WorldWideScience

Sample records for coating candidate materials

  1. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  2. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  3. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  4. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materialsC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  5. Candidate plasma-facing materials for EUV lithography source components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Burtseva, Tatiana; Brooks, Jeff N.; Konkashbaev, Isak K.; Rice, Bryan J.

    2003-06-01

    Material selection and lifetime issues for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are of critical importance to the success of this technology for commercial applications. This paper reviews current trends in production and use of plasma-facing electrodes, insulators, and wall materials for EUV type sources. Ideal candidate materials should be able to: withstand high thermal shock from the short pulsed plasma; withstand high thermal loads without structural failure; reduce debris generation during discharge; and be machined accurately. We reviewed the literature on current and proposed fusion plasma-facing materials as well as current experience with plasma gun and other simulation devices. Both fusion and EUV source materials involve issues of surface erosion by particle sputtering and heat-induced evaporation/melting. These materials are either bare structural materials or surface coatings. EUV materials can be divided into four categories: wall, electrode, optical, and insulator materials. For electric discharge sources, all four types are required, whereas laser-produced plasma EUV sources do not require electrode and insulator materials. Several types of candidate alloy and other materials and methods of manufacture are recommended for each component of EUV lithography light sources.

  6. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program: Topical report I, selection of candidate alloys. Volume 3. Selection of surface coating/substrate systems for screening creep and structural stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-20

    Considering the high temperature, low O/sub 2/, high C environment of operation in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Systems, the utilization of coatings is envisaged to hold potential for extending component lifetimes through the formation of stable and continuous oxide films with enhanced resistance to C diffusion. A survey of the current state of technology for high temperature coatings has been performed. The usefulness of these coatings on the Mo, Ni, and Fe base alloys is discussed. Specifically, no coating substitute was identified for TZM other than the well known W-3 (pack silicide) and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ forming coatings were recommended for the Fe and Ni base structural materials. Recommendations as to coating types and processng have been made based on the predicted VHTR component size, shape, base metal and operational environment. Four tests designed to evaluate the effects of selected combinations of coatings and substrate matrices are recommended for consideration.

  7. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  8. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  9. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Rudolph G.; Martinez, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  10. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  11. Investigation of Coating Capability of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Akçin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, composite materials are widely used in the sectors that are overrated high strength / density and high elasticity modulus / density ratios such as defense industry, marine transportation, automotive and aerospace industry. However, because of the surface properties such as tribological behavior and low wear resistance their application areas are limited. Coating is the prominent process in order to improve these properties of the materials. In this study, hard ceramic powders (Al2O3 + TiO2 and CrO3 are coated to surface of glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite materials with plasma spray coating method started to be widely used todays and physical, mechanical and metallographic properties of obtained coatings were examined.

  12. Recent production of candidate reference materials at IRMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.N.; Pauwels, J.; Le Guern, L.; Schimmel, H.; Trapmann, S. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre

    2001-06-01

    In the execution of its mission to promote a common European measurement system in support of EU policies, IRMM's Reference Materials Unit is currently involved in preparation of proficiency-testing samples and candidate reference materials. Recent work related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows, genetically modified organisms, and a variety of environmental materials is described. (orig.)

  13. Methods of Antimicrobial Coating of Diverse Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of coating diverse substrate materials with antimicrobial agents have been developed. Originally intended to reduce health risks to astronauts posed by pathogenic microorganisms that can grow on surfaces in spacecraft, these methods could also be used on Earth for example, to ensure sterility of surgical inserts and other medical equipment. The methods involve, generally, chemical preparation of substrate surfaces to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the substrate surfaces via covalent bonds. Substrate materials that have been treated successfully include aluminum, glass, a corrosion-resistant nickel alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Antimicrobial agents that have been successfully immobilized include antibiotics, enzymes, bacteriocins, bactericides, and fungicides. A variety of linkage chem istries were employed. Activity of antimicrobial coatings against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi was demonstrated. Results of investigations indicate that the most suitable combination of antimicrobial agent, substrate, and coating method depends upon the intended application.

  14. ALD coating of nuclear fuel actinides materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Yun, Di; Billone, Mike

    2017-09-05

    The invention provides a method of forming a nuclear fuel pellet of a uranium containing fuel alternative to UO.sub.2, with the steps of obtaining a fuel form in a powdered state; coating the fuel form in a powdered state with at least one layer of a material; and sintering the powdered fuel form into a fuel pellet. Also provided is a sintered nuclear fuel pellet of a uranium containing fuel alternative to UO.sub.2, wherein the pellet is made from particles of fuel, wherein the particles of fuel are particles of a uranium containing moiety, and wherein the fuel particles are coated with at least one layer between about 1 nm to about 4 nm thick of a material using atomic layer deposition, and wherein the at least one layer of the material substantially surrounds each interfacial grain barrier after the powdered fuel form has been sintered.

  15. New Generation Perovskite Thermal Barrier Coating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W.; Jarligo, M. O.; Mack, D. E.; Pitzer, D.; Malzbender, J.; Vaßen, R.; Stöver, D.

    2008-12-01

    Advanced ceramic materials of perovskite structure have been developed for potential application in thermal barrier coating systems, in an effort to improve the properties of the pre-existing ones like yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yb2O3 and Gd2O3 doped strontium zirconate (SrZrO3) and barium magnesium tantalate (Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3) of the ABO3 and complex A(B'1/3B''2/3)O3 systems, respectively, have been synthesized using ball milling prior to solid state sintering. Thermal and mechanical investigations show desirable properties for high-temperature coating applications. On atmospheric plasma spraying, the newly developed thermal barrier coatings reveal promising thermal cycle lifetime up to 1350 °C.

  16. Application opportunities for nanostructured materials and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy

    1995-12-01

    Nanostructured materials have the potential to change materials science as we know it today significantly, as well as to provide a new generation of materials with a quantum improvement in properties. While many interesting properties have been generated in the laboratory, there is still much work to be done before there are production applications for nanostructured materials and coatings in gas turbine engines and similar demanding strength- and temperature-limited applications. This paper (1) describes the need for improved materials in gas turbine engines, (2) summarizes the improved physical and mechanical properties that have been reported for nanostructured materials, (3) discusses a research and development methodology that has the potential for accelerating technology implementation, and (4) describes high pay-off applications. (orig.)

  17. Molecular characterization of two candidate genes associated with coat color in Tibetan sheep (Ovis arise)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ji-long; YANG Min; GUO Ting-ting; YUE Yao-jing; LIU Jian-bin; NIU Chun-e; WANG Chao-feng; YANG Bo-hui

    2015-01-01

    Coat color is a key economic trait in sheep. Some candidate genes associated with animal’s coat color were found. Partic-ularly, v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) play a key role in the modulation of hair pigmentation in mammals. This study investigated those two candidate genes’ mutations and expressions associated with wool color in Tibetan sheep. First, the gene polymorphisms of those two genes were analyzed, and then, relative mRNA expression levels of those two genes in skin tissue with different coat colors were compared. Thirdly, KIT and MITF protein expression levels were detected through Western blot and immune-histochemical. Al ele C was predominant al ele in the white coat color Tibetan sheep population of the MITF coding region g. 1548 C/T loci. The relative MITF mRNA expression in black coat skin tissue was signiifcantly higher than white (P0.05), while the level of KIT protein expression in skin tissues of white and black coats was also roughly equivalent. Our study observed that, the level of MITF protein expression in black coat skin tissue was signiifcantly higher than that in white coat skin tissue, and positive staining for MITF protein expression was detected mainly in the epidermis and the dermal papil a, bulb, and outer root sheath of hair fol icles. We conclude that the black coat of Tibetan sheep is related to high MITF expression in the hair fol icles, and MITF may be important for coat color formation of Tibetan sheep.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  19. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  20. Application of Rare Earths in Thermal Barrier Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang CAO

    2007-01-01

    Rare earths are a series of minerals with special properties that make them essential for applications including miniaturized electronics, computer hard disks, display panels, missile guidance, pollution controlling catalysts,H2-storage and other advanced materials. The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has the potential to extend the working temperature and the life of a gas turbine by providing a layer of thermal insulation between the metallic substrate and the hot gas. Yttria (Y2O3), as one of the most important rare earth oxides, has already been used in the typical TBC material YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia). In the development of the TBC materials, especially in the latest ten years, rare earths have been found to be more and more important. All the new candidates of TBC materials contain a large quantity of rare earths, such as R2Zr2O7 (R=La, Ce, Nd,Gd), CeO2-YSZ, RMeAI11O19 (R=La, Nd; Me=Mg, Ca, Sr) and LaPO4. The concept of double-ceramiclayer coatings based on the rare earth materials and YSZ is effective for the improvement of the thermal shock life of TBCs at high temperature.

  1. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  2. New generation perovskite thermal barrier coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.; Jarligo, M.O.; Mack, D.E.; Pitzer, D.; Malzbender, J.; Vassen, R.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Advanced ceramic materials of perovskite structure have been developed for potential application in thermal barrier coating systems, in an effort to improve the properties of the pre-existing ones like yttria stabilized zirconia. Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped strontium zirconate (SrZrO{sub 3}) and barium magnesium tantalate (Ba(Mg{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}) of the ABO{sub 3} and complex A(B'{sub 1/3}B''{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} systems respectively, have been synthesized using ball milling prior to solid state sintering. Thermal and mechanical investigations show desirable properties for high temperature coating applications. On atmospheric plasma spraying, the newly developed TBCs reveal promising thermal cycle lifetime above 1300 C. (orig.)

  3. Cryogenic Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Candidate Materials for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, JIm; Canavan, Ed; Jahromi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Spacecraft and instruments on space missions are built using a wide variety of carefully-chosen materials. In addition to having mechanical properties appropriate for surviving the launch environment, these materials generally must have thermal conductivity values which meet specific requirements in their operating temperature ranges. Space missions commonly propose to include materials for which the thermal conductivity is not well known at cryogenic temperatures. We developed a test facility in 2004 at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to measure material thermal conductivity at temperatures between 4 and 300 Kelvin, and we have characterized many candidate materials since then. The measurement technique is not extremely complex, but proper care to details of the setup, data acquisition and data reduction is necessary for high precision and accuracy. We describe the thermal conductivity measurement process and present results for several materials.

  4. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  6. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  7. 77 FR 20886 - Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions or...

  8. Evaluation of enteric-coated tablets as a whole cell inactivated vaccine candidate against Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Sonsire; Año, Gemma; Castaño, Jorge; Pino, Yadira; Uribarri, Evangelina; Riverón, Luis A; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Falero, Gustavo; Pérez, José L; Infante, Juan F; García, Luis G; Solís, Rosa L; Sierra, Gustavo; Talavera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    A vaccine candidate against cholera was developed in the form of oral tablets to avoid difficulties during application exhibited by current whole cell inactivated cholera vaccines. In this study, enteric-coated tablets were used to improve the protection of the active compound from gastric acidity. Tablets containing heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae strain C7258 as the active pharmaceutical compound was enteric-coated with the polymer Kollicoat(®) MAE-100P, which protected them efficiently from acidity when a disintegration test was carried out. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibition test and Western blot assay revealed the presence of V. cholerae antigens as LPS, mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA) and outer membrane protein U (Omp U) in enteric-coated tablets. Immunogenicity studies (ELISA and vibriocidal test) carried out by intraduodenal administration in rabbits showed that the coating process of tablets did not affect the immunogenicity of V. cholerae-inactivated cells. In addition, no differences were observed in the immune response elicited by enteric-coated or uncoated tablets, particularly because the animal model and immunization route used did not allow discriminating between acid resistances of both tablets formulations in vivo. Clinical studies with volunteers will be required to elucidate this aspect, but the results suggest the possibility of using enteric-coated tablets as a final pharmaceutical product for a cholera vaccine.

