdeňka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Borovec, Jakub; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has good chemical and biomechanical properties that are excellent for biomedical applications. However, PEEK exhibits hydrophobic and other surface characteristics which cause limited cell adhesion. We have investigated the potential of Ar plasma treatment for the formation of a nanostructured PEEK surface in order to enhance cell adhesion. The specific aim of this study was to reveal the effect of the interface of plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices on adhesion and spreading of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The surface characteristics (polarity, surface chemistry, and structure) before and after treatment were evaluated by various experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrokinetic analysis). Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to examine PEEK surface morphology and roughness. The biological response of cells towards nanostructured PEEK was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to plasma treatment, gold coating improved PEEK wettability. The XPS method showed a decrease in the carbon concentration with increasing time of plasma treatment. Cell adhesion determined on the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices was directly proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample. Our results suggest that plasma treatment in a combination with gold coating could be used in biomedical applications requiring enhanced cell adhesion.

  6. Plasma treatment of thin film coated with graphene flakes for the reduction of sheet resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Seo, Jin Seok; Jeon, Min Hwan; Yang, Kyung Chae; Yeom, Geun Young

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of plasma treatment on the sheet resistance of thin films spray-coated with graphene flakes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Thin films coated with graphene flakes show high sheet resistance due to defects within graphene edges, domains, and residual oxygen content. Cl2 plasma treatment led to decreased sheet resistance when treatment time was increased, but when thin films were treated for too long the sheet resistance increased again. Optimum treatment time was related to film thickness. The reduction of sheet resistance may be explained by the donation of holes due to forming pi-type covalent bonds of Cl with carbon atoms on graphene surfaces, or by C--Cl bonding at the sites of graphene defects. However, due to radiation damage caused by plasma treatment, sheet resistance increased with increased treatment time. We found that the sheet resistance of PET film coated with graphene flakes could be decreased by 50% under optimum conditions.

  7. Electron transport in plasmas with lithium-coated plasma-facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig Michael

    The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) is a spherical tokamak designed to study the lowrecycling regime through the use of lithium-coated shells conformal to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). A lowered recycling rate is expected to flatten core Te profiles, raise edge Te, strongly affect n e profiles, and enhance confinement. To study these unique plasmas, a Thomson scattering diagnostic uses a ≤ 20 J, 30 ns FWHM pulsed ruby laser to measure Te and ne at 11 radial points on the horizontal midplane, spaced from the magnetic axis to the outer edge at a single temporal point for each discharge. Scattered light is imaged through a spectrometer onto an intensified CCD. The diagnostic is absolutely calibrated using a precision light source and Raman scattering. Measurements of n e are compared with line integrated density measurements from a microwave interferometer. Adequate signal to noise is obtained with ne ≥ 2 x10 18 m--3. Thomson profiles of plasmas following evaporation of lithium onto room-temperature plasmafacing components (PFCs) are used in conjunction with magnetic equilibria as input for TRANSP modeling runs. Neoclassical calculations are used to determine Ti profiles, which have levels that agree with passive charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) measurements. TRANSP results for confinement times and stored energies agree with diamagnetic loop measurements. Results of chie result in values as low as 7 m2/s near the core, which rise to around 100 m2/s near the edge. These are the first measurements of chie in LTX, or its predecessor, the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), with lithium PFCs.

  8. Preparing hydroxyapatite-silicon composite suspensions with homogeneous distribution of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for electrophoretic coating of NiTi bone implant and their effect on the surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, Vida [Research Center for Advanced Materials and Mineral Processing, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bonab, P.O.Box: 5551761167, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalil-Allafi, Jafar, E-mail: allafi@sut.ac.ir [Research Center for Advanced Materials and Mineral Processing, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Xia, Wei [Institute for Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, 44780 Germany (Germany); Parsa, Alireza B.; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Eggeler, Gunther [Institute for Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum Bochum, 44801 (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stable composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes was prepared using functionalization of and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes in HNO{sub 3} vapor and triethanolamine as dispersing agent. • The zeta potential of composite suspensions is less than that of hydroxyapatite suspension. • The silicon particles presence in suspension causes to decrease the charge carrier in suspension and current density during electrophoretic deposition. • The orientation of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes to parallel direction of the applied electric field during electrophoretic deposition can facilitate their moving towards the cathode and increase current density. • The more zeta potential of suspension, the lower roughness of coatings during electrophoretic deposition. - Abstract: Preparing a stable suspension is a main step towards the electrophoretically depositing of homogeneous and dense composite coatings on NiTi for its biomedical application. In the present study, different composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes were prepared using n-butanol and triethanolamine as media and dispersing agent, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were first functionalized in the nitric acid vapor for 15 h at 175 °C, and then mixed into suspensions. Thermal desorption spectroscopy profiles indicate the formation of functional groups on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes. An excellent suspension stability can be achieved for different amounts of triethanolamine. The amount of triethanolamine can be increased by adding a second component to a stable hydroxyapatite suspension due to an electrostatic interaction between components in suspension. The stability of composite suspension is less than that of the hydroxyapatite suspension, due to density differences, which under the gravitational force promote the demixing. The scanning electron microscopy images of the

  9. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  10. Oxidation Behavior of Titanium Carbonitride Coating Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spray Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Liao, Hanlin; Zhang, Nannan

    2017-10-01

    As a high-hardness and anti-frictional material, titanium carbonitride (TiCN) thick coatings or thin films are increasingly being used in many industrial fields. In the present study, TiCN coatings were obtained by atmospheric plasma spray synthesis or reactive plasma spray. In order to promote the reaction between the Ti particles and reactive gases, a home-made gas tunnel was mounted on a conventional plasma gun to perform the spray process. The oxidation behavior of the TiCN coatings under different temperatures in static air was carefully investigated. As a result, when the temperature was over 700 °C, the coatings suffered from serious oxidation, and finally they were entirely oxidized to the TiO2 phase at 1100 °C. The principal oxidation mechanism was clarified, indicating that the oxygen can permeate into the defects and react with TiCN at high temperatures. In addition, concerning the use of a TiCN coating in high-temperature conditions, the microhardness of the oxidized coatings at different treatment temperatures was also evaluated.

  11. Determination of residual stresses within plasma spray coating using Moire interferometry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yi, E-mail: qaz54809@sina.com [National Key Laboratory for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing, 100072 (China); Naval flying academy of China, Huludao, 125101 (China); Xu Binshi; Wang Haidou; Liu Ming; Lu Yaohui [National Key Laboratory for Remanufacturing, Academy of Armored Force Engineering, Beijing, 100072 (China)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, residual stresses of the Ni-Cr-B-Si coatings prepared by supersonic plasma spray processing were measured by moire interferometry and X-ray diffraction method. Moire interferometry method was used in measuring the distribution of residual stresses of the Ni-Cr-B-Si coatings alongside the specimen thickness direction, then the distribution of residual stresses both in the substrate and the coating was also analyzed. Experimental results showed that residual stresses in the coating and the substrate are tensile and compressive separately; residual stresses of the coating are diminished with the increase of the distance from the coating surface and almost zero at the coating-substrate interface; the maximum of compressive residual stresses of the substrate are present to the vicinity of the coating-substrate interface. It could be concluded that residual stresses in the specimen would result from the dismatch of thermophysical properties between the coating and substrate during the spray process, and the distribution of residual stresses of the substrate would be influenced by the sandblasting prior to spraying.

  12. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  13. MULTILAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA COATINGS ON SCREEN PROTECTION ELEMENTS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations pertaining to an influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen, fractional composition of initial powder and degree of cooling with compressed air on anti-meteoric coating characteristics. Optimum modes (arc current 600 A; spray distance of 110 mm; consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen – 50 l/min; fractional composition of zirconium dioxide powder <50 μm; compressed air consumption for cooling – 1 m3/min; p = 4 bar make it possible to obtain anti-meteoric coatings based on zirconium dioxide with material utilization rate of 62 %, total ceramic layer porosity of 6 %. After exposure of compression plasma flows on a coating in the nitrogen atmosphere a cubic modification of zirconium oxide is considered as the main phase being present in the coating. The lattice parameter of cubic zirconium oxide modification is equal to 0.5174 nm. Taking into consideration usage of nitrogen as plasma formation substance its interaction with zirconium coating atoms occurs and zirconium nitride (ZrN is formed with a cubic crystal lattice (lattice parameter 0.4580 nm. Melting of pre-surface layer takes place and a depth of the melted layer is about 8 μm according to the results of a scanning electron microscopy. Pre-surface layer being crystallized after exposure to compression plasma flows is characterized by a homogeneous distribution of ele-ments and absence of pores formed in the process of coating formation. The coating structure is represented by a set of lar- ge (5–7 μm and small (1–2 μm zirconium oxide particles sintered against each other. Melting of coating surface layer and speed crystallization occur after the impact of compression plasma flows on the formed coating. Cracking of the surface layer arises due to origination of internal mechanical stresses in the crystallized part. While using a scanning electron microscopy a

  14. The Influence of Nanodispersed Modifiers on the Structure and Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Smirnov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, plasma-sprayed coatings are widely used to protect machine parts operating under conditions of high loads and temperatures, abrasive wear and exposure to corrosive media. Objective. The aim of the paper is to improve the physico-mechanical characteristics of plasma-sprayed coatings by modification of nano-sized particles of TiO2 oxides compounds. Methods. Experimental studies of corrosion resistance, microhardness, adhesion strength and residual stresses of plasma-sprayed coatings based on the oxide aluminum ceramic powder with the addition of nanodisperse TiO2 powder were conducted. Results. It is found that addition of TiO2 nanodisperse modifier to the oxide aluminum ceramic powder composition leads to corrosion resistance increase 2.8 times in a 10 % hydrochloric acid solution. The adhesive strength of ceramic nanomodified coatings is increased by 15–20 %. Conclusions. The positive influence of nanodispersed powders on the physico-mechanical and tribological characteristics of plasma-sprayed coatings is established.

  15. Characterization of flame-sprayed and plasma-sprayed pure metallic and alloyed coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordanova, I. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Dept. of Solid State Phys.; Forcey, K.S. [CEC, Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Gergov, B. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Dept. of Solid State Phys.; Bojinov, V. [Department of Inorganic Chemical Technology, The University of Sofia, Blvd. J. Bouchier 1, 1126 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-05-01

    The composition, structure and properties of thermally sprayed coatings were investigated by a number of methods, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Vickers hardness and porosity were also investigated. The coatings were plasma-sprayed pure molybdenum, and flame-sprayed copper and nickel alloys. It was found that the alloyed coatings had a different chemical composition than the powders they had been produced from. In addition, all the coatings exhibited a fibre texture which complicated the X-ray method for estimation of residual stresses. However, for the pure molybdenum coating, it was possible to evaluate this parameter, taking into account the effects of the measured porosity and crystallographical anisotropy on the Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio. ((orig.))

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi SB

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.

  17. Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Overlay Coatings for GRCop-84 Combustion Chamber Liners for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Barrett, C.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B.; Robinson,; Thorn, G.

    2005-01-01

    An advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center, and designated as GRCop-84, is currently being considered for use as combustor chamber liners and nozzle ramps in NASA s future generations of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). However, past experience has shown that unprotected copper alloys undergo an environmental attack called "blanching" in rocket engines using liquid hydrogen as fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Potential for sulfidation attack of the liners in hydrocarbon-fueled engines is also of concern. Protective overlay coatings alloys are being developed for GRCop-84. The development of this coatings technology has involved a combination of modeling, coatings development and characterization, and process optimization. Coatings have been low pressure plasma sprayed on GRCop-84 substrates of various geometries and shapes. Microstructural, mechanical property data and thermophysical results on the coated substrates are presented and discussed.

  18. Features of Wear-Resistant Cast Iron Coating Formation During Plasma-Powder Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Emelyushin, A. N.; Nefed'ev, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of coatings deposited on steel 45 by plasma-powder surfacing of white wear-resistant cast iron is studied. The effects of surfacing regime and additional production effects on the welding bath during surfacing produced by current modulation, accelerated cooling of the deposited beads by blowing with air, and accelerated cooling of the substrate with running water on the structure, are determined. A new composition is suggested for powder material for depositing wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings on a carbon steel by the plasma-powder process.

  19. Micro patterning of cell and protein non-adhesive plasma polymerized coatings for biochip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaidat, Salim; Berendsen, C.; Thomsen, P.

    2004-01-01

    conventional cleanroom photolithography and lift-off. Single cell arrays showed sharp contrast in cell adhesion between the untreated glass surface and the ppCrown layer. Similarly, proteins adsorbed selectively to untreated glass but not to ppCrown. The simplicity of the liftoff technique and the sturdiness...... cells ( HeLa) and fluorescence labeled proteins (isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, i.e. FITC-BSA). The PEO-like coatings were fabricated by plasma polymerization of 12-crown-4 (ppCrown) with plasma polymerized hexene (ppHexene) as adhesion layer. The coatings were micro patterned using...

  20. Improvement of Ceramic Coatings for Electrostatic Adsorption Force Using Vacuum Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi; Yamasaki, Ryo; Tani, Kazumi; Takahashi, Yasuo

    The purpose of this study is to improve ceramic coatings having a high stable electrostatic adsorption force. The use of the coating is for the Johnsen-Rahbek force type electrostatic chucks used to fix silicon wafers inside vacuum chambers for processes such as Etch, CVD and PVD for semiconductor manufacturers. Previously the authors developed a dielectric substance ceramic coating for electrostatic chucks using Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS). This ceramic coating was not suitable because of its unstable electrostatic adsorption force. In a subsequent study, Vacuum Plasma Sprayed (VPS) Al2O3-7.5mass%TiO2 coating was investigated. As a result, it was found that the VPS coating has stable electrical resistivity and adsorption force. The dielectric constant of VPS Al2O3-TiO2 coating was sufficient for application to electrostatic chuck. On the other hand, it was suggested from results with respect to residual adsorption force and duration time after power off that the residual adsorption characteristic was not adequate.

  1. Evaluation and Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Cu Slag-Al Composite Coatings on Metal Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mantry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper slag is a waste product obtained during matte smelting and refining of copper. The present work explores the coating potential of copper slag by plasma spraying. This work shows that copper slag is eminently coatable. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to use the composites coatings of copper slag and Al powder in suitable combination on aluminium and mild steel substrates in order to improve the surface properties of these ductile metal-alloy substrates. When premixed with Al powder, the coating exhibits higher interfacial adhesion as compared to pure copper slag coatings. Maximum adhesion strengths of about 23 MPa and 21 MPa are recorded for the coatings of copper slag with 15 wt% of Al on aluminium and mild steel substrates, respectively. The input power to the plasma torch is found to affect the coating deposition efficiency and morphology of the coatings. It also suggests value addition of an industrial waste.

  2. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of National Polytechnic Institute, CINVESTAV-Querétaro Unit (Mexico); García-Casillas, Perla E. [Autonomous University of Juarez, Department of Materials Science, Institute of Engineering and Technology (Mexico); Godinez-Garcia, Andrés, E-mail: andgodinez@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco{sup ®}), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.Graphical abstract.

  3. Tungsten coating by ATC plasma spraying on CFC for WEST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaouss, M.; Desgranges, C.; Hernandez, C.; Mateus, C.; Maier, H.; Böswirth, B.; Greuner, H.; Samaille, F.; Bucalossi, J.; Missirlian, M.

    2017-12-01

    In the field of fusion experiments using a tokamak, the plasma facing components (PFC) are the closest object to the hot plasma. Due to the plasma-wall interaction, the material composing the PFC may enter the plasma and disturb the experiments. In the past, the main material for PFC was carbon (CFC, graphite), while the future reactors like ITER will be fully metallic, in particular tungsten. The Tore Supra tokamak has been transformed in an x-point divertor fusion device within the frame of the WEST (W (tungsten) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project in order to have plasma conditions close to those expected in ITER. The PFC other than the divertor has been coated with W to transform Tore Supra into a fully metallic environment. Different coating techniques have been selected for different kind of PFC. This paper gives an overview on the coating process used for the antennae protection limiter, the associated validation programme and concludes on the adequacy of the W coating with the WEST experimental programme requirements and gives perspectives on the development to be pursued.

  4. Phase stability and biological property evaluation of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopedic and dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Sahar; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the effects of strontium (Sr) dopant on in vitro protein release kinetics and in vivo osteogenic properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, along with their dissolution behavior. Plasma sprayed HA coatings are widely used in load-bearing implants. Apart from osseointegration, the new generation of HA coating is expected to deliver biomolecules and/or drugs that can induce osteoinduction. This paper reports the preparation of crystalline and amorphous HA coatings on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray, and their stability at different solution pH. Coatings prepared at 110 mm working distance from the nozzle showed an average Ca ion release of 18 and 90 ppm in neutral and acidic environments, respectively. Decreasing the working distance to 90 mm resulted in the formation of a coating with less crystalline HA and phases with higher solubility products, and consequently higher dissolution over 32 days. A 92% release of a model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer with pH of 7.4 was measured for Sr-doped HA (Sr-HA) coating, while only a 72% release could be measured for pure HA coating. Distortion of BSA during adsorption on coatings revealed a strong interaction between the protein and the coating, with an increase in α-helix content. Osteoid formation was found on Sr-HA implants as early as 7 weeks post implantation compared to HA coated and uncoated Ti implants. After 12 weeks post implantation, osteoid new bone was formed on HA implants; whereas, bone mineralization started on Sr-HA samples. While no osteoid was formed on bare Ti surfaces, bone was completely mineralized on HA and Sr-HA coatings after 16 weeks post implantation. Our results show that both phase stability and chemistry can have a significant influence toward in vitro and in vivo response of HA coatings on Ti implants. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by

  5. Plasma powder coating of rods of hydraulic cylinders with white wear resistance cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Nefedyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features to form a structure and properties of Fe-C-Cr-V system coverings provided by the plasma and powder coating (build-up on the low carbon steel.It is shown that it is possible to restore a rod of hydraulic cylinders of small diameter by the plasma and powder coating. Thus, to avoid buckling and provide the built-up metal structure with the best wear resistance it is necessary to find a reasonable approach to a choice of the operation conditions to provide coating.The paper offers a way for efficient control of heat input at coating and a superheat value of the welding bath. It is noted that the coverings, which have been built up at the smallest heat input in a substrate, possess the best wear resistance, with a fusion zone formed with an austenitic crystallization interlayer.The paper defines consistent patterns to form a structure of coverings under various operation conditions of a plasma and powder coating. It shows the influence of the cooling speed after built-up metal crystallization on the formation of covering structure components.The paper formulates requirements for operation conditions of plasma and powder coating to provide coverings to be subjected to shock and abrasive wear, and shows the influence of additional heat treatment on formation of structure and properties of the built-up metal.The article under review meets available lacks in studying high-carbon chrome-vanadium coverings and is useful for scientists, graduates, and students investigating the wear resistance coating materials and effective methods for their deposition.

  6. Development of barrier coatings for cellulosic-based materials by cold plasma methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Agnes Reka

    Cellulose-based materials are ideal candidates for future industries that need to be based on environmentally safe technologies and renewable resources. Wood represents an important raw material and its application as construction material is well established. Cellophane is one of the most important cellulosic material and it is widely used as packaging material in the food industry. Outdoor exposure of wood causes a combination of physical and chemical degradation processes due to the combined effects of sunlight, moisture, fungi, and bacteria. Cold-plasma-induced surface modifications are an attractive way for tailoring the characteristics of lignocellulosic substrates to prevent weathering degradation. Plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) was deposited onto wood surfaces to create water repellent characteristics. The presence of a crosslinked macromolecular structure was detected. The plasma coated samples exhibited very high water contact angle values indicating the existence of hydrophobic surfaces. Reflective and electromagnetic radiation-absorbent substances were incorporated with a high-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxane polymer in liquid phase and deposited as thin layers on wood surfaces. The macromolecular films, containing the dispersed materials, were then converted into a three dimensional solid state network by exposure to a oxygen-plasma. It was demonstrated that both UV-absorbent and reflectant components incorporated into the plasma-generated PDMSO matrix protected the wood from weathering degradation. Reduced oxidation and less degradation was observed after simulated weathering. High water contact angle values indicated a strong hydrophobic character of the oxygen plasma-treated PDMSO-coated samples. Plasma-enhanced surface modifications and coatings were employed to create water-vapor barrier layers on cellophane substrate surfaces. HMDSO was selected as a plasma gas and oxygen was used to ablate amorphous regions. Oxygen plasma

  7. Corrosion and nanomechanical behaviors of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AA7020-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, A., E-mail: arjun_venu@hotmail.com [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Srinath, J. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Rama Krishna, L. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005 (India); Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sharma, S.C.; Venkitakrishnan, P.V. [Materials and Metallurgy Group, Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2016-04-13

    Alumina coating was deposited on AA7020 aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. The corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and nano-mechanical behaviors were examined by means of potentiodynamic polarization, slow strain rate test (SSRT) and nano-indentation tests. Potentiodynamic polarization (PP) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating and slow strain rate test (SSRT) was used for evaluating the environmental cracking resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution. The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) were obtained from each indentation as a function of the penetration depth across the coating cross section. The above results were compared with similar PEO coated aluminum and magnesium alloys. Results indicated that PEO coating on AA7020 alloy significantly improved the corrosion resistance. However the environmental cracking resistance was found to be only marginal. The hardness and elastic modulus values were found to be much higher when compared to the base metal and similar PEO coated 7075 aluminum alloys. The fabricated coating also exhibited good adhesive strength with the substrate similar to other PEO coated aluminum alloys reported in the literature.

  8. Comparison of Physical-chemical and Mechanical Properties of Chlorapatite and Hydroxyapatite Plasma Sprayed Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demnati, Imane; Grossin, David; Marsan, Olivier; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Collonges, Gérard; Combes, Christèle; Parco, Maria; Braceras, Inigo; Alexis, Joel; Balcaen, Yannick; Rey, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Chlorapatite can be considered a potential biomaterial for orthopaedic applications. Its use as plasma-sprayed coating could be of interest considering its thermal properties and particularly its ability to melt without decomposition unlike hydroxyapatite. Chlorapatite (ClA) was synthesized by a high-temperature ion exchange reaction starting from commercial stoichiometric hydroxyapatites (HA). The ClA powder showed similar characteristics as the original industrial HA powder, and was obtained in the monoclinic form. The HA and ClA powders were plasma-sprayed using a low-energy plasma spraying system with identical processing parameters. The coatings were characterized by physical-chemical methods, i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, including distribution mapping of the main phases detected such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), oxyapatite (OA), and HA or ClA. The unexpected formation of oxyapatite in ClA coatings was assigned to a side reaction with contaminating oxygenated species (O2, H2O). ClA coatings exhibited characteristics different from HA, showing a lower content of oxyapatite and amorphous phase. Although their adhesion strength was found to be lower than that of HA coatings, their application could be an interesting alternative, offering, in particular, a larger range of spraying conditions without formation of massive impurities.

  9. Improvements in Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coating by Laser-Remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoping; Chen, Hong; Wang, Gui; Chen, Yongnan; Xing, Yazhe; Zhang, Chunhua; Dargusch, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Amorphous coating technology is an attractive way of taking advantage of the superior properties of amorphous alloys for structural applications. However, the limited bonds between splats within the plasma-sprayed coatings result in a typically lamellar and porous coating structure. To overcome these limitations, the as-sprayed coating was treated by a laser-remelting process. The microstructure and phase composition of two coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The wear resistance of the plasma-sprayed coating and laser-remelted coating was studied comparatively using a pin-on-disc wear test under dry friction conditions. It was revealed that the laser-remelted coating exhibited better wear resistance because of its defect-free and amorphous-nanocrystalline composited structure.

  10. Ceramic coatings of LA141 alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation for corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Yuan, Yi; Sun, Pengpeng; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2011-09-01

    Superlight Mg-Li alloy is a promising structural materials in aerospace, automobile, and electronics because of its excellent properties such as low density, high ductility, superior strength-to-weight ratio, and good damping ability. The fabrication of compact plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings with excellent corrosion resistance is valuable for the widespread application of Mg-Li alloy. Here we present a ceramic coating on the surface of Mg-14Li-1Al (LA141) alloy for corrosion protection via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an alkaline silicate electrolyte with tungstate as an additive. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thin film-X-ray diffraction analysis of coatings show that the surface coating is mainly comprised of Mg(2)SiO(4), MgO and WO(3). Scanning electron microscopy observations have revealed that the dense and compact coating formed in the presence of tungstate has less structural imperfections in comparison to the control one fabricated without use of tungstate. The effect of oxidation time on the morphology and phase composition of coatings is also examined in detail.

  11. Residue-free plasma etching of polyimide coatings for small pitch vias with improved step coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mimoun, B.A.Z.; Pham, H.T.M.; Henneken, V.; Dekker, R.

    2013-01-01

    The authors have found that patterning polyimide coatings containing organosilane adhesion promoter using pure oxygen plasma resulted in a thin silicon-rich residue layer. They show in this paper that adding small amounts of fluorine-containing gas to the etching gas mixture is necessary in order to

  12. Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition – Technological Design Of Functional Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januś M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PA CVD method allows to deposit of homogeneous, well-adhesive coatings at lower temperature on different substrates. Plasmochemical treatment significantly impacts on physicochemical parameters of modified surfaces. In this study we present the overview of the possibilities of plasma processes for the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings doped Si and/or N atoms on the Ti Grade2, aluminum-zinc alloy and polyetherketone substrate. Depending on the type of modified substrate had improved the corrosion properties including biocompatibility of titanium surface, increase of surface hardness with deposition of good adhesion and fine-grained coatings (in the case of Al-Zn alloy and improving of the wear resistance (in the case of PEEK substrate.

  13. Tungsten nitride coatings obtained by HiPIMS as plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, Vasile; Velicu, Ioana-Laura; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Burducea, Ion; Dinca, Paul; Malinský, Petr

    2017-09-01

    In this work, tungsten nitride coatings with nitrogen content in the range of 19-50 at% were prepared by reactive multi-pulse high power impulse magnetron sputtering as a function of the argon and nitrogen mixture and further exposed to a deuterium plasma jet. The elemental composition, morphological properties and physical structure of the samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Deuterium implantation was performed using a deuterium plasma jet and its retention in nitrogen containing tungsten films was investigated using thermal desorption spectrometry. Deuterium retention and release behaviour strongly depend on the nitrogen content in the coatings and the films microstructure. All nitride coatings have a polycrystalline structure and retain a lower deuterium level than the pure tungsten sample. Nitrogen content in the films acts as a diffusion barrier for deuterium and leads to a higher desorption temperature, therefore to a higher binding energy.

  14. Effect of Gun Current on Electrical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Lanthanum Silicate Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Apatite-type lanthanum silicate (ATLS) electrolyte coatings for use in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Plasma-sprayed coatings with typical composition La10(SiO4)6O3 exhibiting good densification and high oxide ionic conductivity were obtained by properly adjusting the spraying parameters, particularly the gun current. The highest obtained ionic conductivity value of 3.3 mS/cm at 1,173 K in air is comparable to other ATLS conductors. This work demonstrated empirically that utilization of the APS technique is feasible to synthesize dense La10(SiO4)6O3 electrolyte coatings using gun currents within an unusually broad range.

  15. Investigation of Droplet Atomization and Evaporation in Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS is a novel and promising technique in producing nanostructured coatings. This technique involves complex heat, mass and momentum transfer among the liquid feedstock, droplets, plasma jet and the coating material. Nevertheless, the droplet atomization and evaporation in the plasma jet is one of the most essential parts to obtain the desired coating architecture. In the present work, a three-dimensional two-way-coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code is used to simulate the interactions between the solution precursor and plasma. In order to obtain a more realistic understanding regarding droplet atomization and vaporization, the flash-boiling effect is modeled by an improved vaporization model. This model could provide accurate details for the droplet pyrolysis and help to optimize the solution precursor plasma spray process. We show that the fragmentation of the liquid stock and its vaporization mainly dominate the spraying details and can be decisive to the coating quality. We further investigate their role in SPPS and separately probe their inner link with the flow field relating to the distinctive area when droplets are flying through the thermal flow field. Our studies reveal that ethanol droplets, compared to those of water, show a superior characteristics in SPPS, owing to the low boiling point and low surface tension, conducive to the evaporation and atomization of droplets. In addition, the mixture of the plasma gas with hydrogen breaks the droplets more thoroughly compared to the pure plasma. The numerical results were compared and found to agree well with previous experimental and simulation work.

  16. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  17. Use of diluted Ca(OH)2 suspensions and their transformation into nanostructured CaCO3 coatings: A case study in strengthening heritage materials (stucco, adobe and stone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzón, Marcos; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Arredondo, Ana; Mónaco, Soledad

    2017-12-01

    In the conservation of heritage materials, the effectiveness of diluted nanolime suspensions in consolidating surfaces is scarcely explored. This paper aims to examine the surface modification of stucco, adobe and stone by deposition of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were applied in five consecutive coats and transformed into CaCO3 by atmospheric CO2 creating a compatible coating with the surface. The coatings were studied by erosion tests (pull-off tests) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The tests confirmed the surface resistance was clearly improved due to formation of nanostructured cementing CaCO3 coatings. In addition, the coatings did not practically alter the surface colour due to the diluted nature of the suspensions. To conclude, Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles-based coatings are appropriate solutions to extend the durability of traditional heritage materials, such as stucco, adobe or stone.

  18. Hydrophobic Coatings on Cotton Obtained by in Situ Plasma Polymerization of a Fluorinated Monomer in Ethanol Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ricardo; Teixidó, Josep Maria; Kan, Chi-Wai; Jovančić, Petar

    2017-02-15

    Plasma polymerization using hydrophobic monomers in the gas phase is a well-known technology to generate hydrophobic coatings. However, synthesis of functional hydrophobic coatings using plasma technology in liquids has not yet been accomplished. This work is consequently focused on polymerization of a liquid fluorinated monomer on cotton fabric initiated by atmospheric plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. Functional hydrophobic coatings on cotton were successfully achieved using in situ atmospheric plasma-initiated polymerization of fluorinated monomer dissolved in ethanol. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the amount of polymer deposited on cotton substrates can be modulated with the concentration of monomer in ethanol solution, and cross-linking reactions occur during plasma polymerization of a fluorinated monomer even without the presence of a cross-linking agent. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the chemical composition of hydrophobic coatings and to get insights into the physicochemical processes involved in plasma treatment. SEM analysis reveals that at high monomer concentration, coatings possess a three-dimensional pattern with a characteristic interconnected porous network structure. EDX analysis reveals that plasma polymerization of fluorinated monomers takes place preferentially at the surface of cotton fabric and negligible polymerization takes place inside the cotton fabric. Wetting time measurements confirm the hydrophobicity of cotton coatings obtained although equilibrium moisture content was slightly decreased. Additionally, the abrasion behavior and resistance to washing of plasma-coated cotton has been evaluated.

  19. Failure modes of vacuum plasma spray tungsten coating created on carbon fibre composites under thermal loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, T.; Bekris, N.; Coad, J. P.; Grisolia, C.; Linke, J.; Maier, H.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Wessel, E.

    2009-07-01

    Vacuum plasma spray tungsten (VPS-W) coating created on a carbon fibre reinforced composite (CFC) was tested under two thermal load schemes in the electron beam facility to examine the operation limits and failure modes. In cyclic ELM-like short transient thermal loads, the VPS-W coating was destroyed sub-layer by sub-layer at 0.33 GW/m 2 for 1 ms pulse duration. At longer single pulses, simulating steady-state thermal loads, the coating was destroyed at surface temperatures above 2700 °C by melting of the rhenium containing multilayer at the interface between VPS-W and CFC. The operation limits and failure modes of the VPS-W coating in the thermal load schemes are discussed in detail.

  20. CMAS Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited via Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, B. J.; Wiesner, V. L.; Zhu, D.; Johnson, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Materials for advanced turbine engines are expected to have temperature capabilities in the range of 1370-1500C. At these temperatures the ingestion of sand and dust particulate can result in the formation of corrosive glass deposits referred to as CMAS. The presence of this glass can both thermomechanically and thermochemically significantly degrade protective coatings on metallic and ceramic components. Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) was used to deposit advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for investigation on their interaction with CMAS compositions. Coatings were exposed to CMAS and furnace tested in air from 1 to 50 hours at temperatures ranging from 1200-1500C. Coating composition and crystal structure were tracked with X-ray diffraction and microstructure with electron microscopy.

  1. Constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocks, A.C.F., E-mail: alan.cocks@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Fleck, N.A. [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A micromechanical model is presented for the constrained sintering of an air-plasma-sprayed, thermal barrier coating upon a thick superalloy substrate. The coating comprises random splats with intervening penny-shaped cracks. The crack faces make contact at asperities, which progressively sinter in-service by interfacial diffusion, accommodated by bulk creep. Diffusion is driven by the reduction in interfacial energy at the developing contacts and by the local asperity contact stress. At elevated operating temperature, both sintering and creep strains accumulate within the plane of the coating. The sensitivities of sintering rate and microstructure evolution rate to the kinetic parameters and thermodynamic driving forces are explored. It is demonstrated that the sintering response is governed by three independent timescales, as dictated by the material and geometric properties of the coating. Finally, the role of substrate constraint is assessed by comparing the rate of constrained sintering with that for free sintering.

  2. Medical equipment bio-capability processes using the atmospheric plasma-sprayed titanium coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, F.; Saviz, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2017-12-01

    Antibacterial surfaces such as titanium coatings are able to have capability in the human body environment. In this study, titanium coatings are deposited on the 316 stainless steel substrates by a handmade plasma spray system. Some mechanical, chemical properties and microstructure of the created titanium layer are determined to evaluate the quality of coating. The XRD, SEM, adhesion tests from cross cut and corrosion test by potentiodynamic are used. During the different stages, some of the parameters are changed in different samples to achieve the best quality in the coating. It is shown that by increasing the spray time, the production of nanoparticles begins. On the other hand, the best layers are created when the spray main gas flow rate has a certain amount.

  3. Mg-containing hydroxyapatite coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cesar Augusto; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Durrant, Steven Frederick; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da, E-mail: cesar.augustoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Delgado-Silva, Adriana de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is promising for the processing of biomaterials because it enables the production of surfaces with adjustable composition and structure. In this work, aimed at the improvement of the bioactivity of titanium, PEO has been used to grow calcium phosphide coatings on titanium substrates. The effects of the addition of magnesium acetate to the electrolytes on the composition of the coatings produced during 120 s on Ti disks using bipolar voltage pulses and solutions of calcium and magnesium acetates and sodium glycerophosphate as electrolytes have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry with Rietveld refinement and profilometry were used to characterize the modified samples. Coatings composed of nearly 50 % of Mg-doped hydroxyapatite have been produced. In certain conditions up to 4% Mg can be incorporated into the coating without any observable significant structural modifications of the hydroxyapatite. (author)

  4. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  5. Characterization and formation of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V coated by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durdu, Salih; Deniz, Oemer Faruk; Kutbay, Is Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I l [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Usta, Metin, E-mail: ustam@gyte.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti6Al4V alloys were coated by PEO in calcium acetate and {beta}-calcium glycerophosphate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydroxyapatite and calcium apatite based phases were directly formed on Ti6Al4V. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydroxyapatite coatings were characterized systematically for different times. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After 5 min, hydroxyapatite and calcium based phases begin to form on the coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAp on the coating is amorphous due to the rapid solidification during PEO. - Abstract: In this study, Ti6Al4V alloy was coated in the solution consisting of calcium acetate (CA) and {beta}-calcium glycerophosphate ({beta}-Ca-GP) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) to produce hydroxyapatite and calcium apatite-based composite used as of bioactive and biocompatible materials in biomedical applications. The phase structures, surface morphologies, functional groups of molecules, chemical compositions of the surfaces and the binding energies of atoms in the coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Anatase, rutile, calcium oxide, titanium phosphide, whitlockite, tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), perovskite calcium titanate and hydroxyapatite phases on the coating were detected by XRD analysis. The surface of coatings produced by PEO method has a porous structure. The amount of amorphous hydroxyapatite is the highest value for the coating produced at 5 min in XPS and ATR-FTIR results, whereas the amount of crystalline hydroxyapatite has the highest value for coating produced at 120 min in XRD results.

  6. Diamond like carbon coatings deposited by microwave plasma CVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Laser and Plasma Technology Division,. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. MS received 3 May 2007. Abstract. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by microwave assisted chemical vapour deposi- tion system using d.c. bias voltage ranging from –100 V to –300 V. These films were ...

  7. Diamond coatings exposure to fusion-relevant plasma conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porro, S.; De Temmerman, G.; Lisgo, S.; Rudakov, D. L.; Litnovsky, A.; Petersson, P.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Several types of diamond layers have been deposited on molybdenum tiles by chemical vapour deposition techniques, and exposed under erosion-dominated conditions in the SOL of TEXTOR in order to assess them as a suitable candidate for plasma-facing material. Post-exposure characterisation of physical

  8. Photoactive TiO{sub 2} coatings obtained by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in refrigerated electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.franz@polimi.it; Perego, Daniele; Marchese, Ottavia; Lucotti, Andrea; Bestetti, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Submicrometric TiO{sub 2} coatings by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation. • TiO{sub 2} high photoactivity in the UV range. • Low temperature oxidation. • Short processing times with respect to traditional anodic oxidation. - Abstract: The effect of synthesis conditions on the properties of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} coatings obtained by PEO in refrigerated electrolytes have been investigated. Linear sweep voltammetry was carried out on the TiO{sub 2} coatings, in dark and under UV-C irradiation, in order to assess the photoelectrochemical behavior of samples. The largest photocurrents (0.18 mA/cm{sup 2}) were measured on TiO{sub 2} coatings obtained by PEO in refrigerated aqueous solutions. UV–vis spectra revealed that lowering the processing temperature from 20 to −3.5 °C induced a blue-shift of the absorption band of the TiO{sub 2} coatings from 3.05 to 3.42 eV. The main advantage of PEO in refrigerated aqueous solutions over current approaches, based on anodic oxidation and thermal treatments, is that the synthesis of photoactive TiO{sub 2} coatings can be carried out in a relatively easy, quick and reproducible way, without annealing pre- and post-treatments. Furthermore, by controlling the solution temperature in PEO process, the photocurrent of the resulting TiO{sub 2} coating reaches quite high values.

  9. Coating with Autologous Plasma Improves Biocompatibility of Mesh Grafts In Vitro: Development Stage of a Surgical Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Gerullis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate mesh coating modalities with autologous blood components in a recently developed in vitro test system for biocompatibility assessment of alloplastic materials. Materials and Methods. Seven different mesh types, currently used in various indications, were randomly investigated. Meshes were coated prior to cultivation with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, platelets, and blood plasma. Pretreated meshes were incubated over 6 weeks in a minced tissue assay, representative for fibroblasts, muscle cells, and endothelial cells originating from 10 different patients. Adherence of those tissues on the meshes was microscopically investigated and semiquantitatively assessed using a previously described scoring system. Results. Coating with peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not affect the adherence score, whereas coating with platelets and blood plasma increased the score suggesting improved biocompatibility in vitro. The previous ranking of native meshes remained consistent after coating. Conclusion. Plasma coating of meshes improves their biocompatibility score in a novel in vitro test system.

  10. Fine Structure Study of the Plasma Coatings B4C-Ni-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, E. E.; Bezrukova, V. A.; Kuz’min, V. I.; Lozhkin, V. S.; Tutunkova, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    The article considers structure of coatings formed of the B4C-Ni-P powder. The coatings were deposited using air-plasma spraying with the unit for annular injection of powder. The pipes from steel 20 (0.2 % C) were used as a substrate. The structure and phase composition of the coatings were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. It is shown that high-density composite coatings consisting of boron carbide particles distributed in the nickel boride metal matrix are formed using air-plasma spraying. The areas with round inclusions characterized by the increased amount of nickel, phosphorus and boron are located around the boron carbide particles. Boron oxides and nickel oxides are also present in the coatings. Thin interlayers with amorphous-crystalline structure are formed around the boron carbide particles. The thickness of these interlayers does not exceed 1 μm. The metal matrix material represents areas with nanocrystalline structure and columnar crystals.