  9. Graphene/Epoxy Coating as Multifunctional Material for Aircraft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Monetta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of graphene as a conductive nanofiller in the preparation of inorganic/polymer nanocomposites has attracted increasing interest in the aerospace field. The reason for this is the possibility of overcoming problems strictly connected to the aircraft structures, such as electrical conductivity and thus lightning strike protection. In addition, graphene is an ideal candidate to enhance the anti-corrosion properties of the resin, since it absorbs most of the light and provides hydrophobicity for repelling water. An important aspect of these multifunctional materials is that all these improvements can be realized even at very low filler loadings in the polymer matrix. In this work, graphene nanoflakes were incorporated into a water-based epoxy resin, and then the hybrid coating was applied to Al 2024-T3 samples. The addition of graphene considerably improved some physical properties of the hybrid coating as demonstrated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS analysis, ameliorating anti-corrosion performances of raw material. DSC measurements and Cross-cut Test showed that graphene did not affect the curing process or the adhesion properties. Moreover, an increment of water contact angle was displayed.

  10. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  11. Materials characteristics of uncoated/ceramic-coated implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, W R

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, the biocompatibility of dental implant materials is discussed in the context of both the mechanical characteristics of the materials and the type of surface presented to the surrounding tissues. The proper functioning of the implant depends on whether it possesses the strength necessary to withstand loading within the expected range, with other properties such as elongation being of importance in some instances. A suitable modulus of elasticity may be of major importance in situations when optimum load transmission from the implant into the surrounding bone is key to the successful functioning of the device. Dental implants present a wide range of surfaces to the surrounding tissues based on surface composition, texture, charge energy, and cleanliness (sterility). Metallic implants are characterized by protective oxide layers, but ion release is still common with these materials, and is a function of passivation state, composition, and corrosion potential. An effective surface treatment for titanium appears to be passivation or anodization in a suitable solution prior to implantation. Inert ceramic surfaces exhibit minimal ion release, but are similar to metals in that they do not form a high energy bond to the surrounding bone. Some of the newly developed dental implant alloys such as titanium alloys, which contain zirconium and niobium, and high-strength ceramics such as zirconia may offer some advantages (such as lower modulus of elasticity) over the conventional materials. Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings are commonly used to convert metallic surfaces into a more bioactive state and typically cause faster bone apposition. There is a wide range of ceramic coatings containing calcium and phosphorus, with the primary difference in many of these materials being in the rate of ion release. Although their long-term success rate is unknown, the calcium phosphate surfaces seem to have a higher potential for attachment of osteoinductive agents than do

  12. Coating and Characterization of Mock and Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Hunt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project develops a method of manufacturing plastic-bonded explosives by using use precision control of agglomeration and coating of energetic powders. The energetic material coating process entails suspending either wet or dry energetic powders in a stream of inert gas and contacting the energetic powder with atomized droplets of a lacquer composed of binder and organic solvent. By using a high-velocity air stream to pneumatically convey the energetic powders and droplets of lacquer, the energetic powders are efficiently wetted while agglomerate drying begins almost immediately. The result is an energetic powder uniformly coated with binder, that is, a PBX, with a high bulk density suitable for pressing. Experiments have been conducted using mock explosive materials to examine coating effectiveness and density. Energetic materials are now being coated and will be tested both mechanically and thermally. This allows for a comprehensive comparison of the morphology and reactivity of the newly coated materials to previously manufactured materials.

  13. Coating of calcium phosphate on biometallic materials by electrophoretic deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Er-lin; YANG Ke

    2005-01-01

    Although biometallic materials have been used as bone implant materials for a long time, they are still detected as foreign bodies by human immune system. Calcium phosphate coating, especially hydroxyapatite(HA)coating attracts special attention due to its good biocompatibility. Being one of the effective methods used to deposit HA coating onto the metallic implant, the electrophoretic deposition(EPD) was reviewed in detail, including the process of EPD, the advantages and disadvantages, the important processing factors and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating. Research results on the processing and the coating show potential application of EPD process to the biomedical materials surface modification. In addition, the nanoparticulate HA coating as a new trend in HA coating was also introduced.

  14. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R&D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns.

  15. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites, described as the inclusion of nanometer-sized layered silicates into polymeric materials, have been widely researched due to significant enhancements in material properties with the incorporation of small levels of filler (1--5 wt.%) compared to conventional micro- and macro-composites (20--30 wt.%). One of the most promising applications for polymer-clay nanocomposites is in the field of barrier coatings. The development of UV-curable polymer-clay nanocomposite barrier coatings was explored by employing a novel in situ preparation technique. Unsaturated polyesters were synthesized in the presence of organomodified clays by in situ intercalative polymerization to create highly dispersed clays in a precursor resin. The resulting clay-containing polyesters were crosslinked via UV-irradiation using donor-acceptor chemistry to create polymer-clay nanocomposites which exhibited significantly enhanced barrier properties compared to alternative clay dispersion techniques. The impact of the quaternary alkylammonium organic modifiers, used to increase compatibility between the inorganic clay and organic polymer, was studied to explore influence of the organic modifier structure on the nanocomposite material properties. By incorporating just the organic modifiers, no layered silicates, into the polyester resins, reductions in film mechanical and thermal properties were observed, a strong indicator of film plasticization. An alternative in situ preparation method was explored to further increase the dispersion of organomodified clay within the precursor polyester resins. In stark contrast to traditional in situ polymerization methods, a novel "reverse" in situ preparation method was developed, where unmodified montmorillonite clay was added during polyesterification to a reaction mixture containing the alkylammonium organic modifier. The resulting nanocomposite films exhibited reduced water vapor permeability and increased mechanical properties

  16. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  17. Thermal Noise Reduction and Absorption Optimisation via Multi-Material Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Jessica; Hough, Jim; Krueger, Christoph; Rowan, Sheila; Schnabel, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) such as Advanced LIGO upgrades and the Einstein Telescope are planned to operate at cryogenic temperatures using crystalline silicon (cSi) test-mass mirrors at an operation wavelength of 1550 nm. The reduction in temperature in principle provides a direct reduction in coating thermal noise, but the presently used coating stacks which are composed of silica (SiO2) and tantala (Ta2O5) show cryogenic loss peaks which results in less thermal noise improvement than might be expected. Due to low mechanical loss at low temperature amorphous silicon (aSi) is a very promising candidate material for dielectric mirror coatings and could replace Ta2O5. Unfortunately, such a aSi/SiO2 coating is not suitable for use in GWDs due to high optical absorption in aSi coatings. We explore the use of a three material based coating stack. In this multi-material design the low absorbing Ta2O5 in the outermost coating layers significantly reduces the incident light power, while aSi is used o...

  18. Optical coatings material aspects in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Optical coatings, i.e. multilayer stacks composed from a certain number of thin individual layers, are an essential part of any optical system necessary to tailor the properties of the optical surfaces. Hereby, the performance of any optical coating is defined by a well-balanced interplay between the properties of the individual coating materials and the geometrical parameters (such as film thickness) which define their arrangement. In all scientific books dealing with the performance of optical coatings, the main focus is on optimizing the geometrical coating parameters, particularly the number of individual layers and their thickness. At the same time, much less attention is paid to another degree of freedom in coating design, namely the possibility to tailor optical material properties to an optimum relevant for the required specification. This book, on the contrary, concentrates on the material aside of the problem. After a comprehensive review of the basics of thin film theory, traditional optical coatin...

  19. Advanced Porous Coating for Low-Density Ceramic Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1988-01-01

    The need for improved coatings on low-density reusable surface insulation (RSI) materials used on the space shuttle has stimulated research into developing tougher coatings. The processing of a new porous composite "coating" for RST called toughened unipiece fibrous insulation Is discussed. Characteristics including performance in a simulated high-speed atmospheric entry, morphological structure before and after this exposure, resistance to Impact, and thermal response to a typical heat pulse are described. It is shown that this coating has improved impact resistance while maintaining optical and thermal properties comparable to the previously available reaction-cured glass coating.

  20. Interaction of candidate plasma facing materials with tokamak plasma in COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějíček, Jiří; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Havránek, Vladimír; Naydenkova, Diana; Klevarová, Veronika; Petersson, Per; Gasior, Pawel; Hakola, Antti; Rubel, Marek; Fortuna, Elzbieta; Kolehmainen, Jukka; Tervakangas, Sanna

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of tokamak plasma with several materials considered for the plasma facing components of future fusion devices was studied in a small-size COMPASS tokamak. These included mainly tungsten as the prime candidate and chromium steel as an alternative whose suitability was to be assessed. For the experiments, thin coatings of tungsten, P92 steel and nickel on graphite substrates were prepared by arc-discharge sputtering. The samples were exposed to hydrogen and deuterium plasma discharges in the COMPASS tokamak in two modes: a) short exposure (several discharges) on a manipulator in the proximity of the separatrix, close to the central column, and b) long exposure (several months) at the central column, aligned with the other graphite tiles. During the discharges, standard plasma diagnostics were used and a local emission of spectral lines in the visible near ultraviolet regions, corresponding to the material erosion, was monitored. Before and after the plasma exposures, the sample surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy, the coatings thickness was measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and the concentration profiles of hydrogen and deuterium were measured by elastic recoil detection analysis. The uniformity of the coatings and their thickness was verified before the exposure. After the exposure, no reduction of the thickness was observed, indicating the absence of 'global' erosion. Erosion was observed only in isolated spots, and attributed to unipolar arcing. Slightly larger erosion was found on the steel coatings compared to the tungsten ones. Incorporation of deuterium in a thin surface layer was observed, in dependence on the exposure mode. Additionally, boron enrichment of the long-exposure samples was observed, as a result of the tokamak chamber boronization.

  1. Protection and Reinforcement of Tooth Structures by Dental Coating Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Nikaido

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that a resin coating can serve as a means to protect dental structure after preparation of the tooth for indirect restorations, sealing the exposed dentin. The resin coating is applied on the cut surfaces immediately after tooth preparation and before making an impression by assembling a dentin bonding system and a flowable composite. Resin coatings minimize pulp irritation and improve the bond strength between a resin cement and tooth when bonding the restoration to tooth. Recently, thin-film coating dental materials based on all-in-one adhesive technology were introduced for resin coating of indirect restorations. The thin coating materials are applied in a single clinical step and create a barrier-like film layer on the prepared dentin. The thin coatings play an important role in protecting the dentin from physical, chemical, and biological irritation. In addition, these thin-film coating materials reportedly prevent marginal leakage beneath inlays or crown restorations. In light of the many benefits provided by such a protective layer, these all-in-one adhesive materials may therefore also have the potential to cover exposed root dentin surfaces and prevent caries formation. In this paper, recent progress of the dental coating materials and their clinical applications are reviewed.

  2. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  3. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  4. Topology optimization of coated structures and material interface problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for including coated structures and prescribed material interface properties into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. Several elements of the method are applicable to a broader range of interface problems. The approach extends the standard SIMP...... method by including the normalized norm of the spatial gradient of the design field into the material interpolation function, enforcing coating material at interfaces by attributing particular properties. The length scales of the base structure and the coating are separated by introducing a two......-step filtering/projection approach. The modeled coating thickness is derived analytically, and the coating is shown to be accurately controlled and applied in a highly uniform manner over the structure. An alternative interpretation of the model is to perform single-material design for additive manufacturing...

  5. Topology optimization of coated structures and material interface problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for including coated structures and prescribed material interface properties into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. Several elements of the method are applicable to a broader range of interface problems. The approach extends the standard SIMP...... method by including the normalized norm of the spatial gradient of the design field into the material interpolation function, enforcing coating material at interfaces by attributing particular properties. The length scales of the base structure and the coating are separated by introducing a two......-step filtering/projection approach. The modeled coating thickness is derived analytically, and the coating is shown to be accurately controlled and applied in a highly uniform manner over the structure. An alternative interpretation of the model is to perform single-material design for additive manufacturing...