  11. Cell adhesion to plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) titania coatings, assessed using a centrifuging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H J; Markaki, A E; Collier, C A; Clyne, T W

    2011-11-01

    The adhesion of bovine chondrocytes and human osteoblasts to three titania-based coatings, formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), was compared to that on uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates, and some comparisons were also made with plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. This was done using a centrifuge, with accelerations of up to 160,000 g, so as to induce buoyancy forces that created normal or shear stresses at the interface. It is shown that, on all surfaces, it was easier to remove cells under normal loading than under shear loading. Cell adhesion to the PEO coatings was stronger than that on Ti-6Al-4V and similar to that on HA. Cell proliferation rates were relatively high on one of the PEO coatings, which was virtually free of aluminium, but low on the other two, which contained significant levels of aluminium. It is concluded that the Al-free PEO coating offers promise for application to prosthetic implants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradable electrospun nanofibers coated with platelet-rich plasma for cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Gomez, Luis [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Ortopedia y Banco de Tejidos Musculoesqueléticos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.alvarez.lorenzo@usc.es [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Concheiro, Angel [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Silva, Maite [Instituto de Ortopedia y Banco de Tejidos Musculoesqueléticos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Dominguez, Fernando [Fundación Publica Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sheikh, Faheem A.; Cantu, Travis; Desai, Raj; Garcia, Vanessa L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States); Macossay, Javier, E-mail: jmacossay@utpa.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were coated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. PRP was obtained from human buffy coat, and tested on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to confirm cell proliferation and cytocompatibility. Then, PRP was adsorbed on the PCL scaffolds via lyophilization, which resulted in a uniform sponge-like coating of 2.85 (S.D. 0.14) mg/mg. The scaffolds were evaluated regarding mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain), sustained release of total protein and growth factors (PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 and VEGF), and hemocompatibility. MSC seeded on the PRP–PCL nanofibers showed an increased adhesion and proliferation compared to pristine PCL fibers. Moreover, the adsorbed PRP enabled angiogenesis features observed as neovascularization in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Overall, these results suggest that PRP–PCL scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can be adsorbed on electrospun fibers via lyophilization. • PRP coating enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation on scaffolds. • PRP-coated scaffolds showed sustained release of growth factors. • Adsorbed PRP provided angiogenic features. • PRP-poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications.

  13. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  14. Biofouling development on plasma treated samples versus layers coated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Exnar, P.; Sabau, A.; Spatenka, P.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Ghita, S.

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is the most important cause of naval corrosion. In order to reduce the Biofouling development on naval materials as steel or resin, different new methods have been tested. These methods could help to follow the new IMO environment reglementations and they could replace few classic operations before the painting of the small ships. The replacement of these operations means a reduction in maintenance costs. Their action must influence especially the first two steps of the Biofouling development, called Microfouling, that demand about 24 hours. This work presents the comparative results of the Biofouling development on two different classic naval materials, steel and resin, for three treated samples, immersed in sea water. Non-thermal plasma, produced by GlidArc technology, is applied to the first sample, called GD. The plasma treatment was set to 10 minutes. The last two samples, called AE9 and AE10 are covered by hydrophobic layers, prepared from a special organic-inorganic sol synthesized by sol-gel method. Theoretically, because of the hydrophobic properties, the Biofouling formation must be delayed for AE9 and AE10. The Biofouling development on each treated sample was compared with a witness non-treated sample. The microbiological analyses have been done for 24 hours by epifluorescence microscopy, available for one single layer.

  15. Influence of Oxidation Behavior of Feedstock on Microstructure and Ablation Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconium Carbide Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cui; Ge, Xuelian; Niu, Yaran; Li, Hong; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Sun, Jinliang

    2015-10-01

    Plasma spray is one of the suitable technologies to deposit carbide coatings with high melting point, such as ZrC. However, in the spray processes performed under atmosphere, oxidation of the carbide powder is inevitable. To investigate the influence of the oxidation behavior of feedstock on microstructure and ablation resistance of the deposited coating, ZrC coatings were prepared by atmospheric and vacuum plasma spray (APS and VPS) technologies, respectively. SiC-coated graphite was applied as the substrate. The obtained results showed that the oxidation of ZrC powder in APS process resulted in the formation of ZrO and Zr2O phases. Pores and cracks were more likely to be formed in the as-sprayed APS-ZrC coating. The VPS-ZrC coating without oxides possessed denser microstructure, higher thermal diffusivity, and lower coefficients of thermal expansion as compared with the APS-ZrC coating. A dense ZrO2 layer would be formed on the surface of the VPS-ZrC-coated sample during the ablation process and the substrate can be protected sufficiently after being ablated in high temperature plasma jet. However, the ZrO2 layer, formed by oxidation of the APS-ZrC coating having loose structure, was easy to be washed away by the shearing action of the plasma jet.

  16. Synthesis of Indium-Containing Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspension Using Plasmas in Water for Evaluating Their Kinetics in Living Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Takaaki; Sarinont, Thapanut; Koga, Kazunori; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles have great potential for medical applications such as cancer therapy, whereas their toxic effects on human body are pointed out. To study kinetics and toxicity of nanoparticles in living body, we synthesized indium-containing nanoparticles in aqueous suspension using pulsed electrical discharge plasmas in water, because no indium compounds exist in the living body in the normal situation and hence indium-containing nanoparticles are useful tracer materials for analyzing kinetics of nanoparticles in living body. The mean size of synthesized primary nanoparticles is 7 nm, whereas the mean size of secondary nanoparticles is 315 nm. EDX and XRD analysis reveal that nanoparticles are indium crystalline and indium hydroxide crystalline with the mass ratio of 8:2. Preliminary subcutaneous administration of nanoparticles to mice shows that indium is transported from subcutaneous to blood. These results show that synthesized indium-containing nanoparticles are useful for analyzing kinetics of nanoparticles in living body.

  17. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of TiCN-Cr nano/micro composite coatings prepared by reactive plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fanyong; He, Jining; Chen, Kai; Qin, Yanfang; Li, Chao; Yin, Fuxing

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured TiCN based composite coatings with various Cr content were prepared by reactive plasma spray (RPS) from mixed powder (Ti-graphite + Cr) under nitrogen atmosphere. Results showed that composite coatings consisted mainly of TiC0.7N0.3 phase and residual metal Cr. Metal Cr plates were homogeneously embedded in TiCN matrix with good interface bond. The TiCN-Cr composite coatings exhibited lower porosity than TiCN coatings, but increasing porosity with excess Cr addition (30 wt.%). The TiCN-20 wt.% Cr coating showed the highest hardness (1309 HV0.2) among composite coatings, slight lower than the TiCN matrix coating (1526 HV0.2). Compared with the TiCN matrix coating, the TiCN-Cr composite coatings showed higher variability in surface microhardness distribution. The TiCN-Cr composite coatings showed slight higher friction coefficients (0.4-0.6) than TiCN matrix coating (0.35). The wear resistance of TiCN-Cr composite coatings was improved with less mass loss compared with TiCN coating under the test load of 400 N. The TiCN-Cr composite coatings with high Cr content showed the mixture of abrasive and adhesive wear.

  18. Long period gratings coated with hafnium oxide by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis; Burton, Geoff; Kubik, Philip; Wild, Peter

    2016-04-04

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are coated with hafnium oxide using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to increase the sensitivity of these devices to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. PEALD allows deposition at low temperatures which reduces thermal degradation of UV-written LPGs. Depositions targeting three different coating thicknesses are investigated: 30 nm, 50 nm and 70 nm. Coating thickness measurements taken by scanning electron microscopy of the optical fibers confirm deposition of uniform coatings. The performance of the coated LPGs shows that deposition of hafnium oxide on LPGs induces two-step transition behavior of the cladding modes.

  19. Microstructure and creep behaviour of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, R.; Coyle, T.W.; Mostaghimi [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the creep/sintering characteristics of thermally sprayed zirconia coatings and attempt to understand the influence of microstructure on the creep resistance of deposits. The major modification, compared with more typical practice, was employment of powder feedstock with agglomerated sub-micron size particles (Nanox), which is compared to one of the best commercially available powders (HOSP). Thick plasma sprayed coatings were prepared and their physical and mechanical properties were characterized. Creep/sintering experiments were then conducted to investigate the response of the materials when exposed to high temperatures under load. The results showed that it could be possible to correlate the splat thickness to the creep behaviour of the coatings. (orig.)

  20. Fluoropolymer coated alanine films treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas − In comparison with gamma irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Bardenshtein, Alexander; Morgen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Fluoropolymer coated alanine films are treated by a dielectric barrier discharge and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure as well as with gamma irradiation. The film surfaces and the underlying bulk materials are characterized before and after each treatment. The fluorine content decreases...... and the oxygen content increases at the fluoropolymer surfaces, while deposition of specific plasma energies in the alanine films is detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating that not only the fluoropolymer surfaces but also the bulk alanine materials are modified. Differences...... of surface and bulk modification effects between the two plasma treatments are discussed in detail....

  1. Protection of active implant electronics with organosilicon open air plasma coating for plastic overmolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeppenfeld Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome challenges for manufacturing of modern smart medical plastic parts by injection molding, e.g. for active implants, the optimization of the interface between electronics and the polymer component concerning adhesion and diffusion behavior is crucial. Our results indicate that a nano-sized SiOxCyHz layer formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD via open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and by use of a hexamthyldisiloxane (HMDSO precursor can form a non-corrosive, anti-permeable and biocompatible coating. Due to the open air character of the APPJ process an inline coating before overmolding could be an easy applicable method and a promising advancement.

  2. Spin coating and plasma process for 2.5D integrated photonics on multilayer polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebda, A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, IPR UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Camberlein, L. [Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine, Micro-Cap-Ouest, LAUM-UMR CNRS 6613, 72000 Le Mans (France); Beche, B. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, IPR UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France)], E-mail: bruno.beche@univ-rennes1.fr; Gaviot, E. [Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine, Micro-Cap-Ouest, LAUM-UMR CNRS 6613, 72000 Le Mans (France); Beche, E. [PROMES UPR CNRS 8521 - Odeillo 66125 Font-Romeu (France); Duval, D. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, IPR UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Zyss, J. [IFR d' Alembert, Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, ENS Cachan, LPQM-UMR CNRS 8537, 94235 Cachan (France); Jezequel, G.; Solal, F.; Godet, C. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, IPR UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2008-10-01

    Polymer spin coating, surface plasma treatment and selective UV-lithography processes have been developed to realize 2.5D photonic micro-resonators, made of disk- or ring-shaped upper rib waveguides, using common polymers such as SU8 (biphenol A ether glycidyl), PS233 (polymeric silane) and SOG (siloxane Spin on Glass). Both oxygen and argon plasma treatments, applied to PS233 and SOG before spin-coating the SU8, improve substantially the grip of multilayer devices (SU8 / PS233 or SU8 / SOG). Surface energy components derived from contact angle measurements have been used to optimize the processing conditions. In such integrated photonic devices, the both single-electromagnetic-modes called transverse electric (TE{sub 00}) and transverse magnetic (TM{sub 00}) have been excited in a SU8 micro-disk, with a single mode propagation strongly localized near the edge of the disk (i.e. the so called whispering gallery modes)

  3. Decreased Bacterial Attachment and Protein Adsorption to Coatings Produced by Low Enegy Plasma Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kingshott, Peter; Benter, M.

    adsorption and bacteria attachment/colonization. This is emphasized by the fact that long dwelling urinary catheters, which is a typical silicone medical device, causes 5% per day incidence of urinary tract infection [1,2]. A demand therefore exists for surface modifications providing the silicone material......Introduction Silicone rubber is among the most biocompatible materials available, exhibiting low levels of extractables, absence of plasticizers and additives and fairly low activation of blood thrombogenesis components. However untreated silicone rubber does not efficiently resist protein...... and Methods: Coatings: Plasma polymerized poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PP-PVP), poly(2-methoxyethyl methacrylate) (PPPMEA) or an inorganic oxide (10) coating were applied onto medical grade silicon rubber sheets (Silopren LSR 2050, Momentive Performance Materials Inc.). Plasma polymerization chamber...

  4. INCREASE OF THE OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES OF WELD AND PLASMA COATINGS USING NANOPOWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Chornyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, studies concerning determination of the oxide nanoparticles effect on structure and performance of the welds and plasma coatings were conducted. Ways of introducing nanodisperse refractory powders to the weld pool and how to cover with the deactivation of nanoparticles powder were determined. Introducing of the nanoparticles in the molten pool during the deposition and the coating was carried out by preparing a powder mixture by mechano-chemical processing in special high-energy intensive planetary mills. Structural studies of welds with nanooxides additives in the weld pool showed the formation of milled dispersed structure with microhardness 264-304 MPa. Statistical mean value of the number of non-metallic inclusions was defined. Mechanical testing of welds showed growth of the yield as well as tensile strength, when titanium and aluminum nanooxides were introduced into the weld pool. The most significant effect on these parameters has aluminum nanooxide in an amount of 0.5 vol.%, increasing the yield strength by 49 % and the tensile strength by 23 %. The toughness is mostly affected by titanium oxide in an amount of 1 vol.%., increasing its value by about 2 times. In turn, the introduction of alumina nanopowder in quantity 1,5 vol.% into the plasma coatings allowed to reduce friction and increase wear resistance of coatings by 2-3 times.

  5. Solution plasma synthesis of Au nanoparticles for coating titanium dioxide to enhance its photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasugi, Yuki; Saito, Genki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yamashita, Toru [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Norihito [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomohiro, E-mail: takiyama@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-05-29

    A convenient method for coating titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) is demonstrated in solution plasma to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}. AuNPs from a metallic Au electrode were bonded to the surface of a commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, which acted as a catalyst support, with the reaction taking place in an electrolyte solution. The effect of diverse plasma conditions on the size and productivity of the AuNPs was investigated initially to provide a reference in the absence of TiO{sub 2}. At 290 V, “partial plasma” was attained, with only a weak light emission surrounding the Au electrode. Conditions then evolved to “full plasma”, with a strong orange emission at 330 V. Partial or full status was maintained for 1 h at 300 and 400 V, respectively. At the transition to full, the AuNP particle size increased from 3.72 to 6.09 nm and the productivity increased dramatically from 0.025 to 0.87 mg h{sup −1} mm{sup −2}. Stronger plasma very efficiently synthesized AuNPs, and therefore, it was adopted for further study. AuNP-TiO{sub 2} combinations were formed by applying 400 V to a TiO{sub 2}-dispersed solution. In these experiments, TiO{sub 2} coated with AuNPs was synthesized; these combinations of AuNP-TiO{sub 2} had 0.44 mol% of Au. The photocatalytic activity of AuNP-TiO{sub 2} was investigated by measuring the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Under UV irradiation, the AuNP-TiO{sub 2} particles removed up to 95% of the dye in 70 min. Commercial TiO{sub 2} achieves values closer to 85%. The results thus raise the possibility that solution plasma methods can be generalized as a means for achieving catalysis-enhancing coatings. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with a diameter of several nm were synthesized by solution plasma. • The effect of plasma conditions on the Au nanoparticles formation was investigated. • High resolution TEM was conducted to investigate the crystal structure. • Au nanoparticles were coated

  6. Unlubricated Gross Slip Fretting Wear of Metallic Plasma Sprayed Coatings for Ti6A14V Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hager, Jr., Carl H; Sanders, Jeffrey H; Sharma, Shashi K

    2006-01-01

    ... to simulate cold engine startup. Alternative coatings such as plasma sprayed molybdenum and nickel were also evaluated because of their potential for reducing fretting wear under certain simulated engine conditions...

  7. Influence of plasma treatment on wettability and scratch resistance of Ag-coated polymer substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcieszak Damian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid progress in thin-film coatings based on metals, which can be deposited on polymers, has been recently observed. In this work discussion on the properties of modified polymers and silver thin films deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polycarbonate (PC substrates has been presented. Surface of these polymer substrates were exposed to argon plasma discharge. Additionally, silver thin films were deposited on their surface by electron beam evaporation method. The surfaces of the modified polymers were studied by different methods, i.e. topography, wettability and scratch resistance measurements were performed. The ageing effect of treated substrates was also discussed. It was shown that plasma modification of PTFE and PC substrates increased wettability of their surfaces. The value of water contact angle decreased of about 40 % and 25 % for PTFE and PC surface, respectively. The change of hydrophobic to hydrophilic properties was observed. Plasma modification of substrates improved adhesion between silver coating and polymer substrates. However, it did not influence wettability of Ag coating.

  8. Low affinity binding of plasma proteins to lipid-coated quantum dots as observed by in situ fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Yvonne; Maffre, Pauline; Shang, Li; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo; Hettler, Simon; Dries, Manuel; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2015-06-14

    Protein binding to lipid-coated nanoparticles has been pursued quantitatively by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The binding of three important plasma proteins to lipid-enwrapped quantum dots (QDs) shows very low affinity, with an apparent dissociation coefficient in the range of several hundred micromolar. Thus, the tendency to adsorb is orders of magnitude weaker than for QDs coated with dihydrolipoic acid.

  9. Microstructure evolutions of graded high-vanadium tool steel composite coating in-situ fabricated via atmospheric plasma beam alloying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Huatang; Dong, XuanPu; Chen, Shuqun; Dutka, Mikhail; Pei, Yutao

    2017-01-01

    A novel high-vanadium based hard composite coating was synthesized from premixed powders (V, Cr, Mo, Ti, Nb) on ductile iron (DI) substrate via atmospheric plasma beam surface alloying process. The graded coating can be divided into three distinct zones: upper alloyed zone (AZ) rich with spherical

  10. Plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on silumin for oxidation CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. A.; Sigaeva, S. S.; Anoshkina, E. A.; Ivanov, A. L.; Litvinov, P. V.; Vedruchenko, V. R.; Temerev, V. L.; Arbuzov, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Mukhin, V. A.; Suprunov, G. I.; Chumychko, I. A.; Shlyapin, D. A.; Tsyrul'nikov, P. G.

    2017-08-01

    Some catalysts of CO oxidation on silumin alloy AK12M2, used for the manufacture of pistons for Russian cars were investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the method of plasma electrolytic oxidation of silumin in electrolytes of various compositions with further activation by the salts Ce, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Al. The catalytic tests were carried out in a flow reactor in a mixture of 1% CO and 99% air, with the temperature range of 25-500 °C. The most active catalysts in CO oxidation are those activated with Ce and Cu salts on silumin, treated for 3 hours in an electrolyte containing 4 g/l KOH, 40 g/l Na2B4O7 (conversion of CO is 93.7% at a contact time of 0.25 s). However, the catalysts obtained from silumin treated in the electrolyte containing 3 g/l KOH, 30 g/l Na2SiO3 are more suitable for practical usage. Because when the treatment time of those catalysts is 10 - 20 minutes it is possible to achieve comparable CO conversion. The morphology and composition of the catalysts were studied by the methods of a scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive surface analysis and X-ray phase analysis. The surface of the non-activated sample consists of γ-Al2O3 and SiO2 particles, due to which the active components get attached to the support. CeO2 and CuO are present on the surface of the sample with the active component.

  11. Plasma Sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) Coatings for Corrosion Protection and Adhesion Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. D.; Groff, G. B.; Rooney, M.; Cooke, A. V.; Boothe, R.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) coatings are being developed under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program's (SPIP) Bondlines Package. These coatings are designed as a steel case preparation treatment prior to insulation lay-up. Other uses include the exterior of steel cases and bonding surfaces of nozzle components. They provide excellent bondability - rubber insulation and epoxy bonds fail cohesively within the polymer - for both fresh surfaces and surfaces having undergone natural and accelerated environmental aging. They have passed the MSFC requirements for protection of inland and sea coast environment. Because BOSS coatings are inherently corrosion resistant, they do not require preservation by greases or oils. The reduction/elimination of greases and oils, known bondline degraders, can increase SRM reliability, decrease costs by reducing the number of process steps, and decrease environmental pollution by reducing the amount of methyl chloroform used for degreasing and thus reduce release of the ozone-depleting chemical in accordance with the Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol. The coatings can potential extend the life of RSRM case segments and nozzle components by eliminating erosion due to multiple grit blasting during each use cycle and corrosion damage during marine recovery. Concurrent work for the Air Force show that other BOSS coatings give excellent bondline strength and durability for high-performance structures of aluminum and titanium.

  12. Effect of current and atomized grain size distribution on the solidification of Plasma Transferred Arc coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bond

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA is the only thermal spray process that results in a metallurgical bond, being frequently described as a hardfacing process. The superior properties of coatings have been related to the fine microstructures obtained, which are finer than those processed under similar heat input with welding techniques using wire feedstock. This observation suggests that the atomized feedstock plays a role on the solidification of coatings. In this study a model for the role of the powders grains in the solidification of PTA coatings is put forward and discussed. An experiment was setup to discuss the model which involved the deposition of an atomized Co-based alloy with different grain size distributions and deposition currents. X ray diffraction showed that there were no phase changes due to the processing parameters. Microstructure analysis by Laser Confocal Microscopy, dilution with the substrate steel and Vickers microhardness were used the characterized coatings and enriched the discussion confirming the role of the powdered feedstock on the solidification of coatings.

  13. High-Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating by Plasma Spraying Using Metal-Metal Clad Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Lan, Hao; Yu, Shouquan; Huang, Chuanbing; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2017-08-01

    NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating was fabricated by atmospheric plasma spray technology using clad powders as the feedstock. Its tribological properties at variable temperature were evaluated using a ball-on-disk high-temperature tribometer in air. The results showed that compared with NiCr, the NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating exhibited better lubrication effect and higher wear resistance at all test temperatures, especially above 600 °C. At 800 °C, NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating showed the lowest friction coefficient of about 0.2 and its corresponding wear rate reached 2.5 × 10-5 mm3/Nm. Characterizations of NiCr/Ag-Mo composite coating revealed that at temperatures below 400 °C, Ag was smeared and spread onto the wear surface, reducing the friction and wear. At temperature above 500 °C, the Ag2MoO4 lubrication film formed by tribo-oxidation significantly improved the coating's lubrication effect and wear resistance.

  14. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  15. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  16. Effects of isothermal treatment on microstructure and scratch test behavior of plasma sprayed zirconia coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Guilherme

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the petroleum cost in the last decades revitalized the interest for lighter and more economic vehicles. Simultaneously, the demand for safe and unpolluted transports grows. The application of thermal barriers coatings (TBC on combustion chamber and on flat surface of pistons reduces the thermal losses of the engines, resulting in higher temperatures in the combustion chamber. This fact contributes to the improvement of the thermal efficiency (performance and for the reduction of incomplete combustion. Supported on these initial ideas, thermal barriers coatings constituted by CaO partially stabilized zirconia were produced and their microstructure examined. This coating still presents some drawbacks associated with thermal stresses and permeability to oxidizing gases, which will, eventually, lead to failure of the TBC by spallation. The failure may, in general, be associated to one of three factors: oxide growth at the ceramic-metal interface, formed during thermal cycling; stress build-up due to thermal cycling; and metal-oxide interface segregation, mainly of S. However, it is also relevant to understand the behavior of TBC's under isothermal oxidation. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of oxidation on the adherence of thermal sprayed coatings. The adherence was measured by linear scratching tests, widely used for thin coatings. Plasma sprayed calcia partially stabilized zirconia was used as TBC and Ni-5%Al as bond coat, with Al substrates. Coated samples were submitted to heat treatments at 500 °C, for 50 h. The microstructures were examined by optical light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, profilometry and SEM.

  17. Ultra-fast quantitation of voriconazole in human plasma by coated blade spray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen; Boyacı, Ezel; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-09-10

    Voriconazole is a triazole broad-spectrum antifungal medication often used to treat fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Fusarium species. One of the main challenges associated with the implementation of this medication is its narrow therapeutic concentration range, demonstrating toxicity at concentrations above 6μg/mL and limited efficacy at concentrations below 2μg/mL. As a result, methodologies which permit the rapid and accurate quantitation of voriconazole in patients are highly desirable. In this work two different approaches based on coated blade spray directly coupled to mass spectrometry (CBS-MS) are introduced; each enabling the quantitation of voriconazole in plasma samples with a simple and fast sample preparation and no chromatographic step. The first approach involves a rapid extraction (1min) of the target analyte from 300μL of human plasma using conventional laboratory vessels (e.g. vial, 96-well plate). Alternatively, the second strategy consists of a 2min extraction from a plasma droplet (10μL) placed on the coated area of the blade. Both procedures were successfully validated and good linearity (R 2 ≥0.998), accuracy (91-122%) and precision (voriconazole in human plasma samples. Indeed, the proposed methodology can be easily used either for routine drug monitoring or for in vitro pharmacokinetic studies in applications where very small sample volumes are available and great temporal resolution is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and fatigue damage of plasma sprayed HAp top coat with Ti and HAp/Ti bond coat layers on commercially pure titanium substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakngarm, Achariya; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2009-10-01

    The surface of commercially pure Ti (cp-Ti) substrate was grit-blasted with Al(2)O(3) powders and then wet-blasted with HAp/Ti mixed powders at room temperature. Then plasma spraying with Ti powders or HAp/Ti mixed powders on the blasted surface was carried out to form a bond coat layer, denoted as T50 and T100 bond coat for the former and HT100 bond coat for the later. The HAp top coat was subsequently sprayed with 100 mum thickness. The XRD patterns showed that the as-sprayed HT100 bond coat layer was mainly composed of HAp with minor components of Ti and TiO(2). EDS analysis also showed there co-existed HAp and Ti without reaction in the HT100 bond coat layer. Some cracks were observed in the bond coat and the top coat layers after compression-compression and tension-tension fatigue tests. The HT100 bond coat specimen produced less AE signal and a small amount of debonding and cracking in compression-compression fatigue test. The HT100 specimen could survive up to 10 million cycles at stress amplitude of 200 MPa, which is high enough compared to the maximum stress in bones: the order of 100 MPa. The degree of damage (debonding and cracking) in tension-tension fatigue test was more severe than that in compression-compression fatigue testing.

  19. Micro-texturing into DLC/diamond coated molds and dies via high density oxygen plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunata Ersyzario Edo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD-diamond films have been widely utilized not only as a hard protective coating for molds and dies but also as a functional substrate for bio-MEMS/NEMS. Micro-texturing into these hard coated molds and dies provides a productive tool to duplicate the original mother micro-patterns onto various work materials and to construct any tailored micro-textures for sensors and actuators. In the present paper, the high density oxygen plasma etching method is utilized to make micro-line and micro-groove patterns onto the DLC and diamond coatings. Our developing oxygen plasma etching system is introduced together with characterization on the plasma state during etching. In this quantitative plasma diagnosis, both the population of activated species and the electron and ion densities are identified through the emissive light spectroscopy and the Langmuir probe method. In addition, the on-line monitoring of the plasmas helps to describe the etching process. DLC coated WC (Co specimen is first employed to describe the etching mechanism by the present method. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD diamond coated WC (Co is also employed to demonstrate the reliable capacity of the present high density oxygen plasma etching. This oxygen plasma etching performance is discussed by comparison of the etching rates.

  20. Study of the characteristics of plasma spray sealing aluminum silicon-polyester coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the homologation of the plasma spray parameters of soft abrasive AlSi - Polyester seals so that they can be applied on the TV2 - 117A compressor engines. The research has aimed at substituting existing sealants with a new class of materials in order to increase the sealing effect under the highest levels of pressure and to provide the air flow temperature of 100-125°C through the compressor. The Metco 601NS material and plasma spray technology were applied on the air labyrinth ring as a part of the TV2-117A turbojet engine compressor in order to obtain soft sealing. The deposit parameters were carefully selected in order to obtain coatings with the best characteristics depending on their application.The flow of helium was taken as a basic parameter in the parameter selection procedure. The coating with the best mechanical and structural properties was deposited on the air labyrinth ring to examine the effect of the coating application in an assembly. The microstructures of deposited layers were estimated with a light microscope and a (SEM Scanning Electron Microscope. The microstructural analysis of deposited layers was performed according to the Pratt - Whitney standard. The assessment of the mechanical properties of the coatings was done by examining the macrohardness of the sealing layers with the HR15Y method. The coating bond strength was tested by tensile testing. The effect of the air labyrinth ring sealing was tested inside the TV2-117A engine compressor on the test station for a period of 42 hour.

  1. Interfacial microstructures and hardness distributions of vacuum plasma spraying W-coated ODS ferritic steels for fusion plasma facing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: shnoh@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, interfacial microstructures and hardness distributions of W-coated ODS steels as plasma facing structural materials were investigated. A vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) technique was employed to fabricate a W layer on the surface of the ODS ferritic steel substrates. The microstructural observations revealed that the VPS-W has very fine grains aligned toward the spraying direction, and a favorable interface between W and ODS ferritic steels by a mechanical inter-locking without an intermetallic layer. However, crack-type defects were found in VPS-W. Because a brittle inter-diffused layer does not exist at the joint interface, the hardness was gradually distributed in the joint region. After neutron irradiation, irradiation hardening significantly occurred in the VPS-W. However, the hardening of VPS-W was less than that of bulk W irradiated at 773 K. Thus, the VPS is considered to be one of the promising ways to join dissimilar materials between W and ODS steels, which can avoid the formation of an interfacial intermetallic layer and create favorable irradiation hardening resistance on the W coated layer.

  2. Application of plasma spectrometry for the analysis of engineered nanoparticles in suspensions and products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, P.W.; Ulrich, A.; Garcia, C.C.; Manohar, S.; Ritsema, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the general characterization of nano-objects, especially engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and discusses analytical techniques commonly used for their determination. The main aspect of this review covers the use of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique for the

  3. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenhorst, L.M., E-mail: lena.wallenhorst@hawk-hhg.de [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Gerhard, C. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Militz, H. [Wood Biology and Wood Products, Burckhardt Institute, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ohms, G. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Viöl, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films, Application Center for Plasma and Photonics, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 100, 37085 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn/ZnO mixed systems were deposited from elemental zinc by a cold plasma-spray process. • Oxidation was confirmed by XPS. • The coatings exhibited a strong absorption in the UV spectral range, thus being suitable as protective layers, e.g. on thermosensitive materials. - Abstract: In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  4. Weathering resistance of thin plasma polymer films on pre-coated steel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Ricardo Gil Henriques

    O trabalho apresentado teve origem no projecto de investigacao “Tailored Thin Plasma Polymers Films for Surface Engineering of Coil Coated Steel”, financiado pelo Programa Europeu ECSC Steel Research. Sistemas de aco galvanizado pre-pintado em banda a base de poliester e poliuretano foram submetidos a um processo de polimerizacao por plasma onde um filme fino foi depositado de modo a modificar as propriedades de superficie. Foram usados reactores de catodo oco, microondas e radio frequencia para a deposicao do polimero fino. Os sistemas preparados foram analisados de modo a verificar a influencia do processo de polimerizacao por plasma na alteracao das propriedades barreira dos sistemas pre-pintados em banda. Foi estudado o efeito dos diferentes passos do processo de polimerizacao por plasma, bem como o efeito de diferentes variaveis operatorias. A mistura precursora foi variada de modo a modificar as propriedades da superficie de modo a poder vir a obter maior hidrofobicidade, maior resistencia a marcas digitais, bem como maior facilidade de limpeza. Os testes foram conduzidos em solucao de NaCl 0,5 M. Para o trabalho foram usadas tecnicas de analise da morfologia da superficie como Microscopia de Forca Atomica e Microscopia Electronica de Varrimento. As propriedades electroquimicas dos sistemas foram estudadas por Espectroscopia de Impedancia Electroquimica. A estrutura dos filmes gerados no processo de polimerizacao por plasma foi caracterizada por Microscopia de Transmissao Electronica. A modificacao das propriedades opticas devido ao processo de polimerizacao por plasma foi tambem obtida.

  5. Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuo; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Masakatsu; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke; Ohmori, Akira

    2014-08-01

    Anatase (A-) TiO2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO2 without HAp, TiO2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO2+30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed.

  6. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  7. Supersonic Plasma Spray Deposition of CoNiCrAlY Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, F. R.; Miranda, F. S.; Reis, D. A. P.; Essiptchouk, A. M.; Filho, G. P.

    2017-06-01

    Plasma spray is a versatile technology used for production of environmental and thermal barrier coatings, mainly in the aerospace, gas turbine, and automotive industries, with potential application in the renewable energy industry. New plasma spray technologies have been developed recently to produce high-quality coatings as an alternative to the costly low-pressure plasma-spray process. In this work, we studied the properties of as-sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate with smooth surface ( R a = 0.8 μm) by means of a plasma torch operating in supersonic regime at atmospheric pressure. The CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated in terms of their surface roughness, microstructure, instrumented indentation, and phase content. Static and dynamic depositions were investigated to examine their effect on coating characteristics. Results show that the substrate surface velocity has a major influence on the coating properties. The sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings exhibit low roughness ( R a of 5.7 μm), low porosity (0.8%), excellent mechanical properties ( H it = 6.1 GPa, E it = 155 GPa), and elevated interface toughness (2.4 MPa m1/2).

  8. Elastic and plastic behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Leng, Y; Chen, J

    2001-06-01

    A novel approach that combines the indentation tests with nonlinear finite element modeling (FEM) is proposed to estimate the elastic/plastic constitutive relation of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The Ramberg-Osgood constitutive equation can well describe the deformation behavior of plasma-sprayed HA coating on Ti-6Al-4V. A reasonable estimation for the elastic modulus of the HA coatings is given, based on the fact that the coating consists of a crystalline phase, an amorphous phase and pores. The Ramberg-Osgood equations of the coatings indicate that the post-treatment increases both resistance to elastic and plastic deformation, but no effect on strain hardening behavior. The post-treatment, however, could reduce the resistance to coating/substrate separation. The influence of titanium substrate becomes more significant with decreasing coating thickness and increasing indentation load because the plasma-sprayed HA coatings exhibit much less resistance to indentation deformation than does Ti-6Al-4V.

  9. A comparative physico-chemical study of chlorapatite and hydroxyapatite: from powders to plasma sprayed thin coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demnati, I; Grossin, D; Combes, C; Parco, M; Braceras, I; Rey, C

    2012-10-01

    Due to their bioactivity and osteoconductivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) plasma sprayed coatings have been widely developed for orthopedic uses. However, the thermodynamic instability of HA leads frequently to a mixture of phases which limit the functional durability of the coating. This study investigates the plasma spraying of chlorapatite (ClA) powder, known to melt without decomposition, onto pure titanium substrates using a low energy plasma spray system (LEPS). Pure ClA powder was prepared by a solid gas reaction at 950 °C and thermogravimetric analysis showed the good thermal stability of ClA powder in the range 30-1400 °C compared to that of the HA powder. Characterization of ClA coating showed that ClA had a very high crystalline ratio and no other crystalline phase was detected in the coating. HA and ClA coatings composition, microstructure and in vitro bioactivity potential were studied, compared and discussed. In vitro SBF test on HA and ClA coatings revealed the formation of a poorly crystalline apatite on the coating surface suggesting that we could expect a good osteoconductivity especially for the ClA coating prepared by the LEPS system.

  10. An Assessment of the Residual Stresses in Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Coatings on an Advanced Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Agarwal, A.; Lachtrupp, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling studies were conducted on low pressure plasma sprayed (LPPS) NiAl top coat applied to an advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy (GRCop-84) substrate using Ni as a bond coat. A thermal analysis suggested that the NiAl and Ni top and bond coats, respectively, would provide adequate thermal protection to the GRCop-84 substrate in a rocket engine operating under high heat flux conditions. Residual stress measurements were conducted at different depths from the free surface on coated and uncoated GRCop-84 specimens by x-ray diffraction. These data are compared with theoretically estimated values assessed by a finite element analysis simulating the development of these stresses as the coated substrate cools down from the plasma spraying temperature to room temperature.

  11. Effect of helium plasma gas flow rate on the properties of WC-12 wt.%Co coatings sprayed by atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cermet coatings of WC-12wt.%Co are extensively used to improve the wear resistance of a wide range of technical components. This paper analyses the influence of the plasma gas flow of helium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-12wt.%Co coatings deposited by plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS. In order to obtain homogeneous and denser coatings, three different flows of He ( 8 l/min., 16 l/min. and 32 l/min were used in the research. With the application of He, coatings achieved higher values of hardness due to less degradation of the primary WC carbides. The main goal was to deposit dense and homogeneous layers of WC-12wt.%Co coatings with improved wear resistance for different applications. The test results of the microstructure of the layers were evaluated under a light microscope. The analysis of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the deposited layers was made in accordance with the standard of Pratt-Whitney. The morphology of the powder particles and the microstructure of the best coating was examined on the SEM (scanning electron microscope. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of the layers was done by applying the HV0.3 method for microhardness testing and by applying tensile testing to test the bond strength. The research has shown that the flow of He plasma gas significantly affects the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the structure of WC-12 wt.%Co coatings.

  12. Characterizations of microwave plasma CVD grown polycrystalline diamond coatings for advanced technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadesh Kumar Mallik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline diamond (PCD coatings ranging from few microns to several hundred microns thickness have been grown by 915 MHz microwave plasma reactor with 9000 W power. The coatings were deposited on 100 mm diameter silicon (Si substrate from few hours to several days of continuous runs. PCD coatings were made freestanding by wet chemical etching technique. The deposited PCDs were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for physical characterization and compared with authors’ earlier work. Refractive index of 2.41 was obtained at 633 nm wavelength and a maximum of 6.6 W·cm-1K-1 value for thermal conductivity could be achieved with the grown coatings. The values are well above the existing non-diamond heat spreading substrates, which makes the grown PCDs as candidates for heat spreaders in different technological applications. High refractive index along with translucent nature of the white freestanding PCDs, make them potential candidate for optical windows.

  13. Characterization of thick plasma spray tungsten coating on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H for high heat flux armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, Y.; Mitsuhara, M.; Tokunakga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Hirai, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Nakashima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Two types of plasma spray tungsten coatings on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H made by vacuum plasma spray technique (VPS) and air plasma spray technique (APS) were examined in this study to evaluate the possibility as plasma-facing armor. The VPS-W/F82H showed superior properties. The porosity of the VPS-W coatings was about 0.6% and most of the pores were smaller than 1-2 μm and joining of W/F82H and W/W was fairly good. Thermal load tests indicated high potential of this coating as plasma-facing armor under thermal loading. In case of APS-W/F82H, however, porosity was 6% and thermal load properties were much worse than VPS-W/F82H. It is likely that surface oxidation during plasma spray process reduced joining properties. Remarkably, both coatings created soft ferrite interlayer after proper heat treatments probably due to high residual stress at the interfaces after the production. This indicates the potential function of the interlayer as stress relieve and possible high performance of such coating component under thermal loads.

  14. Comparison of ZrB2-MoSi2 Composite Coatings Fabricated by Atmospheric and Vacuum Plasma Spray Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaran; Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi; Ding, Chuanxian

    2017-01-01

    In this work, ZrB2-20 vol.% MoSi2 (denoted as ZM) composite coatings were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) techniques, respectively. Phase composition and microstructure of the composite coatings were characterized. Their oxidation behaviors and microstructure changes at 1500 °C were comparatively investigated. The results showed that VPS-ZM coating was composed of hexagonal ZrB2, tetragonal and hexagonal MoSi2, while certain amount of ZrO2 existed in APS-ZM coating. The oxide content, surface roughness and porosity of VPS-ZM coating were apparently lower than those of APS-ZM coating. The mass gain of APS-ZM coating was maximum at the beginning (1500 °C, 0 h) and then decreased with the oxidation time extending, while the mass of VPS-ZM coating gradually increased with increasing the oxidation time. The possible reasons for the different oxidation behaviors of the two kinds of coatings were analyzed.

  15. Characterization of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on Zircaloy-4 formed in different electrolytes with AC current regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yingliang, E-mail: chengyingliang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Matykina, Enzhe [Dpt. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Skeldon, Peter; Thompson, George [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > ZrO{sub 2} coatings are grown on Zircaloy-4 by AC plasma electrolytic oxidation. > Tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} are formed using silicate electrolyte. > Pyrophosphate electrolyte results in flawed coatings of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. > Silicate favours formation of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}, with coating hardness {approx}8 GPa. > Microstructures are related to temperature gradients and solidification rates. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation was undertaken on Zircaloy-4 in alkaline silicate and pyrophosphate electrolytes, with a square waveform AC current regime. The resultant coatings were examined using scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation. The coatings formed in silicate electrolyte comprised mainly a porous inner layer and a more compact outer layer, with characteristic solidification structures being evident following prolonged treatment. The coatings contained monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}, the latter being mainly present in the outer layer, which was of hardness up to {approx}8 GPa. In contrast, extensively cracked coatings resulted from use of pyrophosphate electrolyte; the coating integrity was improved by the addition of silicate to the pyrophosphate electrolyte. The different morphologies of the coatings appeared to be related to the differing nature of the microdischarges and to the incorporation of silicon species that enhanced the formation of t-ZrO{sub 2}.

  16. Roll-to-roll DBD plasma pretreated polyethylene web for enhancement of Al coating adhesion and barrier property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibao; Li, Hua; Fang, Ming; Wang, Zhengduo; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang, E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The images of Al coating adhesion testes for (a) untreated and (b) roll-to-roll DBD plasma treated PE. - Highlights: • Over three-months ageing a high surface energy was still existed in roll-to-roll DBD plasma-treated PE surface. • The adhesion and barrier property of Al-coated PE web were greatly improved. • The mechanism of plasma grafting to improve the properties of Al-coated PE web was found. - Abstract: In this paper the roll-to-roll atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to pre-treat polyethylene (PE) web surface before the conventional thermal evaporation aluminum (Al) was performed as a barrier layer. We emphasized the plasma environment effect based on the inlet three kinds of reactive monomers. The cross hatch test was employed to assess the Al coating adhesion; and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was used to evaluate gas barrier property. The results showed that after roll-to-roll DBD plasma treatment all Al coatings adhered strongly on PE films and were free from pinhole defects with mirror morphology. The OTR was reduced from 2673 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day for Al-coated original PE to 138 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day for Al-coated allyamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}N) modified PE. To well understand the mechanism the chemical compositions of the untreated and DBD plasma pretreated PE films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the property of surface energy the water contact angle measurement was also carried out in the DBD plasma treated samples with deionized water.

  17. Effect of tetraethoxysilane coating on the improvement of plasma treated polypropylene adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, M.; Encinas, N.; Abenojar, J.; Martínez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Polypropylene is one of the most used polymers due to its lightweight and recyclability properties, among others. However, its poor characteristics regarding surface energy and lack of polar functional groups have to be overcome to perform adhesion processes. The main objective of this work is to improve the adhesion behavior of polypropylene by combining atmospheric pressure plasma surface activation and silane adhesion promoter. Tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis and condensation are followed through infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflectance in order to set the coating conditions. Contact angle measurements and surface energy calculations as well as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to evaluate polymer chemical modifications. Morphological changes are studied through scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Results show the ability of plasma treatment to create active oxydised functional groups on the polypropylene surface. These groups lead to a proper wetting of the polymer by the silane. Shear strength of single-lap bonding of polypropylene with a polyurethane adhesive suffers a significant improvement when the silane coating is applied on previously plasma activated samples. It has been also demonstrated that the silane curing conditions play a decisive role on the adhesion response. Finally, the stability of the silane solution is tested up to 30 days, yielding diminished but still acceptable adhesion strength values.

  18. Investigation and plasma cleaning of first mirrors coated with relevant ITER contaminants: beryllium and tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, L.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Lungu, C. P.; Porosnicu, C.; Newman, M.; Widdowson, A.; Alves, E.; Pintsuk, G.; Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Steiner, R.; Marot, L.; Meyer, E.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend the investigation of the plasma cleaning of ITER first mirrors, a set of molybdenum mirrors was coated in a laboratory with ITER-relevant contaminants, namely beryllium and tungsten. Different coating techniques as well as several contaminant compositions were used to ensure a large variety of films to clean, completing a previous study conducted on mirrors exposed in the JET ITER-like wall (tokamak deposits) [1]. Due to the toxicity of beryllium, the samples were treated in a vacuum chamber specially built for this purpose. The cleaning was performed using capacitively coupled RF plasma and evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis. The removal of all types of contaminants was achieved by using different plasma compositions (argon, helium and mixtures of the two) with various ion energies (from 200-600 eV) and in some cases the mirror’s reflectivity was restored towards initial values. Pure helium discharges were capable of removing mixed beryllium/tungsten layers and oxidized molybdenum. In addition, no significant increase in the diffuse reflectivity of the mirrors was observed for the helium cleaning, though this was the case for some samples cleaned with argon. Helium is therefore appropriate for cleaning all mirrors in ITER leading to a possible cleaning regime where the entire vessel is filled with He and all mirrors are cleaned simultaneously without damaging their surfaces.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Air Plasma Sprayed Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bradley; Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis; Wadley, Haydn

    2015-01-01

    Development work in Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) has focused considerably on the identification of materials systems and coating architectures to meet application needs. The evolution of these systems has occurred so quickly that modeling efforts and requisite data for modeling lag considerably behind development. Materials property data exists for many systems in the bulk form, but the effects of deposition on the critical properties of strength and fracture behavior are not well studied. We have plasma sprayed bulk samples of baseline EBC materials (silicon, ytterbium disilicate) and tested the mechanical properties of these materials to elicit differences in strength and toughness. We have also endeavored to assess the mixed-mode fracture resistance, Gc, of silicon in a baseline EBC applied to SiCSiC CMC via four point bend test. These results are compared to previously determined properties of the comparable bulk material.

  20. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings Using the Knoop Indentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Fahad; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The microhardness and elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated using Knoop indentation on the cross section and on the top surface. The effects of indentation angle, testing direction, measurement location and applied load on the microhardness and elastic modulus were investigated. The variability and distribution of the microhardness and elastic modulus data were statistically analysed using the Weibull modulus distribution. The results indicate that the dependence of microhardness and elastic modulus on the indentation angle exhibits a parabolic shape. Dependence of the microhardness values on the indentation angle follows Pythagoras's theorem. The microhardness, Weibull modulus of microhardness and Weibull modulus of elastic modulus reach their maximum at the central position (175 µm) on the cross section of the coatings. The Weibull modulus of microhardness revealed similar values throughout the thickness, and the Weibull modulus of elastic modulus shows higher values on the top surface compared to the cross section.

  1. Nondestructive inspection of thin plasma-sprayed ceramic and cermet protective coatings for coal conversion and utilization equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.W.; Cook, K.V.; Davis, E.V.; Dodd, C.V.; Foster, B.E.; Mason, W.J.; McClung, R.W.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Snyder, S.D.

    1978-04-01

    Results of a project to develop nondestructive inspection techniques for ceramic and cermet wear- and process-resistant coatings used in coal system compounds are described. The general inspection problem has been analyzed and the difficulties peculiar to plasma-sprayed coatings are discussed. Physical properties, especially porosity, and the nominal 0.25 mm thickness make the inspection of these coatings difficult. The literature has been reviewed for inspection methods and technology adaptable to coating inspection. Several inspection methods have been evaluated for feasibility by laboratory experiments. The basic coating defect conditions considered are cracks or holes, variations in thickness, lamellar separations, and inhomogeneities. Assessment of current technology indicates that a few nondestructive methods can be applied directly to the inspection of coatings with very little development; in most cases, however, considerable development is required.

  2. Nuclear Rocket Ceramic Metal Fuel Fabrication Using Tungsten Powder Coating and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. W.; Tucker, D. S.; Hone, L.; Cook, S.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is an enabling technology for crewed Mars missions. An investigation was conducted to evaluate spark plasma sintering (SPS) as a method to produce tungsten-depleted uranium dioxide (W-dUO2) fuel material when employing fuel particles that were tungsten powder coated. Ceramic metal fuel wafers were produced from a blend of W-60vol% dUO2 powder that was sintered via SPS. The maximum sintering temperatures were varied from 1,600 to 1,850 C while applying a 50-MPa axial load. Wafers exhibited high density (>95% of theoretical) and a uniform microstructure (fuel particles uniformly dispersed throughout tungsten matrix).

  3. Carbon coated nickel nanoparticles produced in high-frequency arc plasma at ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnukova, Natalia; Dudnik, Alexander; Komogortsev, Sergey; Velikanov, Dmitry; Nemtsev, Ivan; Volochaev, Michael; Osipova, Irina; Churilov, Grigory

    2017-10-01

    The nickel particles with the mean size about 10-20 nm coated with carbon were extracted by the treatment of the carbon condensate with nitric and hydrochloric acids. The initial carbon condensate containing nickel nanoparticles with a graphite conversion was synthesized in the high-frequency carbon-helium arc plasma at ambient pressure with the nickel nanoparticles as a catalyst. The nickel content in the nanoparticles was 84.6 wt%. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are characterized by the high hysteresis and thermal stability. The sample of compacted nanoparticles is characterized by electrical resistance much higher than it in of compacted initial condensate.

  4. Optical study of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings deposited at different spray distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, R.; Kowalski, S.; Żórawski, W.

    2017-08-01

    Series of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings deposited on titanium substrate at different spray (plasma gun to workpiece) distance were investigated. The optical methods as dark field confocal microscopy, Raman/PL and UV-VIS spectroscopy were used for study the influence of deposition process on structural degradation of HA precursor. The hydroxyl group concentration was investigated by study the OH mode intensity in the Raman spectra. Optical absorption coefficients at near UV region were analyzed by Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy. PL intensity observed during Raman measurement was also considered as relation to defects concentration and degradation level. It was confirmed the different gunsubstrate distance has a great impact on structure of deposited HA ceramics.

  5. Bond strength of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on the phosphated steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the presented work, results of adhesion measurements for different systems of steel sheet-phosphate interlayer-ceramiccoating are described. The interlayers were produced by zinc phosphating; alumina, olivine and zirconiasilica-alumina (e.g. eucor coatings were deposited by water stabilized plasma torch WSP®. However, successful application of the WSP technique depends on the choice of correct deposition parameters preserving the hydrated phosphates from thermal destruction by the molten ceramic particles. For the adhesion measurement ISO 4624standardized test was used. Corrosion resistivity was measured by polarisation resistance and free corrosion potential in 3 % NaCl solution.

  6. Novel Method to Predict In Vivo Liver-to-Plasma Kpuu for OATP Substrates Using Suspension Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Keith; Lin, Jian; Li, Zhenhong; Niosi, Mark; Ryu, Sangwoo; Hua, Wenyi; Atkinson, Karen; Kosa, Rachel E; Litchfield, John; Di, Li

    2017-05-01

    The ability to predict human liver-to-plasma unbound partition coefficient (Kpuu) is of great importance to estimate unbound liver concentration, develop PK/PD relationships, predict efficacy and toxicity in the liver, and model the drug-drug interaction potential for drugs that are asymmetrically distributed into the liver. A novel in vitro method has been developed to predict in vivo Kpuu with good accuracy using cryopreserved suspension hepatocytes in InVitroGRO HI media with 4% BSA. Validation was performed using six OATP substrates with rat in vivo Kpuu data from i.v. infusion studies where a steady state was achieved. Good in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVE) was observed as the in vitro Kpuu values were mostly within 2-fold of in vivo Kpuu Good Kpuu IVIVE in human was also observed with in vivo Kpuu data of dehydropravastatin from positron emission tomography and in vivo Kpuu data from PK/PD modeling for pravastatin and rosuvastatin. Under the specific Kpuu assay conditions, the drug-metabolizing enzymes and influx/efflux transporters appear to function at physiologic levels. No scaling factors are necessary to predict in vivo Kpuu from in vitro data. The novel in vitro Kpuu method provides a useful tool in drug discovery to project in vivo Kpuu. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Gas-Shrouded Plasma Spraying on Cathode Coating of Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Reißner, R.; Schiller, G.; Ansar, A.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the performance of electrodes prepared via atmospheric plasma spray by means of gas shrouding which is expected to apparently reduce the oxygen content of the plasma plume and subsequently improve the coating quality. Electrodes with dual-layer coating for alkaline water electrolysis were deposited on Ni-coated perforated substrates. Microstructure and morphology were studied by SEM. Element content was measured by EDS. Enthalpy probe was employed for measuring plasma temperature and velocity as well as the gas composition. For verifying and better understanding the shrouding effect numerical calculation was carried out according to the experimental settings. Electrochemical test was carried out to validate the shrouding effect. The results showed slight protecting effect of gas shrouding on plasma plume and the final coating. Over the dual-layer section, the measured oxygen fraction was 3.46 and 3.15% for the case without gas shrouding and with gas shrouding, respectively. With gas shrouding the coating exhibited similar element contents as the coating sprayed by VPS, while no obvious improvement was observed in the microstructure or the morphology. Evident electrochemical improvement was nevertheless achieved that with gas shrouding the electrode exhibited similar performance as that of the VPS-sprayed electrode.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF PLASMA SPRAY PARAMETERS ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND PHASE COMPOSITION OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS MADE BY SPPS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Valefi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of plasma spray parameters, atomizing gas and substrate preheat temperature on microstructure and phase composition of YSZ coatings produced by SPPS process have been investigated. The experimental results showed that increasing the power of plasma, using hydrogen as the precursor atomizing gas and increasing substrate preheat temperature decrease the amount of non-pyrolyzed precursor in the coatings. At low plasma power most of the deposited precursor is in non-pyrolyzed state, and consequently the applied coatings are defective. The increase in substrate temperature beyond 800oC either by preheating or heat transfer from plasma torch to the substrate, prevent the coating formation. In SPPS coating formation, up to a special spray distance the optical microscopy image of the coatings showed a snowy like appearance. XRD analysis showed that in this situation the amount of un-pyrolyzed precursor is low. Beyond this spray distance, spherical particles, are obtained and XRD analysis showed that most of the precursor is in un-pyrolyzed state.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Gas-Shrouded Plasma Spraying on Cathode Coating of Alkaline Electrolysis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Reißner, R.; Schiller, G.; Ansar, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the performance of electrodes prepared via atmospheric plasma spray by means of gas shrouding which is expected to apparently reduce the oxygen content of the plasma plume and subsequently improve the coating quality. Electrodes with dual-layer coating for alkaline water electrolysis were deposited on Ni-coated perforated substrates. Microstructure and morphology were studied by SEM. Element content was measured by EDS. Enthalpy probe was employed for measuring plasma temperature and velocity as well as the gas composition. For verifying and better understanding the shrouding effect numerical calculation was carried out according to the experimental settings. Electrochemical test was carried out to validate the shrouding effect. The results showed slight protecting effect of gas shrouding on plasma plume and the final coating. Over the dual-layer section, the measured oxygen fraction was 3.46 and 3.15% for the case without gas shrouding and with gas shrouding, respectively. With gas shrouding the coating exhibited similar element contents as the coating sprayed by VPS, while no obvious improvement was observed in the microstructure or the morphology. Evident electrochemical improvement was nevertheless achieved that with gas shrouding the electrode exhibited similar performance as that of the VPS-sprayed electrode.

  10. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Empirical relationship was established to predict the corrosion rate of plasma sprayed alumina coatings by incorporating process parameters. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five-level, central composite rotatable design matrix. The developed relationship can be effectively used to predict the corrosion rate of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on corrosion rate, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

  11. Enhancing sensitivity of SPR sensors by using nanostructured Au chips coated with functional plasma polymer nanofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Z. Indutnyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors operating in the Kretschmann configuration was investigated using Au SPR chips with a nano-grating surface functionalized via deposition of a-C:H:O plasma polymer films. The surface of the chips was nanopatterned in order to improve the sensitivity of the sensor, as compared with the sensitivity of standard Au chips with a flat (unstructured surface. It was found that deposition of the plasma polymer nanofilms neither affected the degree of refractometer sensitivity enhancement, nor the width of the operation range of the environment refractive index (n, in which the enhancement was observed. Such functionalization of the chip surface merely resulted in the shift of the operation range position to smaller values of n in comparison to non-coated chips requiring deposition of stable functional films.

  12. Core-Shell-Structured Copolyaniline-Coated Polymeric Nanoparticle Suspension and Its Viscoelastic Response under Various Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Jae Moon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semi-conducting poly(n-methylaniline (PNMA-coated poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA composite nanoparticles were synthesized using cross-linked and grafted PMMA particles as a core, and then, the PNMA shell was coated via chemical oxidative polymerization on the surface of modified PMMA nanoparticles. Their electroresponsive electrorheological characteristics when dispersed in silicone were confirmed under applied electric fields using a rotational rheometer, focusing on their viscoelastic response. Using a frequency sweep test, the frequency dependence of both the storage and loss moduli was confirmed to increase upon increasing the electric field, with a stable plateau regime over the entire angular frequency range.

  13. Scrutiny of plasma spraying complexities with case study on the optimized conditions toward coating process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Djebali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate a PSP using the Jets&Poudres soft. The plasma gas understanding is given to highlight the effects of gas mixtures proportions on diffusion parameters. An overview on the process complexities at main subsystems is given with focus on Argon plasma and optimal mixing; the powder acceleration and heat-up modeling are also presented. Under literature conditions and for He–Ar–H2 65–30–5% gas, it was found that the droplet's primary way is to coat. The used ternary mixture gives superior efficiency compared to the pure Argon which shows a prior way to rebound. Moreover, medium particles (dp≈45 µm present the high deposited rate among the splashed mass, a 100% molten ratio is observed for the small powder and only particles of size below 40.3 µm have evaporated, particles of initial diameter between 40.3 and 49 µm are fully molten and all particles above 71.9 µm are fully solid. The coat formed by the deposited mass will transfer a large amount of heat to the substrate (9–58 MW/m2. The crushed particle's rate is about 4% from the investigated number and the average fully molten particle's rate is about 72% and the rest of particles arrive in solid sate.

  14. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kredl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  15. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredl, Jana; Kolb, Juergen F; Schnabel, Uta; Polak, Martin; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Fricke, Katja

    2016-04-07

    Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  16. Aging effects of plasma polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) thin films on cell-adhesive implant coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testrich, H; Rebl, H; Finke, B; Hempel, F; Nebe, B; Meichsner, J

    2013-10-01

    Thin plasma polymer films from ethylenediamine were deposited on planar substrates placed on the powered electrode of a low pressure capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz discharge. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) as well as by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after derivatization of the primary amino groups. The PPEDA films undergo an alteration during the storage in ambient air, particularly, due to reactions with oxygen. The molecular changes in PPEDA films were studied over a long-time period of 360 days. Simultaneously, the adhesion of human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 (ATCC) was investigated on PPEDA coated corundum blasted titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), which is applied as implant material in orthopedic surgery. The cell adhesion was determined by flow cytometry and the cell shape was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Compared to uncoated reference samples a significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation were measured for PPEDA coated samples, which have been maintained after long-time storage in ambient air and additional sterilization by γ-irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coating on 5005 Aluminum Alloy with Red Mud as an Electrolyte Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shifeng; Zeng, Jianmin; Wang, Youbin

    2017-10-01

    A coating with red mud as an electrolyte additive was applied to 5005 aluminum alloy using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The phase composition of the coating was investigated using X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the microstructure and composition profiles of the coating. The coating/substrate adhesion was determined by scratch testing. The corrosion behaviors of the substrate and coating were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicated that the PEO coating with red mud consisted mainly of α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3, with small amounts of Fe2O3, CaCO3, and CaTiO3. The surface of the coating was the color of the red mud. The coating had a uniform thickness of about 80 μm and consisted of two main layers: a 6- μm porous outer layer and a 74- μm dense inner layer, which showed typical metallurgical adhesion (coating/substrate adhesion strength of 59 N). The coating hardness was about 1142 HV, much higher than that of the substrate (60 HV). The corrosion potential E corr and corrosion current density i corr of the coating were estimated to be -0.743 V and 3.85 × 10-6 A cm-2 from the PDP curve in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution, and the maximum impedance and phase angle of the coating were 11 000 Ω and -67 deg, respectively, based on EIS. PEO coating with red mud improved the surface properties and corrosion resistance of 5005 aluminum alloy. This study also shows a potential method for reusing red mud.

  18. PLASMA THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE WITH HIGH THERMAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devoino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents optimization of  processes for obtaining maximum content of tetragonal phase in the initial material and thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide and hafnium oxide.  Results of the investigations on phase composition of oxide HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3  system have been given in the paper. The system represents  a microstructure which is similar to  zirconia dioxide and  transformed for its application at 1300 °C. The paper explains a mechanism of hafnium oxide influence on formation of the given microstructure. The research methodology has been based on complex metallography, X – ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of  structural elements of the composite plasma coating HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O system.In order to stabilize zirconium dioxide  dopant oxide should not only have an appropriate size of  metal ion, but also form a solid solution with the zirconia. This condition severely limits the number of possible stabilizers. In fact, such stabilization is possible only with the help of rare earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, CeO2, HfO2. Chemical purity of the applied materials plays a significant role for obtaining high-quality thermal barrier coatings. Hafnium oxide has been selected as powder for thermal barrier coatings instead of zirconium dioxide due to their similarities in structural modification, grating, chemical and physical properties and its high temperature structural transformations. It has been established that plasma thermal barrier HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3 coatings consist of  one tetragonal phase. This phase is equivalent to a non-equilibrium tetragonal t' phase in the “zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide” system. Affinity of  Hf+4 and Zr+4 cations leads to the formation of identical metastable phases during rapid quenching.

  19. Electric breakdowns of the "plasma capacitors" occurs on insulation coating of the ISS surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homin, Taras; Korsun, Anatolii

    High electric fields and currents are occurred in the spacecrafts plasma environment by onboard electric generators. Thus the high voltage solar array (SA) of the American segment of International Space Station (ISS) generates potential 160 V. Its negative pole is shorted to the frames of all the ISS segments. There is electric current between the SA and the frame through the plasma environment, i.e. electric discharge occurs. As a result a potential drop exists between the frames of all the ISS segments and the environmental plasma [1], which is cathode drop potential varphi _{c} defined. When ISS orbiting, the φc varies greatly in the range 0-100 V. A large area of the ISS frames and SA surface is coated with a thin dielectric film. Because of cathode drop potential the frame surfaces accumulate ion charges and the SA surfaces accumulate electron charges. These surfaces become plasma capacitors, which accumulate much charge and energy. Micrometeorite impacts or buildup of potential drop in excess of breakdown threshold varphi_{b} (varphi _{c} > varphi _{b} = 60 V) may cause breakdowns of these capacitors. Following a breakdown, the charge collected at the surfaces disperses and transforms into a layer of dense plasma [2]. This plasma environment of the spacecraft produces great pulsed electric fields E at the frame surfaces as well as heavy currents between construction elements which in turn induce great magnetic fields H. Therefore the conductive frame and the environmental plasma is plasma inductors. We have calculated that the densities of these pulsing and high-frequency fields E and H generated in the plasma environment of the spacecraft may exceed values hazardous to human. Besides, these fields must induce large electromagnetic impulses in the space-suit and in the power supply and control circuits of onboard systems. During astronaut’s space-suit activity, these fields will penetrate the space-suit and the human body with possible hazardous effects

  20. New methods for hemoglobin detection in a microparticle-plasma suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M; Hartmann, J; Falkenhagen, D

    2006-11-01

    In the extracorporeal adsorption system, MDS (Microspheres based Detoxification System), micro-adsorbent particles measuring 1-25 micrometers circulate in a filtrate circuit for highly specific blood purification/adsorption. The MDS circuit containing the adsorbent microparticles is linked to the patient's blood line by a hollow fiber plasma filter. When the transmembrane pressure or the shear forces due to the red blood cells in the hollow fiber filter are too high, they can be damaged and hemoglobin will be released. In order to detect free hemoglobin (fHb) by optical means, we have designed a new flow-dynamic filter system, placed in the microadsorbent circuit for continuous separation of microparticles from the filtrate. In the flow dynamic filter, we use a high velocity liquid vortex to remove sedimentation and particle plugs on the filter membrane. In our investigations, 3 and 8 micron cellulose nitrate filter membranes for particle separation are used. The obtained particle free bypass filtrate flow rates are typically 0.5 and 0.8 ml/min respectively. The typical sensitivity for fHb detection by the applied noninvasive optical method is 0.15 g/dL. Medical safety regulations require a fail-safe mechanism for fHb detection which monitors the bypass filtrate flow in the flowdynamic filter and shuts down the system in case of membrane occlusion. The bypass filtrate flow is monitored by periodically occluding and releasing the bypass line by means of a clamp. The resulting back pressure profile gives information about the actual filtration rate. This safety principle was proven by statistical analysis and shows its clear functionality.

  1. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zia ur; Shabib, Ishraq [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haide1w@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility. - Highlights: • Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The cyclic polarization tests revealed noticeable improvement towards the positive potentials for both Tip coatings. • CpTi-Hap and Ti6Al4V-Hap both demonstrate similar corrosion rate. • High cytotoxicity was observed for Mp when compared with Tip and Hap after 21 days of immersion. • Both Tip and Hap coatings promoted the osteoblast cell adhesion and exhibited stellar morphology.

  2. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  3. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying application to obtain hydroxyapatite coatings on the stainless steel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Marija D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the standard metallic materials for hip implants, besides the 316LVM stainless steel, were titanium- and cobalt/chromium-based alloys. Although bioinert, due to their corrosion resistance, they are not biocompatible. Contemporary surgical implants are not made just of bioinert metal anymore, but with deposited bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp coating. Hydroxyapatite is chemically identical with the mineral constituent of bones and teeth, what besides its biocompatibility provides bioactivity as well. The HAp limitations are, however, weak tensile strength and low fatigue resistance for long term loadings, if used alone. This is the reason for HAp to be deposited onto the surgical implant, and to enable its bioactivity, what means intergrowth with bones, and therefore the long-lasting and mechanical stable non-cemented prosthesis. This is important predominantly because the need for such prostheses for younger population, and a better life quality. There are several contemporary techniques that have been used for deposition of these coatings onto the metal implant. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying for obtaining the stable HAp coatings on the 316LVM stainless steel, ordinary used as a standard material for hip implants production are presented in this paper. The coatings of a commercially available hydroxyapatite powder were plasma-sprayed onto the specimens of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel under various operating conditions. The optical microscopy was used for microstructure and porosity characterization, while coating morphology and Ca/P ratio were analyzed using SEM equipped with EDX. Coating microstructure varied from a porous to a glassy structure, depending on operating conditions applied and coating thickness. Coating porosity was determined to be at the lower required limit requested for the bone-coating intergrowth possibility, but nevertheless adhesion measurements showed good results. The Ca/P ratio was

  4. Microstructural and aqueous corrosion aspects of laser-surface-melted type 304 SS plasma-coated mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, M. G.; Dayal, R. K.; Singh Raman, R. K.

    1994-06-01

    Plasma spray deposition of metals, ceramics, or plastics onto base metals to produce wear- and corrosion-resistant surfaces is a promising technique whereby base metal performance can be considerably im-proved. Because these coatings invariably contain pores, voids, and cracks, laser surface melting may be employed to improve their homogeneity. This study focuses on the corrosion performance of laser- sur-face- melted type 304 SS plasma- coated mild steel specimens. Mild steel strips were plasma coated with an approximately 100 to 200 μm thick layer of type 304 by transferred plasma jet. These specimens were sub-sequently laser irradiated using a 3 kW continuous- wave CO2 gas laser. Eight different sets of specimens were selected based on different laser beam travel speeds. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the plasma- coated specimens revealed both pancake and flowery types of deposited particles. Optical micro-scopic studies followed by anodic polarization experiments were carried out on these specimens in IN H2SO4 medium. It was observed that specimens with laser beam interaction times ranging from 30 to 120 ms showed relatively better general corrosion performance than specimens with interaction times of from 15 to 24 ms.

  5. Polymerization of Vinylpyrrolidone to Form a Neutral Coating on Anionic Nanomaterials in Aqueous Suspension for Rapid Sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Edward P. C.; Zafar Iqbal; Sherif Nour

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials in water present an array of identifiable potential hazards to ecological and human health. There is no general consensus about the influence of anionic or cationic charge on the toxicity of nanomaterials on environmental ecology. One challenge is the limited number of scalable technologies available for the removal of charged nanomaterials from water. A new method based on polymer coating has been developed in our laboratory for rapid sedimentation of nanomaterials in aqueous s...

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Plasma Polymerized Siloxane Coating for Enzyme Immobilization and Microfluidic Device Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalim Belhacene

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the impact of a physical immobilization methodology, using plasma polymerized 1,1,3,3, tetramethyldisiloxane, on the catalytic performance of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae in a microfluidic device. The β-galactosidase was immobilized by a polymer coating grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PEVCD. Combined with a microchannel patterned in the silicone, a microreactor was obtained with which the diffusion through the plasma polymerized layer and the hydrolysis of a synthetic substrate, the resorufin-β-d-galactopyranoside, were studied. A study of the efficiency of the immobilization procedure was investigated after several uses and kinetic parameters of immobilized β-galactosidase were calculated and compared with those of soluble enzyme. Simulation and a modelling approach were also initiated to understand phenomena that influenced enzyme behavior in the physical immobilization method. Thus, the catalytic performances of immobilized enzymes were directly influenced by immobilization conditions and particularly by the diffusion behavior and availability of substrate molecules in the enzyme microenvironment.

  7. The effect of magnetically induced linear aggregates on proton transverse relaxation rates of aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Steven L.; Woodward, Robert C.; House, Michael J.; Tokarev, Alexander; Hammers, Jacob; Qi, Bin; Shaw, Jeremy; Saunders, Martin; Varsani, Rahi R.; St Pierre, Tim G.; Mefford, O. Thompson

    2013-02-01

    It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. It is widely known that chain formation occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. In this work we examine the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles. A series of iron oxide nanoparticles with varying stabilizing ligand brush lengths were synthesized. These systems were characterized with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dark-field optical microscopy, and proton transverse relaxation rate measurements. The dark field optical microscopy and R2 measurements were made in similar magnetic fields over the same time scale so as to correlate the reduction of the transverse relaxivity with the formation of linear aggregates. Our results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal arrangement of the system in a magnetic field, producing differences in the rate and size of chain formation, and hence systematic changes in transverse relaxation rates over time. With increasing ligand brush length, attractive inter-particle interactions are reduced, which results in slower aggregate formation and shorter linear aggregate length. These results have implications for the stabilization, characterization and potentially the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticle systems used in biomedical applications.It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R2, is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to

  8. FORMATION AND RESEARCH OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA OXIDE COATINGS BASED ON ELEMENTS OF SCREEN METEROID PTOTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research for influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, plasmasupporting nitrogen gas consumption, fractional composition of an initial powder and cooling degree by compressed air on characteristics of anti-meteorite coatings, subsequent processing modes by pulsed plasma. Properties of the obtained coatings and results of ballistic tests have been given in the paper. The proposed methodology has been based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of anti-meteorite aluminum oxide coating. Optimization of air plasma spraying parameters for NiAl and Al2O3 materials has been carried out in the paper. The spraying parameters optimization has been executed on the basis of obtaining maximum materials utilization factor. Surface treatment of model screen elements with a double-layer composite coating (adhesive metal NiAl layer and hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 layer has been fulfilled while using compression plasma stream. Nitrogen has been used as working gas. Composite hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 coating is represented by porous structure consisting of 10–15 µm-size fused Al2O3 particles. Metallic inclusions formed due to erosion of plasmatron electrodes have been observed in the space between the particles. Surface of bilayer composite coatings has been processed by a compression plasma stream and due to nonsteady processes of melting and recrystallization high strength polycrystalline layer has been formed on their surface. In this context, those areas of the polycrystalline layer which had metal inclusions have appeared to be painted in various colors depending on chemical composition of the inclusions.

  9. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  10. Real-time monitoring of changes in plasma membrane potential via imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer at individual cell resolution in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabati, Tzachi; Galmidi, Bat-Sheva; Korngreen, Alon; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    A method for monitoring heterogeneity in changes of plasma membrane potential (PMP) at an individual cell resolution while in suspension, utilizing a simple and low-cost wide-field illumination arrangement, is presented. The method is modeled via HEK-293 cell line in suspension, double stained with coumarin and oxonol (donor and acceptor), which were loaded into an array of nanoliter wells, each designed to preserve the individuality of the nontethered cell it holds during vigorous biomanipulation. Depolarization of PMP was induced by high K(+) solution, reducing the proximity between the membrane fluorophores and subsequently reducing the efficiency (E%) of resonance energy transfer between them. Spatial plots of E% were produced from both images of fluorescence intensity and polarization. The spatial resolution of E% plots seem to be higher, and their contrast greater, when calculated from the polarization, rather than from the intensity of the fluorescence.

  11. Monitoring of real changes of plasma membrane potential by diS-C(3)(3) fluorescence in yeast cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plášek, Jaromír; Gášková, Dana; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Ludwig, Jost; Höfer, Milan

    2012-10-01

    The fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine, diS-C(3)(3), is a suitable probe to monitor real changes of plasma membrane potential in yeast cells which are too small for direct membrane potential measurements with microelectrodes. A method presented in this paper makes it possible to convert changes of equilibrium diS-C(3)(3) fluorescence spectra, measured in yeast cell suspensions under certain defined conditions, into underlying membrane potential differences, scaled in the units of millivolts. Spectral analysis of synchronously scanned diS-C(3)(3) fluorescence allows to assess the amount of dye accumulated in cells without otherwise necessary sample taking and following separation of cells from the medium. Moreover, membrane potential changes can be quantified without demanding calibration protocols. The applicability of this approach was demonstrated on the depolarization of Rhodotorula glutinis yeast cells upon acidification of cell suspensions and/or by increasing extracellular K(+) concentration.

  12. Oxidation behavior of NiCoCrAlY coatings deposited by double-Glow plasma alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shiyu; Miao, Qiang; Liang, Wenping; Li, Baiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The NiCoCrAlY coatings were deposited on the Inconel 718 alloy substrates by a novel method called double-glow plasma alloying (DG). The phases and microstructure of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis while their chemical composition was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the NiCoCrAlY coatings was typical of coatings formed by DG, with their structure consisting of uniform submicron-sized grains. Further, the coatings showed high adhesion strength (critical load >46 N). In addition, the oxidation characteristics of the coatings and the substrate were examined at three different temperatures (850, 950, and 1050 °C) using a muffle furnace. The coatings showed a lower oxidation rate, which was approximately one-tenth of that of the substrate. Even after oxidation for 100 h, the Al2O3 phase was the primary phase in the surface coating (850 °C), with the thickness of the oxide film increasing to 0.65 μm at 950 °C. When the temperature was increased beyond 1050 °C, the elemental Al and Ni were consumed in the formation of the oxide scale, which underwent spallation at several locations. The oxidation products of Cr, which were produced in large amounts and had a prism-like structure, controlled the subsequent oxidation behavior at the surface.

  13. Improving interfacial, mechanical and tribological properties of alumina coatings on Al alloy by plasma arc heat-treatment of substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guoliang; An, Yulong; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin; Li, Shuangjian; Liu, Xia; Deng, Wen

    2017-07-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings can be used to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of aluminum alloys, but there are still some challenges to effectively increase their interfacial adhesion. Thus we conducted plasma arc-heat treatment (PA-HT) of Al alloy substrate before plasma spraying, hoping to tune the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings and improve their interfacial strength as well as mechanical and tribological properties. The influences of PA-HT on the microstructure of alumina coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while its effect on mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by a nano-indentation tester and a friction and wear tester. Results demonstrate that a few columnar δ-Al2O3 generated on substrate surface after PA-HT at 200-250 °C can induce the epitaxial growth of γ-Al2O3 grains in Al2O3 coatings, thereby enhancing their interfacial bonding. Besides, elevating substrate temperature can help alumina droplets to melt into the interior of substrate and eliminate holes at the interface, finally increasing the interfacial anchorage force. More importantly, no interfacial holes can allow the heat of droplets to be rapidly transmitted to substrate, which is beneficial to yield smaller crystals in coatings and greatly enhance their strength, hardness and wear resistance.

  14. Nano-hydroxyapatite colloid suspension coated on chemically modified porous silicon by cathodic bias: a suitable surface for cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Alejandra [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Electroquimica y Energia Quimica de la Universidad de Costa Rica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Gonzalez, Jerson [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Investigacion en Biologia Celular y Molecular (CIBCM), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Montero, Mavis L. [Escuela de Quimica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Electroquimica y Energia Quimica de la Universidad de Costa Rica (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica); Centro de Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 (Costa Rica)

    2011-06-15

    The properties of porous silicon make it an interesting material for biological applications. However, porous silicon is not an appropriate surface for cell growth. Surface modification is an alternative that could afford a bioactive material. In this work, we report a method to yield materials by modification of the porous silicon surface with hydroxyapatite of nanometric dimensions, produced using an electrochemical process and coated on macroporous silicon substrates by cathodic bias. The chemical nature of the calcium phosphate deposited on the substrates after the experimental process and the amount of cell growth on these surfaces were characterized. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Suspension thermal spraying of hydroxyapatite: microstructure and in vitro behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolelli, Giovanni; Bellucci, Devis; Cannillo, Valeria; Lusvarghi, Luca; Sola, Antonella; Stiegler, Nico; Müller, Philipp; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer; Altomare, Lina; De Nardo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In cementless fixation of metallic prostheses, bony ingrowth onto the implant surface is often promoted by osteoconductive plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. The present work explores the use of the innovative High Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS) process to coat Ti substrates with thin homogeneous hydroxyapatite coatings. The HVSFS hydroxyapatite coatings studied were dense, 27-37μm thick, with some transverse microcracks. Lamellae were sintered together and nearly unidentifiable, unlike conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite. Crystallinities of 10%-70% were obtained, depending on the deposition parameters and the use of a TiO2 bond coat. The average hardness of layers with low (hydroxyapatite, with a Weibull modulus of ≈3.3. During soaking in simulated body fluid, glassy coatings were progressively resorbed and replaced by a new, precipitated hydroxyapatite layer, whereas coatings with 70% crystallinity were stable up to 14days of immersion. The interpretation of the precipitation behaviour was also assisted by surface charge assessments, performed through Z-potential measurements. During in vitro tests, HA coatings showed no cytotoxicity towards the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line, and surface cell proliferation was comparable with proliferation on reference polystyrene culture plates. © 2013.

  16. Impacts of friction stir processing on irradiation effects in vacuum-plasma-spray coated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kazumi, E-mail: ozawa.kazumi@jaea.go.jp [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuchi-Omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuchi-Omotedate, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Morisada, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    In order to examine the impacts of friction stir processing (FSP) on irradiation effects in vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) coated tungsten (W), nano indentation hardness was evaluated of three kinds of W materials after self-ion-irradiation to 5.0–5.4 dpa at 500 and 800 °C. The VPS-FSP clearly got grains refined and isotropic compared to bulk-W and the as-VPS-W. Nano indentation hardness remains unchanged for the as-VPS-W and VPS-FSP × 2-W irradiated to 5.4 dpa at 500 °C and it decreased from 1 dpa at 800 °C, while typical irradiation induced hardening was observed for the bulk-W irradiated at 500 °C.

  17. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of DLC coating for modification of orthodontic magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsarat, W. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Aukkaravittayapun, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Bangkok 12120 (Thailand); Jotikasthira, D. [Department of Odontology-Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to use the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) technique to form diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on orthodontic magnets to solve the corrosion problem. To search for the optimal material modification effect, PIII-D conditions including gases, processing time, and pulsing mode were varied. The formation of DLC films was confirmed and characterized with Raman spectra. The intensity of the remnant magnetic field of the magnets and the hardness, adhesion and thickness of the thin films were then measured. A corrosion test was carried out using clinic dental fluid. Improved benefits including a satisfying hardness, adhesion, remnant magnetic strength and corrosion resistance of the DLC coating could be achieved by using a higher interrupting time ratio and shorter processing time.

  18. Characterisation of polystyrene coatings after plasma immersion ion implantation and adsorption of protein

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, S; Steel, B; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R; James, M

    2012-01-01

    A polystyrene film spun onto polished silicon substrates was implanted with either nitrogen or argon ions using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and subsequently investigated by X-ray and neutron reflectometry, UV-VIS and FTIR ellipsometry, as well as by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The depth profile of the densified carbon structures resulting from the ion collision cascades in the polystyrene coating are clearly observed by both X-ray and neutron reflectometry. Argon ions produce a higher density modified layer at a shallower depth than nitrogen ions. The thickness measured for these graded layers agrees with the expected depths of ion implantation as calculated by SRIM. The sensitivity of X-ray and neutron reflectometry allows resolution of density and hydrogen content gradients within the graphitized layers. The treated layers were found to covalently immobilized protein directly from solution. The tropoelastin protein monolayers immobilized on the surface were characterized. Tropoelastin remained...

  19. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short.

  20. Effect of Sulfur Acid Corrosion on the Luminescent Intensity of Plasma-Sprayed YAG:Ce Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weize; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Hehui; Yu, Jingye; Wu, Liangmin

    2017-01-01

    In order to monitor the corrosion condition of components, plasma-sprayed YAG:Ce coating was prepared for the detection, which could develop the application of plasma spraying. The effect of sulfuric acid corrosion on the microstructure, phase composition and luminescence intensity of coatings was studied. The powder was synthesized by the high-temperature solid-state method. Microstructure and phases were characterized through using SEM and XRD, respectively. Effect of immersion time in the acid was studied on the luminescence intensity. It was found that the phase composition of the powder was dominated by YAG (Y3Al5O12). More pores could be observed in coatings with the increase in immersion time. Sprayed coatings mainly included phases of YAG and YAP (YAlO3). The position of the XRD peaks of coatings was changing during the immersion. The luminescence intensity showed the fluctuation tendency with the immersion time, which related to the coating porosity, phase composition and the migration of the diffract peak.

  1. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  2. A systematic review on the long-term success of calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, B.A.J.A. van; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.A.; Junker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the current review were (1) to systematically appraise, and (2) to evaluate long-term success data of calcium phosphate (CaP) plasma-spray-coated dental implants in clinical trials with at least 5 years of follow-up. To describe the long-term efficacy of functional implants, the

  3. Decreased material-activation of the complement system using low-energy plasma polymerized poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas E; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole

    2011-01-01

    In the current study we investigate the activation of blood complement on medical device silicone rubber and present a plasma polymerized vinyl pyrrolidone (ppVP) coating which strongly decreases surface-activation of the blood complement system. We show that uncoated silicone and polystyrene are...