  6. Fabrication and characterization of modified-hydroxyapatite/polyetheretherketone coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fang, Lin, E-mail: fanglinhit@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luo, Zhongkuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zheng, Ruisheng [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Song, Shenhua; Weng, Luqian; Lei, JinPing [Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • 45 wt%-Hydroxyaptite/polyetheretherketone (HA/PEEK) coating materials modified by silane coupling agent (KH560) on PEEK substrate is successfully fabricated by solution casting method. • Strong bonding between the composite coating and the PEEK substrate is achieved. • HA/PEEK coating materials exhibit better bioactivity. - Abstract: 45 wt%-Hydroxyaptite/polyetheretherketone (HA/PEEK) coating materials modified by silane coupling agent (KH560) on PEEK substrate were successfully fabricated by solution casting method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile testing. The modified HA fillers were obtained to be uniformly distributed in the HA/PEEK coating, which has better properties of tensile strength and fracture toughness than those of the unmodified specimen. A good bonding between the composite coating and the PEEK substrate was achieved by solution casting method, resulting in integral-fracture without falling apart or delaminating during tensile loading. The modified specimens dipped into simulated body fluid (SBF) were characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR, indicating that the bioactivity of the dipped materials was demonstrated more apparent with extending the dipping time. Therefore, the coating materials may become the substitutes for the hard tissues of the human body in the future, which could realize the balance between the mechanical properties and the bioactivity by modifying the structural design of the coating.

  7. Cathodic Polarization Coats Titanium Based Implant Materials with Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a bioactive surface coating that enhances bone healing and bone growth is a strong focus of on-going research for bone implant materials. Enamel matrix derivate (EMD is well documented to support bone regeneration and activates growth of mesenchymal tissues. Thus, it is a prime candidate for coating of existing implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercially available implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bio-available surface layer of EMD. After coating, XPS revealed EMD-related bindings on the surface while SIMS showed incorporation of EMD into the surface. The hydride layer of the original surface could be activated for coating in an integrated one-step process that did not require any pre-treatment of the surface. SEM images showed nano-spheres and nano-rods on coated surfaces that were EMD-related. Moreover, the surface roughness remained unchanged after coating, as it was shown by optical profilometry. The mass peaks observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the integrity of EMD after coating. Assessment of the bioavailability suggested that the modified surfaces were active for osteoblast like MC3M3-E1 cells in showing enhanced Coll-1 gene expression and ALP activity.

  8. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  9. Preparation and characterization of energetic materials coated superfine aluminum particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songsong; Ye, Mingquan; Han, Aijun; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to protect the activity of aluminum in solid rocket propellants by means of solvent/non-solvent method in which nitrocellulose (NC) and Double-11 (shortened form of double-base gun propellant, model 11) have been used as coating materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the morphology of coated Al particles. Other characterization data of coated and uncoated Al particles, such as infrared absorption spectrum, laser particle size analysis and the active aluminum content were also studied. The thermal behavior of pure and coated aluminum samples have also been studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that: superfine aluminum particles could be effectively coated with nitrocellulose and Double-11 through a solvent/non-solvent method. The energetic composite particles have core-shell structures and the thickness of the coating film is about 20-50 nm. The active aluminum content of different coated samples was measured by means of oxidation-reduction titration method. The results showed that after being stored in room temperature and under 50% humidity condition for about 4months the active aluminum content of coated Al particles decreased from 99.8 to 95.8% (NC coating) and 99.2% (Double-11 coating) respectively. Double-11 coating layer had a much better protective effect. The TG-DTA and DSC results showed that the energy amount and energy release rate of NC coated and Double-11 coated Al particles were larger than those of the raw Al particles. Double-11 coated Al particles have more significant catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition characters of AP than that of NC coated Al particles. These features accorded with the energy release characteristics of solid propellant.

  10. Preparation and characterization of energetic materials coated superfine aluminum particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songsong; Ye, Mingquan, E-mail: liusong8366@gmail.com; Han, Aijun; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to protect the activity of aluminum in solid rocket propellants by means of solvent/non-solvent method in which nitrocellulose (NC) and Double-11 (shortened form of double-base gun propellant, model 11) have been used as coating materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the morphology of coated Al particles. Other characterization data of coated and uncoated Al particles, such as infrared absorption spectrum, laser particle size analysis and the active aluminum content were also studied. The thermal behavior of pure and coated aluminum samples have also been studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that: superfine aluminum particles could be effectively coated with nitrocellulose and Double-11 through a solvent/non-solvent method. The energetic composite particles have core-shell structures and the thickness of the coating film is about 20–50 nm. The active aluminum content of different coated samples was measured by means of oxidation–reduction titration method. The results showed that after being stored in room temperature and under 50% humidity condition for about 4months the active aluminum content of coated Al particles decreased from 99.8 to 95.8% (NC coating) and 99.2% (Double-11 coating) respectively. Double-11 coating layer had a much better protective effect. The TG–DTA and DSC results showed that the energy amount and energy release rate of NC coated and Double-11 coated Al particles were larger than those of the raw Al particles. Double-11 coated Al particles have more significant catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition characters of AP than that of NC coated Al particles. These features accorded with the energy release characteristics of solid propellant.

  11. New fluidized bed reactor for coating of energetic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Huijser, T.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    The process of altering and changing the properties of the energetic materials by coating has been studied extensively by several scientific groups. According to the desired application different coating techniques have been developed and applied to achieve satisfactory results. Among the already de

  12. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  13. New fluidized bed reactor for coating of energetic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Huijser, T.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    The process of altering and changing the properties of the energetic materials by coating has been studied extensively by several scientific groups. According to the desired application different coating techniques have been developed and applied to achieve satisfactory results. Among the already

  14. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  15. Protective coatings based on 2D-materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten

    Corrosion has a major impact on the world economy. Barrier coatings is one of the most widely applied strategies to reduce the degradation of materials, however, every coating technology has its drawbacks. Graphene has the potential of creating the ideal coating, being atomically thin and, when...... in perfect condition, impermeable to most molecules. However, it has recently been demonstrated that graphene can promote galvanic corrosion and may actually increase the corrosion rate in the long term. The aim of this thesis is to individuate, develop and demonstrate solutions based on 2Dmaterials......, that can deliver viable coatings technologies circumventing the drawback demonstrated for graphene coatings. The focus is twofold, with a solution that focuses on multi-layer coatings, wherein the drawback of graphene is circumvented by diffusion limitations. Here it will be shown that such solutions...

  16. Novel surface coating materials for endodontic dental implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, M.H. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Materials Engineering Dept., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, V.; Moosavi, S.B. [Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and produce novel coating materials in order to obtain two goals including; improvement of the corrosion behavior of metallic dental endodontic implant and the bone osteointegration simultaneously. Stainless steel 316L (SS) was used as a metallic substrate and a novel Hydroxyapatite/Titanium (HA/Ti) composite coating was prepared on it. Structural characterization techniques including XRD, SEM and EDX were utilized to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the coating. Electrochemical tests were performed in physiological solutions in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens as an indication of biocompatibility. Two types of endodontic implants including; SS with and without (HA/Ti) composite coating were prepared and subsequently implanted in the mandibular canine of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, osteointegration evaluation and histopathological interpretation was carried out using SEM and optical microscopy. Results indicate that the novel HA/Ti composite coating improves the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of SS endodontic dental implant. The clinical evaluation (in vivo test) results showed that there was significant difference in osteointegration between coated and uncoated endodontic dental implants and average bone osteointegration of coated implants were more than uncoated implants. The histopathological results and bone tissue response to the coated implants was acceptable and it was concluded that HA/Ti composite coated SS could be used as well as an endodontic dental implant. (author)

  17. Lower-Conductivity Ceramic Materials for Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming

    2006-01-01

    Doped pyrochlore oxides of a type described below are under consideration as alternative materials for high-temperature thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). In comparison with partially-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is the state-of-the-art TBC material now in commercial use, these doped pyrochlore oxides exhibit lower thermal conductivities, which could be exploited to obtain the following advantages: For a given difference in temperature between an outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface, the coating could be thinner. Reductions in coating thicknesses could translate to reductions in weight of hot-section components of turbine engines (e.g., combustor liners, blades, and vanes) to which TBCs are typically applied. For a given coating thickness, the difference in temperature between the outer coating surface and the coating/substrate interface could be greater. For turbine engines, this could translate to higher operating temperatures, with consequent increases in efficiency and reductions in polluting emissions. TBCs are needed because the temperatures in some turbine-engine hot sections exceed the maximum temperatures that the substrate materials (superalloys, Si-based ceramics, and others) can withstand. YSZ TBCs are applied to engine components as thin layers by plasma spraying or electron-beam physical vapor deposition. During operation at higher temperatures, YSZ layers undergo sintering, which increases their thermal conductivities and thereby renders them less effective as TBCs. Moreover, the sintered YSZ TBCs are less tolerant of stress and strain and, hence, are less durable.

  18. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  19. Thermal Mechanical Fatigue of Coated Blade Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Severe Bulk Substrate Damage Following Coating Spallation in PWA 275 Coated PWA 1480 (Quadrilateral Cycle, As = 0.7%, AT = 427-1093-C (800-2000 ’F...90.130 0.329 0.955 0.080 0.765 0.120 View "A" Notes 1. All dimensions in inches Drill and C’sk 2 Holes 180 deg Apart 2. All diameters concentric within...go through an alternating series of first surface oxidation and subsequent spallation . Oxidation was severe enough to produce a substantial loss of

  20. Electro-spark deposited coatings for protection of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The coating is fused (metallurgically bonded) to the substrate with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperature. Rapid solidification of the deposit typically results in an extremely fine-grained deposit that may be amorphous for some materials. Nearly any electrically conductive metal, alloy or cermet can be applied to metallic substrates. The ESD process allows multi-layer coatings to be built-up using different materials to create graded structures or surface compositions that would be difficult to achieve by other means. A series of iron-aluminide coatings based on Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl in combination with refractory metal diffusion-barrier coatings and supplementary additions of other elements are in corrosion testing at ANL. The most recent FeAl coatings are showing a factor of three better corrosion performance than the best previous coatings. Technology transfer activities are a significant portion of the ESD program effort. Notable successes now include the start-up of a new business to commercialize the ESD technology, major new applications in gas turbine engines and steam turbine blade coatings, and in military, medical, metal-working, and recreational equipment applications.

  1. Degradation of Polymer-Coated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    the polymer.14 In addition to sunlight, coatings are constantly exposed to different environments that range from immersion in water or burial in soil ...Rudolph, W. W.; Irmer, G.; Hefter, G. T. Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Speciation in MgSO4(aq). Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 5253–5261 (2003

  2. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  3. Coating and Patterning Functional Materials for Large Area Electrofluidic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating and fluidic reversibility required for devices. Subsequently, we over-coat photoresist using slit coating on this normally extremely hydrophobic layer. In this way, we are able to pattern the photoresist by conventional lithography to provide the chemical contrast required for liquids dosing by self-assembly and highly-reversible electrofluidic switching. Materials, interfacial chemistry, and processing all contribute to the provision of the required engineered substrate properties. Coating homogeneity as characterized by metrology and device performance data are used to validate the methodology, which is well-suited for transfer to high volume production in existing LCD cell-making facilities.

  4. Development of new thermal barrier coating materials for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X.

    2004-04-01

    New thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials for gas turbines were studied in this work. Two of the most important properties of the material for TBCs, thermal expansion coefficient and phase stability, and the powder preparation by spray-drying are investigated.

  5. Particle coating – a novel trend in energetic materials engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of new energetic materials with enhanced blast properties requires better understanding of factors as particle type, size and particle/matrix distribution. The ability of growing a coating on particles opens new possibilities in energetic materials engineering. Functionalities as

  6. Thermal Conductivity and Water Vapor Stability of Ceramic HfO2-Based Coating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 are candidate thermal/environmental barrier coating materials for gas turbine ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor liner applications because of their relatively low thermal conductivity and high temperature capability. In this paper, thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability of plasma-sprayed coatings and/or hot-pressed HfO2-5mol%Y2O3, HfO2-15mol%Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 were evaluated at temperatures up to 1700 C using a steady-state laser heat-flux technique. Sintering behavior of the plasma-sprayed coatings was determined by monitoring the thermal conductivity increases during a 20-hour test period at various temperatures. Durability and failure mechanisms of the HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 coatings on mullite/SiC Hexoloy or CMC substrates were investigated at 1650 C under thermal gradient cyclic conditions. Coating design and testing issues for the 1650 C thermal/environmental barrier coating applications will also be discussed.

  7. Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Liu, Tianchen; Liu, Chian; Ulmer, M. P.; Cao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    As magnetic smart materials (MSMs), magnetostrictive materials have great potential to be selected as coating materials for lightweight x-ray telescope mirrors due to their capability to tune the mirror profile to the desired shape under a magnetic field. To realize this potential, it is necessary to study the deformation of the mirror substrate with the MSM coating subjected to a localized magnetic field. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to calculate the deformation of rectangular coated samples locally affected by magnetostrictive strains driven by an external magnetic field. As a specific case to validate the model, a square glass sample coated with MSMs is prepared, and its deformation is measured in a designed experimental setup by applying a magnetic field. The measured deformation of the sample is compared with the results calculated from the analytical model. The comparison results demonstrate that the analytical model is effective in calculating the deformation of a coated sample with the localized mismatch strains between the film and the substrate. In the experiments, different shape patterns of surface profile changes are achieved by varying the direction of the magnetic field. The analytical model and the experimental method proposed in this paper can be utilized to further guide the application of magnetostrictive coating to deformable lightweight x-ray mirrors in the future.

  8. Ceramic Top Coats of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: Materials, Processes, and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    The ceramic top coat has a major influence on the performance of the thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs). Yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the top coat material frequently used, and the major deposition processes of the YSZ top coat are atmospheric plasma spraying and electron beam physical vapor deposition. Recently, also new thermal spray processes such as suspension plasma spraying or plasma spray-physical vapor deposition have been intensively investigated for TBC top coat deposition. These new processes and particularly the different coating microstructures that can be deposited with them will be reviewed in this article. Furthermore, the properties and the intrinsic-extrinsic degradation mechanisms of the YSZ will be discussed. Following the TBC deposition processes and standard YSZ material, alternative ceramic materials such as perovskites and hexaaluminates will be summarized, while properties of pyrochlores with regard to their crystal structure will be discussed more in detail. The merits of the pyrochlores such as good CMAS resistance as well as their weaknesses, e.g., low fracture toughness, processability issues, will be outlined.

  9. Static Corrosion Test of Porous Iron Material with Polymer Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markušová-Bučková, Lucia; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Gorejová, Radka; Kupková, Miriam; Hrubovčáková, Monika; Baláž, Matej; Kováľ, Karol

    2016-12-01

    At present biodegradable implants received increased attention due to their use in various fields of medicine. This work is dedicated to testing of biodegradable materials which could be used as bone implants. The samples were prepared from the carbonyl iron powder by replication method and surface polymer film was produced through sol-gel process. Corrosion testing was carried out under static conditions during 12 weeks in Hank's solution. The quantity of corrosion products increased with prolonging time of static test as it can be concluded from the results of EDX analysis. The degradation of open cell materials with polyethylene glycol coating layer was faster compared to uncoated Fe sample. Also the mass losses were higher for samples with PEG coating. The polymer coating brought about the desired increase in degradation rate of porous iron material.

  10. Innovative Superhard Materials and Sustainable Coatings for Advanced Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jay; Novikov, Nikolay

    The book contains the results of the latest achievements of leading researchers from 9 countries in the field of diamond and diamond-like carbon, cubic boron nitride and other superhard materials; high-density engineering ceramics; high pressure-high temperature technique; computer-aided modeling; diamond, cubic boron nitride, ceramic and cemented carbide tools; development, production and applications of nanostructured materials; films and wear-resistant coating; methods for quality control of tool materials and tools.

  11. Face Coat Materials Through Sessile Drop and Investment Casting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Blackburn, Stuart; Withey, Paul A.

    2014-06-01

    Investment casting is uniquely suited to the manufacture of Ti alloys for the production of near net-shape components, reducing material waste, and machining costs. Because of the high reactivity of titanium and its based alloy, the molds which are used in the investment casting process require high chemical inertness, which results in them being very costly and non-recyclable. In order to reduce the cost of these molds, traditionally using yttria as the face coat, two alternative molds are developed in this study with face coat materials of Y2O3-Al2O3 and Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2. The slurry properties and chemical inertness of the face coats were evaluated for viscosity, thermal expansion, friability, and phase development. The chemical inertness of these two molds were determined using both the sessile drop test and investment casting to identify the levels of interaction with a Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2B alloy. The results illustrated that the molds using Y2O3-Al2O3 and Y2O3-Al2O3-ZrO2 as the face coats both showed excellent sintering properties and chemical inertness when compared to the yttria face coat. They can consequently be used as two alternative face coats for the investment casting of TiAl alloys.

  12. Superamphiphobic overhang structured coating on a biobased material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Mikko; Teisala, Hannu; Haapanen, Janne; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Honkanen, Mari; Vippola, Minnamari; Bardage, Stig; Wålinder, Magnus E. P.; Swerin, Agne

    2016-12-01

    A superamphiphobic coating on a biobased material shows extreme liquid repellency with static contact angles (CA) greater than 150° and roll-off angles less than 10° against water, ethylene glycol, diiodomethane and olive oil, and a CA for hexadecane greater than 130°. The coating consisting of titania nanoparticles deposited by liquid flame spray (LFS) and hydrophobized using plasma-polymerized perfluorohexane was applied to a birch hardwood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging after sample preparation by UV laser ablation of coated areas revealed that capped structures were formed and this, together with the geometrically homogeneous wood structure, fulfilled the criteria for overhang structures to occur. The coating showed high hydrophobic durability by still being non-wetted after 500 000 water drop impacts, and this is discussed in relation to geometrical factors and wetting forces. The coating was semi-transparent with no significant coloration. A self-cleaning effect was demonstrated with both water and oil droplets. A self-cleanable, durable and highly transparent superamphiphobic coating based on a capped overhang structure has a great potential for commercial feasibility in a variety of applications, here exemplified for a biobased material.

  13. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  14. Characterization of Candidate Materials for Remote Recession Measurements of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bradley D.; Winter, Michael; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Danehy, Paul M.; Splinter, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.

  15. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  16. Optical Coatings Formed by Gradient Refractive Index Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Juškevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in ion beam sputtering technology enabled efficient deposition of different oxide mixture coatings. In the present investigation, coating materials ZrO2 and SiO2 were utilized for the synthesis of different mixtures. The goal of the conducted investigation was to explore the potential of ZrO2/SiO2 mixtures, especially for applications in the range of the UV spectral. Deposited dielectric mirrors having classical quarter-wave and “rised” design with ZrO2/SiO2 mixture for 266 nm and 355 nm showed good resistance to laser radiation.We also investigated the “fatigue” behavior of LIDT’s in LBO crystals with single, dual and triple wavelength anti-reflective coatings (AR@355, AR@532+1064 and AR@355+532+1064 in order to optimize design and layer materials. The influence of gradient refractive index profiles on damage resistance is of a special interest. We selected a few designs of antireflective coatings which demonstrated the best resistance to laser radiation.An experimental study on rugate filter coatings showed the need for a more accurate characterization of optical properties of metal oxides and their corresponding mixtures.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Corrosion mechanisms of candidate structural materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lefu ZHANG; Fawen ZHU; Rui TANG

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys, austenitic stainless steel, ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened steel are presently considered to be the candidate structural or fuel-cladding materials for supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), one of the promising generation IV reactor for large-scale electric power production. However, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of these candidate alloys still remain to be a major problem in the selection of nuclear fuel cladding and other structural materials, such as water rod. Survey of literature and experimental results reveal that the general corrosion mechanism of those candidate materials exhibits quite complicated mechanism in high-temperature and high-pressure supercritical water. Formation of a stable protective oxide film is the key to the best corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper focuses on the mechanism of corrosion oxide film breakdown for SCWR candidate materials.

  18. Elemental characterization of a Candidate Lichen Research Material - IAEA-336

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, S.F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Research and Isotopes, Vienna (Austria); Freitas, M.C. [Inst. de Ciencias e Engenharia Nucleares, Dept. de Quimica, Sacavem (Portugal); Parr, R.M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Research and Isotopes, Vienna (Austria); Zeisler, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Research and Isotopes, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-05-01

    A lichen research material, prepared from the species Evernia prunastri, was produced by a co-operation between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Instituto de Ciencias e Engenharia Nucleares (INETI) in Sacavem, Portugal. An international intercomparison study was carried out, with 42 independent sets of results being reported from participants in 26 countries. The statistical evaluation of the collected data resulted in recommended values for 17 elements and information values for 15 elements. The criteria for assigning the values are provided, including the use of information obtained through the parallel analysis of a second material, IAEA-359, Cabbage. (orig.)

  19. Sputtering Yield Calculation of Some Candidate PFC Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng; HUANGJinhua

    2001-01-01

    In order to estimate the erosion rates of some plasma facing component materials, the sputtering yields of Mo, W and Li bombarded by charged particles H+, D+, T+ and He+ are calculated by application of sputtering theory based on bipartition model of ion transport. The comparisons with Monte-Carlo calculation results are made. These data might be useful to estimate the lifetime of plasma facing components and to analyze the impurity level in core plasma of fusion reactors.

  20. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  1. Spin coating nanopatterned multielemental materials via self-assembled nanotemplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guodong; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Bong Hoon; Koo, Chong-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2009-06-03

    Spin coating of multicomponent precursor solutions was employed in conjunction with block copolymer nanotemplates to fabricate nanopatterned functional multielemental materials. Nanodot and nanowire arrays of several multielemental materials exhibiting optoelectronic and multiferroic properties have been fabricated on various substrates to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The shape, size and density of nanopatterned multielemental materials can be tuned in a variety of ways. This low cost and large scale solution nanopatterning process without a harsh etching step may offer a new opportunity for development of ultrahigh density device nanostructures.

  2. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  3. High temperature indentation tests on fusion reactor candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.montanari@uniroma2.it; Filacchioni, G. [ENEA CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S.M. di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Iacovone, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Plini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma-Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Riccardi, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, P.O. Box 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2007-08-01

    Flat-top cylinder indenter for mechanical characterization (FIMEC) is an indentation technique employing cylindrical punches with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm. The test gives pressure-penetration curves from which the yield stress can be determined. The FIMEC apparatus was developed to test materials in the temperature range from -180 to +200 {sup o}C. Recently, the heating system of FIMEC apparatus has been modified to operate up to 500 {sup o}C. So, in addition to providing yield stress over a more extended temperature range, it is possible to perform stress-relaxation tests at temperatures of great interest for several nuclear fusion reactor (NFR) alloys. Data on MANET-II, F82H mod., Eurofer-97, EM-10, AISI 316 L, Ti6Al4V and CuCrZr are presented and compared with those obtained by mechanical tests with standard methods.

  4. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  5. PH and Electrochemical Responsive Materials for Corrosion Smart Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Calle, Luz M.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion is a costly issue for military operations and civil industries. While most corrosion initiates from localized corrosion form, such as pitting, failure directly caused by localized corrosion is the most dangerous kind, because it is difficult to anticipate and prevent, occurs very suddenly and can be catastrophic. One way of preventing these failures is with a coating that can detect and heal localized corrosion. pH and other electrochemical changes are often associated with localized corrosion, so it is expected that materials that are pH or otherwise electrochemical responsive can be used to detect and control corrosion. This paper will review various pH and electrochemical responsive materials and their potential applications in corrosion smart coatings. Current research results in this field will also be reported.

  6. On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mei@df.uba.ar; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States)], E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu; Depine, Ricardo A. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rdep@df.uba.ar

    2008-03-31

    Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction.

  7. Comparison of antibacterial-coated and non-coated suture material in intraoral surgery by isolation of adherent bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Pelz

    2015-09-01

    In terms of the total number of oral bacteria, and especially oral pathogens, that adhered to suture material, no reduction was demonstrated for Vicryl Plus. The use of triclosan-coated suture material offers no advantage in intraoral surgery.