  4. Overview on Recent Developments of Bondcoats for Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, D.; Pillai, R.; Chyrkin, A.; Quadakkers, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) bondcoats for atmospheric plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (APS-TBCs) is substantially affected by the contents of Co, Ni, Cr, and Al as well as minor additions of Y, Hf, Zr, etc., but also by manufacturing-related properties such as coating thickness, porosity, surface roughness, and oxygen content. The latter properties depend in turn on the exact technology and set of parameters used for bondcoat deposition. The well-established LPPS process competes nowadays with alternative technologies such as HVOF and APS. In addition, new technologies have been developed for bondcoats manufacturing such as high-velocity APS or a combination of HVOF and APS for application of a flashcoat. Future developments of the bondcoat systems will likely include optimization of thermal spraying methods for obtaining complex bondcoat roughness profiles required for extended APS-TBC lifetimes. Introduction of the newest generation single-crystal superalloys possessing low Cr and high Al and refractory metals (Re, Ru) contents will require definition of new bondcoat compositions and/or multilayered bondcoats to minimize interdiffusion issues. The developments of new bondcoat compositions may be substantially facilitated using thermodynamic-kinetic modeling, the vast potential of which has been demonstrated in recent years.

  5. Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Zhiquan; Wu, Yekang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Guorui; Li, Dalong; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Yu, Shengxue; Shen, Dejiu; Nash, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), potentio-dynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Detached coating samples were fabricated by an electrochemical method and more details of the internal micro-structure of coatings were clearly observed on the fractured cross-section morphologies of the samples compared to general polished cross-section morphologies. Evolution mechanisms of the coating corrosion behavior in relation to the evolution of micro-structural characteristics were discussed in detail.

  6. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Gaelle; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1-5 min), discharge power (5.7-24.0 W), monomer concentration (1-2 g/h) and pressure (10-100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH2]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH2]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and pressure ≤50 kPa. One can therefore control the deposition rate as well as the properties, aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coating by carefully choosing the plasma parameters.

  7. Morphology and composition of Fe-W coatings after deuterium plasma exposure as a model system for RAFM steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, M.; Möller, S.; Steffens, J.; Unterberg, B.; Sugiyama, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Kreter, A.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2016-02-01

    A model system representing the RAFM steel EUROFER-97 is produced by magnetron sputter deposition of iron and 1.5 at% tungsten and investigated in order to study the consequences of plasma exposures. The alloy is deposited as coatings with a thickness of 400 nm on polycrystalline, high purity iron substrates. To understand the erosion mechanisms and morphology changes the coatings were exposed to a linear plasma device with an ion flux of 3×1021 D+ m-2 s-1 and an electron temperature of 13 eV. Samples were exposed at sample temperatures of about 420 and 770 K at incident ion energy of 30 eV (floating potential), 70 and 190 eV. Additionally, the effect of ion fluence was investigated. The coatings before and after plasma exposure were investigated by electron microscopy and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES). Microstructure observation revealed a complex morphology with distinct sharp spikes formed under the plasma exposure at incident ion energies of 70 and 190 eV. The tungsten enrichment by a factor of 3 in the spikes was visualized by backscatter electron observation and confirmed by both energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and GD-OES. No visible erosion and, by that, tungsten enrichment was observed after the plasma exposure at an incident ion energy of 30 eV, as expected since it is below the threshold energy for sputtering of iron.

  8. Characterization and mechanical behaviour of reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by vacuum plasma spray on SS-316L alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amardeep; Singh, Gurbhinder; Chawla, Vikas

    2018-01-10

    Hydroxyapatite powder reinforced individually with 10wt percentage (wt%) of Al2O3 and ZrO2 (HA + 10wt% Al2O3 and HA + 10wt% ZrO2) was thermally sprayed onto SS-316L substrate with a bond coat of Zirconia by vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technique. The resulted coatings were heat treated at 700°C for 1h to study its effects on microstructural and mechanical properties of the deposited coatings. The characterization of the coatings was carried out using scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, porosity, surface roughness and crystallinity using Rietveld analysis. The results indicated that after post coating heat treatment substantial decrease in porosity was witnessed along with significant improvement in crystallinity. Besides, the hardness across the cross-section of the coatings and bond strength was considerably improved; however the hardness of top coat was reduced owing to the loosening of un-melted and partially melted particles by diffusion process which takes place during heat treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation of Ca/P ceramic coatings by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) on Ti6Al4V ELI alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Jaimes, Y.; Naranjo, D. I.; Blanco, S.; García-Vergara, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of PEO ceramic coatings on Ti6Al4V ELI alloy was investigated using a phosphate/calcium containing electrolyte at 300 and 400V at 310K for different times. The Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coated specimens were then heat treated at 873 and 1073K for 2 hours. Scanning electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to study the composition and the morphology of the ceramic coatings. The corrosion behaviour of the coatings was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The PEO-treated specimens primarily revealed a porous structure with thickness between 4 and 12μm, according to the voltage and process time used. The coatings are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite; however, as the voltage and anodizing time increase, the Ca/P ratio decreases. Generally, the corrosion resistance of the alloy was improved by the PEO-treated coatings, although the specimens treated at 1073K showed the presence of cracks that reduced the protective effect of the coatings.

  10. Microstructural Effects and Properties of Non-line-of-Sight Coating Processing via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a unique processing method that bridges the gap between conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, and enables highly tailorable coatings composed of a variety of materials in thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures with modification of the processing conditions. The strengths of this processing technique are material and microstructural flexibility, deposition speed, and potential for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability by vaporization of the feedstock material. The NLOS capability of PS-PVD is investigated here using yttria-stabilized zirconia and gadolinium zirconate, which are materials of interest for turbine engine applications. PS-PVD coatings were applied to static cylindrical substrates approximately 6-19 mm in diameter to study the coating morphology as a function of angle. In addition, coatings were deposited on flat substrates under various impingement configurations. Impingement angle had significant effects on the deposition mode, and microscopy of coatings indicated that there was a shift in the deposition mode at approximately 90° from incidence on the cylindrical samples, which may indicate the onset of more turbulent flow and PVD-like growth. Coatings deposited at non-perpendicular angles exhibited a higher density and nearly a 2× improvement in erosion performance when compared to coatings deposited with the torch normal to the surface.

  11. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Svenja [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Schulze, Marcus [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Morasch, Jan [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bonschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hesse, Sabine [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hussein, Laith [Eduard-Zintl-Institut, Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 12, 64287, Darmstadt (Germany); Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann [BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Stark, Robert W. [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The water CA of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C changes from hydrophillic to hydrophobic on aging. • XPS study indicates that the decrease in surface energy of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C could be due to adsorption of organic component from air. • The COFLFM of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. • The COF of glycerol lubricated ta-C showed no sign of change upon aging. - Abstract: Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H{sub 2} plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a‐C:H and ta‐C are not stable on long-term and are

  12. Structural, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Radić, Nenad; Grbić, Boško; Maletić, Slavica; Stefanov, Plamen; Pačevski, Aleksandar; Vasilić, Rastko

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in water solution containing 10 g/L Na3PO4·12H2O + 2 g/L Eu2O3 powder for preparation of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings. The surfaces of obtained coatings exhibit a typical PEO porous structure. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings are mainly composed of Ti, O, P, and Eu; it is observed that Eu content in the coatings increases with PEO time. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the coatings are crystallized and composed of anatase and rutile TiO2 phases, with anatase being the dominant one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Ti 2p spin-orbit components of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings are shifted towards higher binding energy, with respect to pure TiO2 coatings, suggesting that Eu3+ ions are incorporated into TiO2 lattice. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed that TiO2:Eu3+ coatings exhibit evident red shift with respect to the pure TiO2 coatings. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings are characterized by sharp emission bands in orange-red region ascribed to f-f transitions of Eu3+ ions from excited level 5D0 to lower levels 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). The excitation PL spectra of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings can be divided into two regions: the broad band region from 250 nm to 350 nm associated with charge transfer state of Eu3+ and the series of sharp peaks in the range from 350 nm to 550 nm corresponding to direct excitation of the Eu3+ ions. It is observed that the intensity of peaks in excitation and emission PL spectra increases with the concentration of Eu3+, but the peak positions remain practically unchanged. The ratio of PL emission for electric and magnetic dipole transitions indicates highly asymmetric environment around Eu3+ ions. The photocatalytic activity (PA) of TiO2:Eu3+ coatings is evaluated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. It is shown that PEO time, i.e., the amount

  13. Performance of vacuum plasma spray and HVOF bond coatings at 900° and 1100 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Michael J. [ORNL; Haynes, James A. [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A. [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    The effects of Ti and B additions to a vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance were studied at 1100 °C and 900 °C and compared to high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) bond coatings. Using alloy 247 substrates and air plasma sprayed Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 top coatings, additions of B or Ti + B did not improve the average TBC lifetime in 1-h cycles at 1100 °C in air with 10% H2O. The addition of Ti resulted in a decrease in lifetime. Photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy was used to map residual stresses in the thermally-grown Al2O3 scale. At 900 °C, closer to a typical land based turbine operating bond coating temperature, specimens were examined after ten 500-h cycles in laboratory air and air with 10%H2O to study the effect of H2O. The addition of water vapor had little effect on the measured parabolic rate constants at 900 °C and a comparison of the oxide microstructures in both environments is reported.

  14. The magnetic field application for the gas discharge plasma control in processes of surface coating and modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, T. Ya; Galeev, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the method of magnetic field application to control the gas discharge plasma effect on the various surfaces in processes of surface coating and modification is considered. The magnetic field directed perpendicular to the direction of electric current in the gas discharge plasma channel is capable to reject this plasma channel due to action of Lorentz force on the moving electrically charged particles [1,2]. The three-dimensional spatial structure of magnetic field is created by system of necessary quantity of the magnets located perpendicular to the direction of course of electric current in the gas-discharge plasma channel. The formation of necessary spatial distribution of magnetic field makes possible to obtain a required distribution of plasma parameters near the processed surfaces. This way of the plasma channel parameters spatial distribution management is the most suitable for application in processes of plasma impact on a surface of irregular shape and in cases when the selective impact of plasma on a part of a surface of a product is required. It is necessary to apply automated computer management of the process parameters [3] to the most effective plasma impact.

  15. Low-pressure RF remote plasma cleaning of carbon-contaminated B4C-coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Fernández, H.; Thomasset, M.; Sauthier, G.; Rogler, D.; Dietsch, R.; Barrett, R.; Carlino, V.; Pellegrin, E.

    2017-05-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) - due to its exceptional mechanical properties - is one of the few existing materials that can withstand the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam from free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at modern accelerator-, plasma-, or laser-based light source facilities, B4C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. These contaminations - that are presumably produced via cracking of CHx and CO2 molecules by photoelectrons emitted from the optical components - represent a serious issue for the operation of the pertinent high performance beamlines due to a severe reduction of photon flux and beam coherence, not necessarily restricted to the photon energy range of the carbon K-edge. Thus, a variety of B4C cleaning technologies have been developed at different laboratories with varying success [1]. Here, we present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of a series of carbon-contaminated B4C test samples via an inductively coupled O2/Ar and Ar/H2 remote RF plasma produced using the IBSS GV10x plasma source following previous studies using the same RF plasma source [2, 3]. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B4C optical coatings and surfaces before and after the plasma cleaning process are reported.

  16. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Gaelle, E-mail: gaelle.aziz@ugent.be; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Medium to atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit amino rich films. • Process parameters affect the films’ surface chemical and physical properties. • High deposition rates can be reached by varying the power and/or monomer flow rate. • High amino selectivity (NH{sub 2}/N in %) is obtained at low powers and high monomer concentration. • Aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coatings can be controlled by carefully choosing the plasma parameters. - Abstract: In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1–5 min), discharge power (5.7–24.0 W), monomer concentration (1–2 g/h) and pressure (10–100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH{sub 2}]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH{sub 2}]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and

  17. Non-parabolic isothermal oxidation kinetics of low pressure plasma sprayed MCrAlY bond coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bang-Yan; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-06-01

    The non-parabolic isothermal oxidation kinetics of low pressure plasma sprayed MCrAlY bond coat was investigated. To qualitatively explain the abnormal growth phenomenon of thermally grown oxides (TGO), the changes that occurred to their microstructure during the oxidation process were studied. Based on these observations, a modified model was developed to understand and quantitatively predict the non-parabolic oxidation and growth kinetics of TGO. This modified model, which fits well with experimental results, provides a novel method to quantitatively predict the long-term growth behaviour of TGO, and thereby benefits the development of long-life and highly reliable thermal barrier coatings.

  18. XPS and GDOES Characterization of Porous Coating Enriched with Copper and Calcium Obtained on Tantalum via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available XPS and GDOES characterizations of porous coatings on tantalum after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO at 450 V for 3 minutes in electrolyte containing concentrated (85% phosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and copper (II nitrate are described. Based on the obtained data, it may be concluded that the PEO coating consists of tantalum (Ta5+, calcium (Ca2+, copper (Cu2+  and Cu+, and phosphates (PO43-. It has to be pointed out that copper and calcium are distributed throughout the volume. The authors also propose a new model of PEO, based on the derivative of GDOES signals with sputtering time.

  19. FY 1998 annual summary report on research and development of hybrid pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system (first year); 1998 nendo hybrid gata pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Daiichinendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The R and D program was implemented for a hybrid pulse plasma coating system, where organometallic gases as the feed gases were selected, and methods for feeding them and treating the exhaust gases to remove organic metals were studied, as the preliminary steps for the pulse introduction tests. The tests of combining an rf plasma with microwaves and pulse plasma generation have been started. The power source characteristics, e.g., pulse width, voltage and current, were analyzed, and high-voltage pulse voltage application tests were conducted, in order to grasp the power source characteristics related to the pulse voltage application. Generation of high-density plasma has been confirmed by the tests with microwaves absorbed by an rf plasma, and the plasma density measurement has been started using the single probe and double probe methods. It is also confirmed that a pulse voltage can be applied to a high-density plasma. A plasma source type ion injector (PSII) has been made on a trial basis, to collect the data for the injector. (NEDO).

  20. Improving interfacial, mechanical and tribological properties of alumina coatings on Al alloy by plasma arc heat-treatment of substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); An, Yulong, E-mail: csuayl@sohu.com [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huidi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Shuangjian; Liu, Xia; Deng, Wen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Columnar δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} induces epitaxial growth of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains in coating after PA-HT. • Epitaxial growth greatly enhances interfacial bonding of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on Al alloy. • Penetration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} droplets into Al alloy increases interfacial anchorage force. • Crystal structure of the alumina coatings can be refined after PA-HT of substrate. • Mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings are improved after PA-HT. - Abstract: Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings can be used to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of aluminum alloys, but there are still some challenges to effectively increase their interfacial adhesion. Thus we conducted plasma arc-heat treatment (PA-HT) of Al alloy substrate before plasma spraying, hoping to tune the microstructure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings and improve their interfacial strength as well as mechanical and tribological properties. The influences of PA-HT on the microstructure of alumina coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while its effect on mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by a nano-indentation tester and a friction and wear tester. Results demonstrate that a few columnar δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generated on substrate surface after PA-HT at 200–250 °C can induce the epitaxial growth of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, thereby enhancing their interfacial bonding. Besides, elevating substrate temperature can help alumina droplets to melt into the interior of substrate and eliminate holes at the interface, finally increasing the interfacial anchorage force. More importantly, no interfacial holes can allow the heat of droplets to be rapidly transmitted to substrate, which is beneficial to yield smaller crystals in coatings and greatly enhance their strength, hardness and wear resistance.

  1. Deposition of stable amine coating onto polycaprolactone nanofibers by low pressure cyclopropylamine plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manakhov, Anton [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Nečas, David [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Čechal, Jan [CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technická 3058/10, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Eliáš, Marek [Plasma Technologies, CEITEC — Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-04-30

    Amine-rich films are of high interest for the bio-applications including drug delivery and tissue engineering thanks to their high reactivity allowing the formation of the covalent linkages between biomolecules and a surface. However, the bio-applications of amine-rich films require their good stability in water which is often achieved at large expenses of the amine concentration. Recently, non-toxic cyclopropylamine (CPA) has been applied for the plasma polymerization of films bearing high NH{sub x} environment combined with the moderate thickness loss (20%) after water immersion for 48 h. In this work, the amine-rich film with the NH{sub x} concentration over 7 at.% was deposited on Si substrates and polycaprolactone nanofiber meshes by using CPA plasma polymerization (pulsed mode) in a vertically oriented stainless steel reactor. The substrates were placed at the radio frequency electrode and the ion bombardment caused by direct-current self-bias was suppressed by using high pressure of 50 Pa. Analysis of samples by scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any cracks in the deposited layer formed during a sample immersion in water. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed a slight oxidation of amine groups in water but the film still contained 5 at.% of NH{sub x} (according to the N1s XPS fitting) after the immersion. The rapid oxidation of amine groups was observed during the aging experiment carried out in air at room temperature because FTIR revealed an increase of amide peaks that increased progressively with aging time. However, this oxidation was significantly reduced if the plasma polymer was stored at − 20 °C. Since the films exhibit high amine concentration and very good water stability they have great potential for applications as biocompatible functional coatings. - Highlights: • Cyclopropylamine plasma polymers deposited on polycaprolactone nanofibers • Amine-rich films with high

  2. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  3. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Coatings by the Water-Stabilized System WSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ctibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt powders (WC-17wt% Co were plasma sprayed by a water-stabilized system WSP. Experiments with variable feeding distances and spray distances were carried out. Thinner coatings were deposited on carbon steel substrates and thicker coatings on stainless steel substrates to compare different cooling conditions. Basic characterization of coatings was done by XRD, SEM, and light microscopy plus image analysis. Microhardness was measured on polished cross-sections. The main focus of investigation was resistance against wear in dry as well as wet conditions. The appropriate tests were performed with set-ups based on ASTM G65 and G75, respectively. The influence of spray parameters onto coating wear performance was observed. The results of mechanical tests were discussed in connection with changes of phase composition and with the quality of the coating's microstructure. The results show that for obtaining the best possible WC-17Co coating with WSP process, from the viewpoint of wear resistance, the desired parameters combination is long feeding distance combined with short spray distance.

  5. Influence of in-flight particle state diagnostics on properties of plasma sprayed YSZ-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mantry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of controlling in-flight hot particle characteristics on properties of plasma sprayed nanostructured yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ coatings. This article depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on particle temperature, velocity and size of the splat prior to impact on the metallic substrate. Particle temperature measurement is based on two-color pyrometry and particle velocities are measured from the length of the particle traces during known exposure times. The microstructure and adhesion strength of as-sprayed nano-YSZ coatings were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results revealed that morphology of coating exhibits bimodal microstructure consisting of nano-zones reinforced in the matrix of fully melted particles. The coating adhesion strength is noticed to be greatly affected by the melting state of agglomerates. Maximum adhesion strength of 42.39 MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of particle temperature and velocity. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nano-zones.

  6. Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Tang

    Full Text Available Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS, which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration.

  7. Microstructure and tribology behaviors of in-situ WC/Fe carbide coating fabricated by plasma transferred arc metallurgic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youlu; Li, Zhuguo

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the dry sliding tribology properties of mild steel compound, the in-situ WC carbide coatings with 18, 32, 54 vol% WC were successfully synthesized using plasma transferred arc metallurgic reaction (PTAMR) with alloy powders W, C and Fe-30Ni. The composition, microstructure and microhardness of the carbide coatings were characterized. It was found that the carbide coating consisted of WC, M6C and γ phases, carbides distribute gradually from the coating bottom to top, the in-situ WC crystal grows into triangle prism structure with high hardness and good toughness. Dry sliding tribology behaviors were studied on block-on-wheel dry sliding wear tester with load 300 N, sliding speed 0.836 m/s and distance 500 m. Results show that the friction coefficient diagrams contain three stages, variation of friction coefficient increase with the content of WC, friction temperature increase with the sliding distance, increasing the content of WC can directly increase the antiwear property of WC/Fe carbide coating. The main wear mechanisms of in-situ WC/Fe carbide coating are adhesive, oxidation, micro-cutting and ploughing wear.

  8. Induction of osteoconductivity by BMP-2 gene modification of mesenchymal stem cells combined with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Guo, Ying-qiang; Yin, Guang-fu; Chen, Huai-qing; Kang, Yunqing

    2008-11-01

    Success in bone implant depends greatly on the composition and surface features of the implant. The surface-modification measures not only favor the implant's osteoconductivity, but also promote both bone anchoring and biomechanical stability. This paper reports an approach to combine a hydroxyapatite (HA) coated substrate with a cellular vehicle for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) synergistically enhancing the osteoconductivity of implant surfaces. We examined the attachment, growth and osteoinductive activity of transfected BMP-producing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on a plasma-sprayed HA coated substrate. It was found that the HA coated substrate could allow the attachment and growth of BMP-2 gene modified BMSCs, and this combined application synergistically enhanced osteconductivity of the substrate surface. This synergistic method may be of osseointegration value in orthopedic and dental implant surgery.

  9. High heat loading properties of vacuum plasma spray tungsten coatings on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, K.; Hotta, T.; Araki, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.

    2013-07-01

    High density W coatings on reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAF/M) have been produced by Vacuum Plasma Spraying technique (VPS) and heat flux experiments on them have been carried out to evaluate their possibility as a plasma-facing armor in a fusion device. In addition, quantitative analyses of temperature profile and thermal stress have been carried out using the finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate its thermal properties. No cracks or exfoliation has been formed by steady state and cyclic heat loading experiments under heat loading at 700 °C of surface temperature. In addition, stress distribution and maximum stress between interface of VPS-W and RAF/M have been obtained by FEA. On the other hand, exfoliation has occurred at interlayer of VPS-W coatings near the interface between VPS-W and RAF/M at 1300 °C of surface temperature by cyclic heat loading.

  10. Experimental Researches Tribological Properties of Hard-Alloy Blades With a Vacuum-Plasma Coating in the Chipboards Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Viktorovič Rudak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While developing effective ion-plasma coatings compositions of woodcutting tools special conditions of its use should be taken into account particularly the force rate acting on the cutting wedge. With the penetration of the blade into the wood material normal pressure and friction appear on the connection surface. For the analysis of the cutting processes the connection surface can be divided into several zones. The cutters with vacuum-plasma coatings based on TiN are characterized by a lower coefficient of friction in comparison to uncoated cutters in real conditions. The developed technique of tribotechnical tool tests of milling woodchip board is of great importance to establish the regularities of chip formation, chips movement and dust in the timber cutting areas as well as wood materials at milling in a wide parameter range of cutting conditions, for the development of methods and devices of chips and dust suppression.

  11. Toward High-Performance Coatings for Biomedical Devices: Study on Plasma-Deposited Fluorocarbon Films and Ageing in PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mantovani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High performance coatings tailored to medical devices represent a recognised approach to modulate surface properties. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films have been proposed as a potential stent coating. Previous studies have shown promising adhesion properties: the 35 nm-thick film sustained plastic deformation up to 25% such as induced during the clinical implantation. In this study, the compositional and morphological changes of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films were examined during ageing in a pseudo-physiological medium, a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, by angle-resolved XPS, FT-IR data and AFM images. The evolution of the ageing process is discussed: defluorination and crosslinking yielded an oxidized protective top layer onto the films, which showed further degradation.

  12. Mechanical characterization of 'uncoated' and 'Ta2O5-single-layer-coated' SiO2 substrates: results from GeNS suspension, and the CoaCh project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarini, E.; Prato, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Campagna, E.; Canepa, M.; Chincarini, A.; Gemme, G.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.

    2010-04-01

    Thermal noise of the mirrors limits the sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors in the frequency range between 50 and 300 Hz. According to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the thermal noise amplitude is proportional to the mechanical loss of the mirrors. Fused silica substrates loss angle widely ranges from 10-9 to 10-6, while for the coating it is around 10-4. Loss angle measurements in ultra low mechanical loss materials are normally affected by a large systematic error due to the excess losses introduced by the suspension system used to hold the samples. An innovative measurement system Gentle Nodal Suspension, where the disk-shaped sample is suspended in equilibrium on the top of a sphere, touching one of the nodal points of vibration, has been developed in INFN Florence Virgo laboratory. The advantages of this system are as follows: (i) the good reproducibility of loss angle measurements; (ii) one surface only (in any case uncoated) of the sample is touched; (iii) the contact surface is minimized because of the absence of applied forces. This suspension has been used to characterize annealing and coating deposition effects on the mechanical quality factor Q. An interesting comparison/analysis of these effects on mechanical, optical, chemical and surface properties using spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy has been carried out.

  13. Hydroxyapatite coatings containing Zn and Si on Ti-6Al-4Valloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Jo; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hydroxyapatite coatings containing Zn and Si on Ti-6Al-4Valloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation were researched using various experimental instruments. The pore size is depended on the electrolyte concentration and the particle size and number of pore increase on surface part and pore part. In the case of Zn/Si sample, pore size was larger than that of Zn samples. The maximum size of pores decreased and minimum size of pores increased up to 10Zn/Si and Zn and Si affect the formation of pore shapes. As Zn ion concentration increases, the size of the particle tends to increase, the number of particles on the surface part is reduced, whereas the size of the particles and the number of particles on pore part increased. Zn is mainly detected at pore part, and Si is mainly detected at surface part. The crystallite size of anatase increased as the Zn ion concentration, whereas, in the case of Si ion added, crystallite size of anatase decreased.

  14. Transferrin coated nanoparticles: study of the bionano interface in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej S Pitek

    Full Text Available It is now well established that the surface of nanoparticles (NPs in a biological environment is immediately modified by the adsorption of biomolecules with the formation of a protein corona and it is also accepted that the protein corona, rather than the original nanoparticle surface, defines a new biological identity. Consequently, a methodology to effectively study the interaction between nanomaterials and the biological corona encountered within an organism is a key objective in nanoscience for understanding the impact of the nanoparticle-protein interactions on the biological response in vitro and in vivo. Here, we outline an integrated methodology to address the different aspects governing the formation and the function of the protein corona of polystyrene nanoparticles coated with Transferrin by different strategies. Protein-NP complexes are studied both in situ (in human plasma, full corona FC and after washing (hard corona, HC in terms of structural properties, composition and second-order interactions with protein microarrays. Human protein microarrays are used to effectively study NP-corona/proteins interactions addressing the growing demand to advance investigations of the extrinsic function of corona complexes. Our data highlight the importance of this methodology as an analysis to be used in advance of the application of engineered NPs in biological environments.

  15. Transferrin Coated Nanoparticles: Study of the Bionano Interface in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitek, Andrzej S.; O’Connell, David; Mahon, Eugene; Monopoli, Marco P.; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well established that the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) in a biological environment is immediately modified by the adsorption of biomolecules with the formation of a protein corona and it is also accepted that the protein corona, rather than the original nanoparticle surface, defines a new biological identity. Consequently, a methodology to effectively study the interaction between nanomaterials and the biological corona encountered within an organism is a key objective in nanoscience for understanding the impact of the nanoparticle-protein interactions on the biological response in vitro and in vivo. Here, we outline an integrated methodology to address the different aspects governing the formation and the function of the protein corona of polystyrene nanoparticles coated with Transferrin by different strategies. Protein-NP complexes are studied both in situ (in human plasma, full corona FC) and after washing (hard corona, HC) in terms of structural properties, composition and second-order interactions with protein microarrays. Human protein microarrays are used to effectively study NP-corona/proteins interactions addressing the growing demand to advance investigations of the extrinsic function of corona complexes. Our data highlight the importance of this methodology as an analysis to be used in advance of the application of engineered NPs in biological environments. PMID:22829881

  16. Plasma-Sprayed LSM Protective Coating on Metallic Interconnect of SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a (La0.8Sr0.20.98MnO3 protective layer was prepared on the C276, Crofer22 APU, SUS304, and SUS430 alloys by the atmospheric plasma spraying technique (APS. The oxidation behavior and electrical property of these metal alloys have been investigated isothermally at 800 °C in air for up to 300 h. Results showed that the ferritic steels transform into MnCr2O4 spinels and a Cr2O3 layer during isothermal oxidation. The C276 alloy formed NiCr2O4 and FeCr2O4 layers; these are protective and act as an effective barrier against chromium migration into the outer oxide layer, and the alloy demonstrated good oxidation resistance and a reasonable match to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate and a low-oxide scale area-specific resistance. The ASR effects on the formation of oxide scale have been investigated, and the ASR of coated samples was below 0.024 Ω·cm2. It has good electrical conductivity for SOFC in long-term use.

  17. Up-scaling the production of modified a-C:H coatings in the framework of plasma polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, C.; Bialuch, I.; Kleinschmidt, M.; Bewilogua, K.

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films with silicon and oxygen additions, which exhibit mechanical, tribological and wetting properties adequate for protective coating performance, have been synthesized at room temperature in a small- (0.1 m 3) and a large-scale (1 m 3) coaters by low-pressure Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition (PACVD). Hence, a-C:H:Si and a-C:H:Si:O coatings were produced in atmospheres of tetramethylsilane (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), respectively, excited either by radiofrequency (RF - small scale) or by pulsed-DC power (large scale). Argon was employed as a carrier gas to stabilize the glow discharge. Several series of 2-5 μm thick coatings have been prepared at different mass deposition rates, Rm, by varying total gas flow, F, and input power, W. Arrhenius-type plots of Rm/ F vs. ( W/ F) -1 show linear behaviours for both plasma reactors, as expected for plasma polymerization processes at moderated energies. The calculation of apparent activation energy, Ea, in each series permitted us to define the regimes of energy-deficient and monomer-deficient PACVD processes as a function of the key parameter W/ F. Moreover, surface properties of the modified a-C:H coatings, such as contact angle, abrasive wear rate and hardness, appear also correlated to this parameter. This work shows an efficient methodology to scale up PACVD processes from small, lab-scale plasma machines to industrial plants by the unique evaluation of macroscopic parameters of deposition.

  18. Quantification of Osseointegration of Plasma-Polymer Coated Titanium Alloyed Implants by means of Microcomputed Tomography versus Histomorphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Carolin; Zietz, Carmen; Bieck, Richard; Göhler, Rebecca; Lindner, Tobias; Haenle, Maximilian; Meichsner, Jürgen; Testrich, Holger; Nowottnick, Mathias; Frerich, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A common method to derive both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate osseointegration of implants is histomorphometry. The present study describes a new image reconstruction algorithm comparing the results of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) evaluated by means of µCT with histomorphometry data. Custom-made conical titanium alloyed (Ti6Al4V) implants were inserted in the distal tibial bone of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Different surface configurations were examined: Ti6Al4V implants with plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) coating and plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) coating as well as implants without surface coating. After six weeks postoperatively, tibiae were explanted and BIC was determined by µCT (3D) and afterwards by histomorphometry (2D). In comparison to uncoated Ti6Al4V implants demonstrating low BIC of 32.4% (histomorphometry) and 51.3% (µCT), PPAAm and PPEDA coated implants showed a nonsignificant increase in BIC (histomorphometry: 45.7% and 53.5% and µCT: 51.8% and 62.0%, resp.). Mean BIC calculated by µCT was higher for all surface configurations compared to BIC detected by histomorphometry. Overall, a high correlation coefficient of 0.70 (p < 0.002) was found between 3D and 2D quantification of BIC. The μCT analysis seems to be suitable as a nondestructive and accurate 3D imaging method for the evaluation of the bone-implant interface. PMID:26064874

  19. Quantification of Osseointegration of Plasma-Polymer Coated Titanium Alloyed Implants by means of Microcomputed Tomography versus Histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Gabler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to derive both qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate osseointegration of implants is histomorphometry. The present study describes a new image reconstruction algorithm comparing the results of bone-to-implant contact (BIC evaluated by means of µCT with histomorphometry data. Custom-made conical titanium alloyed (Ti6Al4V implants were inserted in the distal tibial bone of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Different surface configurations were examined: Ti6Al4V implants with plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm coating and plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA coating as well as implants without surface coating. After six weeks postoperatively, tibiae were explanted and BIC was determined by µCT (3D and afterwards by histomorphometry (2D. In comparison to uncoated Ti6Al4V implants demonstrating low BIC of 32.4% (histomorphometry and 51.3% (µCT, PPAAm and PPEDA coated implants showed a nonsignificant increase in BIC (histomorphometry: 45.7% and 53.5% and µCT: 51.8% and 62.0%, resp.. Mean BIC calculated by µCT was higher for all surface configurations compared to BIC detected by histomorphometry. Overall, a high correlation coefficient of 0.70 (p<0.002 was found between 3D and 2D quantification of BIC. The μCT analysis seems to be suitable as a nondestructive and accurate 3D imaging method for the evaluation of the bone-implant interface.

  20. Sustainable Methods for Decontamination of Microcystin in Water Using Cold Plasma and UV with Reusable TiO₂ Nanoparticle Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuewen; Lee, Seungjun; Mok, Chulkyoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2017-05-05

    Microcystins (MCs) are a family of cyanotoxins and pose detrimental effects on human, animal, and ecological health. Conventional water treatment processes have limited success in removing MCs without producing harmful byproducts. Therefore, there is an urgent need for cost-effective and environmentally-friendly methods for treating MCs. The objective of this study was to develop sustainable and non-chemical-based methods for controlling MCs, such as using cold plasma and ultra violet (UV) light with titanium dioxide (TiO₂) coating, which can be applied for diverse scale and settings. MCs, extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa, were treated with cold plasma or UV at irradiance of 1470 μW/cm² (high) or 180 μW/cm² (low). To assess synergistic effects, the outside of the UV treatment chamber was coated with nanoparticles (TiO₂) prior to irradiation, which can be reused for a long time. The degradation efficiency of UV was enhanced by the reusable TiO₂ coating at lower irradiance (70.41% [UV] vs. 79.61% [UV+TiO₂], 120 min), but no significant difference was observed at higher irradiance. Cold plasma removed MCs rapidly under experimental conditions (92%, 120 min), indicating that it is a promising candidate for controlling MCs in water without generating harmful disinfection byproducts. It can be also easily and practically used in household settings during emergency situations.

  1. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  2. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Grunwald, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.grunwald@ifam.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  3. An in vitro evaluation of novel NHA/zircon plasma coating on 316L stainless steel dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface characteristics of an implant that influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include crystal structure and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite coating on 316L stainless steel (SS dental implants soaking in simulated body fluid. A novel NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 wt% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 1 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS implants using a plasma spray method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate surface morphology, and X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to analyze phase composition and crystallinity (Xc. Further, calcium ion release was measured to evaluate the coated nanobiocomposite samples. The prepared NHA/zircon coating had a nanoscale morphological structure with a mean crystallite size of 30–40 nm in diameter and a bone-like composition, which is similar to that of the biological apatite of a bone. For the prepared NHA powder, high bioactivity was observed owing to the formation of apatite crystals on its surface. Both minimum crystallinity (Xc=41.1% and maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt% of zircon because of minimum Xc and maximum biodegradation of the coating sample.

  4. An Investigation of Oxide Coating Synthesized on an Aluminum Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Molten Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sobolev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO is a surface treatment process for obtaining oxide coatings with a high performance on valve metals. PEO is mostly performed in an aqueous solution electrolyte that limits the size of treated parts due to the fact that the system is heated. Therefore, the coating of large surfaces cannot be synthesized in an aqueous electrolyte. In the current work, an alternative approach of PEO treatment, whereby an aluminum 1050 alloy in nitrate molten salt at a temperature of 280 °C is applied, was investigated. The microstructure, phase and chemical compositions, and micro-hardness were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and micro-hardness tests. The obtained results show that formed coating contains from two sub-layers: one is the outer sub-layer of the α-Al2O3 phase and the second is its inner sub-layer. It was found that the formed coating was free of any contaminants originating from the electrolyte and had no cracks or pores, which are usually present in coatings formed by PEO treatment in an aqueous solution electrolyte.

  5. Cracking caused by cutting of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings and its relation to the structural features of coatings deposited at different initial substrate temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Bojan R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the cracking phenomenon in as-plasma-sprayed hydroxylapatite coatings (HACs after they were being subjected to the severe cutting conditions in the direction perpendicular to the coating/substrate interface. In order to evaluate the effects of substrate preheating on the occurrence of micro-cracks, the HACs were deposited at different initial substrate temperatures (TS = 20, 100 and 200°C. The changes in phase composition and HA splat morphology with TS were observed and were correlated with the cracking occurrence. The results showed that severe cutting conditions introduced a localized cracking in the regions of HACs dominantly attributed to the brittle hydroxyl-deficient amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP phase. This effect was particularly observable in the HACs deposited without preheating of substrate. On the other hand, the preheating of substrate reduced the presence of micro-cracks and caused insignificant changes in the average local phase composition. In HACs deposited with preheating of substrate, the HA splats (of which HACs are composed were thinner and recrystallized HA regions seemed smaller in size and more evenly distributed. These results implied potentially important roles of the HA splat formation mechanism on the distribution of ACP and recrystallized HA regions in the as-plasma-sprayed HACs and the cracking resistance of HACs. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 34022

  6. Influence of Plasma Transferred Arc Process Parameters on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Wear Resistive NiCrBSi-WC/Co Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitvydas GRUZDYS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-fluxing NiCrBSi and related coatings received considerable interest due to their good wear as well as corrosion resistance at moderate and elevated temperatures. Hard tungsten carbide (WC particles can be included in NiCrBSi for further increase of the coating hardness and abrasive wear resistance. Flame spray technique is widely used for fabrication of NiCrBSi films. However, in such a case, subsequent remelting of the deposited coatings by flame, arc discharge or high power laser beam is necessary. In present study NiCrBSi-WC/Co coatings were formed using plasma transferred arc process. By adjusting plasma parameters, such as current, plasma gas flow, shielding gas flow, a number of coatings were formed on steel substrates. Structure of the coatings was investigated using X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure of cross-sectioned coatings was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Hardness of the coating was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness tests. Wear tests were also performed on specimens to determine resistance to abrasive wear. Acquired results allowed estimating the influence of the deposition process parameters on structure and mechanical properties of the coatings.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.482

  7. Effect of Irradiation with DC Plasma Jet on the Structure Phase Compositions and Properties of Powder Ni and Co – based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya ALONTSEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM investigation of the structure-phase compositions of coatings on the base of Ni and Co deposited by plasma-detonation on steel substrates after their modification by DC plasma jet irradiation. The phase structures and morphology of precipitation of strengthening phases from solid solution are defined. The irradiation of the coatings leads to the evolution of the structural-phase state of coatings: an increase in the size of the diffusion zone between the coating and the substrate, an increase in the volume fraction of hardening intermetallic phases, the formation of sufficiently homogeneous fine-grained structure in the irradiated coatings and, consequently, a significant increase of hardness, corrosion and wear resistance of modified coatings. There is a mutual penetration of the substrate main element Fe in the coating and base coating elements (Ni and Co correspondingly into the substrate as a result of the coating treatment by a pulse DC plasma jet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7699

  8. NiTi shape memory alloys coated with calcium phosphate by plasma-spraying. Chemical and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, O.; Epple, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany); Bogdansk, D.; Esenwein, S.A.; Koeller, M. [Department of Surgery, BG Kliniken Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Buerkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Plates of superelastic nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) were coated with calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) by high-temperature plasma-spraying. The porous layer of about 100 {mu}m thickness showed a good adhesion to the metallic substrate that withstood bending of the plate but detached upon cutting the plate. The biocompatibility was tested by cultivation of blood cells (whole blood and isolated granulocytes [a subpopulation of blood leukocytes]). As substrates, pure NiTi, plasma-spray-coated NiTi and calcium phosphate-coated NiTi prepared by a dip-coating process were used. The adhesion of whole blood cells to all materials was not significantly different. In contrast, isolated granulocytes showed an increased adhesion to both calcium phosphate-coated NiTi samples. However, compared to non-coated NiTi or dip-coated NiTi, the number of dead granulocytes adherent to plasma-sprayed surfaces was significantly increased for isolated granulocytes (p<0.01). (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Bleche aus superelastischer Nickel-Titan-Legierung (NiTi) wurden durch Hochtemperatur-Plasmaspritzen mit Calciumphosphat (Hydroxylapatit) beschichtet. Die Haftung der ca. 100 {mu}m starken poroesen Schicht auf der metallischen Unterlage ist so gut, dass das Blech gebogen werden kann. Das Schneiden des Bleches fuehrte allerdings zur Abloesung der Schicht. Die Biokompatibilitaet der beschichteten Bleche wurde im Zellkulturexperiment mit Blutzellen (Vollblut und isolierte Granulozyten, [eine Subpopulation von Blutleukozyten]) untersucht. Zum Vergleich wurden reines NiTi und Calciumphosphat-beschichtetes NiTi (hergestellt durch einen Tauchprozess) ebenfalls in der Zellkultur untersucht. Die Adhaerenz der Vollblutzellen an die Materialien war nicht signifikant unterschiedlich. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigten isolierte Granulozyten eine hoehere Adhaesion auf beiden Calciumphosphat-beschichteten NiTi-Proben. Die Anzahl von toten Granulozyten war auf

  9. Plasma coatings of nitrogen polymers on metal prostheses of the circulatory system; Recubrimientos por plasma de polimeros nitrogenados sobre protesis metalicas del sistema circulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez J, L. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work has a study about the synthesis of poly aniline, poly allylamine and poly pyrrole doped with iodine onto metallic surfaces similar to stents for the circulatory system. Ar, water and hydrogen peroxide plasmas were used for eroding, conditioning and synthesizing polymers that potentially reduce some rejection reactions when stents are implanted in the human body. Stents are small metallic meshes that applied inside collapsed arteries or veins enlarge the diameter and restore the blood flow, however the metallic surfaces usually cause rejection reactions that obstruct the veins again. To give solutions to this problem, in this work is studied the synthesis of biocompatible polymer coatings on the stents that resist the blood flow forming a biocompatible interface between metal and blood. The metallic substrates were eroded and chemically prepared with Ar, H{sub 2}O and/or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} glow discharges on which the polymers were synthesized by plasma. The coatings were morphologically characterized by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the chemical structure was studied by infrared and photoelectron X-ray spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity was studied measuring the advance static contact angle and the adhesion was evaluated indirectly with scanning electron microscopy after two months submerged in buffered phosphate solutions. The results indicate that the polymers grew following the superficial morphology; that the conditioning with Ar ions erode the substrates and that the conditioning with H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} erodes and activates the surface generating oxygen bridges which help in the polymer-metal adhesion. The chemical structure of the polymeric coatings contain crosslinked structures that correspond to links between monomers with the participation of all atoms, states that suggest monomer fragmentation and oxidation and states that indicate oxygen bridges in the polymers. The coatings had contact angles close to 90

  10. Fabrication of Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Using ZrO2 and SiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gnedenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigation of the incorporation of zirconia and silica nanoparticles into the coatings formed on magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation are presented. Comprehensive research of electrochemical and mechanical properties of obtained coatings was carried out. It was established that the polarization resistance of the samples with a coating containing zirconia nanoparticles is two times higher than that for the sample with base PEO layer. One of the important reasons for improving the protective properties of coatings formed in electrolytes containing nanoparticles consists in enhanced morphological characteristics, in particular, the porosity decrease and increase of thickness and resistivity (up to two orders of magnitude for ZrO2-containing coating of porousless sublayer in comparison with base PEO layer. Incorporation of silica and zirconia particles into the coating increases the mechanical performances. The layers containing nanoparticles have greater hardness and are more wear resistant in comparison with the coatings formed in the base electrolyte.