  8. Element concentrations in candidate biological and environmental reference materials by k[sub 0]-standardized INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.C. (LNETI, Inst. de Ciencias e Engenharia Nucleares, Dept. de Energia e Engenharia Nucleares, Sacavem (Portugal))

    1993-01-01

    k[sub 0]-Based Neutron Activation Analysis (k[sub 0]INAA) was used to analyze the candidate reference materials Apple Leaves and Peach Leaves, and Oriental Tobacco Leaves and Virginia Tobacco Leaves. Concentration values for 27 elements were measured. The accuracy was ascertained by analysis of two certified reference materials. NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves and 1573 Tomato Leaves. The homogeneity test of the IAEA Evernia prunastri candidate reference material in aliquots [>=] 100 mg is extended to the elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Th. (orig.).

  9. Coronary Stent Materials and Coatings: A Technology and Performance Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry; Zafar, Haroon; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Zafar, Junaid; Sharif, Faisal

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art for coronary stent materials and surface coatings, with an emphasis on new technologies that followed on from first-generation bare metal and drug-eluting stents. These developments have been driven mainly by the need to improve long term outcomes, including late stent thrombosis. Biodegradable drug-eluting coatings aim to address the long term effects of residual durable polymer after drug elution; the SYNERGY, BioMatrix, and Nobori stents are all promising devices in this category, with minimal polymer through the use of abluminal coatings. Textured stent surfaces have been used to attached drug directly, without polymer; the Yukon Choice and BioFreedom stents have some promising data in this category, while a hydroxyapatite textured surface has had less success. The use of drug-filled reservoirs looked promising initially but the NEVO device has experienced both technical and commercial set-backs. However this approach may eventually make it to market if trials with the Drug-Filled Stent prove to be successful. Non-pharmacological coatings such as silicon carbide, carbon, and titanium-nitride-oxide are also proving to have potential to provide better performance than BMS, without some of the longer term issues associated with DES. In terms of biological coatings, the Genous stent which promotes attachment of endothelial progenitor cells has made good progress while gene-eluting stents still have some practical challenges to overcome. Perhaps the most advancement has been in the field of biodegradable stents. The BVS PLLA device is now seeing increasing clinical use in many complex indications while magnesium stents continue to make steady advancements.

  10. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-01-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  11. New Materials for Structural Composites and Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Phase I project was to create novel conductive materials that are lightweight and strong enough for multiple ground support equipment and Exploration applications. The long-term goal is to combine these materials within specially designed devices to create composites or coatings with diagnostic capabilities, increased strength, and tunable properties such as transparency, electroluminescence, and fire resistance. One such technology application is a smart windows system. In such a system, the transmission of light through a window is controlled by electrical power. In the future, these materials may also be able to absorb sunlight and convert it into electrical energy to produce light, thereby creating a self-sufficient lighting system. This experiment, conducted in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, demonstrated enhancements in fabricating fiber materials from carbon nanotubes (CNT). These nanotubes were grown as forests in an ultra-high-purity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace and then drawn, using novel processing techniques, into fibers and yarns that would be turned into filaments. This work was submitted to the Journal of Advanced Functional Materials. The CNT fibers were initially tested as filament materials at atmospheric pressure; however, even under high current loads, the filaments produced only random sparking. The CNT fibers were also converted into transparent, hydrophobic, and conductive sheets. Filament testing at low vacuum pressures is in progress, and the technology will be enhanced in 2008. As initial proof of the smart-windows application concept, the use of CNT sheets as composites/ protective coatings was demonstrated in collaboration with Nanocomp Technologies of Concord, New Hampshire.

  12. Glassy Carbon Coating Deposited on Hybrid Structure of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of production metal matrix composites with aluminum oxide foam covered by glassy carbon layer used as reinforcement. The glassy carbon coating was formed for decreasing of friction coefficient and reducing the wear. In first step of technology liquid glassy carbon precursor is on ceramic foam deposited, subsequently cured and carbonated at elevated temperature. In this way ceramic foam is covered with glassy carbon coating with thickness of 2-8 μm. It provides desirable amount of glassy carbon in the structure of the material. In the next step, porous spheres with carbon coating are infiltrated by liquid matrix of Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Thereby, equable distribution of glassy carbon in composite volume is achieved. Moreover, typical problems for composites reinforced by particles like sedimentation, agglomeration and clustering of particles are avoided. Tribological characteristics during friction in air versus cast iron as a counterpart were made. Produced composites with glassy carbon layer are characterised by friction coefficient between 0.08-0.20, thus meeting the typical conditions for solid lubricants.

  13. Antireflection coating standards of ophthalmic resin lens materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porden, Mark

    1991-12-01

    Current estimates of the percentage of anti-reflection coated lenses verses uncoated in the market today range from 3% in the United States (US.), to 60% in Europe, to 80% in Japan. Currently upwards of 80% of all prescription eyewear lenses dispensed are resin. Glass lenses lose market share yearly, as scratch resistant coatings on resin lenses are improved. Photochromic resin materials are also improving and will shortly equal the performance of glass photockromics. Until recently, the performance characteristics of ophthalmic lenses were divided into two schools. In Europe, the emphasis was on keeping the reflections to an absolute minimum, while in the Asian market the emphasis was on producing a lens, which had exceptional scratch resistance. A typical European lens may average .4% reflection across the visible spectrum (400 to 700 urn.), while the Asian lenses averaged in the 1.5% range. The growth ofAR coating in the U.S. 80 million pair a year total ophthalmic market has been lagging foreign markets for several reasons.

  14. SUPER-THIN COATING MATERIAL FOR HIGH-GRADE HIGHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The road surface of cement concrete in highway is easily cracked and even destroyed due to inhomogeneous subsiding of the road foundation. In this work, a super-thin-coating material is prepared in order to repair the destroyed thin road surface, in which polymers and steel-fibers are added into ordinary concrete to form a steel fiber reinforced polymer-cement-based composite. the composite was successfully used to repair road surface. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites are measured and analyzed.

  15. Nanocomposite Apatite-biopolymer Materials and Coatings for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Sukhodub

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The microoverview paper describes synthesis and characterization of novel third generation composite biomaterials and coatings which correspond to the second structural level of human bone tissue (HBT organization obtained at Sumy state university “Bionanocomposite” laboratory. To obtain such composites an animal collagen is usually used, which is not potentially safe for medical applications. That is why investigations were started using some other biopolymers to obtain composites close to the second level in the structural hierarchy of HBT. Proposed natural polymers (Na alginate, chitosan are the most perspective because they have bacteriostatic properties for a vast number of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, high biocompatibility towards the connective tissue, low toxicity, an ability to improve regenerative processes during wounds healing, degradation ability with the creation of chemotaxic activity towards fibroblasts and osteoblasts. The formation of nanosized (25-75 nm calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHA particles in the polymer scaffold approaches the derived material to the biogenic bone tissue, which can provide its more effective implantation. The influence of the imposition of static magnetic field on brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O crystallization was also investigated. It was shown that changing the magnetic field configuration could greatly affect crystallinity and texture of the derived particles. To increase the biocompatibility of existing medical implants (Ti–6Al 4V, Ti Ni, Mg the technology for obtaining bioactive coatings with corresponding mechanical, structural and morphology characteristics is developed in our laboratory. In this direction coatings based on cdHA in combination with biopolymer matrices (Na alginate, chitosan, are obtained in “soft” conditions using a thermal substrate technology. This technology was proposed by Japan scientists [1] and was sufficiently improved by us [2] in order to obtain coatings in

  16. Analysis of Residual Thermal Stress in CVD-W Coating as Plasma Facing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大焕; 王坤; 王先平; 陈俊凌; 方前锋

    2012-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition-tungsten (CVD-W) coating covering the surface of the plasma facing component (PFC) is an effective method to implement the tungsten material as plasma facing material (PFM) in fusion devices. Residual thermal stress in CVD-W coating due to thermal mismatch between coating and substrate was successfully simulated by using a finite element method (ANSYS 10.0 code). The deposition parametric effects, i.e., coating thickness and deposition temperature, and interlayer were investigated to get a description of the residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating-substrate system. And the influence of the substrate materials on the generation of residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating was analyzed with respect to the CVD-W coating application as PFM. This analysis is beneficial for the preparation and application of CVD-W coating.

  17. Analysis of Residual Thermal Stress in CVD-W Coating as Plasma Facing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dahuan; Wang, Kun; Wang, Xianping; Chen, Junling; Fang, Qianfeng

    2012-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition-tungsten (CVD-W) coating covering the surface of the plasma facing component (PFC) is an effective method to implement the tungsten material as plasma facing material (PFM) in fusion devices. Residual thermal stress in CVD-W coating due to thermal mismatch between coating and substrate was successfully simulated by using a finite element method (ANSYS 10.0 code). The deposition parametric effects, i.e., coating thickness and deposition temperature, and interlayer were investigated to get a description of the residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating-substrate system. And the influence of the substrate materials on the generation of residual thermal stress in the CVD-W coating was analyzed with respect to the CVD-W coating application as PFM. This analysis is beneficial for the preparation and application of CVD-W coating.

  18. Coating Layer and Corrosion Protection Characteristics in Sea Water with Various Thermal Spray Coating Materials for STS304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jong; Woo, Yong-Bin

    We investigated the optimal method of application and the anticorrosive abilities of Zn, Al, and Zn + 15%Al spray coatings in protecting stainless steel 304 (STS304) in sea water. If a defect such as porosity or an oxide layer, causes STS304 to be exposed to sea water, and the thermal spray coating material will act as the cathode and anode, respectively. The Tafel experiments revealed that Al-coated specimens among applied coating methods had the lowest corrosion current densities. As the corrosion potential decreases with increasing corrosion current density, we estimated the characteristics and lifetime of the protective thermal spray coating layer in the galvanic cell formed by the thermal spray coating layer and STS304.

  19. Intercomparison of techniques available at INETI in the analysis of two IAEA candidate research materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M C; Afonso, M H; Almeida, C; Alves, L C; Araújo, M F; Barreiros, M A; Seabra e Barros, J; Costa, M B; Gouveia, M A; Reis, M A

    1994-01-01

    Under contract with the IAEA, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri was collected to prepare a multielement lichen reference material for quality assurance of environmental studies. An intercomparison run on trace and minor elements in this candidate research material (IAEA-336) was organized in which six analytical groups of the National Institute of Engineering and Industrial Technology (INETI) took part. INAA, PIXE, XRF, AAS, and ICP-ES were applied. The results obtained by different methods are compared, and their complementarity is discussed. As a quality control, the IAEA cabbage research material (IAEA-359) was analyzed. The results agree quite well with the estimated values given by the IAEA.

  20. The influence of the base material surface preparation on the properties of thermally sprayed coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using specimens, a research was conducted to determine the influence of the base material surface preparation for 42CrMo4 on the final coating, prior to actual thermal spraying. During thermal spraying, an Al-Ni-alloy was used as an interlayer before the actual coating with Cr-Mo-Ni. The surface hardness and the hardness distribution across the thickness of the sprayed coating were measured and the structure of respective sprayed coatings was photographed. A comparison of experimental results enabled the identification of the particular material preparation method with an optimal ratio of the satisfactory coating thickness and its hardness.

  1. Studies on Self-Luminous Material and Coating with Long Persistent Yellow-Green Afterglow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱关明; 孙彦彬; 陈永杰; 张明

    2003-01-01

    The preparation, properties, expression and luminescent mechanism of self-luminous material (SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Dy3+) were discussed. The long afterglow luminescent coating was prepared by adding proper luminescent powders SrAl2O4∶Eu2+, Dy3+ and other aids into styrene/acrylic emulsion. The best prescription of the coating was defined. The properties of luminescent coating were determined. The primary factors which affect the coating properties were discussed.

  2. Dimensional-stability studies of candidate space-telescope mirror-substrate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, J. M.; Platt, R. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of aging, vacuum exposure, and thermal cycling on the dimensional stability of mirror-substrate materials, fused silica, Cer-Vit, Kanigen-coated beryllium, polycrystalline silicon, and U.L.E. fused silica were investigated. A multiple-beam interferometer was used to determine nonrecoverable surface-shape changes of the 12.7-cm-diameter mirrors with substrates of these materials. Thermal cycling and aging in vacuum produced the largest changes, but only a few were as large as 1/30 wavelength, where the wavelength was 632.8 nm.

  3. [Variations of IR-spectra of three coating materials before and after spraying on urea fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-bin; Chen, Li-jun; Wu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Guang-na

    2009-09-01

    Coated fertilizer is a hot spot in the domain of fertilizer research. Related researches mainly focused on the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling the nutrient release from coated fertilizers, but less information is available on the structural variation of the coating materials before and after spraying on fertilizers, which is the key to whether we can directly use coating materials to extrapolate its mechanisms in controlling coated fertilizers' nutrient release. With polylactic acid (PLA), poly (butynelenes succinate) (PBS), and polycarbonate (PC) as test materials, the variations of their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer were determined, which was aimed to supply theoretical basis for further studying the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling coated fertilizers nutrient release. The results showed that PLA and PC had less variation in their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer, while PBS acted in reverse, suggesting that the former two coating materials could be directly used for studying the patterns of nutrient release from coated fertilizers.

  4. Stability of aflatoxin B1 in animal feed candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.H.; Mazijk, van R.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Huf, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two candidate reference materials animal feed were stored at a temperature of -18°C, 4 C, 20°C and 37°C. The stability of aflatoxin B1 was studied duringa period of two years. A significant decrease in the aflatoxin B1 content was measured in the samples stared at 20°C and 37°C. In the samples

  5. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  6. Photoelectron Yield and Photon Reflectivity from Candidate LHC Vacuum Chamber Materials with Implications to the Vacuum Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Gröbner, Oswald

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the photoelectron yield and photon reflectivity at grazing incidence (11 mrad) from candidate LHC vacuum chamber materials have been made on a dedicated beam line on the Electron Positron A ccumulator (EPA) ring at CERN. These measurements provide realistic input toward a better understanding of the electron cloud phenomena expected in the LHC. The measurements were made using synchrotro n radiation with critical photon energies of 194 eV and 45 eV; the latter corresponding to that of the LHC at the design energy of 7 TeV. The test materials are mainly copper, either, i) coated by co- lamination or by electroplating onto stainless steel, or ii) bulk copper prepared by special machining. The key parameters explored were the effect of surface roughness on the reflectivity and the pho toelectron yield at grazing photon incidence, and the effect of magnetic field direction on the yields measured at normal photon incidence. The implications of the results on the electron cloud phenom ena, and thus the L...

  7. Comparison of antibacterial-coated and non-coated suture material in intraoral surgery by isolation of adherent bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Pelz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In general surgery the incidence of postoperative wound infections is reported to be lower using triclosan-coated sutures. In intraoral surgery, sutures are faced with different bacterial species and the question arises whether the antibacterial-coated suture material has the same positive effects. Materials and Methods. Triclosan-coated and uncoated suture materials were applied in 17 patients undergoing wisdom tooth extraction. Postoperatively, sutures were removed and adherent bacteria were isolated, colony-forming units (cfu were counted, and species identified. Results. Oral bacteria were found in high numbers (cfu>10[sup]7[/sup] on both Vicryl and the triclosan-coated Vicryl Plus. The total number of bacteria isolated from Vicryl Plus was 37% higher than for Vicryl, mainly due to increased numbers of anaerobes. The number of bacterial strains identified was higher for Vicryl ( n=203 than for Vicryl Plus (n=198, but the number of pathogens was higher on Vicryl Plus (n=100 than on Vicryl (n=97. Fewer Gram-positive strains were found on Vicryl Plus (n=95 than on Vicryl (n=107 and, conversely, more Gram-negative strains on Vicryl Plus (103vs.96. Conclusions. In terms of the total number of oral bacteria, and especially oral pathogens, that adhered to suture material, no reduction was demonstrated for Vicryl Plus. The use of triclosan-coated suture material offers no advantage in intraoral surgery.

  8. A Study on the Exploration of Electrostatic Powder Coating Materials Suitable for 3D Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeng Hee-young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many difficulty in collecting data from a diffused reflection surface using an optical 3D scanning device. A spray-type developer and silicon molds are used for solving this problem. However, using developer can cause chemical reactions between objects and developer particles and uneven surfaces of the object. To overcome these problems, it is suggested an electrostatic powder coating method for even coating of particles onto surfaces for collecting 3D shape data. We have developed an automatic, electrostatic powder coating machine. The present study is aimed to explore powder materials suitable for electrostatic powder coating in terms of the easiness of coating work considering the characteristics of object surface. It was also conducted to verify materials that are smoothly coated well under various coating conditions and are advantageous in collecting 3D shape data.

  9. Potential Biogenic Corrosion of Alloy 22, A Candidate Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials, Under Simulated Repository Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Martin, S.I.; Rivera, A.J.; Bedrossian, P.J.; Lian, T.

    2000-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has been charged with assessing the suitability of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. Microorganisms, both those endogenous to the repository site and those introduced as a result of construction and operational activities, may contribute to the corrosion of metal nuclear waste packaging and thereby decrease their useful lifetime as barrier materials. Evaluation of potential Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) on candidate waste package materials was undertaken reactor systems incorporating the primary elements of the repository: YM rock (either non-sterile or presterilized), material coupons, and a continual feed of simulated YM groundwater. Periodically, both aqueous reactor efflux and material coupons were analyzed for chemical and surfacial characterization. Alloy 22 coupons exposed for a year at room temperature in reactors containing non-sterile YM rock demonstrated accretion of chromium oxide and silaceous scales, with what appear to be underlying areas of corrosion.

  10. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nano-Textured Fiber Coatings for Energy Absorbing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    NANO-TEXTURED FIBER COATINGS FOR ENERGY ABSORBING POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS R. E. Jensen and S. H. McKnight Army Research Laboratory...Textured Fiber Coatings For Energy Absorbing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  12. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material for external corrosion control...

  13. High abrasion resistance coating materials from organic/inorganic hybrid materials produced by the sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A series of new high abrasion resistance coating materials have been prepared utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed by cohydrolyzing a metal alkoxide sol (e.g. silicon, aluminum, titanium, or zirconium metal alkoxide sol) with one or more bis(trialkoxysilane-containing) organic components or related functionalized species. These hybrid materials show optical clarity and improve the abrasion resistance of polymer substrates when applied as coatings and cured on such substrates.

  14. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fissile material disposition program: Screening of alternate immobilization candidates for disposition of surplus fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.

    1996-01-08

    With the end of the Cold War, the world faces for the first time the need to dismantle vast numbers of ``excess`` nuclear weapons and dispose of the fissile materials they contain, together with fissile residues in the weapons production complex left over from the production of these weapons. If recently agreed US and Russian reductions are fully implemented, tens of thousands of nuclear weapons, containing a hundred tons or more of plutonium and hundreds of tonnes* of highly enriched uranium (HEU), will no longer be needed worldwide for military purposes. These two materials are the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, and limits on access to them are the primary technical barrier to prospective proliferants who might desire to acquire a nuclear weapons capability. Theoretically, several kilograms of plutonium, or several times that amount of HEU, is sufficient to make a nuclear explosive device. Therefore, these materials will continue to be a potential threat to humanity for as long as they exist.

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  18. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  19. Optimization Design Model of Functional Gradient Thermal Barrier Coating Material by Using Parallel Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important for huge ship to find the ceramic/metal functional gradient thermal barrier coating materials. A parallel computation model is built for optimization design of three-dimensional ceramic/metal functionally gradient thermal barrier coating material. According to the control equation and initial-boundary conditions, the heat transfer problem is considered, and numerical algorithms of optimization design is constructed by adapting difference method. The numerical results shows that gradient thermal barrier coating material can improve the function of material.

  20. Improve the performance of coated cemented hip stem through the advanced composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedia, H S; Fouda, N

    2015-01-01

    Design of hip joint implant using functionally graded material (FGM) (advanced composite material) has been used before through few researches. It gives great results regarding the stress distribution along the implant and bone interfaces. However, coating of orthopaedic implants has been widely investigated through many researches. The effect of using advanced composite stem material, which mean by functionally graded stem material, in the total hip replacement coated with the most common coated materials has not been studied yet. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of utilizing these two concepts together; FGM and coating, in designing new stem material. It is concluded that the optimal FGM cemented stem is consisting from titanium at the upper stem layers graded to collagen at a lower stem layers. This optimal graded stem coated with hydroxyapatite found to reduce stress shielding by 57% compared to homogenous titanium stem coated with hydroxyapatite. However, the optimal functionally graded stem coated with collagen reduced the stress shielding by 51% compared to homogenous titanium stem coated with collagen.

  1. Thermal Performance Study of Composite Phase Change Material with Polyacrylicand Conformal Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Shin Yiing; Munusamy, Yamuna; Ong, Kok Seng; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon; Chee, Swee Yong; Lai, Koon Chun

    2017-07-28

    The composite PCM was prepared by blending polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and myristic acid (MA) in different weight percentages. The MA and PMMA were selected as PCM and supporting material, respectively. As liquid MA may leak out during the phase transition, this study proposes the use of two coatings, namely a polyacrylic coating and a conformal coating to overcome the leakage problem. Both coatings were studied in terms of the leakage test, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, morphology, and reliability. No leakage was found in the PCMs with coatings compared to those without under the same proportions of MA/PMMA, thus justifying the use of coatings in the present study. The chemically compatibility was confirmed by FTIR spectra: the functional groups of PCMs were in accordance with those of coatings. DSC showed that the coatings did not significantly change the melting and freezing temperatures, however, they improved the thermal stability of composite PCMs as seen in TGA analysis. Furthermore, the composite PCMs demonstrated good thermal reliability after 1000 times thermal cycling. The latent heat of melting reduced by only 0.16% and 1.02% for the PCMs coated with conformal coating and polyacrylic coating, respectively. Therefore, the proposed coatings can be considered in preparing fatty acid/PMMA blends attributed to the good stability, compatibility and leakage prevention.

  2. Candidate Materials Evaluated for a High-Temperature Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Randy R.; Ritzert, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy and NASA have identified Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) as a candidate power system for use on long-duration, deep-space science missions and Mars rovers. One of the developments planned for an upgraded version of the current SRG design is to achieve higher efficiency by increasing the overall operating temperature of the system. Currently, the SRG operates with a heater head temperature of 650 C and is fabricated from the nickel-base superalloy 718. The current operating temperature is at the limit of alloy 718 s capability, and any planned increase in temperature will be contingent on identifying a more capable material from which to fabricate the heater head. To this end, personnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center are evaluating advanced materials for a high-temperature heater head to allow a higher convertor temperature ratio and, thus, increase the system efficiency. A generic list of properties that were used to screen the candidate materials follows: (1) creep, (2) fabricability, (3) helium gas containment, (4) long-term stability and compatibility, (5) ability to form a hermetical closeout seal, and (6) ductility and toughness.

  3. Quantitative assessment of microbiological contributions to corrosion of candidate nuclear waste-package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.; Jones, D.; Lian, T.; Martin, S.

    1998-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy is contributing to the design of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A system to predict the contribution of Yucca Mountain (YM) bacteria to overall corrosion rates of candidate waste-package (WP) materials was designed and implemented. DC linear polarization resistance techniques were applied to candidate material coupons that had been inoculated with a mixture of YM-derived bacteria with potentially corrosive activities or left sterile. Inoculated bacteria caused a 5- to 6-fold increase in corrosion rate of carbon steel C1020 (to approximately 7Ð8mm/yr) and an almost 100-fold increase in corrosion rate of Alloy 400 (to approximately 1mm/yr). Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) rates on more resistant materials (CRMs: Alloy 625, Type 304 Stainless Steel, and Alloy C22) were on the order of hundredths of micrometers per year (mm/yr). Bulk chemical and surfacial end-point analyses of spent media and coupon surfaces showed preferential dissolution of nickel from Alloy 400 coupons and depletion of chromium from CRMs after incubation with YM bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed greater damage to the Alloy 400 surface than that indicated by electrochemical detection methods.