  11. A systematic review on the long-term success of calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, B A J A; Bronkhorst, E M; van den Beucken, J J J P; Meijer, G J; Jansen, J A; Junker, R

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the current review were (1) to systematically appraise, and (2) to evaluate long-term success data of calcium phosphate (CaP) plasma-spray-coated dental implants in clinical trials with at least 5 years of follow-up. To describe the long-term efficacy of functional implants, the outcome variables were (a) percentage annual complication rate (ACR) and (b) cumulative success rate (CSR), as presented in the selected articles. The electronic search yielded 645 titles. On the basis of the inclusion criteria, 8 studies were finally included. The percentage of implants in function after the first year was estimated to be 98.4 % in the maxilla and 99.2 % in the mandible. The estimates of the weighted mean ACR-percentage increased over the years up to 2.6 (SE 0.7) during the fifth year of function for the maxilla and to 9.4 (SE 8.4) for the mandible in the tenth year of function. After 10 years, the mean percentage of successful implants was estimated to be 71.1 % in the maxilla and 72.2 % in the mandible. The estimates seem to confirm the proposed, long-term progressive bone loss pattern of CaP-ceramic-coated dental implants. Within the limits of this meta-analytic approach to the literature, we conclude that: (1) published long-term success data for calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants are limited, (2) comparison of the data is difficult due to differences in success criteria among the studies, and (3) long-term CSRs demonstrate very weak evidence for progressive complications around calcium phosphate plasma-spray-coated dental implants.

  12. Covalent immobilisation of VEGF on plasma-coated electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, A G; Hegemann, D; Giraud, M N; Tevaearai, H T; Popa, A M; Rossi, R M; Fortunato, G

    2014-11-01

    Recent findings in the field of biomaterials and tissue engineering provide evidence that surface immobilised growth factors display enhanced stability and induce prolonged function. Cell response can be regulated by material properties and at the site of interest. To this end, we developed scaffolds with covalently bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and evaluated their mitogenic effect on endothelial cells in vitro. Nano- (254±133 nm) or micro-fibrous (4.0±0.4 μm) poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) non-wovens were produced by electrospinning and coated in a radio frequency (RF) plasma process to induce an oxygen functional hydrocarbon layer. Implemented carboxylic acid groups were converted into amine-reactive esters and covalently coupled to VEGF by forming stable amide bonds (standard EDC/NHS chemistry). Substrates were analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), enzyme-linked immuno-assays (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (anti-VEGF antibody and VEGF-R2 binding). Depending on the reaction conditions, immobilised VEGF was present at 127±47 ng to 941±199 ng per substrate (6mm diameter; concentrations of 4.5 ng mm(-2) or 33.3 ng mm(-2), respectively). Immunohistochemistry provided evidence for biological integrity of immobilised VEGF. Endothelial cell number of primary endothelial cells or immortalised endothelial cells were significantly enhanced on VEGF-functionalised scaffolds compared to native PCL scaffolds. This indicates a sustained activity of immobilised VEGF over a culture period of nine days. We present a versatile method for the fabrication of growth factor-loaded scaffolds at specific concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Temperature Damping Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier and Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    A high temperature damping test apparatus has been developed using a high heat flux CO 2 laser rig in conjunction with a TIRA S540 25 kHz Shaker and Polytec OFV 5000 Vibrometer system. The test rig has been successfully used to determine the damping performance of metallic and ceramic protective coating systems at high temperature for turbine engine applications. The initial work has been primarily focused on the microstructure and processing effects on the coating temperature-dependence damping behavior. Advanced ceramic coatings, including multicomponent tetragonal and cubic phase thermal barrier coatings, along with composite bond coats, have also been investigated. The coating high temperature damping mechanisms will also be discussed.

  14. Size and Aging Effects on Antimicrobial Efficiency of Silver Nanoparticles Coated on Polyamide Fabrics Activated by Atmospheric DBD Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zille, Andrea; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Tzanov, Tzanko; Fernandes, Marta; Oliveira, Fernando R; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Esteves, Maria F; Souto, António P

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the surface characteristics, antimicrobial activity, and aging effect of plasma-pretreated polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fabrics coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), aiming to identify the optimum size of nanosilver exhibiting antibacterial properties suitable for the manufacture of hospital textiles. The release of bactericidal Ag(+) ions from a 10, 20, 40, 60, and 100 nm AgNPs-coated PA66 surface was a function of the particles' size, number, and aging. Plasma pretreatment promoted both ionic and covalent interactions between AgNPs and the formed oxygen species on the fibers, favoring the deposition of smaller-diameter AgNPs that consequently showed better immediate and durable antimicrobial effects against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Surprisingly, after 30 days of aging, a comparable bacterial growth inhibition was achieved for all of the fibers treated with AgNPs electrostatic stabilization of the plasma-induced functional groups on the PA66 surface, thereby retarding the aging process. At the same time, the size-related ratio (Ag(+)/Ag(0)) of the AgNPs between 40 and 60 nm allowed for the controlled release of Ag(+) rather than bulk silver. Overall, the results suggest that instead of reducing the size of the AgNPs, which is associated with higher toxicity, similar long-term effects can be achieved with larger NPs (40-60 nm), even in lower concentrations. Because the antimicrobial efficiency of AgNPs larger than 30 nm is mainly ruled by the release of Ag(+) over time and not by the size and number of the AgNPs, this parameter is crucial for the development of efficient antimicrobial coatings on plasma-treated surfaces and contributes to the safety and durability of clothing used in clinical settings.

  15. Effect of Post-spray Shot Peening Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of NiCr-Mo Coating by Plasma Spraying of the Shell-Core-Structured Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia-Jia; Wei, Ying-Kang; Li, Cheng-Xin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion of metal plays a detrimental role in service lifetime of parts or systems. Therefore, coating a protective film which is fully dense and defects free on the base metal is an effective approach to protect the base metal from corrosion. In this study, a dense NiCr-20Mo coating with excellent lamellar interface bonding was deposited by plasma spraying of the novel shell-core-structured Mo-clad-NiCr powders, and then post-spray shot peening treatment by cold spraying of steel shots was applied to the plasma-sprayed NiCr-20Mo coating to obtain a fully dense coating through eliminating possibly existed pores and un-bonded interfaces within the NiCr-20Mo coating. Corrosion behaviors of the NiCr-20Mo coatings before and after shot peening were tested to investigate the effect of the post-spray shot peening on the corrosion behavior of the NiCr-20Mo coating. Results showed that a much dense and uniform plasma-sprayed NiCr-20Mo coating with perfect lamellar bonding at most of interfaces was deposited. However, the electrochemical tests revealed the existence of through-thickness pores in the as-plasma-sprayed NiCr-20Mo coating. Through the post-spray shot peening treatment, a completely dense top layer in the coating was formed, and with the increase in the shot peening intensity from one pass to three passes, the dense top layer became thicker from 100 μm to reach 300 μm of the whole coating thickness. Thus, a fully dense bulk-like coating was obtained. Corrosion test results showed that the dense coating layer resulting from densification of shot peening can act as an effective barrier coating to prevent the penetration of the corrosive medium and consequently protect the substrate from corrosion effectively. Therefore, a fully dense bulk-like NiCr-20Mo coating with excellent corrosion resistance can be achieved through the plasma spraying of Mo-clad-NiCr powders followed by appropriate post-spray shot peening treatment.

  16. Effect of Post-spray Shot Peening Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of NiCr-Mo Coating by Plasma Spraying of the Shell-Core-Structured Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia-Jia; Wei, Ying-Kang; Li, Cheng-Xin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2017-11-01

    Corrosion of metal plays a detrimental role in service lifetime of parts or systems. Therefore, coating a protective film which is fully dense and defects free on the base metal is an effective approach to protect the base metal from corrosion. In this study, a dense NiCr-20Mo coating with excellent lamellar interface bonding was deposited by plasma spraying of the novel shell-core-structured Mo-clad-NiCr powders, and then post-spray shot peening treatment by cold spraying of steel shots was applied to the plasma-sprayed NiCr-20Mo coating to obtain a fully dense coating through eliminating possibly existed pores and un-bonded interfaces within the NiCr-20Mo coating. Corrosion behaviors of the NiCr-20Mo coatings before and after shot peening were tested to investigate the effect of the post-spray shot peening on the corrosion behavior of the NiCr-20Mo coating. Results showed that a much dense and uniform plasma-sprayed NiCr-20Mo coating with perfect lamellar bonding at most of interfaces was deposited. However, the electrochemical tests revealed the existence of through-thickness pores in the as-plasma-sprayed NiCr-20Mo coating. Through the post-spray shot peening treatment, a completely dense top layer in the coating was formed, and with the increase in the shot peening intensity from one pass to three passes, the dense top layer became thicker from 100 μm to reach 300 μm of the whole coating thickness. Thus, a fully dense bulk-like coating was obtained. Corrosion test results showed that the dense coating layer resulting from densification of shot peening can act as an effective barrier coating to prevent the penetration of the corrosive medium and consequently protect the substrate from corrosion effectively. Therefore, a fully dense bulk-like NiCr-20Mo coating with excellent corrosion resistance can be achieved through the plasma spraying of Mo-clad-NiCr powders followed by appropriate post-spray shot peening treatment.

  17. Design of novel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-bond coat bioceramic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, R. B.

    1999-12-01

    Bond coats based on bioinert ceramic materials such as titania and zirconia were developed to increase the adhesion strength of the coating system hydroxyapatite-bond coat to Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces used for hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. The bond coats improved the adhesion strength, measured by a modified ASTM D 3167-76 peel test, by up to 100% and also the resorption resistance as determined by in vitro leaching in simulated protein-free body fluid for up to 28 days.

  18. Temperature dependence of W metallic coatings synthesized by double glow plasma surface alloying technology on CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jie; Hei, Hongjun; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Tang, Bin; He, Zhiyong, E-mail: hezhiyong@tyut.edu.cn; Yu, Shengwang, E-mail: yushengwang@tyut.edu.cn

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • DGPSA was firstly adopted to deposit W coatings on free-standing diamond films. • Temperature dependence of W coatings on free-standing diamond films was discussed. • W{sub 2}C and WC were formed at W/diamond interface during the DGPSA treatment. • The coatings possess continuous and compact surface structure except that made at 900 °C. • The coating obtained at 800 °C has the best adhesion and the maximum shear strength. - Abstract: W metallic coatings were synthesized on free-standing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films using double glow plasma surface alloying (DGPSA) technology. The influence of varying metalizing temperatures on the microstructures, phase composition and adhesion of the W metallic coatings were investigated. Likewise, the effectiveness of the W metallic coatings was preliminary evaluated via examining the shear strength of the brazing joints between W-metalized diamond films and commercial cemented carbide (WC–Co) inserts. The results showed that continuous and compact W metallic coatings were formed on the diamond films in the temperature range of 750–800 °C, while cracks or cavities presented at the W/diamond interface at 700 °C, 850 °C and 900 °C. Inter-diffusion of W and C atoms preformed, and WC and W{sub 2}C were formed at the W/diamond interfaces at all temperatures except 700 °C, at which only W{sub 2}C was formed. Moreover, etched cavities appeared at the W/diamond interface when the temperature exceeded 850 °C. The critical loads for coating delamination, as measured with the scratch test, increased as the temperature rose from 700 °C to 800 °C, while decreased with further increasing temperature. The maximum load was obtained at 800 °C with a value of 17.1 N. Besides, the shear strength of the brazing joints depicted the similar trend with the critical load. The highest shear strength (249 MPa) was also obtained at 800 °C.

  19. Prediction and optimization of process variables to maximize the Young's modulus of plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Like other manufacturing techniques, plasma spraying has also a non-linear behavior because of the contribution of many coating variables. This characteristic results in finding optimal factor combination difficult. Subsequently, the issue can be solved through effective and strategic statistical procedures integrated with systematic experimental data. Plasma spray parameters such as power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate have significant influence on coating characteristics like Young's modulus. This paper presents the use of statistical techniques in specifically response surface methodology (RSM, analysis of variance, and regression analysis to develop empirical relationship to predict Young's modulus of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. The developed empirical relationships can be effectively used to predict Young's modulus of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. Response graphs and contour plots were constructed to identify the optimum plasma spray parameters to attain maximum Young's modulus in alumina coatings. A linear regression relationship was established between porosity and Young's modulus of the alumina coatings.

  20. Influence of Pt particles on the porosity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083, Beijing (China); Research Institute of Aerospace Special Materials and Processing Technology, 100074, Beijing (China); He, Yedong, E-mail: htgroup@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jin [Beijing Key Laboratory for Corrosion, Erosion and Surface Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-01

    Porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt coatings were successfully prepared on the Ni-based alloy by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition. It is found that the porosity of coatings can be reduced obviously by Pt particles co-deposited with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This phenomenon can be attributed to that the mechanism of plasma discharge is changed in such CPED. As the Pt particles are dispersed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating, the electron avalanche is difficult to occur. So, the breakdown takes place in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt coating difficultly, the destructive effect of the breakdown will therefore be decreased, and the porosity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can be reduced which has been verified by the results of surface morphologies of the coatings. - Highlights: • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Pt coatings were prepared on Ni-based alloys by CPED. • The porosity of coating is reduced obviously by Pt particles dispersed with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The related mechanisms of plasma discharge in CPED were discussed.

  1. INFLUENCE OF PLASMA NITRIDING ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOUR AND ADHESION OF DLC COATINGS DEPOSITED ON AISI 420 STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion behavior and adhesion of two DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon” films (“Soft” and “Hard” were studied. Both coatings were deposited by PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” on plasma-nitrided and non-nitrided AISI 420 stainless steel. Raman spectroscopy was conducted and surface hardness was measured. The microstructure by OM and SEM, was observed. Adhesion tests were performed with C. Rockwell indentation test. Salt Spray and immersion were performed in HCl. The “Soft” coating was 20 μm thick, the “Hard” film was about 2.5 μm. The hardness was of 500 HV in the “Soft” DLC and 1400 HV in the “Hard” DLC. Both coatings presented low friction coefficient and good adhesion when they were deposited on nitrided steel. Also presented good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. HCl DLC degradation slowed rapidly introduced uncoated samples.

  2. Characterizing the magnetic memory signals on the surface of plasma transferred arc cladding coating under fatigue loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haihong; Han, Gang; Qian, Zhengchun; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-12-01

    The metal magnetic memory signals were measured during dynamic tension tests on the surfaces of the cladding coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding and the 0.45% C steel. Results showed that the slope of the normal component Hp(y) of magnetic signal and the average value of the tangential component Hp(x) reflect the magnetization of the specimens. The signals increased sharply in the few initial cycles; and then fluctuated around a constant value during fatigue process until fracture. For the PTA cladding coating, the slope of Hp(y) was steeper and the average of Hp(x) was smaller, compared with the 0.45% C steel. The hysteresis curves of cladding layer, bonding layer and substrate were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer testing, and then saturation magnetization, initial susceptibility and coercivity were further calculated. The stress-magnetization curves were also plotted based on the J-A model, which showed that the PTA cladding coating has smaller remanence and coercivity compared with the 0.45% C steel. The microstructures of cladding coating confirmed that the dendritic structure and second-phase of alloy hinder the magnetic domain motion, which was the main factor influencing the variation of magnetic signal during the fatigue tests.

  3. Modification of vacuum plasma sprayed tungsten coating on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu, E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Morisada, Yoshiaki [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Noh, Sanghoon [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Nuclear Material Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied on vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W to improve its low thermal conductivity and weakness due to high porosity. • FSP can achieve significant improvement both in mechanical and thermal properties of VPS-W coating. • It was indicated that the double pass FSP at 600 rpm/50 mm/min/2 ton on VPS-W show the most dense microstructure and hardest mechanical property. • Hardness test over FSPed VPS-W layer revealed that the hardness of W becomes higher than that of bulk W. • The thermal conductivity of double pass FSPed VPS-W was about 80% of bulk W at 200 °C, and it becomes equivalent to that of bulk W over 800 °C. - Abstract: Tungsten (W) is the primary candidate material as a plasma facing material in fusion devices, as for its high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity and low sputtering rate, and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technique is preferred as it is applicable for large area without brittle interlayer, but the thermal conductivity of W layer is very poor, and easy to detach, mainly caused by its porous structure. W Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied on VPS-W to improve these poor properties, and it was suggested that FSP can contribute to significant improvement in both mechanical and thermal properties of the VPS-W coating.

  4. Argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride (SiN) for improved antireflection coating on c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell. • The reduction in reflection due to the formation of a silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride double layer. • EQE reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in J{sub sc} and 4.46% in conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell is presented here. Hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) layer has been deposited on a silicon substrate by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases followed by a argon plasma treatment. Optical analysis reveals a significant reduction in reflectance after argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride layer. While FESEM shows nanostructures on the surface of the silicon nitride film, FTIR reveals a change in Si−N, Si−O and N−H bonds. On the other hand, ellipsometry shows the variation of refractive index and formation of double layer. Finally, a c-Si solar cell has been fabricated with the said anti-reflection coating. External quantum efficiency reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in the short circuit current density and 4.46% in conversion efficiency over a baseline efficiency of 16.58%.

  5. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  6. All-oxide broadband antireflection coatings by plasma ion assisted deposition: design, simulation, manufacturing and re-optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf; Kaiser, Norbert

    2010-09-13

    A new all-oxide design for broadband antireflection coatings with significantly reduced impact of deposition errors to the final reflectance is presented. Computational manufacturing including re-optimization during deposition has been used in the design work to account for maximum insensibility of the design with respect to deposition errors typical for plasma ion assisted deposition PIAD. Repeated deposition runs with the deducted monitoring and re-optimization strategy verify the validity of the simulations and the stability of the derived design solution.

  7. Mixed Mode Fracture of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Effects of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis L.

    2008-01-01

    The combined mode I-mode II fracture behavior of anisotropic ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was determined in asymmetric flexure loading at both ambient and elevated temperatures. A fracture envelope of KI versus KII was determined for the coating material at ambient and elevated temperatures. Propagation angles of fracture as a function of KI/KII were also determined. The mixed-mode fracture behavior of the microsplat coating material was modeled using Finite Element approach to account for anisotropy and micro cracked structures, and predicted in terms of fracture envelope and propagation angle using mixed-mode fracture theories.

  8. Effects of MgO and SiO2 on Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating: An in Vivo Study in Rat Distal Femoral Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Dongxu; Robertson, Samuel F; Dernell, William S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2017-08-09

    Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium implants have been widely used in orthopedic applications due to their inheritance of an excellent mechanical property from titanium and great osteoconductivity from HA. However, the lack of osteoinductivity limits their further applications. In this study, 1 wt % MgO and 0.5 wt % SiO2 were mixed with HA for making plasma-sprayed coatings on titanium implants. Plasma-sprayed HA- and MgO/SiO2-HA-coated titanium implants showed adhesive bond strengths of 25.73 ± 1.92 and 23.44 ± 2.89 MPa, respectively. The presence of MgO and SiO2 significantly increased the osteogenesis, osseointegration, and bone mineralization of HA-coated titanium implants by the evaluation of their histomorphology after 6, 10, and 14 weeks of implantation in rat distal femoral defects. Implant pushout tests also showed a shear modulus of 149.83 ± 3.69 MPa for MgO/SiO2-HA-coated implants after 14 weeks of implantation, compared to 52.68 ± 10.41 MPa for uncoated implants and 83.92 ± 3.68 MPa for pure HA-coated implants; These are differences in the shear modulus of 96% and 56.4%, respectively. This study assesses for the first time the quality of the bone-implant interface of induction plasma-sprayed MgO and SiO2 binary-doped HA coatings on load-bearing implants compared to bare titanium and pure HA coatings in a quantitative manner. Relating the osseointegration and interface shear modulus to the quality of implant fixation is critical to the advancement and implementation of HA-coated orthopedic implants.

  9. Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.

    2015-01-01

    Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

  10. Multilayer-coated photodiode-based beam intensity monitor for polarization analysis of plasma soft X-ray laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazono, Takashi

    2017-07-20

    A Mo/Si multilayer-coated photodiode detector (MP) for beam intensity monitoring was prototyped and characterized using synchrotron radiation and X-ray laser (XRL) sources in order to perform polarization analysis of a laser-driven plasma soft XRL generated from nickel-like silver plasma. At a wavelength of 13.9 nm and an angle of incidence of 45°, the s-polarization reflectance is 0.525 and shows a strong positive correlation with the transmittance, corresponding to the photodiode current generated by the MP. We succeeded in performing polarization analysis of XRL beams with a large shot-to-shot intensity variation using the MP. Thus, this MP enables shot-to-shot monitoring and delivery of high intensity beams for downstream XRL experiments.

  11. Plasma-Arc Deposited Elemental Boron Film for use as a Durable Nonstick Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klepper, C. C

    2007-01-01

    Report developed under Small Business Innovation Research Contract. Under this Phase I SBIR contract, HY-Tech Research performed development of an abrasion resistant, non-stick coating for cookware used by the U.S. Army in the field...

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moosavi SB; Fathi MH. BS; MSC; Feizi Gh; Mortazavi V

    2001-01-01

    ... treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone...

  13. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide coating deposited on aluminium alloy substrate by plasma technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Soyama, Juliano; Dirscherl, Kai

    2011-01-01

    . The photocatalytic process is initiated by UV-light in TiO2 which creates electron-/hole pairs in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of TiO2, respectively. The electron/hole pairs generated have sufficient energy to cause reduction and oxidation on its surface providing the self-cleaning effect....... Literature consists of large number of publications on titanium dioxide coating for self-cleaning applications, with glass as the main substrate. Only little work is available on TiO2 coating of metallic alloys used for engineering applications. Engineering materials, such as light-weight aluminium and steel...... of the coating strongly influences the photocatalytic properties. In general, the photocatalytic activity increased with thickness. Quantification of images scanned with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) revealed that there is a linear relationship between the thickness of the coating and the average cell size...

  14. Effect of powder reactivity on fabrication and properties of NiAl/Al2O3 composite coated on cast iron using spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhaghi, Maryam; Kiani-Rashid, Ali-Reza; Kashefi, Mehrdad; Khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Jonsson, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Powder mixtures of Ni, NiO and Al are ball milled for 1 and 10 h. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis show that while ball milling for 1 h produced mechanically activated powder; 10 h ball milling produced NiAl and Al2O3 phases. Dense NiAl/Al2O3 composite coatings are formed on gray cast iron substrate by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The effect of powder reactivity on microstructure, hardness and scratch hardness of NiAl/Al2O3 coatings after SPS is discussed. Results show that in the coating sample made of mechanically activated powder in situ synthesis of NiAl/Al2O3 composite coating is fulfilled and a thicker well-formed diffusion bond layer at the interface between coating and substrate is observed. The diffusion of elements across the bond layers and phase evolution in the bond layers were investigated. No pores or cracks were observed at the interface between coating layer and substrate in any of samples. Higher Vickers hardness and scratch hardness values in coating made of 10 h ball milled powder than in coating fabricated from 1 h ball milled powder are attributed to better dispersion of Al2O3 reinforcement particles in NiAl matrix and nano-crystalline structure of NiAl matrix. Scratched surface of coatings did not reveal any cracking or spallation at coating-substrate interface indicating their good adherence at test conditions.

  15. The Influence of Temperature on Frictional Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed NiAl-Cr2O3 Based Self-Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.

    2013-10-01

    Frictional behavior of nano and hybrid-structured NiAl-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 adaptive self-lubricant coatings was evaluated at a range of temperatures, from room temperature to 700 °C. For this purpose, hybrid structured (HS) and nanostructured (NS) composite powders with the same nominal compositions were prepared by spray drying and heat treatment techniques. A series of HS and NS coating samples were deposited on steel substrate by an atmospheric plasma spraying process. The tribological behavior of both coatings was studied from room temperature to 700 °C at 100° intervals using a custom designed high temperature wear test machine. Scanning electron microscopy was employed for the evaluation of the composite coatings and worn surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the hybrid coating had inferior tribological properties when compared to the nanostructured coating, showing the attractive frictional behavior on the basis of low friction and high wear resistance; the NS coating possessed a more stable friction coefficient in the temperature range of 25-700 °C against alumina counterface. Microstructural examinations revealed more uniformity in NS plasma-sprayed coatings.

  16. Pulsed arc plasma jet synchronized with drop-on-demand dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavier, F.; Lemesre, L.; Rat, V.; Bienia, M.; Lejeune, M.; Coudert, J.-F.

    2017-04-01

    This work concerns with the liquid injection in arc plasma spraying for the development of finely structured ceramics coatings. Nanostructured coatings can be now achieved with nanopowders dispersed in a liquid (SPS: Suspension Plasma Spraying) or with a salt dissolved into a liquid (SPPS: Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying) injected into the plasma jet. Controlling electric arc instabilities confined in non-transferred arc plasma torch is therefore a key issue to get reproducible coating properties. Adjustment of parameters with a mono-cathode arc plasma allows a new resonance mode called “Mosquito”. A pulsed arc plasma producing a periodic regular voltage signal with modulation of enthalpy is obtained. The basic idea is to synchronize the injection system with the arc to introduce the liquid material in each plasma oscillation in the same conditions, in order to control the plasma treatment of the material in-fly. A custom-developed pulsed arc plasma torch is used with a drop-on-demand dispenser triggered by the arc voltage. A delay is added to adjust the droplets emission time and their penetration into the plasma gusts. Indeed, the treatment of droplets is also shown to be dependent on this injection delay. A TiO2 suspension and an aqueous solution of aluminium nitrate were optimized to get ejectable inks forming individual droplets. The feasibility of the process was demonstrated for SPS and SPPS techniques. Coatings from the suspension and the solution were achieved. First synchronized sprayings show a good penetration of the droplets into the plasma. Coatings show a fine structure of cauliflowers shapes. The synchronization of the ejection allows a control of morphology and a better deposition efficiency. Further investigations will find the optimal operating parameters to show the full potential of this original liquid injection technique.

  17. Ammonia formation and W coatings interaction with deuterium/nitrogen plasmas in the linear device GyM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguardia, L., E-mail: laguardia@ifp.cnr.it [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma“P. Caldirola”, Milan (Italy); Caniello, R.; Cremona, A. [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma“P. Caldirola”, Milan (Italy); Dellasega, D. [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma“P. Caldirola”, Milan (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Milan (Italy); Dell’Era, F.; Ghezzi, F.; Gittini, G.; Granucci, G.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Pallotta, F. [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma“P. Caldirola”, Milan (Italy); Passoni, M. [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma“P. Caldirola”, Milan (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Milan (Italy); Ricci, D.; Vassallo, E. [CNR, Istituto di Fisica del Plasma“P. Caldirola”, Milan (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In this work results of the first D{sub 2}/N{sub 2} experiments in GyM, a linear device able to produce plasmas of interest for the ITER divertor (n{sub e} 5 ⋅ 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3}, Te 5 eV, ion flux 3–5 ⋅ 10{sup 20} m{sup −2}s{sup −1}) are presented. Plasmas simulating a N-seeding scenario have been performed to evaluate ammonia formation and its effect on exposed W coatings. The presence of ND emission lines in the plasma can be correlated with the formation of ammonia, further directly detected and quantified by chromatography analysis of the exhaust. Four different W specimens were exposed in GyM to a plasma fluence of 8.78 ⋅ 10{sup 23} m{sup −2}. XPS analysis evidenced the formation of W{sub x}N{sub y} layers with nitrogen concentration in the range of 1–10% depending on the initial morphology and structure of the W samples. In all analyzed cases, nitrogen was bound and retained within the first 6 nm below the surface and no further diffusion of N into the bulk was observed.

  18. Plasma-Sprayed Ti6Al4V Alloy Composite Coatings Reinforced with In Situ Formed TiB-TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akrity; Das, Mitun; Kundu, Biswanath; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bodhak, Subhadip; Gangadharan, S.

    2017-11-01

    Plasma spraying was used to deposit premixed Ti6Al4V + 15 wt.% BN powder on titanium substrate to fabricate Ti6Al4V matrix composite coatings reinforced with in situ synthesized TiB-TiN. The formation of in situ TiB-TiN reinforcements increased with plasma power. The in situ reaction appears to be complete under present experimental conditions but with considerable oxidation of Ti in the composite coatings. The hardness of composite coatings was 7 times higher (855HV), and the in vitro wear rate (2.4 × 10-5 mm3/N m) was one order of magnitude less than that of titanium substrate. However, the microstructural non-uniformity decreased the corrosion resistance of these composite coatings in Hank's balanced salt solution.

  19. Plasma-Sprayed Ti6Al4V Alloy Composite Coatings Reinforced with In Situ Formed TiB-TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akrity; Das, Mitun; Kundu, Biswanath; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bodhak, Subhadip; Gangadharan, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spraying was used to deposit premixed Ti6Al4V + 15 wt.% BN powder on titanium substrate to fabricate Ti6Al4V matrix composite coatings reinforced with in situ synthesized TiB-TiN. The formation of in situ TiB-TiN reinforcements increased with plasma power. The in situ reaction appears to be complete under present experimental conditions but with considerable oxidation of Ti in the composite coatings. The hardness of composite coatings was 7 times higher (855HV), and the in vitro wear rate (2.4 × 10-5 mm3/N m) was one order of magnitude less than that of titanium substrate. However, the microstructural non-uniformity decreased the corrosion resistance of these composite coatings in Hank's balanced salt solution.

  20. Vacuum arc plasma deposition of thin titanium dioxide films on silicone elastomer as a functional coating for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudot, Cécile; Kühn, Marvin; Kühn-Kauffeldt, Marina; Schein, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    Silicone elastomer is a promising material for medical applications and is widely used for implants with blood and tissue contact. However, its strong hydrophobicity limits adhesion of tissue cells to silicone surfaces, which can impair the healing process. To improve the biological properties of silicone, a triggerless pulsed vacuum cathodic arc plasma deposition technique was applied to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO2) films onto the surface. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used for coating characterization. Deposited films were about 150nm thick and exhibited good adhesion to the underlying silicone substrate. Surface wettability and roughness both increased after deposition of the TiO2 layer. In addition, cell-biological investigations demonstrated that the in-vitro cytocompatibility of TiO2-coated samples was greatly improved without impacting silicone's nontoxicity. For validation of use in medical devices, further investigations were conducted and demonstrated stability of surface properties in an aqueous environment for a period of 68days and the coating's resistance to several sterilization methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium Aluminate Concentration Effects on Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Maryam; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Gashti, Seyed Omid

    2017-11-01

    Sodium aluminate (NaAlO2) concentration was varied in order to understand the influence of the chemical composition of electrolyte on the spark characteristics, microstructure, and corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings. For this purpose, PEO coatings were formed on the pure titanium substrate surface using solutions of four diverse sodium aluminate concentrations (6, 8, 10, and 12 g/L). The PEO process was carried out at constant time and voltage (180 seconds and 420 V). Studying the microstructures of samples by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and their corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solutions indicated that the increase in NaAlO2 concentration (up to 10 g/L) led to an increase in uniformity and compactness, thus decreasing the size of micro-pores and increment of corrosion resistance. However, at a certain level of NaAlO2 concentration (12 g/L), large and severe sparks were created on the surface of the sample during the process, worsening the corrosion resistance and microstructure of coating.

  2. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  3. Effect of the voltage pulse frequency on the structure of TiO2 coatings grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cerón, D. A.; Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Moya-Betancourt, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is used to synthetize titanium dioxide (TiO2) ceramic coatings with the appropriate selection of an electrolyte. The dimension of the micro-cavities and the particle size at the surface can be controlled through the pulse frequency of the voltage that is applied between the electrodes. The change of surface morphology can increase the surface area-to-volume ratio. In this work, PEO of an ASME SB-265 titanium substrate (20×20×1mm) was made in a water solution containing 8g/L Na3PO4 and 0.4g/L NaOH. Hence, the coatings were fabricated using voltage pulses of 340V for 10 minutes with a 10% duty cycle and frequencies of 1000, 1500 and 2000Hz. According to the X-ray diffractograms of the obtained samples, the sintering process at 500°C during 1 hour generated Anatase titanium dioxide porous coatings. The grain size decreased approximately from 29nm for 1000 and 1500Hz pulse frequencies until 21nm for 2000Hz. On the other hand, from the micrographs of scanning electron microscopy was possible to see the uniform formation of the micro-cavities with the largest diameter, 900nm, for the lowest frequency value used in PEO.

  4. Phosphor-Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray for In-Depth Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ-based thermal barrier coating (TBC has been integrated with thermographic phosphors through air plasma spray (APS for in-depth; non-contact temperature sensing. This coating consisted of a thin layer of Dy-doped YSZ (about 40 µm on the bottom and a regular YSZ layer with a thickness up to 300 µm on top. A measurement system has been established; which included a portable; low-cost diode laser (405 nm; a photo-multiplier tube (PMT and the related optics. Coating samples with different topcoat thickness were calibrated in a high-temperature furnace from room temperature to around 900 °C. The results convincingly showed that the current sensor and the measurement system was capable of in-depth temperature sensing over 800 °C with a YSZ top layer up to 300 µm. The topcoat thickness was found to have a strong effect on the luminescent signal level. Therefore; the measurement accuracy at high temperatures was reduced for samples with thick topcoats due to strong light attenuation. However; it seemed that the light transmissivity of YSZ topcoat increased with temperature; which would improve the sensor’s performance at high temperatures. The current sensor and the measurement technology have shown great potential in on-line monitoring of TBC interface temperature.

  5. Sodium Aluminate Concentration Effects on Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Maryam; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Gashti, Seyed Omid

    2018-01-01

    Sodium aluminate (NaAlO2) concentration was varied in order to understand the influence of the chemical composition of electrolyte on the spark characteristics, microstructure, and corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings. For this purpose, PEO coatings were formed on the pure titanium substrate surface using solutions of four diverse sodium aluminate concentrations (6, 8, 10, and 12 g/L). The PEO process was carried out at constant time and voltage (180 seconds and 420 V). Studying the microstructures of samples by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and their corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solutions indicated that the increase in NaAlO2 concentration (up to 10 g/L) led to an increase in uniformity and compactness, thus decreasing the size of micro-pores and increment of corrosion resistance. However, at a certain level of NaAlO2 concentration (12 g/L), large and severe sparks were created on the surface of the sample during the process, worsening the corrosion resistance and microstructure of coating.

  6. Vacuum plasma sprayed coatings using ionic silver doped hydroxyapatite powder to prevent bacterial infection of bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond-Lischer, Stefanie; Ren, Qun; Braissant, Olivier; Gruner, Philipp; Wampfler, Bruno; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2016-03-10

    Fast and efficient osseointegration of implants into bone is of crucial importance for their clinical success; a process that can be enhanced by coating the implant surface with hydroxyapatite (HA) using the vacuum plasma spray technology (VPS). However, bacterial infections, especially the biofilm formation on implant surfaces after a surgery, represent a serious complication. With ever-increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is great interest in silver (Ag) as an alternative to classical antibiotics due to its broad activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. In the present study, silver ions were introduced into HA spray powder by ion exchange and the HA-Ag powder was applied onto titanium samples by VPS. The Ag-containing surfaces were evaluated for the kinetics of the silver release, its antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus as well as Escherichia coli, and possible cytotoxicity against human bone cells. The HA-Ag coatings with different concentrations of Ag displayed mechanical and compositional properties that fulfill the regulatory requirements. Evaluation of the Ag release kinetic showed a high release rate in the first 24 h followed by a decreasing release rate over the four subsequent days. The HA-Ag coatings showed no cytotoxicity to primary human bone cells while exhibiting antibacterial activity to E. coli and S. aureus.

  7. Enhanced corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of biomedical NiTi alloy by atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerized fluorine-rich coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Penghui; Li, Limin [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Wenhao [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Jin, Weihong [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Liu, Xiangmei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China); Yeung, Kelvin W.K. [Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Fluoropolymer is deposited on NiTi alloy via atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization. • The corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy in SBF and DMEM is evidently improved. • The adsorption ratio of albumin to fibrinogen is increased on the coated surface. • The reduced platelet adhesion number indicates better in vitro hemocompatibility. - Abstract: To improve the corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility of biomedical NiTi alloy, hydrophobic polymer coatings are deposited by plasma polymerization in the presence of a fluorine-containing precursor using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. This process takes place at a low temperature in air and can be used to deposit fluoropolymer films using organic compounds that cannot be achieved by conventional polymerization techniques. The composition and chemical states of the polymer coatings are characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion behavior of the coated and bare NiTi samples is assessed and compared by polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in physiological solutions including simulated body fluids (SBF) and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). The corrosion resistance of the coated NiTi alloy is evidently improved. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests reveal that the adsorption ratio of albumin to fibrinogen is increased and the number of adherent platelets on the coating is greatly reduced. The plasma polymerized coating renders NiTi better in vitro hemocompatibility and is promising as a protective and hemocompatible coating on cardiovascular implants.

  8. Osseoconductive and Corrosion-Inhibiting Plasma-Sprayed Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Metallic Medical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Heimann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last several decades, research into bioceramic coatings for medical implants has emerged as a hot topic among materials scientists and clinical practitioners alike. In particular, today, calcium phosphate-based bioceramic materials are ubiquitously used in clinical applications to coat the stems of metallic endoprosthetic hips as well as the surfaces of dental root implants. Such implants frequently consist of titanium alloys, CoCrMo alloy, or austenitic surgical stainless steels, and aim at replacing lost body parts or restoring functions to diseased or damaged tissues of the human body. In addition, besides such inherently corrosion-resistant metals, increasingly, biodegradable metals such as magnesium alloys are being researched for osseosynthetic devices and coronary stents both of which are intended to remain in the human body for only a short time. Biocompatible coatings provide not only vital biological functions by supporting osseoconductivity but may serve also to protect the metallic parts of implants from corrosion in the aggressive metabolic environment. Moreover, the essential properties of hydroxylapatite-based bioceramic coatings including their in vitro alteration in contact with simulated body fluids will be addressed in this current review paper. In addition, a paradigmatic shift is suggested towards the development of transition metal-substituted calcium hexa-orthophosphates with the NaSiCON (Na superionic conductor structure to be used for implant coatings with superior degradation resistance in the corrosive body environment and with pronounced ionic conductivity that might be utilized in novel devices for electrical bone growth stimulation.