  4. A simplified in vivo approach for evaluating the bioabsorbable behavior of candidate stent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Daniel; Edick, Jacob; Tauscher, Aaron; Pokorney, Ellen; Bowen, Patrick; Gelbaugh, Jesse; Stinson, Jon; Getty, Heather; Lee, Chee Huei; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Goldman, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Metal stents are commonly used to revascularize occluded arteries. A bioabsorbable metal stent that harmlessly erodes away over time may minimize the normal chronic risks associated with permanent implants. However, there is no simple, low-cost method of introducing candidate materials into the arterial environment. Here, we developed a novel experimental model where a biomaterial wire is implanted into a rat artery lumen (simulating bioabsorbable stent blood contact) or artery wall (simulating bioabsorbable stent matrix contact). We use this model to clarify the corrosion mechanism of iron (≥99.5 wt %), which is a candidate bioabsorbable stent material due to its biocompatibility and mechanical strength. We found that iron wire encapsulation within the arterial wall extracellular matrix resulted in substantial biocorrosion by 22 days, with a voluminous corrosion product retained within the vessel wall at 9 months. In contrast, the blood-contacting luminal implant experienced minimal biocorrosion at 9 months. The importance of arterial blood versus arterial wall contact for regulating biocorrosion was confirmed with magnesium wires. We found that magnesium was highly corroded when placed in the arterial wall but was not corroded when exposed to blood in the arterial lumen for 3 weeks. The results demonstrate the capability of the vascular implantation model to conduct rapid in vivo assessments of vascular biomaterial corrosion behavior and to predict long-term biocorrosion behavior from material analyses. The results also highlight the critical role of the arterial environment (blood vs. matrix contact) in directing the corrosion behavior of biodegradable metals.

  5. REDUCED THROMBOGENICITY OF ARTIFICIAL MATERIALS BY COATING WITH ADPASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAKKER, WW; VANDERLEI, B; NIEUWENHUIS, P; ROBINSON, P; Bartels, H.

    1991-01-01

    A novel coating solution for the improvement of biocompatibility of polyurethane-based vascular prostheses was tested in rabbits and rats in vivo. Segments of coated and uncoated vascular prostheses were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of rats, followed by induction of experimental haemorrhage;

  6. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings: a composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2016-02-02

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  7. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  8. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY15 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the previous report of this series, a literature review was performed to assess the potential for substantial corrosion issues associated with the proposed SHINE process conditions to produce 99Mo. Following the initial review, substantial laboratory corrosion testing was performed emphasizing immersion and vapor-phase exposure of candidate alloys in a wide variety of solution chemistries and temperatures representative of potential exposure conditions. Stress corrosion cracking was not identified in any of the exposures up to 10 days at 80°C and 10 additional days at 93°C. Mechanical properties and specimen fracture face features resulting from slow-strain rate tests further supported a lack of sensitivity of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking. Fluid velocity was found not to be an important variable (0 to ~3 m/s) in the corrosion of candidate alloys at room temperature and 50°C. Uranium in solution was not found to adversely influence potential erosion-corrosion. Potentially intense radiolysis conditions slightly accelerated the general corrosion of candidate alloys, but no materials were observed to exhibit an annualized rate above 10 μm/y.

  9. Effect of Heat-treatment Temperature on HA-coated Titanium Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous HA coating materials were prepared on porous titanium by the low-temperature combustion synthesis. It was found that the mechanical properties of the specimen depend on the coating process and the heat treatment, and the bending strength would be reduced during the coating process but could be improved by heat treatment. The effects of the temperature during heat-treatment on the phase composition and microstructure of the as-prepared coating, and the bending strength of the specimen were investigated by XRD and SEM.The experimental results show that in the coating process, slight oxidation of the substrate may give rise to a drop in bending strength; however, it could be increased by the reaction of HA and TiO2, and the sintering of the coating during heat treatment. The HA particles in the coating, with very fine sized particles, were pretty active and would decompose at 800 ℃ .

  10. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced field emission from cerium hexaboride coated multiwalled carbon nanotube composite films: A potential material for next generation electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S., E-mail: santanu1@physics.iitd.ac.in [Nanostech Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-16 (India); Sheremet, E.; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Gordan, O. D.; Zahn, D. R. T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Jha, M.; Ganguli, A. K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-16 (India); Schmidt, H. [Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Schulze, S. [Solid Surfaces Analysis, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Schmidt, O. G. [Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-07

    Intensified field emission (FE) current from temporally stable cerium hexaboride (CeB{sub 6}) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Si substrate is reported aiming to propose the new composite material as a potential candidate for future generation electron sources. The film was synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. A remarkable increase in maximum current density, field enhancement factor, and a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field with comparable temporal current stability are observed in CeB{sub 6}-coated CNT film when compared to pristine CeB{sub 6} film. The elemental composition and surface morphology of the films, as examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray measurements, show decoration of CeB{sub 6} nanoparticles on top and walls of CNTs. Chemical functionalization of CNTs by the incorporation of CeB{sub 6} nanoparticles is evident by a remarkable increase in intensity of the 2D band in Raman spectrum of coated films as compared to pristine CeB{sub 6} films. The enhanced FE properties of the CeB{sub 6} coated CNT films are correlated to the microstructure of the films.

  12. Enhanced field emission from cerium hexaboride coated multiwalled carbon nanotube composite films: A potential material for next generation electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S.; Sheremet, E.; Jha, M.; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Ganguli, A. K.; Gordan, O. D.; Schmidt, H.; Schulze, S.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2014-03-01

    Intensified field emission (FE) current from temporally stable cerium hexaboride (CeB6) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Si substrate is reported aiming to propose the new composite material as a potential candidate for future generation electron sources. The film was synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. A remarkable increase in maximum current density, field enhancement factor, and a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field with comparable temporal current stability are observed in CeB6-coated CNT film when compared to pristine CeB6 film. The elemental composition and surface morphology of the films, as examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray measurements, show decoration of CeB6 nanoparticles on top and walls of CNTs. Chemical functionalization of CNTs by the incorporation of CeB6 nanoparticles is evident by a remarkable increase in intensity of the 2D band in Raman spectrum of coated films as compared to pristine CeB6 films. The enhanced FE properties of the CeB6 coated CNT films are correlated to the microstructure of the films.

  13. Materials for solar-transmitting heat-reflecting coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, B.; Valkonen, E.; Karlsson, T.; Ribbing, C.G.

    1981-11-27

    A coating for solar energy applications which combines heat reflection with transparency to solar radiation may be of four different types: a metallic film which is sufficiently thin to be transparent; a metal-based multilayer coating; a wide band gap heavily doped semiconductor such as SnO/sub 2/ or In/sub 2/O/sub 3/; a conducting microgrid. We prepared such coatings on glass by evaporating thin films of silver, copper, gold, aluminium, cobalt, iron, chromium and nickel of various thicknesses and by spraying SnO/sub 2/ films. The spectral variations in the transmittance, and the front side and back side reflectances were measured in the wavelength range 0.4-15..mu..m. The properties of a three-layer coating of the dielectric/metal/dielectric type were calculated with a multilayer program using known bulk optical constants. The effect of these films when coated onto a domestic window was demonstrated with a heat transfer calculation using an equivalent thermal net. When a large transmittance over a broad range of the solar spectrum is required, gold is an equally good, or a slightly better, choice than silver as the metal in a three-layer coating. In general, an SnO/sub 2/ film exhibits a higher solar transmittance as well as a higher emittance than a coating containing metals. This implies that the oxide is to be preferred as a coating on a window when the maximum passive solar heating is sought. However, a metal-based coating could be better when a very low Usub(L) value is the most important requirement.

  14. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu, Z. Q. J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™ for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy. Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  15. Wear studies on ZrO2-filled PEEK as coating bearing materials for artificial cervical discs of Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Song; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composite coatings are believed to be the potential candidates' bio-implant materials. However, these coatings have not yet been used on the surface of titanium-based orthopedics and joint products and very few investigations on the tribological characteristics could be found in the published literature till date. In this study, the wettabilities, composition and micro-hardness were characterized using contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness tester. The tribological tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc contact pair under 25% newborn calf serum (NCS) lubricated condition. For comparison, bare Ti6Al4V was studied. The obtained results revealed that those PEEK/ZrO2 composite coatings could improve the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V significantly. Adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear might be the dominant wear and failure mechanisms for PEEK/ZrO2 composite coatings in NCS lubricated condition. After comprehensive evaluation in the present study, 5wt.% ZrO2 nanoparticles filled PEEK coating displayed the optimum tribological characteristics and could be taken as a potential candidate for the bearing material of artificial cervical disc.

  16. Composite Based Chitosan/Zinc-Doped HA as a Candidate Material for Bone Substitute Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, S. T.; Rasyida, A.; Purnomo, A.; Pradita, N. N.; Ardhyananta, H.; Hidayat, M. I. P.

    2017-05-01

    The composite based Zinc-doped in Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite was successfully prepared by wet mixing method through the addition of 10, 15, and 20wt% of chitosan. The addition of Chitosan increased the compressive strength and the modulus elasticity. However, it decreased the density and the surface hardness of HA-Zn. Mechanical characterization revealed that these composites are suitable as a candidate of a cancellous bone substitute. Composite with 10% chitosan has compressive strength and modulus elasticity of 57.03 MPa and 0.15 GPa, respectively. Hence, it has the physical and mechanical properties that meet the standards as a cancellous bone substitute material. Also, in vitro biocompatibility test against BHK-21 cells exhibited non-toxic materials.

  17. Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.; te Heesen, E.; Bruch, U.; Cook, R.; Diehl, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Jakobeit, W.; Penkalla, H.J.; Ullrich, G.

    1984-08-01

    Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 800/sup 0/C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored.

  18. Influence of Feedstock Materials and Spray Parameters on Thermal Conductivity of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H. H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, G. H.; He, D. Y.; Bobzin, K.; Zhao, L.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.

    2017-03-01

    To manufacture a protective coating with high thermal conductivity on drying cylinders in paper production machines, a FeCrB-cored wire was developed, and the spraying parameters for wire-arc spraying were optimized in this study. The conventional engineering materials FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings were produced as the reference coatings under the same experimental condition. It has been shown that the oxide content in coating influences the thermal conductivity of coating significantly. The FeCrB coating exhibits a relative higher thermal conductivity due to the lower oxide content in comparison with conventional FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings. Moreover, the oxidation of in-flight particles can be reduced by decreasing the standoff distance contributing to the increase in the thermal conductivity of coating. Total energy consumption of a papermaking machine can be significantly reduced if the coatings applied to dryer section exhibit high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the FeCrB coating developed in this study is a highly promising coating system for drying cylinders regarding the improved thermal conductivity and low operation costs in paper production industry.

  19. Influence of Feedstock Materials and Spray Parameters on Thermal Conductivity of Wire-Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H. H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, G. H.; He, D. Y.; Bobzin, K.; Zhao, L.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.

    2017-02-01

    To manufacture a protective coating with high thermal conductivity on drying cylinders in paper production machines, a FeCrB-cored wire was developed, and the spraying parameters for wire-arc spraying were optimized in this study. The conventional engineering materials FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings were produced as the reference coatings under the same experimental condition. It has been shown that the oxide content in coating influences the thermal conductivity of coating significantly. The FeCrB coating exhibits a relative higher thermal conductivity due to the lower oxide content in comparison with conventional FeCrAl and FeCrMo coatings. Moreover, the oxidation of in-flight particles can be reduced by decreasing the standoff distance contributing to the increase in the thermal conductivity of coating. Total energy consumption of a papermaking machine can be significantly reduced if the coatings applied to dryer section exhibit high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the FeCrB coating developed in this study is a highly promising coating system for drying cylinders regarding the improved thermal conductivity and low operation costs in paper production industry.