  9. Post-Plasma SiOx Coatings of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Thermal Stability and Tunable Photoactivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Patrick; Jidenko, Nicolas; Weber, Alfred P.; Borra, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The plasma-based aerosol process developed for the direct coating of particles in gases with silicon oxide in a continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is presented. It is shown that non-thermal plasma filaments induced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure trigger post-DBD gas phase reactions. DBD operating conditions are first scanned to produce ozone and dinitrogen pentoxide. In the selected conditions, these plasma species react with gaseous tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) precursor downstream of the DBD. The gaseous intermediates then condense on the surface of nanoparticles and self-reactions lead to homogeneous solid SiOx coatings, with thickness from nanometer to micrometer. This confirms the interest of post-DBD injection of the organo-silicon precursor to achieve stable production of actives species with subsequent controlled thickness of SiOx coatings. SiOx coatings of spherical and agglomerated metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (Pt, CuO, TiO2) are achieved. In the selected DBD operating conditions, the thickness of homogeneous nanometer sized coatings of spherical nanoparticles depends on the reaction duration and on the precursor concentration. For agglomerates, operating conditions can be tuned to cover preferentially the interparticle contact zones between primary particles, shifting the sintering of platinum agglomerates to much higher temperatures than the usual sintering temperature. Potential applications for enhanced thermal stability and tunable photoactivity of coated agglomerates are presented. PMID:28335219

  10. Effect of Three Days Storage of Coated Spermatozoa at Cooling and Adding Seminal Plasma on Ram Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vaferi

    2016-08-01

    auto-destructive activity of seminal plasma was decreased which may be reduced by coating spermatozoa for less than 5 min during collection with the commercial diluent supplemented with egg yolk. The detrimental effect of lipid efflux induced by seminal plasma may be abolished by decreasing the time of the contact between seminal plasma and sperm. The objective of this study was to determine whether coating method, as a collection method, can improve fertility of ram spermatozoa after 72 h storage. Materials and Methods Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma on coated spermatozoa fertility by using 111 ewes, aged between 1 and 3 years. Semen from four mature, healthy and fertile Thaleshi rams, aged between 2 and 5 years, were used for AI. The animals were housed at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Education Research and Practice Farm, University of Guilan, South of Rasht (it is located at 37° 12´ North latitude and 49° 39´ East longitude and fed daily with alfalfa hay and 0.5 kg of concentrate, and provided salt lick and water ad libitum. Semen was collected throughout the breeding season (August, 2011 by using an artificial vagina. Ejaculates from each ram were collected in a tube containing 5 ml of coating medium (269 mM Tris (Hydroxymethy1 aminomethane, 52 mM D-Fructose, 89 mM Citric Acid, 2000 IU/ml penicillin G and 0.4 mg/ml streptomycin pH=7.0 at72 h before insemination. Two or three consecutive ejaculates fromeach ram were collected. The ejaculates were placed in a water bath (35○C immediately after collection. Semen quality was assessed, and to be accepted as a donor, and the ejaculation of each ram ejaculation had to fulfill the following demands concerning semen quality: volume ≥ 0.5 ml, macroscopic good visual mass activity (sperm motility ≥ 75%, sperm concentration ≥ 3 × 109⁄ml and normal sperm morphology ≥ 90%. Coated ejaculates were centrifuged for 10 min at 700 × g at room temperature and the supernatant

  11. Solar selective absorber coating for high service temperatures, produced by plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanxner, Michael; Elgat, Zvi

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally selective absorber coatings, deposited on engineering material substrates such as stainless steel, have been developed for service as efficient solar photothermal energy converters. The selective solar absorber is based on a multilayer of thin films, produced by sputtering. The main solar absorber is a metal/ceramic (cermet) composite, such as, Mo/Al2th or Mo/Si02, with a graded metal concentration. Such a cermet layer, strongly absorbs radiation over most of the range of the solar spectrum but is transparent to longer wavelength radiation. The cermet layer is deposited on a highly reflecting infrared metal layer. Two more layers were added: An AhO diffusion barrier layer which is deposited first on the substrate and an AI2O or a Si02 antireflection layer which is deposited on the top of the cermet film. In order to better understand the spectral reflectivity of the multilayered selective coating, a procedure for the calculation of the optical properties was developed. After the R&D development phase was successfully completed, a full scale production coating machine was constructed. The production machine is a linear in line coater. The selective coating is deposited on stainless steel tubes, translating in the coating machine while rotating about their axes, along their axial direction. Measurements of reflectance, solar absorptivity, a, thermal emissivity, C, and high temperature durability, are all parts of the quality control routine. The results show values of a in the range 0.96 - 0.98. The thermal emissivity at 350CC is in the range 0.16 - 0.18. Thermal durability tests, show no degradation of the coating when subjected to up to 65O in vacuum for one month and when passed through a temperature cycling test which includes 1200 cycles between temperatures of 150CC and 450CCfor a period of two months.

  12. Hydrolysis and stability of thin pulsed plasma polymerised maleic anhydride coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Joanna Maria; Launay, Héléne; Hansen, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    were obtained at constant plasma power by adjusting the polymerisation time. The results show that the hydrolysis resistance of the modified layer is determined by the power used in the plasma polymerisation, while changes in the chemistry of the modified layer are insignificant....

  13. Electrochemical Behavior of CoNiCrAlY/ZrO2-Y2O3 Coated Layers with Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Technology in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jong; Woo, Yong-Bin; Lee, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jae-Yong

    2013-11-01

    Application of surface treatment has become common for protecting machine parts from oxidation, abrasion and corrosion induced by external environment. In particular, thermal spraying techniques are widely employed to improve wear, corrosion and thermal resistance. And compared to other methods they are simple and cost effective. However, the presence of porosity in the thermal spray coating can be highly detrimental because it provides access to penetration of corrosive matters, lowering corrosion resistance. Therefore, this research evaluate the electrochemical behavior under marine environment for aluminum-bronze alloy coated with MCrAlY and yttria-stabillized zirconia (YSZ) by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) coating technology. Further application of carbon-based sealer removed voids and defects in the coating. The result reveled that, in case the voids and defects are completely removed, excellent corrosion resistance can be archived by application of good coating material along with formation of compact sealing layer.

  14. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c

  15. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  16. Influence of atmospheric plasma spray parameters on YSZ coatings obtained from micro and nano structured feedstocks; Influencia de los parametros de proyeccion por plasma atmosferico en recubrimientos de YSZ obtenidos a partir de polvos micro y nanoestructurados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, P.; Bannier, E.; Borrell, A.; Salvador, M. d.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, the influence of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) parameters on the deposition of two commercial YSZ feedstocks, one conventional and one non-conductor's, has been studied. First the study focused on how the variability of the different parameters affects the particle behaviour during spraying. For this purpose, a sensor which enables to measure the particle temperature and velocity inside the plasma was used. Once the spraying parameters influence was known, both powders were deposited by APS onto stainless steel substrates modifying the higher influencing parameters. These coatings have been characterised and the influence of the particle behaviour on the coating microstructure and properties has been analysed. This work concludes the spraying parameters variation affects on the particle velocity and temperature inside the plasma plume and this behaviour influences, in turn but in a different way, on the final coating characteristics when using different powders (micro- and nano structured). (Author)

  17. Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasenia schreberi is an invasive aquatic weed in the U.S. but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and ot...

  18. Gel coating of edible Brasenia schreberi leaves lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. Since some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated the cholesterol lowering properties in male h...

  19. THE STOCHASTIC APPROACHES OF PROCESSES’ DESIGN IN VACUUM-PLASMA FORMATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculations of the spatial and energy parameters of a single-component metal plasma flow which is moved in a process gas environment using a numerical algorithm of test particle stochastic method are discussed. The results of the calculations are used for determining of the plasma flow density distribution on the product surface and for the energy loss in the ion flow within vacuum vessel. The compositions of the process gas and ion plasma flow are investigated. A theoretical model of the adsorption layer formation on the surface of the product with the reliance of the various simultaneous events on the condensation surface is offered.

  20. Acoustic emission study on flexural behaviour of WC-Co coatings obtained by atmospheric plasma spray; Estudio por emision acustica del comportamiento a flexion de recubrimientos WC-Co obtenidos por plasma atomosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, F.; Klyatskina, E.; Bonache, V.; Salvador, M. D.; Sanchez, E.; Cantavella, V.; Bloem, C.

    2007-07-01

    Plasma spayed cermet coatings WC-Co are used in a wide range of industrial applications, mainly due to their wear resistance even in corrosive environments. the objective of this work is to analyze mechanical response of hard metal coatings by means of three-and four-points bend tests applying acoustic emission technique to determine failure critical strength. It has been observed the effect of supported charge level in structural damage by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Acoustic emission has allowed us to relate damage level to stresses level and then to understand coatings failure mechanism. (Author) 29 refs.

  1. Understanding of the importance of the spore coat structure and pigmentation in the Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to low-pressure plasma sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Denis, Benjamin; Stapelmann, Katharina; Eichenberger, Patrick; Driks, Adam; Eaton, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Low-pressure plasmas have been evaluated for their potential in biomedical and defense purposes. The sterilizing effect of plasma can be attributed to several active agents, including (V)UV radiation, charged particles, radical species, neutral and excited atoms and molecules, and the electric field. Spores of Bacillus subtilis were used as a bioindicator and a genetic model system to study the sporicidal effects of low-pressure plasma decontamination. Wild-type spores, spores lacking the major protective coat layers (inner, outer, and crust), pigmentation-deficient spores or spore impaired in encasement (a late step in coat assembly) were systematically tested for their resistance to low-pressure argon, hydrogen, and oxygen plasmas with and without admixtures. We demonstrate that low-pressure plasma discharges of argon and oxygen discharges cause significant physical damage to spore surface structures as visualized by atomic force microscopy. Spore resistance to low-pressure plasma was primarily dependent on the presence of the inner, and outer spore coat layers as well as spore encasement, with minor or less importance of the crust and spore pigmentation, whereas spore inactivation itself was strongly influenced by the gas composition and operational settings.

  2. The black and white coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy or pure titanium by plasma electrolytic oxidation in concentrated silicate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-xiang; Cheng, Yu-lin; Tu, Wen-bin; Zhan, Ting-Yan; Cheng, Ying-liang

    2018-01-01

    Black TiO2 has triggered scientific interest due to its unique properties such as enhanced solar-driven photocatalytic activity. In this paper, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been carried out in concentrated sodium silicate electrolyte. Silica-based black and white TiO2 coatings respectively have been obtained by controlling the oxidation time. The black coating, which was formed with a short treatment time, shows good corrosion resistance and the black appearance can be attributed to the presence of Ti2+ and Ti3+ in the coating. The lower valence titanium ions are absent in the white coatings and they also contain relatively higher Na content compared to the black coatings. The white coatings have great surface roughnesses and super hydrophilicity. The bonding strengths of the black and white coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy are ∼14.4 and 4.3 MPa, respectively. The vanadium contributes little to the black appearance of the coating on Ti6Al4V alloy, since the same phenomena occur for the PEO of a pure titanium substrate.

  3. Structure, tribocorrosion and biocide characterization of Ca, P and I containing TiO{sub 2} coatings developed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz de Viteri, V., E-mail: virginia.saenzdeviteri@tekniker.es [IK4-Tekniker, Polo Tecnológico de Eibar, Calle Iñaki Goenaga, 5, Eibar 20600 (Spain); Bayón, R.; Igartua, A. [IK4-Tekniker, Polo Tecnológico de Eibar, Calle Iñaki Goenaga, 5, Eibar 20600 (Spain); Barandika, G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, Bilbao E-48080 (Spain); Moreno, J. Esteban; Peremarch, C. Pérez-Jorge; Pérez, M. Martínez [Department of Clinical Microbiology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Av. Reyes Católicos 2, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ca, P and I doped TiO{sub 2} coatings were developed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique. • Microstructure and chemical composition of the developed coating were in depth analyzed. • The effect of wear-corrosion synergy was studied through tribocorrosion tests. • Antibacterial efficiency of iodine as biocide agent was analyzed by means of bacterial adhesion study. • A TiO{sub 2} coating with improved wear-corrosion resistance, suitable surface for cell adhesion and biocide properties was achieved. - Abstract: In hip joint implants, in particular in the stems, wear-corrosion effects can accelerate the degradation of the biomaterial. The lack of osseointegration and the risk of contracting implant-associated infections may be other reasons for a premature failure of the implant. In this work, TiO{sub 2} coatings have been developed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique in order to achieve wear-resistant hard coatings with osseointegration ability and biocide characteristics. During the PEO process, elements that favor cell growth, like Ca and P, were introduced into the coating. With the purpose of providing the coating with antibacterial properties iodine was added like biocide agent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the developed coatings were analyzed in order to see if the surface of the films was suitable for the cell attachment. The effect of wear-corrosion synergy was studied by means of tribocorrosion tests. Finally, the biocide capacity of iodine against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was analyzed through bacterial adhesion tests. High wear and corrosion resistance was shown in one of the developed coatings. The achieved surface microstructures seem to be appropriate to improve the osseointegration with proper pore size and porosity index. The antibacterial capacity of iodine was confirmed for S. epidermidis.

  4. Use of indentation technique to measure elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Sutaria, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Ferber, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Elastic modulus of an yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) was evaluated with a Knoop indentation technique. The measured elastic modulus values for the coating ranged from 68.4 {+-} 22.6 GPa at an indentation load of 50 g to 35.7 {+-} 9.8 at an indentation load of 300 g. At higher loads, the elastic modulus values did not change significantly. This steady-state value of 35.7 GPa for ZrO{sub 2} TBC agreed well with literature values obtained by the Hertzian indentation method. Furthermore, the measured elastic modulus for the TBC is lower than that reported for bulk ZrO{sub 2} ({approx} 190 GPa). This difference is believed to be due to the presence of a significant amount of porosity and microcracks in the TBCs. Hardness was also measured.

  5. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  6. Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Sequential Cleaning and Coating Deposition for Cadmium Plating Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Department of Defense. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer , or otherwise...which Cd is currently being applied include AISI 4340, Hy-Tuf, Aermet 100, M50, 300M, PH13-8Mo stainless steel and maraging grades 200-250. The...power of the cyanide solutions. Additional corrosion resistance is often gained by applying a chromate conversion coating to the Cd-plated components

  7. Particle morphology of hydroxyapatite and its influence on the properties of biocomposite plasma coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova I.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to identify patterns of change in the properties of biocompatible coatings during modernization of its structure by changing the morphology and crystallinity of the starting powder particles of hydroxyapatite (HA for agglomeration and subsequent grinding. Material and methods. We investigated the morphology, degree of crystallinity and internal tension in HA powder with a particle size of 40-90 microns in the initial state and after the agglomeration process and structure piasmasprayed HA coatings application methods ray analysis (XRF and XRD on DRON-3, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectrometer Nicolet 6700, optical (MIM-8 and atomic force microscopy (SMM-2000, the laser microprobe (Spectrum 2000. Results: It was shown that change in particle morphology HA agglomerated and subsequently grinding increases the uniformity of the porous structure, its crystallinity, reduce internal stresses developing surface morphology of the coating and its nanostructuring. Conclusion. It is recommended for the improvement of characteristics of the porous structure (uniformity, strength, adhesion, and the surface morphology of implant to use agglomerating starting powders and their subsequent grinding.

  8. Effects of Duty Cycle, Current Frequency, and Current Density on Corrosion Behavior of the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on 6061 Al Alloy in Artificial Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effects of duty cycle, current frequency, and current density on corrosion behavior of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on 6061 Al alloy in artificial seawater (3.5 wt pct NaCl solution) were investigated. To serve this purpose, the electrical parameters of a unipolar pulsed current were applied during the PEO process on 6061 Al alloy in alkaline silicate electrolyte with and without Al2O3 nanoparticles. The coating morphology and microstructure were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior and electrochemical response of the specimens treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were analyzed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization in artificial seawater. It was found that PEO coatings formed in the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticle had lower porosity and exhibited better corrosion behavior compared with the coatings formed in the absence of Al2O3 nanoparticle in the structure. This can be attributed to the nanoparticles' incorporation and penetration through the PEO coatings. On the other hand, the decrease in the current density and increases in the duty cycle and frequency lead to further reduction of the nanoparticles' incorporation and distribution on the coating surface.

  9. Effect of heater with plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on heating by far-infrared radiation. Mullite himaku wo keiseishita kanetsutai no ensekigaisen hosha tokusei oyobi kanetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Nishino, A.; Suzuki, T. (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-09-30

    Effects of a quartz tube heater coated with plasma-sprayed mullite on the far-infrared radiation heating was investigated by means of spectral energy distribution in wavelength ranging from 1.4 to 14[mu]m, and color difference and weight loss observations before and after toasting of bread. Mullite material was sprayed on the opaque quartz tube substrate using an 80kW plasma-spray apparatus, to make a coating with thickness of 50[mu]m. The mullite coating on the quartz tube heater showed high far-infrared radiation. It was found that the mullite coating exhibited good wavelength change characteristics, and the spectral energy increased by about 7%. It was also illustrated that for the heating by the heater with mullite coating, the heating efficiency was improved during toasting of bread. As a result, the heater coated with mullite showed a decrease in heating time and also provided energy saving of around 12% during toasting of bread. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc particle coatings deposited by means of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhorst, L. M.; Loewenthal, L.; Avramidis, G.; Gerhard, C.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-07-01

    In this research, topographic, optical and chemical properties of zinc oxide layers deposited by a cold plasma-spray process were measured. Here, zinc micro particles were fed to the afterglow of a plasma spark discharge whereas the substrates were placed in a quite cold zone of the effluent plasma jet. In this vein, almost closed layers were realised on different samples. As ascertained by laser scanning and atomic force microscopic measurements the particle size of the basic layer is in the nanometre scale. Additionally, larger particles and agglomerates were found on its top. The results indicate a partial plasma-induced diminishment of the initial particles, most probably due to melting or vaporisation. It is further shown that the plasma gives rise to an increased oxidation of such particles as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the resulting mixed layer was performed. It is shown that the deposited layers consist of zinc oxide and elemental zinc in approximately equal shares. In addition, the layer's band gap energy was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Here, considerable UV blocking properties of the deposited layers were observed. Possible underlying effects as well as potential applications are presented.

  11. Hard-yet-tough high-vanadium high-speed steel composite coating in-situ alloyed on ductile iron by atmospheric plasma arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Huatang; Dong, Xuanpu; Pei, Yutao T.

    2018-01-01

    A graded high-vanadium alloy composite coating was synthesized from premixed powders (V, Cr, Ti, Mo, Nb) on ductile iron (DI) substrate via atmospheric plasma arc surface alloying process. The resulted cross-section microstructure is divided into three distinct zones: upper alloyed zone (AZ) rich

  12. Development of carbon plasma-coated multiwell plates for high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis of highly lipophilic fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, Uwe; Scholz, Susanne; Dahm, Pia; Grabowy, Udo; Jennewein, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Classical approaches to strain improvement and metabolic engineering rely on rapid qualitative and quantitative analyses of the metabolites of interest. As an analytical tool, mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be efficient and nearly universally applicable for timely screening of metabolites. Furthermore, gas chromatography (GC)/MS- and liquid chromatography (LC)/MS-based metabolite screens can often be adapted to high-throughput formats. We recently engineered a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to produce taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, the first pathway-committing biosynthetic intermediate for the anticancer drug Taxol, through the heterologous and homologous expression of several genes related to isoprenoid biosynthesis. To date, GC/MS- and LC/MS-based high-throughput methods have been inherently difficult to adapt to the screening of isoprenoid-producing microbial strains due to the need for extensive sample preparation of these often highly lipophilic compounds. In the current work, we examined different approaches to the high-throughput analysis of taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene biosynthesizing yeast strains in a 96-deep-well format. Carbon plasma coating of standard 96-deep-well polypropylene plates allowed us to circumvent the inherent solvent instability of commonly used deep-well plates. In addition, efficient adsorption of the target isoprenoid product by the coated plates allowed rapid and simple qualitative and quantitative analyses of the individual cultures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Coated with Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junda Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional printing is one of the most promising techniques for the manufacturing of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. However, a pure scaffold is limited by its biological properties. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been shown to have the potential to improve the osteogenic effect. In this study, we improved the biological properties of scaffolds by coating 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds with freeze-dried and traditionally prepared PRP, and we evaluated these scaffolds through in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, we evaluated the interaction between dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and the scaffolds by measuring cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and osteogenic differentiation. The results showed that freeze-dried PRP significantly enhanced ALP activity and the mRNA expression levels of osteogenic genes (ALP, RUNX2 (runt-related gene-2, OCN (osteocalcin, OPN (osteopontin of DPSCs (p < 0.05. In vivo, 5 mm calvarial defects were created, and the PRP-PCL scaffolds were implanted. The data showed that compared with traditional PRP-PCL scaffolds or bare PCL scaffolds, the freeze-dried PRP-PCL scaffolds induced significantly greater bone formation (p < 0.05. All these data suggest that coating 3D-printed PCL scaffolds with freeze-dried PRP can promote greater osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and induce more bone formation, which may have great potential in future clinical applications.

  14. Electrical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed La10(SiO4)6O3 Electrolyte Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Wen-Ya; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

    2011-06-01

    In this present work, La10(SiO4)6O3 as a promising electrolyte candidate for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) has been synthesized and its electrical property was investigated as a function of temperature. In order to improve the density and oxide ion conductivity of La10(SiO4)6O3, the feedstock powder was prepared by sintering the oxide mixture powders at proper sintering temperatures and times. The hexagonal apatite-type ceramic coatings with a typical composition of La10(SiO4)6O3 were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) with different hydrogen flow rates. With increasing hydrogen flow rate oxide ion conductivity successively decreases. The highest ionic conductivity of the dense composite electrolyte coatings reaches a value of 2.4 mS/cm at 900 °C in air, which is comparable to other apatite-type lanthanum silicate (ATLS) conductors.

  15. Experimental-calculation study of ion-plasma thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades made of intermetallic nickel superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinovskii, S. A.; Matveev, P. V.; Zhivushkin, A. A.; Tikhomirova, E. A.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Balakin, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    The ion-plasma thermal barrier coatings deposited onto samples and blades made of intermetallic VKNA-1V and VKNA-25 alloys are tested in a laboratory. The external ceramic layer of the thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is formed by magnetron sputtering of zirconium alloy targets and has a columnar structure. The influence of NiCrAlY(Re, Ta, Hf) + AlNiY(Hf) + ZrYGdO TBC on the long-term strength at a test temperature of 1200°C and on the high-cycle fatigue at a temperature of 900°C is studied. Blades with TBC are subjected to thermal cycling tests in the temperature range 950 ↔ 400°C and 1050 ↔ 400°C during air cooling and in the range 950 ↔ 200°C during water cooling at 500 cycles. The temperature fields in the cross section of a blade airfoil during thermal cycling are calculated. The laws of formation of fracture zones and the development of thermal fatigue cracks under the conditions that are close to the operating conditions of nozzle TBC-containing blades are investigated.

  16. The formation of tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vasilić, Rastko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tadić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stefanov, Plamen [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grbić, Boško [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). • Coatings are mainly composed of alpha alumina, ZnO and metallic tungsten. • Photocatalytic activity of doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is higher than of undoped ones. • The increase of photoluminescence corresponds to decrease of photocatalytic activity. • Tungsten acts as a charge trap to reduce the recombination rate of electron/hole pairs. - Abstract: Tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO{sub 3}. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. Tungsten in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the

  17. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  18. Plasma Polypyrrole Coated Hybrid Composites with Improved Mechanical and Electrical Properties for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Hande; Bai, Jinbo

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the dielectric barrier discharge assisted continuous plasma polypyrrole deposition on CNT-grafted carbon fibers for conductive composite applications. The simultaneous effects of three controllable factors have been studied on the electrical resistivity (ER) of these two material systems based on multivariate experimental design methodology. A posterior probability referring to Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) false discovery rate was explored as multiple testing corrections of the t-test p values. BH significance threshold of 0.05 was produced truly statistically significant coefficients to describe ER of two material systems. A group of plasma modified samples was chosen to be used for composite manufacturing to drive an assessment of interlaminar shear properties under static loading. Transversal and longitudinal electrical resistivity (DC, ω =0) of composite samples were studied to compare both the effects of CNT grafting and plasma modification on ER of resultant composites.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF WEAR RESISTANT COATINGS FORMED BY PLASMA SPRAYING OF ALLOY Ni–Fe–Cr–Si–B–C SYSTEM REINFORCED WITH CERAMICS Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available . Creating a functionally oriented, including nanostructured, anti-friction materials and coatings with qualitatively new complex of service properties is an important scientific and practical problem. In particular, for the cable industry it is urgent task of ensuring the high performance properties of fast deteriorating stretching and supporting rollers. Working surfaces of these parts operate under practically dry friction conditions with constantly updated material of stretching wire. Plasma spraying is one of the widely used methods of surface engineering to create wear resistant coatings and which is characterized with process flexibility and the ability to create coatings using various materials and alloys including composite ones. The installation UPU-3D with the PP-25 plasma torch was used for plasma spraying. The thickness of the sprayed layer was 0.8–1.1 mm. As a material for the deposition of composite coatings a powder mixture of self-fluxing nickel alloy PG-HN80SR4 (system Ni–Fe–Cr–Si–B–C and a neutral oxide ceramics Al2O3 was used. The amount of ceramics varied from 15 to 33 %. This ceramic oxide was selected due to the desire to reduce coatings’ costs while providing high durability. Carried out phase and microstructural studies have shown when ceramics was added in an amount more than 20 % a formation of conglomerates formed by not melted alumina particles often was observed. These conglomerates serve as crack formation centers in the coating. The phase composition of the coatings practically does not depend on the content of ceramics compounds. Tribological tests have shown that the best results were obtained when the content of the oxide ceramic in the coating was in the range from 15 to 20 %.

  20. Synergistic effects of BMP-2, BMP-6 or BMP-7 with human plasma fibronectin onto hydroxyapatite coatings: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigaud, Isabelle; Agniel, Rémy; Leroy-Dudal, Johanne; Kellouche, Sabrina; Ponche, Arnaud; Bouceba, Tahar; Mihailescu, Natalia; Sopronyi, Mihai; Viguier, Eric; Ristoscu, Carmen; Sima, Felix; Mihailescu, Ion N; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Gallet, Olivier; Anselme, Karine

    2017-06-01

    Design of new osteoinductive biomaterials to reproduce an optimized physiological environment capable of recruiting stem cells and instructing their fate towards the osteoblastic lineage has become a priority in orthopaedic surgery. This work aims at evaluating the bioactivity of BMP combined with human plasma fibronectin (FN/BMP) delivered in solution or coated onto titanium-hydroxyapatite (TiHA) surfaces. Herein, we focus on the comparison of in vitro osteogenic efficacy in mouse C2C12 pre-osteoblasts of three BMP members, namely: BMP-2, BMP-6 and BMP-7. In parallel, we evaluated the molecular binding strength between each BMP with FN using the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology. The affinity of BMPs for FN was found totally different and dependent on BMP type. Indeed, the combination of FN with BMP-2 on TiHA surfaces potentiates the burst of gene-mediated osteogenic induction, while it prolongs the osteogenic activity of BMP-6 and surprisingly annihilates the BMP-7 one. These results correlate with FN/BMP affinity for TiHA, since BMP-6>BMP-2>BMP-7. In addition, by analyzing the osteogenic activity in the peri-implant environment, we showed that osteoinductive paracrine effects were significantly decreased upon (FN/BMP-6), as opposed to (FN/BMP-2) coatings. Altogether, our results support the use of FN/BMP-6 to develop a biomimetic microenvironment capable to induce osteogenic activity under physiological conditions, with minimum paracrine signalization. The originality of our paper relies on the first direct comparison of the in vitro osteogenic potential of three osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, -6 and -7) combined with native human plasma fibronectin delivered in solution or coated by laser transfer onto titanium hydroxyapatite surfaces. We confirm that BMP association with fibronectin enhances the osteogenic activity of BMP-2, -6 and -7, but with essential discrepancies, depending on the BMP member, and in agreement with the affinity of BMPs for fibronectin

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of antimicrobial coatings on non-woven textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Anton Yu.; Deng, Xiaolong; Onyshchenko, Iuliia; Vujosevic, Danijela; Vuksanovic, Vineta; Cvelbar, Uros; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Leys, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    A simple method for preparation of nanoparticle incorporated non-woven fabric with high antibacterial efficiency has been proposed based on atmospheric pressure plasma process. In this work direct current plasma jet stabilized by fast nitrogen flow was used as a plasma deposition source. Three different types of the nanoparticles (silver, copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles) were employed as antimicrobial agents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have shown a positive chemical shift observed for Ag 3d 5/2 (at 368.1 eV) suggests that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are partly oxidized during the deposition. The surface chemistry and the antibacterial activity of the samples against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were investigated and analyzed. It is shown that the samples loaded with nanoparticles of Ag and Cu and having the barrier layer of 10 nm characterized by almost 97% of bacterial reduction whereas the samples with ZnO nanoparticles provide 86% reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  2. Effect of post-annealing on the plasma etching of graphene-coated-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L S; Whiteway, E; Hilke, M; Turak, A

    2014-01-01

    High temperature deposition of graphene on Cu by chemical vapor deposition can be used to produce high quality films. However, these films tend to have a non-equilibrium structure, with relatively low graphene adhesion. In this study, samples of graphene grown on copper foils by high temperature CVD were post-deposition annealed at temperatures well below the critical temperature of Cu. Resistance to etching under plasma was examined to assess the mechanical robustness of the graphene on the Cu surface, analyzed using optical and Raman microscopies. We found a correlation between the post-annealing time and etching time for the complete removal of graphene from Cu. Etching rates, minimum etch times, and surface appearance were observed to vary depending on the etching plasma (air, oxygen or nitrogen). Oxygen plasmas were found to be the least aggressive, emphasizing the improved adhesion with post-annealing treatments. Our results imply that the etching of graphene on Cu, and hence the adhesion of graphene, can be controlled by proper annealing and choice of plasma gas.

  3. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  4. Single-ended long period fiber grating refractive index sensor based on metal-coated surface plasma resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minfu; Zhang, Guiju; Ma, Difeng; Wang, Chinhua

    2008-12-01

    A novel single-ended reflecting long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor with thin metal film overlay and the sensing system is described. An all-fiber reflection based surface plasma resonance (SPR) LPFG sensor with three-layer structure (core, cladding and metal) is established experimentally and fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser writing system and vacuum evaporation coating system. Different nm-thick thin metal films are deposited on the reflected LPFG sensor for the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPWs) and the characteristics of the reflection resonance spectra of the LPFG sensor for measuring refractive index of fluids are studied. It is found that different thicknesses of different metal films show different measuring sensitivity. Through the comparison of the resonance wavelength obtained in air, water, alcohol, glycerin and their mixture solution, different sensitivities of the reflected SPR-LPFG sensor have been achieved. The proposed SPR-LPFG sensing scheme offers an efficient platform for achieving high performance fiber sensors for the measurement of ambient refractive index.

  5. Elevated Temperature Solid Particle Erosion Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Co-based Composite Coatings with Additions of Al2O3 and CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithin, H. S.; Desai, Vijay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, investigation into solid particle erosion behavior of atmospheric plasma-sprayed composite coating of CoCrAlY reinforced with Al2O3 and CeO2 oxides on Superni 76 at elevated temperature of 600 °C is presented. Alumina particles are used as erodent at two impact angles of 30° and 90°. The microstructure, porosity, hardness, toughness and adhesion properties of the as-sprayed coatings are studied. The effects of temperature and phase transformation in the coatings during erosion process are analyzed using XRD and EDS techniques. Optical profilometer is used for accurate elucidation of erosion volume loss. CoCrAlY/CeO2 coating showed better erosion resistance with a volume loss of about 50% of what was observed in case of CoCrAlY/Al2O3/YSZ coating. Lower erosion loss is observed at 90° as compared to 30° impact angle. The erosion mechanism evaluated using SEM micrograph revealed that the coatings experienced ductile fracture exhibiting severe deformation with unusual oxide cracks. Reinforced metal oxides provide shielding effect for erodent impact, enabling better erosion resistance. The oxidation of the coating due to high-temperature exposure reforms erosion process into oxidation-modified erosion process.

  6. Ablation Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed La1-xSrxTiO3+δ Coating Irradiated by High-Intensity Continuous Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinpeng; Ma, Zhuang; Gao, Yinjun; Gao, Lihong; Pervak, Vladimir; Wang, Lijun; Wei, Chenghua; Wang, Fuchi

    2017-10-11

    Laser protection for optical components, particularly those in high-power laser systems, has been a major concern. La1-xSrxTiO3+δ with its good optical and thermal properties can be potentially applied as a high-temperature optical protective coating or high-reflectivity material for optical components. However, the high-power laser ablation behavior of plasma-sprayed La1-xSrxTiO3+δ (x = 0.1) coatings has rarely been investigated. Thus, in this study, laser irradiation experiments were performed to study the effect of high-intensity continuous laser on the ablation behavior of the La1-xSrxTiO3+δ coating. The results show that the La1-xSrxTiO3+δ coating undergoes three ablation stages during laser irradiation: coating oxidation, formation and growth of new structures (columnar and dendritic crystals), and mechanical failure. A finite-element simulation was also conducted to explore the mechanism of the ablation damage to the La1-xSrxTiO3+δ coating and provided a good understanding of the ablation behavior. The apparent ablation characteristics are attributed to the different temperature gradients determined by the reflectivity and thermal diffusivity of the La1-xSrxTiO3+δ coating material, which are critical factors for improving the antilaser ablation property. Now, the stainless steel substrate deposited by it can effectively work as a protective shield layer against ablation by laser irradiation.

  7. Microstructure and microhardness characterization of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-SiC coatings produced by the plasma transferred arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islak, Serkan [Kastamonu Univ. (Turkey). Cide Rifat Ilgaz Vocational High School; Eski, Oezkan [Kastamonu Univ. (Turkey). Kastamonu Vocational High School; Buytoz, Soner [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Karagoez, Muzaffer [Bartin Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Stokes, Joseph [Dublin City Univ. (Ireland). School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the coatings made of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and SiC powder manufactured on AISI 304 stainless steel applied by the plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding process. SiC content in the produced coated layer was varied between 0-100 wt. % and the effect of SiC concentration on the microstructure and hardness of the coating was measured experimentally. SEM analyses revealed that the composite coatings had a homogeneous, nonporous, and crack-free microstructure. Dendrites and interdendrite eutectics formed on the coating layer, subject to the temperature gradient and the solidification ratio. There was a significant increase in the hardness of coating layers with the effect of the {gamma}-(Fe,Ni), Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6}, Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, Cr{sub 3}Si, CrSi{sub 2}, Fe{sub 0.64}Ni{sub 0.36}, CFe{sub 15.1}, C-(Fe,Cr)-Si phases formed in the microstructure. In comparison to the substrate, the microhardness of the coatings produced by PTA were 2.5-3.5 times harder. (orig.)

  8. Elevated Temperature Solid Particle Erosion Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Co-based Composite Coatings with Additions of Al2O3 and CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithin, H. S.; Desai, Vijay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, investigation into solid particle erosion behavior of atmospheric plasma-sprayed composite coating of CoCrAlY reinforced with Al2O3 and CeO2 oxides on Superni 76 at elevated temperature of 600 °C is presented. Alumina particles are used as erodent at two impact angles of 30° and 90°. The microstructure, porosity, hardness, toughness and adhesion properties of the as-sprayed coatings are studied. The effects of temperature and phase transformation in the coatings during erosion process are analyzed using XRD and EDS techniques. Optical profilometer is used for accurate elucidation of erosion volume loss. CoCrAlY/CeO2 coating showed better erosion resistance with a volume loss of about 50% of what was observed in case of CoCrAlY/Al2O3/YSZ coating. Lower erosion loss is observed at 90° as compared to 30° impact angle. The erosion mechanism evaluated using SEM micrograph revealed that the coatings experienced ductile fracture exhibiting severe deformation with unusual oxide cracks. Reinforced metal oxides provide shielding effect for erodent impact, enabling better erosion resistance. The oxidation of the coating due to high-temperature exposure reforms erosion process into oxidation-modified erosion process.

  9. Independent suspension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaikin, Don

    1992-01-01

    ... independent suspension. INDEPENDENCE! An independent system is simply one in which each of the vehicle's wheels is free to react totally separate from any of the other wheels. If the right rear wheel hits a bump, the left rear wheel is undisturbed. Since the whole car does not bounce and shake every time one of the wheels hits a potho...

  10. Influence of substrate pre-treatments by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on the behavior of TiN coatings deposited by plasma reactive sputtering on 100Cr6 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, S., E-mail: sandra.vales@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Brito, P., E-mail: ppbrito@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Av. Dom José Gaspar 500, 30535-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pineda, F.A.G., E-mail: pipe8219@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Ochoa, E.A., E-mail: abigail_ochoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Droppa, R., E-mail: roosevelt.droppa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Garcia, J., E-mail: jose.garcia@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant R& D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, SE-12680, Stockholm (Sweden); Morales, M., E-mail: monieriz@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Alvarez, F., E-mail: alvarez@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the influence of pre-treating a 100Cr6 steel surface by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding at low temperature (380 °C) on the roughness, wear resistance and residual stresses of thin TiN coatings deposited by reactive IBAD was investigated. The Xe{sup +} ion bombardment was carried out using a 1.0 keV kinetic energy by a broad ion beam assistance deposition (IBAD, Kaufman cell). The results showed that in the studied experimental conditions the ion bombardment intensifies nitrogen diffusion by creating lattice imperfections, stress, and increasing roughness. In case of the combined pre-treatment with Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and subsequent plasma nitriding, the samples evolved relatively high average roughness and the wear volume increased in comparison to the substrates exposed to only nitriding or ion bombardment. - Highlights: • Effect of Xe ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on TiN coatings was investigated. • Xe ion bombardment with 1.0 KeV increases nitrogen retention in plasma nitriding. • 1.0 KeV ion impact energy causes sputtering, thus increasing surface roughness. • TiN coating wear is minimum after plasma nitriding due to lowest roughness.

  11. Plasma sprayed manganeseecobalt spinel coatings: Process sensitivity on phase, electrical and protective performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Han Jung, S.; Pala, Zdeněk; Sampath, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, February (2016), s. 234-243 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Interconnect protection * Cr-poisoning * Manganese cobalt spinel * Electrical conductivity * Plasma spray Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 6.395, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775315305383

  12. Lu2O3-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings for Environmental Barrier Application by Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying and Influence of Precursor Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darthout, Émilien; Quet, Aurélie; Braidy, Nadi; Gitzhofer, François

    2014-02-01

    As environmental barrier coatings are subjected to thermal stress in gas turbine engines, the introduction of a secondary phase as zircon (ZrSiO4) is likely to increase the stress resistance of Lu2Si2O7 coatings generated by induction plasma spraying using liquid precursors. In a first step, precursor chemistry effect is investigated by the synthesis of ZrO2-SiO2 nanopowders by induction plasma nanopowder synthesis technique. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon precursor and zirconium oxynitrate and zirconium ethoxide as zirconium precursors are mixed in ethanol and produce a mixture of tetragonal zirconia and amorphous silica nanoparticles. The use of zirconium ethoxide precursor results in zirconia particles with diameter below 50 nm because of exothermic thermal decomposition of the ethoxide and its high boiling point with respect to solvent, while larger particles are formed when zirconium oxynitrate is employed. The formation temperature of zircon from zirconia and silica oxides is found at 1425 °C. Second, coatings are synthesized in Lu2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system. After heat treatment, the doping effect of lutetium on zirconia grains totally inhibits the zircon formation. Dense coatings are obtained with the use of zirconium ethoxide because denser particles with a homogeneous diameter distribution constitute the coating.

  13. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  14. Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brasenia schreberi (蓴菜 chún cài is an invasive aquatic weed found in the USA, but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose, and other monosaccharides. Because some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated their cholesterol-lowering properties in male hamsters fed hypercholesterolemic diets containing 2% gel coat from B. schreberi (GEL, or 1% cholestyramine (CA, or 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, and compared them to 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control for 3 weeks. We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was lowered by CA and HPMC. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weight of GEL and control group animals were greater than those of the CA and HPMC groups. Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group. Expression of hepatic CYP51 and CYP7A1 mRNA was upregulated by CA, HPMC, and GEL, indicating increased hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was upregulated by all treatments. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

  15. In-situ grown MgO-ZnO ceramic coating with high thermal emittance on Mg alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Lu, Songtao; Qin, Wei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    Intense solar radiation and internal heat generation determine the equilibrium temperature of an in-orbit spacecraft. Thermal control coatings with low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance effectively maintain the thermal equilibrium within safe operating limits for exposed, miniaturized and highly integrated components. A novel ceramic coating with high thermal emittance and good adhesion was directly prepared on the Mg substrate using an economical process of controlled plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the electrolyte containing ZnSO4. XRD and XPS results showed that this coating was mainly composed of the MgO phase as well as an unusual ZnO crystalline phase. The adhesive strength between the coating and substrate determined by a pull-off test revealed an excellent adhesion. Thermal and optical properties test revealed that the coating exhibited a high infrared emittance of 0.88 (2-16 μm) and low solar absorptance of 0.35 (200-2500 nm). The result indicated that the formation of ZnO during the PEO process played an important role in the improvement of the coating emittance. The process developed provides a simple surface method for improving the thermal emittance of Mg alloy, which presents a promising application prospect in the thermal management of the spacecraft.

  16. Effect of chemical composition on hydrophobicity and zeta potential of plasma sprayed HA/CaO-P2O5 glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, M P; Monteiro, F J; Serro, A P; Saramago, B; Gibson, I R; Santos, J D

    2001-12-01

    Multilayered plasma sprayed coatings on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been prepared, which were composed of an underlayer of HA and a surface layer of a CaO-P2O5 glass-HA composite, with 2 or 4wt% of glass. Contact angle and surface tension variation with time, for both water and a protein solution, were determined by the sessile and pendent drop methods respectively using the ADSA-P software. Wettability studies showed that hydrophobicity of the coatings increase with the glass addition. The work of adhesion of albumin was also altered in a controlled manner by the addition of the CaO-P2O5 glass, being lower on the composite coatings than on HA. Zeta potential (ZP) results showed that composite coatings presented a higher net negative charge than HA coatings and that ZP values were also influenced by the content of the glass. This study demonstrated that the surface properties of those coatings may be modified by the addition of CaO-P2O5 glass.

  17. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: DejiuShen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  18. Gold-coated nanoparticles for use in biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Douglas E [Los Alamos, NM; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Atcher, Robert W [Los Alamos, NM; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-07-07

    A process of preparing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is disclosed and includes forming a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a suitable liquid, adding an amount of a reducible gold compound and a reducing agent to the suspension, and, maintaining the suspension for time sufficient to form gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Structural, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12–16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Radić, Nenad; Grbić, Boško [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Maletić, Slavica [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12–16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Stefanov, Plamen [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Pačevski, Aleksandar [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Đušina 7, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vasilić, Rastko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12–16, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). • Photoluminescence is related to transitions of Eu{sup 3+} from level {sup 5}D{sub 0} to levels {sup 7}F{sub J}. • Eu{sup 3+} ions occupy non-inversion symmetry sites in the coatings. • PEO time is an important factor affecting photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this paper, we used plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in water solution containing 10 g/L Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O + 2 g/L Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder for preparation of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings. The surfaces of obtained coatings exhibit a typical PEO porous structure. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that the coatings are mainly composed of Ti, O, P, and Eu; it is observed that Eu content in the coatings increases with PEO time. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the coatings are crystallized and composed of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} phases, with anatase being the dominant one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Ti 2p spin-orbit components of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings are shifted towards higher binding energy, with respect to pure TiO{sub 2} coatings, suggesting that Eu{sup 3+} ions are incorporated into TiO{sub 2} lattice. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed that TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings exhibit evident red shift with respect to the pure TiO{sub 2} coatings. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings are characterized by sharp emission bands in orange–red region ascribed to f–f transitions of Eu{sup 3+} ions from excited level {sup 5}D{sub 0} to lower levels {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). The excitation PL spectra of TiO{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} coatings can be divided into two regions: the broad band region from 250 nm to 350 nm associated with charge transfer state of Eu{sup 3+} and the series of sharp peaks in the range from 350 nm to 550 nm

  20. Charged Polymer-Coated Separators by Atmospheric Plasma-Induced Grafting for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mina; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Cheol

    2016-10-05

    A simple and fast method of atmospheric plasma-induced grafting was applied over a polyethylene membrane to enhance its performance as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The process of grafting has formed a thin, durable, and uniform layer on the surface of the porous membrane. The charges of grafted polymers affected the performance of batteries in many ways besides the change of hydrophilicity. Negative charges in polymers improve the capacity retention of batteries and the uniformity of the SEI layer. On the other hand, the electrostatic attraction between different charges contributed to small increases of thermal stability and mechanical strength of separators. Polyampholyte was grafted by using the mixtures of monomers, and the composition of the grafted layer was optimized. The formation of stable uniform SEI layers and the marked improvement in capacity retention were observed in the full cell tests of the lithium battery with the polyampholyte-grafted separators when the polyampholyte has a negative net charge.

  1. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  2. Friction and Wear Characteristics of Plasma-Sprayed Self-Lubrication Coating with Clad Powder at Elevated Temperatures up to 800 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanbing; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2014-02-01

    NiCr/(Cr3C2-BaF2·CaF2) coating was fabricated by atmospheric plasma spray technology using clad powder. The coating shows low porosity, high microhardness and bonding strength, and it also exhibits good friction reduction and wear resistance at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C which is due to the formation of a kind of continuous BaF2·CaF2 eutectic lubricating film. The excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the coating are partially attributed to the protection of NiCr layer of the composite powders which can decrease oxidation, decarburization of Cr3C2, and ablation of BaF2·CaF2 eutectic during spray and deposition process.

  3. Self-healing atmospheric plasma sprayed Mn1.0Co1.9Fe0.1O4 protective interconnector coatings for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, Nikolas; Sebold, Doris; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Dense coatings on metallic interconnectors are necessary to suppress chromium poisoning of SOFC cathodes. Atmospherically plasma sprayed (APS) Mn1.0Co1.9Fe0.1O4 (MCF) protective layers demonstrated reduced chromium related degradation in laboratory and stack tests. Previous analyses revealed strong microstructural changes comparing the coating's as-sprayed and operated condition. This work concentrates on the layer-densification and crack-healing observed by annealing APS-MCF in air, which simulates the cathode operation conditions. The effect is described by a volume expansion induced by a phase transformation. Reducing conditions during the spray process lead to a deposition of the MCF in a metastable rock salt configuration. Annealing in air activates diffusion processes for a phase transformation to the low temperature stable spinel phase (T gas route is blocked and further oxidation continues over solid state diffusion. The self-healing abilities of metastable APS coatings could be interesting for other applications.

  4. Effect of individual discharge cascades on the microstructure of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troughton, S.C. [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge Universitym 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Nominé, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dean, J. [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge Universitym 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Clyne, T.W., E-mail: twc10@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge Universitym 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • High speed current/video monitoring of discharge cascades. • SEM and X-ray Computed Tomography of cascade sites. • Effects of supply frequency and process interruption. • Explanation of cascade localisation. - Abstract: Short duration (∼1 s) PEO treatments have been applied to aluminium alloy samples on which coatings of thickness ∼100 μm had previously been created. This was done using the small area electrical monitoring system previously developed in the Gordon Laboratory in Cambridge. Voltage supply frequencies of 50 Hz and 2.5 kHz were employed. Fairly high resolution SEM micrographs were taken, covering the whole surface of small area samples (ie over a circular area of diameter about 0.9 mm). This was done both before and after the 1 s PEO treatments. X-ray tomographic data were also obtained in the vicinity of a recently-completed set of discharges. The outcomes of these observations were correlated with synchronised high speed electrical monitoring and video photography, carried out during the PEO treatment periods. Localised cascades (comprising hundreds of individual discharges) were observed in all cases, persisting throughout the 1 s periods and also reappearing in the same location when a second 1 s PEO treatment was applied to the same sample. This repetition of discharges at the same location is apparently due to the deep pores associated with these sites, creating a pathway of low electrical resistance, even after appreciable oxidation has occurred in the vicinity. Observations were made of the way in which the surfaces were reconstructed locally as discharge cascades occurred. With the high frequency voltage supply, discharge lifetimes were limited to the half-cycle period (of 200 μs), but in other respects the cascades were similar to those with the lower frequency. However, some discharges occurred during cathodic half-cycles with the high frequency supply, at the same location as the anodic discharges in the cascade

  5. Study of the properties of plasma deposited layers of nickel-chrome-aluminium-yttrium coatings resistant to oxidation and hot corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the properties of Ni22Cr10Al1Y layers in order to obtain optimal structural - mechanical properties with the optimization of depositing parameters. Powder was deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process with the current intensity of 600, 700 and 800A, with a corresponding plasma gun power supply of 22KW, 34KW and 28KW. The evaluation of the Ni22Cr10Al1Y coating layers was made on the basis of their microhardness, tensile stren...

  6. Sol-gel/Ag coating and oxygen plasma treatment effect on synthetic wound fluid sorption by non-woven cellulose material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peršin Zdenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-woven cellulose material was functionalized using two techniques, i.e. the coating with AgCl via solgel and oxygen plasma. The treatment eff ects were studied regarding the wound fl uid adsorption potential using physiological saline, synthetic exudate and synthetic blood. Plasma treatment was most effi cient since a signifi cant improvement by absorbency rate and capacity was evident, less pronounced in case of synthetic blood. The combination of both treatments showed a similar trend, while the eff ects were less prominent, but still suffi cient by managing fl uid-associated as well as infected wounds.

  7. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivolo, Paola [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Nisticò, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.nistico@unito.it [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Fabrizio [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella [CNR-IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martorana, Selanna [Herniamesh S.r.l., Via F.lli Meliga 1/C, 10034 Chivasso (Italy); Ricciardi, Serena [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Magnacca, Giuliana [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3 months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV–Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. - Highlights: • Plasma polymerized surface functionalization of hernia-repair meshes was used to confer adhesive properties. • The stability of the adhesive coating was verified under different post-deposition conditions. • The use of AFM in F/D mode was selected to monitor the coating degradation.

  8. Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Coated with Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma for Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junda; Chen, Meilin; Wei, Xiaoying; Hao, Yishan; Wang, Jinming

    2017-07-19

    Three-dimensional printing is one of the most promising techniques for the manufacturing of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. However, a pure scaffold is limited by its biological properties. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to have the potential to improve the osteogenic effect. In this study, we improved the biological properties of scaffolds by coating 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with freeze-dried and traditionally prepared PRP, and we evaluated these scaffolds through in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, we evaluated the interaction between dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and the scaffolds by measuring cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteogenic differentiation. The results showed that freeze-dried PRP significantly enhanced ALP activity and the mRNA expression levels of osteogenic genes (ALP, RUNX2 (runt-related gene-2), OCN (osteocalcin), OPN (osteopontin)) of DPSCs (p 3D-printed PCL scaffolds with freeze-dried PRP can promote greater osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and induce more bone formation, which may have great potential in future clinical applications.

  9. Study of the properties of plasma deposited layers of nickel-chrome-aluminium-yttrium coatings resistant to oxidation and hot corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the properties of Ni22Cr10Al1Y layers in order to obtain optimal structural - mechanical properties with the optimization of depositing parameters. Powder was deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray (APS process with the current intensity of 600, 700 and 800A, with a corresponding plasma gun power supply of 22KW, 34KW and 28KW. The evaluation of the Ni22Cr10Al1Y coating layers was made on the basis of their microhardness, tensile strength and microstructure performance. The best performance was obtained in the layers deposited with 800A and the 34KW plasma gun power supply. The coating with the best characteristics was tested to oxidation in the furnace for heat treatment without a protective atmosphere at 1100°C for one hour. The examination of the morphology of Ni22Cr10Al1Y powder particles was carried out on the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope as well as the EDS analysis of the best layers. The microstructure of the deposited coating layers was examined with a light microscope. The microstructure analysis was performed according to the TURBOMECA standard. The mechanical properties of layers were evaluated by the method HV0.3 for microhardness and by tensile testing for bond strength. The research has shown that plasma gun power supply significantly affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of coatings that are of crucial importance for the protection of components exposed to high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion.

  10. Laser surface treatment of plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Un equipo láser continuo de CO2, con potencia nominal de 1 kW, se utilizó para sellar la superficie revestida con ZrO2 8 % Y2O3 por proyección por plasma sobre un substrato de acero AISI 1045. Se investigaron los efectos del tratamiento de fusión con láser sobre la microestrutura y la resistencia a la corrosión del recubrimiento. La resistencia a la corrosión se analizó por medidas electroquímicas en una solución de NaCl al 3 %. Las micrografias mostraron que la superficie del revestimiento presentó varias grietas pequeñas, sin embargo, no fueron observados poros. La microestructura de la capa sellada presentó una estructura en forma de columnas con crecimiento perpendicular a la superficie libre. El sellado a láser mejora la resistencia a la corrosión de los recubrimientos y aumenta la microdureza.

    Un equipo láser continuo de CO2, con potencia nominal de 1 kW, se utilizó para sellar la superficie revestida con ZrO2 8 % Y2O3 por proyección por plasma sobre un substrato de acero AISI 1045. Se investigaron los efectos del tratamiento de fusión con láser sobre la microestrutura y la resistencia a la corrosión del recubrimiento. La resistencia a la corrosión se analizó por medidas electroquímicas en una solución de NaCl al 3 %. Las micrografias mostraron que la superficie del revestimiento presentó varias grietas pequeñas, sin embargo, no fueron observados poros. La microestructura de la capa sellada presentó una estructura en forma de columnas con crecimiento perpendicular a la superficie libre. El sellado a láser mejora la resistencia a la corrosión de los recubrimientos y aumenta la microdureza.

  11. Cotton fabric coated with nano TiO{sub 2}-acrylate copolymer for photocatalytic self-cleaning by in-situ suspension polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xue, E-mail: jiangx@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles of Ministry of Education, College of textiles and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510640 (China); Tian Xiuzhi; Gu Jian; Huang Dan [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles of Ministry of Education, College of textiles and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Yang Yiqi [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles of Ministry of Education, College of textiles and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Department of Textiles, Clothing and Design, 234 HECO Bldg, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0802 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Two kinds of nano TiO{sub 2}-polyacrylate hybrid dispersions, TBM-w and TBM-e were synthesized by in-situ suspension polymerization and solution polymerization respectively, in order to fix the nano TiO{sub 2} on fabrics. The photocatalytic self-cleaning fabrics have received much attention in recent years for its water-saving and environment-protection advantages. However, the fixation of the photocatalyst on fabrics is still a key problem that inhibits industrialization of these eco-friendly fabrics. The cotton fabric was treated by the two hybrid dispersions. The photocatalytic self-cleaning property was characterized. Infrared spectroscopy, burning loss test and thermogravimetry showed that some copolymer chains entangled with the nano TiO{sub 2}. Transmission electron microscope illustrated that there was a polymeric layer on the surface of nano TiO{sub 2}. The average diameter of TBM-w was smaller than that of TBM-e based on size analysis. The photocatalytic decoloration of the grape syrup indicated that the fabric with TiO{sub 2}-polymer hybrid had excellent self-cleaning property.

  12. Cotton fabric coated with nano TiO 2-acrylate copolymer for photocatalytic self-cleaning by in-situ suspension polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Tian, Xiuzhi; Gu, Jian; Huang, Dan; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-08-01

    Two kinds of nano TiO 2-polyacrylate hybrid dispersions, TBM-w and TBM-e were synthesized by in-situ suspension polymerization and solution polymerization respectively, in order to fix the nano TiO 2 on fabrics. The photocatalytic self-cleaning fabrics have received much attention in recent years for its water-saving and environment-protection advantages. However, the fixation of the photocatalyst on fabrics is still a key problem that inhibits industrialization of these eco-friendly fabrics. The cotton fabric was treated by the two hybrid dispersions. The photocatalytic self-cleaning property was characterized. Infrared spectroscopy, burning loss test and thermogravimetry showed that some copolymer chains entangled with the nano TiO 2. Transmission electron microscope illustrated that there was a polymeric layer on the surface of nano TiO 2. The average diameter of TBM-w was smaller than that of TBM-e based on size analysis. The photocatalytic decoloration of the grape syrup indicated that the fabric with TiO 2-polymer hybrid had excellent self-cleaning property.

  13. Gallic acid tailoring surface functionalities of plasma-polymerized allylamine-coated 316L SS to selectively direct vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate for enhanced endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhilu; Xiong, Kaiqin; Qi, Pengkai; Yang, Ying; Tu, Qiufen; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2014-02-26

    The creation of a platform for enhanced vascular endothelia cell (VEC) growth while suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation offers possibility for advanced coatings of vascular stents. Gallic acid (GA), a chemically unique phenolic acid with important biological functions, presents benefits to the cardiovascular disease therapy because of its superior antioxidant effect and a selectivity to support the growth of ECs more than SMCs. In this study, GA was explored to tailor such a multifunctional stent surface combined with plasma polymerization technique. On the basis of the chemical coupling reaction, GA was bound to an amine-group-rich plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAam) coating. The GA-functionalized PPAam (GA-PPAam) surface created a favorable microenvironment to obtain high ECs and SMCs selectivity. The GA-PPAam coating showed remarkable enhancement in the adhesion, viability, proliferation, migration, and release of nitric oxide (NO) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The GA-PPAam coating also resulted in remarkable inhibition effect on human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) adhesion and proliferation. These striking findings may provide a guide for designing the new generation of multifunctional vascular devices.

  14. The detailed analysis of the spray time effects of the aluminium coating using self-generated atmospheric plasma spray system on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Khandanjou

    Full Text Available In the present paper our aim is to investigate the effect of the spray time of the aluminium coated layers on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour. For this purpose we use the self-generated atmospheric plasma spray system for coating of aluminium on the carbon steel substrate. The different thicknesses of coating are created. To evaluate this effect we use the several analyses such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Micro hardness analysis by Vickers method, Adhesion strength analysis and electrochemical polarization test. The results are very interesting and show that due to low porosity, thicker layers are more homogeneous. The nanoparticles are observed in the thicker layers. The micro hardness tests show that the thicker layers have the better micro hardness value. Next, the adhesion strength tests illustrate that the highest adhesion strength are for longer spray times. On the other hand, the corrosion resistance behaviour of the coating is investigated by electrochemical polarization test. It is shown that the corrosion resistance increases by increasing the thickness due to low percentage of porosity. Keywords: Plasma spray, Thickness, Aluminium, Micro hardness, Corrosion resistance

  15. Effect of Gd2O3 on the microstructure and thermal properties of nanostructured thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The nanostructured 4–8 mol% Gd2O3−4.5 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (4–8 mol% GdYSZ coatings were developed by the atmospheric plasma spraying technique. The microstructure and thermal properties of plasma-sprayed 4–8 mol% GdYSZ coatings were investigated. The experimental results indicate that typical microstructure of the as-sprayed coatings were consisted of melted zones, nano-zones, splats, nano-pores, high-volume spheroidal pores and micro-cracks. The porosity of the 4, 6 and 8 mol% GdYSZ coatings was about 9.3%, 11.7% and 13.3%, respectively. It was observed that the addition of gadolinia to the nano-YSZ could significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of nano-YSZ. The thermal conductivity of GdYSZ decreased with increasing Gd2O3 addition. And the reduction in thermal conductivity is mainly attributed to the addition of Gd2O3, which results in the increase in oxygen vacancies, lattice distortion and porosity.

  16. Microbiological investigations of oxygen plasma treated parylene C surfaces for metal implant coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda-Cepa, M; Brzychczy-Wloch, M; Engvall, K; Aminlashgari, N; Hakkarainen, M; Kotarba, A

    2015-01-01

    Parylene C surface was modified by the use of oxygen plasma treatment and characterized by microscopic and surface-sensitive techniques (E-SEM, AFM, XPS, LDI-TOF-MS, contact angle). The influence of the treatment on surface properties was investigated by calculations of surface free energy (Owens-Wendt method). Moreover, early adhesion (Culture Plate Method, Optical Microscopy Test) and biofilm formation ability (Cristal Violet Assay) on the parylene C surface was investigated. The bacteria strains which are common causative agents of medical device-associated infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa--reference strains and clinical isolates) were used. It was concluded that chemical (oxygen insertion) and physical (nanotopography generation) changes, have a significant impact on the biocompatibility in terms of increased hydrophilicity (θ w of unmodified sample = 88° ± 2°, θ w of 60 min modified sample = 17.6° ± 0.8°) and surface free energy (SFE of unmodified sample = 42.4 mJ/m(2), and for 60 min modified sample = 70.1 mJ/m(2)). At the same time, no statistical effect on biofilm production and bacteria attachment to the modified surface of any of the tested strains was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  18. Diamond coated silicon field emitter array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Albin; W. Fu; A. Varghese; A. C. Lavarias; G. R. Myneni

    1999-07-01

    Diamond coated silicon tip arrays, with and without a self-aligned gate, were fabricated, and current-voltage characteristics of 400 tips were measured. Diamond films were grown uniformly on Si tips using microwave plasma after nucleation with 10 nm diamond suspension and substrate bias. An emission current of 57 ?A was obtained at 5 V from the ungated array tips separated from an anode at 2 ?m. In the case of the gated arrays with 1.5 ?m aperture, an emission current of 3.4 ?A was measured at a gate voltage of 80 V for an anode separation of 200 ?m. The turn-on voltages for these two types of devices were 0.2 and 40 V, respectively. Diamond coated Si tip arrays have potential applications in field emission based low voltage vacuum electronic devices and microsensors.

  19. Effect of KOH to Na2SiO3 Ratio on Microstructure and Hardness of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on AA 6061 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Jang, Yong-Joo; Jung, Jae Pil

    2017-10-01

    In this study, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process has been employed to fabricate alumina coatings on AA 6061 aluminum alloy from an electrolyte containing water glass (Na2SiO3) and alkali (KOH). The effect of deposition time and the alkali to water glass (KOH: Na2SiO3) composition ratio on the coating morphology and properties are studied. The different phases of the oxide layer and microstructure are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that initially γ-Al2O3 forms in the coating, and as the processing time is increased from 5 to 60 minutes, α-Al2O3 phase becomes prominent. Further, higher the content of Na2SiO3, higher is the hardness and coating growth rate due to the formation of stable α-Al2O3 and Al-Si-O phase. It has been reported that the optimum properties of the PEO coatings can be obtained at a ratio of KOH: Na2SiO3 ≈ 15:10 followed by 10:10.

  20. Effect of KOH to Na2SiO3 Ratio on Microstructure and Hardness of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on AA 6061 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Jang, Yong-Joo; Jung, Jae Pil

    2017-09-01

    In this study, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process has been employed to fabricate alumina coatings on AA 6061 aluminum alloy from an electrolyte containing water glass (Na2SiO3) and alkali (KOH). The effect of deposition time and the alkali to water glass (KOH: Na2SiO3) composition ratio on the coating morphology and properties are studied. The different phases of the oxide layer and microstructure are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that initially γ-Al2O3 forms in the coating, and as the processing time is increased from 5 to 60 minutes, α-Al2O3 phase becomes prominent. Further, higher the content of Na2SiO3, higher is the hardness and coating growth rate due to the formation of stable α-Al2O3 and Al-Si-O phase. It has been reported that the optimum properties of the PEO coatings can be obtained at a ratio of KOH: Na2SiO3 ≈ 15:10 followed by 10:10.

  1. Corrosion resistance of amorphous hydrogenated SiC and diamond-like coatings deposited by r. f. -plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, C. (Lab. de Physique des Materiaux, CNRS, 92 Meudon (France)); Lecoeur, J. (Lab. d' Electrochimie Interfaciale, CNRS, 92 Meudon (France)); Sampeur, Y. (ICMC, 91 Le Coudray Montceaux (France)); Catania, P. (ICMC, 91 Le Coudray Montceaux (France))

    1993-10-08

    This paper reports on the properties and corrosion resistance of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and amorphous hydrogenated SiC films deposited by r.f.-plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low temperatures (below 200 C). SiC coatings were prepared from SiH[sub 4]-CH[sub 4] gas mixtures. Hydrogenated diamond-like coatings were deposited from classical CH[sub 4]-H[sub 2] mixtures. The influence of various deposition parameters was investigated. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the films were studied (density, hydrogen content, nanohardness, internal stress, critical load and friction coefficient). Two examples of corrosion resistance are given: (1) the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of SiC and diamond-like coatings deposited on metal implants (Ti alloy) (the corrosion resistance is evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization tests in biological media; the biocompatibility of coated and uncoated metals is compared using differentiated human cell cultures); and (2) the corrosion resistance of SiC-coated magnesium in chloride-containing boric borate buffer at pH = 9.3 evaluated from anodic polarization curves and scanning electron microscopy studies. (orig.)

  2. Karakterizacija WCCo/NiCrBSi prevlake otporne na habanje / Characterization of wear resistant plasma sprayed WCCo/NiCrBSi self-fluxing coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu su analizirani mikrostruktura, mehaničke i tribološke karakteristike (APS prevlake WCCoNiCrBSi koja se primenjuje za reparaciju cilindara nosne noge helikoptera. Tribološka procena prevlake određena je primenom tribometra blok-na-prstenu. Spregnuti materijalblokovi sa prevlakom ispitani su na okaljenom i poboljšanom čeličnom prstenu. Za ukupno odstojanje od 3000 m bili su konstantna brzina 0,5 m/s i opterećenje 400 N. Prednost primene ove prevlake je u značajnom produženju resursa delova uz smanjenje troškova eksploatacije i održavanja. / In this paper, the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of WCCoNiCrBSi thermal spray coatings, applied to repair the cylinders of helicopter nasal feet, were analyzed. The process used for coating deposition on steel substrate was the Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS.The plasma spray process is a procedure widely used for applying coatings with increased resistance to wear. The combination of WCCo and NiCrBSi powders produced coatings for the protection of metal parts exposed to wear abrasion, erosion and cavitation to 540°C. The WCCoNiCrBSi 50/50% powder is specially developed for the production of coatings of high cohesion and adhesive strength. The coatings are very dense, hard and smooth. Microstructures present in the layers are tungsten carbides and chromium layers that increase resistance to wear and abrasion. Powder is deposited on the substrate rugged with Al2O3. The substrates were heated at temperatures up to 200°C. Powder deposition was performed with the optimal deposition parameters The microstructure and micro hardness of the coating layer was investigated on the cross section of samples using the Pratt & Whitney standard. Micro hardness was tested using the Vickers scale with a load of 300g. The microstructure of the layers was investigated on an optical microscope (OM with a magnification of 400X. Testing of bond strength between coatings and substrates

  3. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  4. Establishing empirical relationships to predict porosity level and corrosion rate of atmospheric plasma-sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. In this work, empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and corrosion rate of alumina coatings by incorporating independently controllable atmospheric plasma spray operational parameters (input power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite rotatable design with three factors and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Within the scope of the design space, the input power and the stand-off distance appeared to be the most significant two parameters affecting the responses among the three investigated process parameters. A linear regression relationship was also established between porosity and corrosion rate of the alumina coatings. Further, sensitivity analysis was carried out and compared with the relative impact of three process parameters on porosity level and corrosion rate to verify the measurement errors on the values of the uncertainty in estimated parameters.

  5. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolo, Paola; Nisticò, Roberto; Barone, Fabrizio; Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella; Martorana, Selanna; Ricciardi, Serena; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV-Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The investigation of the microstructure behavior of the spray distances and argon gas flow rates effects on the aluminum coating using self-generated atmospheric plasma spray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandanjou, Sh.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Saviz, Sh.

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, our aims are the investigation of the effects of the spray parameters of the aluminum-coated layer on the microstructure and mechanical properties. For this purpose, we use the self-generated atmospheric plasma spray system for coating of aluminum on the carbon steel substrate to protect it against corrosion degradation. This system allows us to achieve the best choice for parameters. In this paper, the effects of spray distance and argon flow rate on the characteristics of aluminum coating are investigated. To obtain the results, the analyses are used such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, micro hardness of the coating by Vickers method, and adhesion strength behaviors by pull-off test. The results show that the porosity increases with increasing distance. This phenomenon reduces the hardness and adhesion, which is clearly evident in our results. The other important conclusion is that, if the gas flow rate increases, the porosity decreases. It is shown that the best adhesion strength is obtained at the special value of the spraying distance.

  7. Microstructures and tribological properties of plasma sprayed WC-Co-Cu-BaF 2/CaF 2 self-lubricating wear resistant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Yingchun; Ji, Heng; Zheng, Xuebing; Ruan, Qichao; Niu, Yaran; Liu, Ziwei; Zeng, Yi

    2010-06-01

    A promising WC-Co-Cu-BaF 2/CaF 2 self-lubricating wear resistant coating was deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process by using homemade feedstock powders composed of WC-Co, Cu and BaF 2/CaF 2 eutectic. The as-prepared cermet coatings had better frictional behavior comparing with the WC-Co coating. Moreover, the often-occurred decarburization of WC in APS process was noticeably improved due to the binding of copper and BaF 2/CaF 2 phase, which not only offered effective solid lubrication, but also acted as bind phases to mend the microstructure and protected WC from decomposition. The optimized specimen contained 10 wt.% Cu and 10 wt.% BaF 2/CaF 2 in a WC-Co matrix, which had excellent frictional and wear performance. The wear mechanism of the self-lubricating wear resistant coating was discussed with the microstructures, compositions and mechanical properties of the composite materials in detail.

  8. Microstructure and high-temperature wear properties of in situ TiC composite coatings by plasma transferred arc surface alloying on gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Li, Jian-jun; Zheng, Zhi-zhen; Wang, Ai-hua; Huang, Qi-wen; Zeng, Da-wen

    2015-12-01

    In this work, an in situ synthesized TiC-reinforced metal matrix composite (MMC) coating of approximately 350-400 µm thickness was fabricated on a gray cast iron (GCI) substrate by plasma transferred arc (PTA) surface alloying of Ti-Fe alloy powder. Microhardness tests showed that the surface hardness increased approximately four-fold after the alloying treatment. The microstructure of the MMC coating was mainly composed of residual austenite, acicular martensite, and eutectic ledeburite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyzes revealed that the in situ TiC particles, which were formed by direct reaction of Ti with carbon originally contained in the GCI, was uniformly distributed at the boundary of residual austenite in the alloying zone. Pin-on-disc high-temperature wear tests were performed on samples both with and without the MMC coating at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (473 K and 623 K), and the wear behavior and mechanism were investigated. The results showed that, after the PTA alloying treatment, the wear resistance of the samples improved significantly. On the basis of our analysis of the composite coatings by optical microscopy, SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, we attributed this improvement of wear resistance to the transformation of the microstructure and to the presence of TiC particles.

  9. Manufacturing of Composite Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Using Different Feed-Stock Materials as YSZ and MoSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2017-04-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the state-of-the-art material for the top coat of thermal barrier coatings. To increase the efficiency and lifetime of gas turbines, the integration of MoSi2 as a healing material was proposed. A new method of manufacture was explored in order to enable the spraying of a homogeneous mixed layer of YSZ and MoSi2. As the chemical and physical properties of these powders are very different, they require contrasting process conditions. Due to the evaporation of Si from MoSi2 at spraying conditions suitable for YSZ, more moderate conditions and a shorter time of flight are required for depositing MoSi2. At the same time, the spraying conditions still need to be sufficient for melting the YSZ particles in order to produce a coating. To obtain a homogeneous mixture, both conditions can be matched using an injection system that allows powder injection at two different locations of the plasma jet. Two-color pyrometry during flight (DPV-2000, Tecnar) was used to monitor the actual particle temperature. By optimizing the injection point for the MoSi2, a mixed coating was obtained without decomposition of the MoSi2, which has been analyzed by means of XRD and SEM.

  10. FLUIDS, PLASMAS AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES: The influence of the structures and compounds of DLC coatings on the barrier properties of PET bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Zhen-Duo; Zhang, Shou-Ye; Yang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Qiang

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the oxygen transmission rate through a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (an organic plastic) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the inner surface of the PET bottle were deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology with C2H2 as the source of carbon and Ar as the diluted gas. As the barrier layer to humidity and gas permeation, this paper analyses the DLC film structure, composition, morphology and barrier properties by Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen transmission rate in detail. From the spectrum, it is found that the DLC film mainly consists of sp3 bonds. The barrier property of the films is significantly relevant to the sp3 bond concentration in the coating, the film thickness and morphology. Additionally, it is found that DLC film deposited in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced capacitively coupled plasma source shows a compact, homogeneous and crack-free surface, which is beneficial for a good gas barrier property in PET bottles.

  11. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  12. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1993-01-01

    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  13. [Experimental research in vitro on antibacterial property and biocompatibility of silver-containing hydroxyapatite coating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hongjiang; Liu, Junjian; Fan, Cunyi; Zheng, Xuebin; Chen, Yikai

    2009-02-01

    To prepare silver-containing hydroxyapatite coating (hydroxyapatite/Ag, HA/Ag) and investigate its antibacterial property and biocompatibility in vitro. Vacuum plasma spraying technique was adopted to prepare HA/Ag coating on titanium alloy substrate (3% Ag). After incubating the HA/Ag and the HA coating under staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa suspensions of 2% tryptic soy broth (TBS) medium for 2, 4 and 7 days, respectively, the biofilm on the coatings was examined by confocal laser scanning microscope, and the bacterial density and viable bacterial percentage of bacterial biofilm were calculated. Meanwhile, the micro-morphology of bacterial biofilm was observed by SEM, the cytotoxicity was detected via MTT and the biocompatibility of biofilm was evaluated by acute haemolysis test. Compared with HA coating, the bacterial biofilm's thickness on the surface of HA/Ag coating witnessed no significant difference at 2 days after culture (P > 0.05), but decreased obviously at 4 and 7 days after culture (P coatings (P > 0.05) at 2, and 7 days after culture. The viable bacterial percentage of the biofilms on the surface of HA/Ag coating decreased obviously compared with that of HA coating at 2, 4 and 7 days after culture (P coatings was zero. The acute haemolysis assay showed that the hemolytic rate of HA/Ag and HA coating was 0.19% and 0.12%, respectively. With good biocompatibility, significant antibacterial property against staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa, no obvious cytotoxicity and no erythrocyte destruction, the vacuum plasma sprayed HA/Ag coating is a promising candidate for the surface of orthopedic metal implants to improve their osseointegration and antibacterial property.

  14. Prediction of cyclic delamination lives of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates with considering wear and dissolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kojima, Daisuke; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at developing the prediction model of cyclic delamination lives of plasma-sprayed HAp coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by considering wear by interface contacts and dissolution effect by Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). Delamination of HAp coating can lead to loosening of implants stem and final failure in vivo. In the fracture mechanism of interfaces between HAp coating with Ti substrates, only adhesive strength (interracial tensile strength) or fatigue behavior by longitudinal cracking have been observed. Cyclic delamination mechanism by considering various loading modes and corrosion effect has not been revealed yet. The interface delamination rates by cyclic loading were much higher than those by static loading tests. The result clearly demonstrated that the interface demalination behaviors are dominated not by maximum stress, but by stress range. Surface profile measurement and SEM observation also demonstrated damages by interface contact or third body wear at delamination tips of HAp coating only in the cases of compressions. The mechanisms of acceleration on the delaminations are third-body wear or wedge effect by worn particles which increased mean stress level during cyclic loading. Cyclic loading tests under SBF also revealed that cyclic delamination lives were shortened probably due to crevice corrosion at interfaces. Dissolutions at the tips of delaminations were observed by SEM images under tensile loading condition in SBF. Linearly adding the effects of wear and dissolutions into Paris law could successfully predict the delamination lives of HAp coating for various loading ratios in SBF. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrodeposition, characterization, and antibacterial activity of zinc/silver particle composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Vidal, Y.; Suarez-Rojas, R.; Ruiz, C.; Torres, J. [Center of Research and Technological Development in Electrochemistry (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, A.P.064, C.P.76703, Querétaro (Mexico); Ţălu, Ştefan [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of AET, Discipline of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, 103-105 B-dul Muncii St., Cluj-Napoca 400641 Cluj (Romania); Méndez, Alia [Centro de Química-ICUAP Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria Puebla, 72530 Puebla (Mexico); Trejo, G., E-mail: gtrejo@cideteq.mx [Center of Research and Technological Development in Electrochemistry (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, A.P.064, C.P.76703, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • Zn/AgPs composites coatings were formed for electrodeposition. • CTAB promotes occlusion of silver particles in the coating. • Zn/AgPs coatings present very good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Composite coatings consisting of zinc and silver particles (Zn/AgPs) with antibacterial activity were prepared using an electrodeposition technique. The morphology, composition, and structure of the Zn/AgPs composite coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The antibacterial properties of the coatings against the microorganisms Escherichia coli as a model Gram-negative bacterium and Staphylococcus aureus as a model Gram-positive bacterium were studied quantitatively and qualitatively. The results revealed that the dispersant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) assisted in the formation of a stable suspension of Ag particles in the electrolytic bath for 24 h. Likewise, a high concentration of CTAB in the electrolytic bath promoted an increase in the number of Ag particles occluded in the Zn/AgPs coatings. The Zn/AgPs coatings that were obtained were compact, smooth, and shiny materials. Antimicrobial tests performed on the Zn/AgPs coatings revealed that the inhibition of bacterial growth after 30 min of contact time was between 91% and 98% when the AgPs content ranged from 4.3 to 14.0 mg cm{sup −3}.

  16. Coating method for graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-06

    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  17. A novel method for preparing and characterizing alcoholic EPD suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riccardis, M F; Carbone, D; Rizzo, A

    2007-03-01

    Ceramic suspensions composed of alumina and mixtures of alumina and zirconia powders in ethyl alcohol were prepared. A solution of citric acid and triethylamine was used as dispersant. The citric acid, which usually is used as dispersant in water alumina suspensions, gave excellent results in ethyl alcohol also if it was used in conjunction with triethylamine. A novel method consisting of combined measurements of grain size, zeta potential, and transmittance was optimized to study the dispersion and stability properties of the ceramic suspensions; by using this method the optimal dispersant amount was determined. The suspensions based on alumina and alumina-zirconia powders were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD); the optimal composition of suspensions and the used EPD parameters made it possible to obtain coatings with uniform thickness and composition.

  18. Hydrophobic coating of surfaces by plasma polymerization in an RF plasma reactor with an outer planar electrode: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Mustafa; Gürsoy, Mehmet; Aykül, Fatmanur; Tosun, Zahide; Kars, M. Demirel; Yildiz, H. Bekir

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the plasma polymerization of poly(hexafluorobutyl acrylate) (PHFBA) thin films on different substrates in an RF plasma reactor with an outer planar electrode. This reactor configuration allows large area uniformity and fast processing times. Deposition rates of up to 60 nm min-1 were observed. The influence of plasma power and substrate temperature on the deposition rate, structure and wettability of the as-deposited films was investigated. It was observed that better hydrophobicity was obtained at high plasma power and in low temperature conditions. PHFBA thin films deposited on electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) fiber mats under such conditions resulted in superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle values greater than 150°. In vitro cell studies using human epithelial cells demonstrated the non-toxic nature of the plasma-polymerized PHFBA films.

  19. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  20. Shape-dependent plasma-catalytic activity of ZnO nanomaterials coated on porous ceramic membrane for oxidation of butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva Gandhi, M; Mok, Young Sun

    2014-12-01

    In order to explore the effects of the shape of ZnO nanomaterials on the plasma-catalytic decomposition of butane and the distribution of byproducts, three types of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoparticles (NPs), nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs)) were prepared and coated on multi-channel porous alumina ceramic membrane. The structures and morphologies of the nanomaterials were confirmed by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The observed catalytic activity of ZnO in the oxidative decomposition of butane was strongly shape-dependent. It was found that the ZnO NWs exhibited higher catalytic activity than the other nanomaterials and could completely oxidize butane into carbon oxides (COx). When using the bare or ZnO NPs-coated ceramic membrane, several unwanted partial oxidation and decomposition products like acetaldehyde, acetylene, methane and propane were identified during the decomposition of butane. When the ZnO NWs- or ZnO NRs-coated membrane was used, however, the formation of such unwanted byproducts except methane was completely avoided, and full conversion into COx was achieved. Better carbon balance and COx selectivity were obtained with the ZnO NWs and NRs than with the NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose-Dependent Effects of CeO2 on Microstructure and Antibacterial Property of Plasma-Sprayed TiO2 Coatings for Orthopedic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Liu, Gaopeng; Zheng, Hai; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively for orthopedic and dental implants. Although these devices have achieved high rates of success, two major complications may be encountered: the lack of osseointegration and the biomaterial-related infection. Accordingly, cerium oxide (CeO2)-doped titanium oxide (TiO2) materials were coated on titanium by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique. The phase structures, morphologies, and surface chemical states of the obtained coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The in vitro antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the materials were studied with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus, ATCC25923) and osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1. The results indicated that the addition of CeO2 shifts slightly the diffraction peaks of TiO2 matrix to low angles but does not change its rutile phase structure. In addition, the CeO2/TiO2 composite coatings possess dose-dependent corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. And doping of 10 wt.% CeO2 exhibits the highest activity against S. aureus, improved corrosion resistance, and competitive cytocompatibility, which argues a promising option for balancing the osteogenetic and antibacterial properties of titanium implants.

  2. Acquired resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in and escaped from liver parenchymal cells to gentamicin is caused by being coated with their plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masakazu; Emoto, Yoshiko; Emoto, Masashi

    2014-03-01

    After systemic infection, a majority of Listeria monocytogenes invade liver parenchymal cells (LPC), replicate therein and spread to neighboring cells, suggesting that 3 different types of L. monocytogenes exist in the liver: L. monocytogenes being unable to invade LPC, residing in LPC, and escaped from infected LPC. Although listeriolysin O (LLO) participates in escape of L. monocytogenes from macrophages and L. monocytogenes is susceptible to gentamicin (Gm), it remains elusive whether LLO participates in invasion/escape of L. monocytogenes into/from LPC, and whether L. monocytogenes in/escaped from LPC are susceptible to Gm. In the present study, we examined whether LLO is involved in invasion/escape of L. monocytogenes into/from LPC and whether L. monocytogenes in/escaped from LPC are susceptible to Gm. Invasion/escape of L. monocytogenes were found in LPC lines regardless of LLO expression, and L. monocytogenes in/escaped from LPC lines showed resistance to Gm. L. monocytogenes escaped from LPC lines were coated with their plasma membrane and the acquired resistance to Gm was abrogated by saponin. Our results indicate that invasion/escape of L. monocytogenes into/from LPC occur independently of LLO, and suggest that the acquired resistance of L. monocytogenes in/escaped from LPC to Gm is caused by being coated with their plasma membrane. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Steam Plasma Flows Generated in Gerdien Arc: Environment for Energy Gas Production from Organics and for Surface Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), s. 792-801 ISSN 1880-5558. [Seventh International Conference on Flow Dynamics. Sendai, 01.11.2010-03.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal Plasma * Dc Arc Plasma Torch * Gerdien Arc * Plasma Gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jfst/6/5/792/_pdf

  4. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  5. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  6. Microstructures and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Ni Based Coatings Reinforced by TiN/C1-xNxTi Generated from In-Situ Solid-Gas Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The strengthening hard phases TiN/C1-xNxTi were generated by in-situ solid-gas reaction in Ni-based composite coatings prepared using a plasma spray welding process to reinforce the wear resistance of the coatings. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were investigated. The results showed that the coatings mainly consisted of phases such as TiN, C1-xNxTi, TiC, etc. A small amount of CrB, M7C3, and M23C6 were also detected in the coatings by micro-analysis method. Compared with the originally pure NiCrBSi coatings, the hardness of the NiCrBSi coatings reinforced by in-situ solid-gas reaction was 900 HV0.5, increased by more than 35%. Consequently, the wear resistance of the reinforced coatings was greatly improved due to the finely and uniformly dispersed hard phases mentioned above. The weight losses after wear test for the two kinds of coatings were 15 mg and 8 mg, respectively.

  7. Microstructures and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Ni Based Coatings Reinforced by TiN/C1-xNxTi Generated from In-Situ Solid-Gas Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenquan; Li, Wenmo; Xu, Hongyong

    2017-07-11

    The strengthening hard phases TiN/C 1- x N x Ti were generated by in-situ solid-gas reaction in Ni-based composite coatings prepared using a plasma spray welding process to reinforce the wear resistance of the coatings. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were investigated. The results showed that the coatings mainly consisted of phases such as TiN, C 1- x N x Ti, TiC, etc. A small amount of CrB, M₇C₃, and M 23 C₆ were also detected in the coatings by micro-analysis method. Compared with the originally pure NiCrBSi coatings, the hardness of the NiCrBSi coatings reinforced by in-situ solid-gas reaction was 900 HV 0.5 , increased by more than 35%. Consequently, the wear resistance of the reinforced coatings was greatly improved due to the finely and uniformly dispersed hard phases mentioned above. The weight losses after wear test for the two kinds of coatings were 15 mg and 8 mg, respectively.

  8. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of FeCoCrNiMo0.2 High Entropy Coatings Prepared by Air Plasma Spray and the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchen Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the spherical FeCoCrNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA powders with a single FCC solid solution structure were prepared by gas atomization. Subsequently, the FeCoCrNiMo0.2 coatings with a different content of oxide inclusions were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS and high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and tribological behaviors of these HEA coatings were investigated. The results showed that both HEA coatings showed a typical lamellar structure with low porosity. Besides the primary FCC phase, a mixture of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and AB2O4 (A = Fe, Co, Ni, and B = Fe, Cr was identified as the oxide inclusions. The oxide content of the APS coating and HVOF coating was calculated to be 47.0% and 12.7%, respectively. The wear resistance of the APS coating was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the HVOF coating. It was mainly attributed to the self-lubricated effect caused by the oxide films. The mass loss of the APS coating was mainly ascribed to the breakaway of the oxide film, while the main wear mechanism of the HVOF coating was the abrasive wear.

  9. Reaction of turbulence at the edge and in the center of the plasma column to pulsed impurity injection caused by the sputtering of the wall coating in L-2M stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanov, G. M.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Vafin, I. Yu.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Grishina, I. A.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Malakhov, D. V.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksian, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K.; Kharchevskii, A. A.; Kholnov, Yu. V.; Shchepetov, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    Impurity injection into plasma caused by the sputtering of the wall coating in the L-2M stellarator during auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating leads to a change in the level of plasma density fluctuations with frequencies above 0.25 MHz: suppression of long-wavelength ( k ⊥ = 2 cm-1) density fluctuations in the edge plasma, intensification of short-wavelength ( k ⊥ = 30 cm-1) and long-wavelength ( k ⊥ = 1 cm-1) fluctuations at the midradius of the plasma column, and intensification of short-wavelength fluctuations ( k ⊥ = 20 cm-1) in the plasma center (including the gyroresonance region). At the same time, the level of fluctuations with frequencies below 0.25 MHz remains unchanged. In the edge plasma, a decrease in the plasma potential and suppression of its fluctuations is observed during impurity injection, which also causes an increase in MHD activity.

  10. Ageing of plasma-mediated coatings with embedded silver nanoparticles on stainless steel: An XPS and ToF-SIMS investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanna, S.; Saulou, C.; Mercier-Bonin, M.; Despax, B.; Raynaud, P.; Seyeux, A.; Marcus, P.

    2010-09-01

    Nanocomposite thin films (˜170 nm), composed of silver nanoparticles enclosed in an organosilicon matrix, were deposited onto stainless steel, with the aim of preventing biofilm formation. The film deposition was carried out under cold plasma conditions, combining radiofrequency (RF) glow discharge fed with argon and hexamethyldisiloxane and simultaneous silver sputtering. XPS and ToF-SIMS were used to characterize Ag-organosilicon films in native form and after ageing in saline solution (NaCl 0.15 M), in order to further correlate their lifetime with their anti-fouling properties. Two coatings with significantly different silver contents (7.5% and 20.3%) were tested. Surface analysis confirmed the presence of metallic silver in the pristine coating and revealed significant modifications after immersion in the saline solution. Two different ageing mechanisms were observed, depending on the initial silver concentration in the film. For the sample exhibiting the low silver content (7.5%), the metal amount decreased at the surface in contact with the solution, due to the release of silver from the coating. As a result, after a 2-day exposure, silver nanoparticles located at the extreme surface were entirely released, whereas silver is still present in the inner part of the film. The coating thickness was not modified during ageing. In contrast, for the high silver content film (20.3%), the thickness decreased with immersion time, due to significant silver release and matrix erosion, assigned to a percolation-like effect. However, after 18 days of immersion, the delamination process stopped and a thin strongly bounded layer remained on the stainless steel surface.

  11. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.

  12. Influence of non-thermal plasma on structural and electrical properties of globular and nanostructured conductive polymer polypyrrole in water suspension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galář, P.; Khun, J.; Kopecký, D.; Scholtz, V.; Trchová, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Jirešová, J.; Fišer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 08 November (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 15068. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conductive polymer * polypyrrole * plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  13. Alamethicin permeabilizes the plasma membrane and mitochondria but not the tonoplast in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) suspension cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matic, S.; Geisler, D.A.; Møller, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    remained intact, as indicated by an unaffected tonoplast proton gradient. Low-flux permeabilization of plasma membranes and mitochondria at moderate AlaM concentrations was reversible and did not affect cell vigour. Higher AlaM concentrations induced cell death. After the addition of catalase that removes...

  14. A novel anti-frictional multiphase layer produced by plasma nitriding of PVD titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yao, J. W.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhu, Y. D.; Guo, J. H.; Wang, Y.; Fu, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Yan, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    The heat treatment (consisting of solid solution and aging), is integrated with the nitriding process of titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy to improve the surface and matrix mechanical properties simultaneously. Two-step duplex treatment is adopted to prepare the gradient multiphase layer on a magnesium-free ZL205A aluminum-copper based alloy. Firstly, pure titanium film is deposited on the aluminum alloy substrate using magnetron sputtering. Secondly, the Ti-coated specimen is nitrided at the solid solution temperature of the substrate alloying elements in a gas mixture of N2 and H2 and aged at 175 °C. The microstructure evolution, microhardness as well as the wear resistance of obtained multiphase layers are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The multiphase layer, dominated by TiN0.3 or Al3Ti, is prepared with significantly increased layer depth after duplex treatment. The surface hardness of multiphase layer is remarkably improved from 23.7HV to 457HV. The core matrix hardness is also increased to 65HV after aging. The wear rate of the multiphase layer decreases about 55.22% and 49.28% in comparison with the aged and Ti coated specimens, respectively. The predominant wear mechanism for the multiphase layer is abrasive and oxidation, but severe adhesive wear for the aged and Ti coated specimens.

  15. Gel coating of leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi, lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters on high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An edible, gelatinous water-insoluble coating surrounds the young leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi. This mucilage is a polysaccharide of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. In order to determine if this edible gel has cholesterol lowering properties, we fed male hams...

  16. White blood cell fragments in platelet concentrates prepared by the platelet-rich plasma or buffy-coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Pietersz, R. N. I.; Reesink, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: White blood cell (WBC) fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce allo-immunization in the recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As the level of WBC fragments can differ between PCs produced using different methods, we compared PCs prepared by using the buffy-coat

  17. Microstructure and high temperature cyclic oxidation in atmospheres with variable oxygen contents of plasma and HVOF NiCrBSiFe sprayed coatings; Microestructura y oxidacion ciclica en atmosferas con contenidos de oxigeno variables de un recubrimiento NiCrBSiFe proyectado termicamente por plasma y HVOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera-Hidalgo, V.; Belzunce-Varela, F. J.; Riba-Lopez, J.

    2006-07-01

    The influence of thermal spraying procedure (plasma and HVOF) on the microstructure, high temperature oxidation resistance and adherence of NiCrSiFe coatings has been examined. Two different series of oxidation tests have been carried out in air (21% oxygen) at 800 and 1,000 degree centigree (1,073 y 1,273 K) and in a simulated gas turbine environment (10% oxygen) representative of a combined-cycle power generation plant, at the same temperatures. Coating microstructure, porosity, oxide content and microhardness are highly dependent on the spraying procedure and coating hardness also significantly decreases after long maintenance at high temperature (1,000 degree centigree). Finally, the oxidation weight gain and the adherence of NiCrBSiFe coatings are also dependent on the morphology of the coating but, nevertheless, the oxidation behaviour of these coatings was very good as protective chromium and silicon oxides were always formed. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. Suspension as an Emergency Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda L. Tyler

    2009-01-01

    ... Legislation B. Suspension During Reconstruction: Putting Down the Klan in South Carolina IV. UNDERSTANDING SUSPENSION AS AN EMERGENCY POWER A. Reading the Suspension Clause in Context B. Giving Meaning to the Suspension Power C. Mapping the Suspension Clause Within the Constitution V. SUSPENSION AND THE SEPARATION OF POWERS CONCLUSION [A] suspensio...

  19. Micro-morphometric assessment of titanium plasma-sprayed coating removal using burs for the treatment of peri-implant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondini, L; Cicognani Simoncini, F; Carrassi, A

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the effectiveness of diamond and carbide burs, and bur sequences to remove the plasma-sprayed titanium coating from IMZ fixture surfaces. Fifteen polishing procedures were tested. They included the use of 12, 16, 30 bladed carbide burs or bevered carbide burs and 30, 15, 8 microns mean-particles-size diamond burs. The treated surfaces were evaluated with profilometer and SEM. Worn burs and titanium debris produced by the grinding were observed with SEM. All procedures produce smoother surfaces than baseline plasma-sprayed surfaces for both Ra and Rz(DIN) parameters (P < 0.001). A roughening effect of the 8 microns mean-grit diamond bur and 30 bladed burs were noted. The single carbide burs produce polished surfaces affected by waviness. Waviness was minimized by sequence or diamond bur use. The carbide bur blades were variously damaged after their use. In contrast, the grit of diamond burs was observed to be clogged by titanium debris whose amount seemed to be inversely related to the diamond mean particle size. Debris produced by diamond burs was granular whereas that produced by carbide bladed burs showed needle or flake morphology. In conclusion, the most effective titanium plasma sprayed removal were obtained by 30 microns and 15 microns mean-particle-size diamond burs, i.e. 30 microns plus 15 microns diamond burs and carbide 12 plus 16 bladed burs used in sequence.

  20. Nanolayer biofilm coated on magnetic nanoparticles by using a dielectric barrier discharge glow plasma fluidized bed for immobilizing an antimicrobial peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangliang; Zhou, Mingyan; Chen, Shihua; Lv, Guohua; Yao, Juming

    2009-11-01

    Using the monomer of acrylic acid and the novel technique of using a dielectric barrier discharge glow plasma fluidized bed (GPFB), a nanolayer biofilm of polyacrylic acid (PAA) was uniformly coated on the surface of magnetic nickel nanoparticles (NPs). Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, etc, were used to characterize the modified NPs. The thickness of the biofilm was about 2 nm when the NPs were treated using the GPFB once, and the discharging conditions affected the density of the carboxyl group obviously. The PAA acting as an adhesion layer was used to immobilize the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, to kill the bacteria of Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the results indicated that the modified nickel NPs immobilizing a certain concentration of LL-37 could kill the bacteria effectively.

  1. A cost- and time-saving strategy of spraying TiO2 self-cleaning coatings in tubular substrates by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lujie; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2017-11-01

    In this study, using an atmospheric pressure air plasma jet generated by a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes (HEDBS), we developed an ultrafast process for spraying TiO2 self-cleaning films inside tubular substrates. Importantly, SEM images showed that the TiO2 particles were dispersed evenly in the tubular substrates. Furthermore, Raman and XRD pattern indicated the anatase structure of the HEDBS-spayed TiO2 coating after heating at 270 °C. Further results of the self cleaning test suggested that the proposed cost- and time-saving HEDBS approach with air working gas could provide a feasible way for synthesizing thin TiO2 nanofilms.

  2. Engineering a new class of thermal spray nano-based microstructures from agglomerated nanostructured particles, suspensions and solutions: an invited review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Montavon, G.; Lima, R. S.; Marple, B. R.

    2011-03-01

    diagnostic tools and strategies, and experimental advances that have enabled the development of a wide range of coating structures exhibiting in numerous cases unique properties. Several examples are detailed. In this paper the following aspects are presented successively (i) the two spray techniques used for manufacturing such coatings: thermal plasma and HVOF, (ii) sensors developed for in-flight diagnostics of micrometre-sized particles and the interaction of a liquid and hot gas flow, (iii) three spray processes: conventional spraying using micrometre-sized agglomerates of nanometre-sized particles, suspension spraying and solution spraying and (iv) the emerging issues resulting from the specific structures of these materials, particularly the characterization of these coatings and (v) the potential industrial applications. Further advances require the scientific and industrial communities to undertake new research and development activities to address, understand and control the complex mechanisms occurring, in particular, thermal flow—liquid drops or stream interactions when considering suspension and liquid precursor thermal spray techniques. Work is still needed to develop new measurement devices to diagnose in-flight droplets or particles below 2 µm average diameter and to validate that the assumptions made for liquid-hot gas interactions. Efforts are also required to further develop some of the characterization protocols suitable to address the specificities of such nanostructured coatings, as some existing 'conventional' protocols usually implemented on thermal spray coatings are not suitable anymore, in particular to address the void network architectures from which numerous coatings properties are derived.

  3. Plasma Polymer-Coated Contact Lenses for the Culture and Transfer of Corneal Epithelial Cells in the Treatment of Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karl David; Low, Suet; Mariappan, Indumathi; Abberton, Keren Maree; Short, Robert; Zhang, Hong; Maddileti, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender; Steele, David

    2014-01-01

    Extensive damage to the limbal region of the cornea leads to a severe form of corneal blindness termed as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Whereas most cases of corneal opacity can be treated with full thickness corneal transplants, LSCD requires stem cell transplantation for successful ocular surface reconstruction. Current treatments for LSCD using limbal stem cell transplantation involve the use of murine NIH 3T3 cells and human amniotic membranes as culture substrates, which pose the threat of transmission of animal-derived pathogens and donor tissue-derived cryptic infections. In this study, we aimed to produce surface modified therapeutic contact lenses for the culture and delivery of corneal epithelial cells for the treatment of LSCD. This approach avoids the possibility of suture-related complications and is completely synthetic. We used plasma polymerization to deposit acid functional groups onto the lenses at various concentrations. Each surface was tested for its suitability to promote corneal epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation, retention of stem cells, and differentiation and found that acid-based chemistries promoted better cell adhesion and proliferation. We also found that the lenses coated with a higher percentage of acid functional groups resulted in a higher number of cells transferred onto the corneal wound bed in rabbit models of LSCD. Immunohistochemistry of the recipient cornea confirmed the presence of autologous, transplanted 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells. Hematoxylin staining has also revealed the presence of a stratified epithelium at 26 days post-transplantation. This study provides the first evidence for in vivo transfer and survival of cells transplanted from a contact lens to the wounded corneal surface. It also proposes the possibility of using plasma polymer-coated contact lenses with high acid functional groups as substrates for the culture and transfer of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD. PMID:24328453

  4. Improved tribological properties, electrochemical resistance and biocompatibility of AISI 316L stainless steel through duplex plasma nitriding and TiN coating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wen-Hsien; Su, Yean-Liang; Horng, Jeng-Haur; Hsieh, Yun-Ting

    2017-07-01

    AISI 316L specimens were nitrided using a low temperature (390℃) plasma nitriding process and then coated with a thin layer of titanium nitride by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, adhesion properties and hardness of the duplex-treated samples were examined using X-ray diffraction, scratch testing and nanoindentation, respectively. In addition, the tribological properties were investigated by means of reciprocating wear tests performed against 316L, Si3N4 and Ti6Al4V balls under a load of 10 N for 24 min in 0.9% NaCl solution. The electrochemical resistance of the samples was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarisation tests. Finally, the biocompatibility of the samples was investigated by seeding purified mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cells (Raw 264.7) on the sample surface for one, three and five days, respectively. In general, the results showed that the duplex nitriding and titanium nitride coating process significantly improved the tribological properties, electrochemical resistance and biocompatibility of the AISI 316L samples.

  5. Effects of Ti-C:H coating and plasma nitriding treatment on tribological, electrochemical, and biocompatibility properties of AISI 316L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W H; Su, Y L; Horng, J H; Zhang, K X

    2016-08-01

    Ti-C:H coatings were deposited on original, nitrided, and polished-nitrided AISI 316L stainless steel substrates using a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Sliding friction wear tests were performed in 0.89 wt.% NaCl solution under a load of 30 N against AISI 316L stainless steel, Si3N4, and Ti6Al4V balls, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the various specimens were investigated by means of corrosion tests performed in 0.89 wt.% NaCl solution at room temperature. Finally, the biocompatibility properties of the specimens were investigated by performing cell culturing experiments using purified mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cells (Raw264.7). In general, the results showed that plasma nitriding followed by Ti-C:H coating deposition provides an effective means of improving the wear resistance, anti-corrosion properties, and biocompatibility performance of AISI 316L stainless steel. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Thermophysical Properties of Cold- and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings II: Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) and cold-sprayed (CS) copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant-pressure specific heat capacities, C P, of these coatings. The data were empirically regression-fitted with the equation: \\varvec{C}_{P} = AT^{4} + BT^{3} + CT^{2} + DT + \\varvec{E} where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of C P using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the NK rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and C P > 3R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which C P < 3R at all temperatures.

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings. Part 2; Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) and cold sprayed copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant pressure specific heat capacities, CP, of these coatings. The data were empirically were regression-fitted with the equation: CP = AT4 + BT3 + CT2 + DT +E where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of CP using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the Neumann-Kopp rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and CP is greater than 3R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which CP is less than 3R at all temperatures.

  8. Tetragonal ZrO2 phase stabilization in coating layers prepared on Zr-2.5%Nb alloy during plasma electrolytic oxidation in sodium aluminate electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovschi, V.; Marin, A.; Negrea, D.; Andrei, V.; Coaca, E.

    2017-09-01

    Layers containing polycrystalline zirconia and amorphous aluminum oxide were obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy in aqueous electrolyte solutions comprising NaAlO2 (pH  =  13.0), NaAlO2 and NaOH (pH  =  13.2), respectively. The PEO coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The deposited coating layers contain mainly tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystalline phase and amorphous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) phase. They have thicknesses between 9.0 and 53.0 µm and are uneven, heterogeneous and porous. Zirconia tetragonal phase stabilization by the aluminum oxide matrix was achieved through the ‘constraint’ mechanism. The corrosion current density values for the PEO layers are lower by 1-2 orders of magnitude than those of the untreated Zr-2.5%Nb alloy.

  9. Thermophysical Properties of Cold- and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings II: Specific Heat Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Part I of the paper discussed the temperature dependencies of the electrical resistivities, thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities and total hemispherical emissivities of several vacuum plasma-sprayed (VPS) and cold-sprayed (CS) copper alloy monolithic coatings, VPS NiAl, VPS NiCrAlY, extruded GRCop-84 and as-cast Cu-17(wt.%)Cr-5%Al. Part II discusses the temperature dependencies of the constant-pressure specific heat capacities, C P, of these coatings. The data were empirically regression-fitted with the equation: \\varvec{C}_{P} = {AT}^{4} + {BT}^{3} + {CT}^{2} + DT + \\varvec{E}where T is the absolute temperature and A, B, C, D and E are regression constants. The temperature dependencies of the molar enthalpy, molar entropy and Gibbs molar free energy determined from experimental values of molar specific heat capacity are reported. Calculated values of C P using the Neumann-Kopp (NK) rule were in poor agreement with experimental data. Instead, a modification of the NK rule was found to predict values closer to the experimental data with an absolute deviation less than 6.5%. The specific molar heat capacities for all the alloys did not agree with the Dulong-Petit law, and C P > 3 R, where R is the universal gas constant, were measured for all the alloys except NiAl for which C P < 3 R at all temperatures.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINA AND ZIRCONIA PLASMA SPRAYED COATINGS INDUCED BY LASER POST-TREATMENT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kraus, L.; Tuominen, J.; Vuoristo, P.; Chráska, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2007), s. 181-189 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200430560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Alumina * plasma spraying * wear resistance * slurry abrasion Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2007

  11. Formation of NiCrAlY/NiAl multi-layered coating by low pressure plasma spraying; Genatsu plasma yosha ni yoru NiCrAlY/NiAl tasomaku no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, H. [Industrial Res. Inst. of Nagano Pref., Nagano (Japan).; Yonehama, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Kobayashi, M. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1997-12-15

    NiCrAlY/NiAl multi-layered coating was produced on SUS310S steel by means of mutual low pressure plasma spraying of NiCrAlY and Al powders which was accompanied with self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of metal deposits. The NiAl layer contained Ni3Al particles and Cr2Al phase along the fine grain boundary. Also, Ni3Al was detected in the NiCrAlY layer with a small amount of NiAl particles. As the result, high hardness was obtained in both the layers, i.e., 650HV in NiAl layer and 450HV in NiCrAlY one at 673K. The structure of the multilayered coating changed hardly during annealing lower than 973K because enriched Cr at NiCrAlY/NiAl interface suppressed NiAl + Ni3Al{yields}Ni5Al3 peritectoid reaction. The SHS reaction time of an compressed Al droplet in diameter of 50{mu}m was calculated as 4.17times10{sup -3} second. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Lee, Seung [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-21

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

  13. An evaporation model of colloidal suspension droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Silvana; Li\\ Nán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2009-11-01

    Colloidal suspensions of polymers in water or other solvents are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to coat tablets with different agents. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or physical appearance. The coating is performed by simultaneously spraying and drying the tablets with the colloidal suspension at moderately high temperatures. The spreading of the coating on the pills surface depends on the droplet Webber and Reynolds numbers, angle of impact, but more importantly on the rheological properties of the drop. We present a model for the evaporation of a colloidal suspension droplet in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the carrier fluid. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface, a compacting front advances into the droplet faster than the liquid surface regresses, forming a shell of a porous medium where the particles reach their maximum packing density. While the surface regresses, the evaporation rate is determined by both the rate at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and the rate at which liquid vapor is diffused away from it. This regime continues until the compacting front reaches the center of the droplet, at which point the evaporation rate is drastically reduced.

  14. Coating of a substrate with surface preliminarily treated with intensive flows of high-speed electrons and plasma using a magnetron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvi, A. Ya; Yalovets, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents results of the research in influence of preliminary surface treatment on adhesion of film to substrate (St8 or brass-target, CU, Ni-film). The preliminary treatment has been conducted by two methods: first, by compressive plasma flow with charge duration ∼100μs, plasma formation rate (15-20)×103 m/s; second, by low-energy high-current electron beams with pulse duration 2-3 μs and electron energy up to 30 keV. The investigation shows the strong influence of preliminary sample treatment and processing parameters on adhesion of film to substrate and final roughness. Experimental investigations have revealed the best adhesion of film to substrate, and the smoothest film is corresponding to the mode with preliminary LEHCEB irradiation with electron energy of 25, 30 keV. It was shown that the alternation of deposition with LEHCEB irradiation has resulted in large-scale surface smoothing: the surface has become glassy whereas craters of 10-20 μm have formed. It was shown that the magnetron-covered samples can withstand the saline mist for twice as long as samples with galvanic coatings.

  15. Deposition of mullite and mullite-like coatings on silicon carbide by dual-source metal plasma immersion. Topical report, October 1995--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.G.; Monteiro, O.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Mullite and mullite-like coatings on silicon carbide have been produced by a Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (Mepiiid) technique based on two cathodic vacuum arc sources and concurrent pulse biasing of the substrate in an oxygen atmosphere. The deposition was carried out at oxygen partial pressures of between 0.66 and 3.33 Pa. The Al:Si ratio in the films varied from 1:1 to 8:1 and was controlled by varying the pulse duration of the separate plasma guns. High bias voltage was used early in the deposition process in order to produce atomic mixing at the film-substrate interface, while lower bias voltage was used later in the deposition; low ion energy allows control of the physical properties of the film as well as faster deposition rates. The as-deposited films were amorphous, and crystalline mullite was formed by subsequent annealing at 1,100 C for 2 hours in air. Strong adhesion between the mullite and the SiC was achieved, in some cases exceeding the 70 MPa instrumental limit of the pull-tester.

  16. Hot corrosion of the ceramic composite coating Ni{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO plasma sprayed on 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, Amir Khodaparast; Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim [Islamic Azad Univ., Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Engineering

    2017-08-15

    Ni{sub 3}Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO three-layered coatings with thicknesses of 50, 100, and 150 μm for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO and 100 μm for the other layers were deposited on 316L stainless steel using plasma spraying. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, furnace hot corrosion testing in the presence of a mixture of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} corrosive salts and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the structural, morphological and hot corrosion resistance of samples. Results revealed that the crystalline grains of MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating were very small. Weight loss due to hot corrosion decreased from approximately 4.267 g for 316L stainless steel without coating to 2.058 g. The samples with 150 μm outer coating showed improved resistance with the increase in outer layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy of the coated surface revealed that the coating's resistance to hot corrosion is related to the thickness and the grain size of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO coatings.

  17. Electrorheology of nanofiber suspensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2011-01-01

    .... In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers...

  18. The effect of novel nitrogen-rich plasma polymer coatings on the phenotypic profile of notochordal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheimer Michael R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of the notochordal cells from the nucleus pulposus is associated with ageing and disc degeneration. However, understanding the mechanisms responsible for the loss of these cells has been hampered in part due to the difficulty of culturing and maintaining their phenotype. Furthermore, little is known about the influence of the substratum on the molecular markers of notochordal cells. Methods Notochordal cells were isolated from lumbar spine of non-chondrodystrophoid dogs and cultured on N-rich plasma polymer layers, so-called "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerised ethylene, containing up to 36% [N] surfaces, for 3, 7 or 14 days. Gene expression of vimentin (VIM, pleiotrophin (PTN, matrix Gla protein (MGP, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP, keratin 18 (KRT 18, aggrecan (AGG, collagen type 1 (COL1A2, collagen type 2 (COL2A1 was analyzed through semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Notochordal cells were maintained in culture on PPE:N for up to 14 days with no loss in cell viability. Except for VIM, gene expression varied depending on the culture periods and [N] concentration of the substratum. Generally, PPE:N surfaces altered gene expression significantly when cells were cultured for 3 or 7 days. Conclusion The present study has shown that notochordal cells from dogs can attach to and grow on PPE:N surfaces. Analysis of the expression of different genes in these cells cultured on different N-functionalized surfaces indicates that cellular behaviour is gene-specific and time-dependent. Further studies are required to better understand the roles of specific surface functionalities on receptor sites, and their effects on cellular phenotypes.

  19. Composition versus friction and wear behavior of plasma sprayed WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni/Ag/BaF2-CaF2 self-lubricating composite coatings for use up to 600 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Hou, Guoliang; Chen, Jie; An, Yulong; Zhou, Huidi; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Yang, Jie

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports the composition optimization of self-lubricating composite coatings containing WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni, silver and fluoride eutectics. Various ingredients obtained by powder blending were studied to determine their optimum content in as-prepared composite coatings. An atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) system was used to deposit promising WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni/Ag/BaF2-CaF2 self-lubricating composite coatings. The friction and wear behavior of the composite coatings sliding against Si3N4 ball was investigated from room temperature to 600 °C. Results show that silver and fluoride eutectics can effectively reduce the friction coefficient of the coatings and the wear volume loss of counterpart balls over the whole temperature range. Thanks to the highest hardness, WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni coating without silver and fluoride eutectics has the lowest wear rate at room temperature and 600 °C. However, it has a high friction coefficient and a very high wear rate at 200 and 400 °C, due to severe adhesion wear and fatigue wear thereat. Fortunately, introducing appropriate amount of silver and fluoride eutectics contributes to effectively reduce the wear rate of the composite coatings at 200 and 400 °C. The optimized composite coating consists of 70 wt.% WC-(W,Cr)2C-Ni, 15 wt.% Ag and 15 wt.% BaF2/CaF2, and it has excellent friction and wear performance over a wide range of temperature.

  20. The role of nano-particles in the field of thermal spray coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmann, Stephan; Leparoux, Marc; Rohr, Lukas

    2005-06-01

    Nano-particles play not only a key role in recent research fields, but also in the public discussions about health and safety in nanotechnology. Nevertheless, the worldwide activities in nano-particles research increased dramatically during the last 5 to 10 years. There are different potential routes for the future production of nano-particles at large scale. The main directions envisaged are mechanical milling, wet chemical reactions or gas phase processes. Each of the processes has its specific advantages and limitations. Mechanical milling and wet chemical reactions are typically time intensive and batch processes, whereas gas phase productions by flames or plasma can be carried out continuously. Materials of interest are mainly oxide ceramics, carbides, nitrides, and pure metals. Nano-ceramics are interesting candidates for coating technologies due to expected higher coating toughness, better thermal shock and wear resistance. Especially embedded nano-carbides and-nitrides offer homogenously distributed hard phases, which enhance coatings hardness. Thermal spraying, a nearly 100 years old and world wide established coating technology, gets new possibilities thanks to optimized, nano-sized and/or nano-structured powders. Latest coating system developments like high velocity flame spraying (HVOF), cold gas deposition or liquid suspension spraying in combination with new powder qualities may open new applications and markets. This article gives an overview on the latest activities in nano-particle research and production in special relation to thermal spray coating technology.

  1. Thermal barrier coating system having improved adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The adherence between a ceramic thermal barrier coating and a metal bond coating is improved by ion sputtering a ceramic film on the bond cost. A ceramic thermal barrier coating is then plasma-sprayed onto this primer film. This improves the integrity and strength of the interface between the plasma-sprayed ceramic layer and metallic bond coat which insures stronger adherence between the metal and the ceramic.

  2. Physicochemical Characterization and In Vivo Evaluation of Amorphous and Partially Crystalline Calcium Phosphate Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Implants by the Plasma Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam A. Bonfante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the topographic and chemical properties of 2 bioceramic coated plateau root form implant surfaces and evaluate their histomorphometric differences at 6 and 12 weeks in vivo. Methods. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (PSHA and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, interferometry (IFM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Implants were placed in the radius epiphysis, and the right limb of dogs provided implants that remained for 6 weeks, and the left limb provided implants that remained 12 weeks in vivo. Thin sections were prepared for bone-to-implant contact (BIC and bone-area-fraction occupancy (BAFO measurements (evaluated by Friedman analysis <0.05. Results. Significantly, higher Sa (<0.03 and Sq (<0.02 were observed for ACP relative to PSHA. Chemical analysis revealed significantly higher HA, calcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate for the PSHA surface. BIC and BAFO measurements showed no differences between surfaces. Lamellar bone formation in close contact with implant surfaces and within the healing chambers was observed for both groups. Conclusion. Given topographical and chemical differences between PSHA and ACP surfaces, bone morphology and histomorphometric evaluated parameters showed that both surfaces were osseoconductive in plateau root form implants.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Cold- and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings I: Electrical and Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, and Total Hemispherical Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    This two-part paper reports the thermophysical properties of several cold- and vacuum plasma-sprayed monolithic Cu- and Ni-based alloy coatings. Part I presents the electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and total hemispherical emissivity data, while Part II reports the specific heat capacity data for these coatings. Metallic copper alloys and stoichiometric NiAl and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray or the vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal property measurements between 77 and 1223 K. The temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, electrical conductivities, and total hemispherical emissivities of these cold- and vacuum-sprayed monolithic coatings are reported in this paper. The electrical and thermal conductivity data correlate reasonably well for Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, Cu-23%Cr-5%Al, and NiAl in accordance with the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law although a better fit is obtained using the Smith-Palmer relationship. The Lorentz numbers determined from the WF law are close to the theoretical value.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Cold- and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings I: Electrical and Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, and Total Hemispherical Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    This two-part paper reports the thermophysical properties of several cold- and vacuum plasma-sprayed monolithic Cu- and Ni-based alloy coatings. Part I presents the electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and total hemispherical emissivity data, while Part II reports the specific heat capacity data for these coatings. Metallic copper alloys and stoichiometric NiAl and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray or the vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal property measurements between 77 and 1223 K. The temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, electrical conductivities, and total hemispherical emissivities of these cold- and vacuum-sprayed monolithic coatings are reported in this paper. The electrical and thermal conductivity data correlate reasonably well for Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, Cu-23%Cr-5%Al, and NiAl in accordance with the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law although a better fit is obtained using the Smith-Palmer relationship. The Lorentz numbers determined from the WF law are close to the theoretical value.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-Cr-X Alloys, NiAl and NiCrAlY Coatings. Part 1; Electrical and Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Diffusivity, and Total Hemispherical Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper reports the thermophysical properties of several cold and vacuum plasma sprayed monolithic Cu and Ni-based alloy coatings. Part I presents the electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and total hemispherical emissivity data while Part II reports the specific heat capacity data for these coatings. Metallic copper alloys, stoichiometric NiAl and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold sprayed or the vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal property measurements between 77 and 1223 K. The temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivities, thermal diffusivities, electrical conductivities and total hemispherical emissivities of these cold and vacuum sprayed monolithic coatings are reported in this paper. The electrical and thermal conductivity data correlate reasonably well for Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and NiAl in accordance with the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law although a better fit is obtained using the Smith-Palmer relationship. The Lorentz numbers determined from the WF law are close to the theoretical value.

  6. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  7. Hard coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films on cemented tungsten carbide by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Egiza, Mohamed; Tominaga, Aki; Murasawa, Koki; Gonda, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Masatoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were deposited on cemented carbide containing Co by coaxial arc plasma deposition. With decreasing substrate temperature, the hardness was enhanced accompanied by an enhancement in the sp3/(sp2 + sp3). Energy-dispersive X-ray and secondary ion mass spectrometry spectroscopic measurements exhibited that the diffusion of Co atoms from the substrates into the films hardly occurs. The film deposited at room temperature exhibited the maximum hardness of 51.3 GPa and Young's modulus of 520.2 GPa, which evidently indicates that graphitization induced by Co in the WC substrates, and thermal deformation from sp3 to sp2 bonding are suppressed. The hard UNCD/a-C films can be deposited at a thickness of approximately 3 μm, which is an order larger than that of comparably hard a-C films. The internal compressive stress of the 51.3-GPa film is 4.5 GPa, which is evidently smaller than that of comparably hard a-C films. This is a reason for the thick deposition. The presence of a large number of grain boundaries in the film, which is a structural specific to UNCD/a-C films, might play a role in releasing the internal stress of the films.

  8. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emphasis Programs Directives Severe Violators TOPICS By Sector Construction Health Care Agriculture Maritime Oil and Gas Federal ... such fatalities often are referred to as "harnessinduced pathology" or "suspension trauma." Signs & symptoms that may be ...

  9. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor will have you try bladder retraining, Kegel exercises, medicines, or other options. If you tried ... retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  10. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  11. Peculiar features of metallurgical processes at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, made of steel wire with powder fillers B4C and B4C+ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Михайлович Григоренко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metallurgical processes occurring in plasma-arc spraying between the steel shell and the carbide fillers of B4C and B4C cored wires with the addition of nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder has been analyzed. Iron-boron compounds alloyed with carbon are formed in ingots as a result of ferritiс coating of wire interacrion with fillers while the ferritic matrix contains boride and carboboride eutectics. Average microhardness of the carboboride compounds and the matrix is high – 17,78; 16,40 and 8,69; 9,95 GPa for the ingots with с B4C and B4C+ZrO2 respectively. The best quality coatings with low porosity (~1%, lamellar structure consisting of ferrite matrix reinforced with dispersed Fe borides, were obtained at a higher heat input (plasmatron current 240-250 A. The average amount of oxides in the coatings makes 15%. 0,5% addition of nanopowder ZrO2 accelerates dispersed iron-boron compounds forming, promotes their uniform distribution in the structure and improves coating microhardness up to 7,0 GPa. Application of the differential thermal analysis method to simulate the interaction processes between the steel shell and the filler during the heating of wire in the shielding gas makes it possible to promote formation of new phases (borides and carboborides of iron and to predict the phase composition of the coatings

  12. Articulated suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention provides a rough terrain vehicle which maintains a substantially constant weight, and therefore traction, on all wheels, despite one wheel moving considerably higher or lower than the others, while avoiding a very soft spring suspension. The vehicle includes a chassis or body to be supported and a pair of side suspensions at either side of the body. In a six wheel vehicle, each side suspension includes a middle wheel, and front and rear linkages respectively coupling the front and rear wheels to the middle wheel. A body link pivotally connects the front and rear linkages together, with the middle of the body link rising or falling by only a fraction of the rise or fall of any of the three wheels. The body link pivotally supports the middle of the length of the body. A transverse suspension for suspending the end of the body on the side suspensions includes a middle part pivotally connected to the body about a longitudinal axis and opposite ends each pivotally connected to one of the side suspensions along at least a longitudinal axis.

  13. Atmospheric-pressure argon plasma etching of spin-coated 3,4-polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) films for cupper phtalocyanine (CuPc)/C{sub 60} heterojunction thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime, E-mail: shirai@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2011-08-01

    Depth profiles of the optical constants, carrier mobility, and carrier density of spin-coated 3,4-polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) films were investigated by real-time characterization by the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) during argon plasma etching at atmospheric pressure. Spectral analysis revealed that homogeneous etching occurred within 10-15 nm of the top surface, followed by the appearance of a conductive PEDOT phase and surface roughning, which originated from the depth profile of the PEDOT-to-PSS molar concentration ratio. The use of the plasma-etched PEDOT:PSS layer improved relatively the performance of the copper phtalocyanine (CuPc)/C{sub 60} organic thin-films solar cells as a hole-transport layer with higher optical transmittance by adjusting the plasma etching condition.

  14. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  15. Separation and preconcentration of riboflavin from human plasma using polythionine coated magnetite/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite prior to analysis by surfactant-enhanced fluorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Leila; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2017-09-01

    The exploration of novel adsorption properties of conductive polymers based on hybridization with biocompatible nanomaterials receives an increasing interest. In this regard, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic is of critical importance mainly owing to its facile synthesis, high surface area, economic and low toxicity in biological environments. In this work, we first prepared and characterized a magnetite/hydroxyapatite (Fe3O4/HA) nanocomposite using the bio-waste chicken eggshell via an attractive green way that involved low cost and irrespective of toxicity. Then, polythionine as a novel class of conductive polymers was in situ coated on the synthesized magnetic bioceramic for the separation and preconcentration of riboflavin (vitamin B2) in human plasma before its fluorimetric determination. Considering the putative role of riboflavin in protecting against cancer and cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to evaluate this vitamin in biological fluids. The described method possesses a linear range of 0.75-262.5 μg L- 1 (R2 = 0.9985) and a detection limit of 0.20 μg L- 1 (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for single-sorbent repeatability and sorbent-to-sorbent reproducibility were less than 4.0% and 7.6% (n = 5), respectively. The respective enrichment factor and extraction recovery of the method found to be 35.7 and 98.4%. The analytical performance of method for riboflavin was characterized by good consistency of the results with those obtained by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) conventional method (p-value of human subjects and is addressed to clinical laboratories.

  16. Silicon nitride films fabricated by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for coatings of the laser interferometer gravitational wave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huang-Wei; Kuo, Ling-Chi; Huang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yun; Juang, Yu-Hang; Lee, Chia-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Wen, Ting Ting; Chao, Shiuh

    2018-01-01

    Silicon is a potential substrate material for the large-areal-size mirrors of the next-generation laser interferometer gravitational wave detector operated in cryogenics. Silicon nitride thin films uniformly deposited by a chemical vap