  20. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  1. Active coated nanoparticles: impact of plasmonic material choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    The near- and far-field properties of a number of active coated spherical nanoparticles excited by an electric Hertzian dipole at optical frequencies are investigated. Their enhanced, as well as reduced, radiation effects are demonstrated and compared.......The near- and far-field properties of a number of active coated spherical nanoparticles excited by an electric Hertzian dipole at optical frequencies are investigated. Their enhanced, as well as reduced, radiation effects are demonstrated and compared....

  2. Using New Coating Materials for Corrosion Prevention of Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshami Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of reinforcing concrete structures is a common problem among all the Mediterranean countries. To protect steel from corrosion, cobalt oxide with zinc oxide were successfully deposited on silica and alumina layer according to Core–shell theory. This theory based on depositing a surface layer of expensive efficient anticorrosive coating on a cheap extender expressing the bulk. The combination of both core and shell compounds led to the production of new coating with improved properties different from each of its individual components. These improved properties lead to change in the efficiency of protection properties of coating films containing these new coating. The objective of the present work is to prepare a new ecologically friendly natural and inorganic coating of Egyptian mix (kaolin and ceramic waste and zinc phosphate as corrosion inhibitors based on the solid–solid interaction to protect steel from corrosion in buildings construction. The results revealed that these new coating gives the best results in protecting steel substrates from corrosion especial in aggressive environment.

  3. High quality anti-relaxation coating material for alkali atom vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Balabas, M V; Wasilewski, W; Krauter, H; Madsen, L S; Muller, J H; Fernholz, T; Polzik, E S

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of alkali atom vapor cells coated with a high quality anti-relaxation coating material based on alkenes. The prepared cells with single compound alkene based coating showed the longest spin relaxation times which have been measured up to now with room temperature vapor cells. Suggestions are made that chemical binding of a cesium atom and an alkene molecule by attack to the C=C bond plays a crucial role in such improvement of anti-relaxation coating quality.

  4. Structural ceramic coatings in composite microtruss cellular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bele, E.; Bouwhuis, B.A.; Codd, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hibbard, G.D., E-mail: glenn.hibbard@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The compressive strength increase per unit sleeve thickness of Al cores reinforced with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sleeves is lower than the corresponding strength increase when the same cores are reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni (n-Ni) sleeves (left). However, because anodizing is a transformative surface treatment, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was able to achieve this performance increase with little overall weight penalty (right). Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} A new type of metal/ceramic microtruss cellular composite has been created. {yields} Reinforcing sleeves of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited on low density Al microtruss cores. {yields} Significant compressive strength increases were seen at virtually no weight penalty. {yields} Failure mechanisms were studied by electron microscopy and finite element analysis. {yields} Buckling, sleeve wrinkling, and coating fracture dictated the compressive strength. - Abstract: In the present study, anodizing was used to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings in a conventional 3003 aluminum alloy microtruss core; a 38.5 {mu}m thick anodic coating provided a 143% increase in compressive strength. Finite-element analyses were used to illustrate the dependence of the compressive strength and failure mechanism on the thickness of the anodic coating. At low thicknesses the microtruss strength is dictated by global bucking of the internal struts. However, at higher thicknesses the compressive strength is controlled by coating fracture and local deformation in the hinge region of the struts. Regardless of the failure mechanism, the compressive strength of the composite microtruss increased with increasing anodic coating thickness, with very little corresponding weight penalty.

  5. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... that graphene can still be a relevant candidate for thin coatings....

  6. Impact of ALD Coating on Mn-rich Cathode Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2013-06-01

    LG Chem Power Inc. (LGCPI) and NREL have collaborated to demonstrate the scalability of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating process over the last 6 months, and the benefits of ALD coatings for long-term cycling and calendar life are being quantified. The objectives of this work are two-fold: 1) to evaluate the scalability of the process to coat LGCPI cathodes with alumina using the ALD technique, and 2) to demonstrate improvements in rate capability and life of ALD-coated LGCPI electrodes. NREL received samples of baseline material to be coated from LGCPI. NREL carried out ALD coating of the samples with help from a subcontractor, ALD Nanosolutions. NREL fabricated cells from those samples for quick screening and feedback to ALD Nanosolutions. LGCPI is currently fabricating larger-format cells for further evaluation.

  7. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines (MATE). Project 4: Erosion resistant compressor airfoil coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, J. M.; Freling, M.; Friedrich, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of coatings to provide at least a 2X improvement in particulate erosion resistance for steel, nickel and titanium compressor airfoils was identified and demonstrated. Coating materials evaluated included plasma sprayed cobalt tungsten carbide, nickel carbide and diffusion applied chromium plus boron. Several processing parameters for plasma spray processing and diffusion coating were evaluated to identify coating systems having the most potential for providing airfoil erosion resistance. Based on laboratory results and analytical evaluations, selected coating systems were applied to gas turbine blades and evaluated for surface finish, burner rig erosion resistance and effect on high cycle fatigue strength. Based on these tests, the following coatings were recommended for engine testing: Gator-Gard plasma spray 88WC-12Co on titanium alloy airfoils, plasma spray 83WC-17Co on steel and nickel alloy airfoils, and Cr+B on nickel alloy airfoils.

  8. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  9. UV-Curable Hybrid Nanocomposite Coating to Protect Tether Polymer Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for coatings to protect and strengthen tether materials for Momentum-exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) technology, Luminit, LLC,...

  10. Broad Bandwidth Meta-Material Antireflection Coatings for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort's objective is to realize broadband low-reflectance coatings. The two key technical challenges are the design of the precision engineered materials...

  11. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion chr

  12. Sustainable polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from waste aerobic granular sludge as a surface coating material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Girbal-Neuhauser, E.; Adriaanse, M.; van Loosdrecht, M. C M

    To evaluate the possibility of utilizing polysaccharide-based biomaterial recovered from aerobic granular sludge as a coating material, the morphology, molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of the recovered biomaterial were investigated by atomic force microscopy, size exclusion

  13. Biomimetic coating of calcium phosphate on biometallic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Er-lin; YANG Ke

    2005-01-01

    The biomimetic coating process in comparison with other processes is reviewed. This processing shows advantages in the surface bio-modification, such as low cost and flexible processing, wide range of apatite composition and thickness, non-line-of-sight characteristic and possibility to coat polymers and porous implants. The bio-mimetic apatite coating is made up of larger number of globules with size of 1-5μm. Each globule is a group of numerous flakes with a size range of 100-200nm to 30μm in length and 0.1-1μm in thickness. In-vitro and in-vivo studies show that the biomimetic apatite coating can promote an early and strong bonding to bone or promote the bone in-growth into the porous structure, which will be beneficial to the cementless stable fixation of orthopaedic implants. Recently developed co-precipitation of a kind of protein molecules into the HA coating shows much promising.

  14. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Developing Corrosion Prevention Coating Solutions for the Canadian SCWR Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    The development of coating materials and processes was carried out with the objective to reduce material degradation in supercritical water. Based on the test results of bulk coating alloys (FeCrAlY and NiCrAl), two coating processes, plasma spray of dense NiCrAlY and pack aluminizing, have been developed to apply coatings to candidate stainless steels and Ni-based alloys. The SCW test results and microstructure characterization of both coating alloys and coated candidate alloys are presented in this short paper.

  16. Compression-Coated Tablet for Colon Targeting: Impact of Coating and Core Materials on Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Siddhartha; Sa, Biswanath

    2016-04-01

    This work was envisaged to develop compression-coated tablets using a blend of Ca(+2) ion cross-linked carboxymethyl xanthan gum (CMXG) and sodium alginate (SAL) for delayed release of immediate pulse release tablets of prednisolone (PDL) in the colon without the need of colonic bacterial intervention for degradation of the polysaccharide coat. The core tablets containing PDL and other compatible excipients were prepared by direct compression method and subsequently compression coated with different ratios of CMXG and SAL. Long T lag, the time required to restrict the drug release below 10%, and short T rap, the time required for immediate release following the T lag, were considered as suitable release parameters for evaluation of colon targeting of PDL tablets. Among the various compression coats, a blend of CMXG and SAL in a ratio of 1.5:3.5 provided T lag of 5.12 ± 0.09 h and T rap of 6.50 ± 0.05 h. The increase in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and crospovidone (CP) in the core tablets did not change T lag significantly although decreased the T rap marginally. Inclusion of an osmogen in the core tablets decreased the T lag to 4.05 ± 0.08 h and T rap to 3.56 ± 0.06 h. The increase in coat weight to 225 mg provided a reasonably long T lag (6.06 ± 0.09 h) and short T rap (4.36 ± 0.20 h). Drug release from most of the formulations followed the Hixson-Crowell equation and sigmoidal pattern as confirmed by the Weibull equation. In conclusion, tablets, compression coated with CMXG and SAL in a ratio of 1.5:3.5 and having 225-mg coat weight, were apparently found suitable for colon targeting.

  17. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  18. Surface dispersive energy determined with IGC-ID in anti-graffiti-coated building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Rubio, J; Sánchez, M. J.; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario.; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Coating building materials with anti-graffiti treatments hinders or prevents spray paint adherence by generating low energy surfaces. This paper describes the effect of coating cement paste, lime mortar, granite, limestone and brick with two anti-graffiti agents (a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane, “Protectosil Antigraffiti®”, and a Zr ormosil) on the dispersive component of the surface energy of these five construction materials. The agents were rediluted in their respective solvents at concen...

  19. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  20. Water-thinnable polymers for durable coatings for different materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.jankowski@ichp.pl; Kijowska, Dorota, E-mail: piotr.jankowski@ichp.pl [Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Department of Polyesters, Epoxides and Polyurethanes, 8 Rydygiera Str., 01-793 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The methods of obtaining water-thinnable polymers - water-thinnable unsaturated polyester resins (WTUPR) - by polycondensation were elaborate and optimized. As hydrophilic monomers different types of sulfonate monomers were used. The monomers, with sulfonate groups and other reactive groups, were obtained by sulfonation of organic compounds with satisfactory yield. All products were analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. WTUPR were used as polymeric binders for coatings applications. Coatings with relatively high pendulum hardness, good properties and durability, useful for practical applications, were obtained. Typical existing equipment for the production of unsaturated polyester resins can be applied for the industrial preparation of WTUPR.

  1. Analytical electron microscopy study of new class material Cr2AlC for coating applications at high temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, R.

    2017-04-01

    The interactions between electron and specimens produce wide range of secondary signals from the specimen that can be used in analytical electron microscopy. These signals will give us chemical information and electronic structure information of specimen atoms. Two techniques which based on these secondary signals, X-rays energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), are very powerful to be used for characterization materials. These two techniques are complementary each on the other. The former is very useful to quantify heavy elements and the other is very suitable to identify light elements as oxygen and carbon. In this report, we demonstrated the capability of these techniques to investigate microstructure evolution during the oxidation process of thin film Cr2AlC at 1320 °C. This thin film belongs to MAX phase, a new class material, and becomes a promising candidate for coating applications since it exhibits a good oxidation resistant.

  2. High performance step-down AR coatings for high refractive-index IR materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, J A; Ho, F

    1982-01-15

    A numerical thin film synthesis program has been used to design high performance antireflection coatings of the step-down type for a number of IR window materials. In the calculations, the dispersion of the optical constants of all the materials is accounted for. Various trade offs between the width of the AR region and the maximum reflection within that width are possible. For example, an AR coating for germanium has been found in which the reflectance is zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide substrates. The experimentally measured performance of several coatings will be given.

  3. Anodic Behavior of SAM2X5 Material Applied as Amorphous Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailey, P D; Farmer, J C; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-10

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable industrial materials since they are highly resistant to corrosion and possess enhanced hardness for wear resistance. The amorphous materials can be produced from the melt as powder and later spray deposited as coatings on large engineering structures. As a laboratory experiment, SAM2X5 powder was coated on electrochemical specimens of 304SS for testing. Results show that the coated specimens did not perform satisfactorily during the laboratory testing. This is because of partial devitrification during the deposition of the powder on the small specimen substrates.

  4. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technology candidates for the 1980's, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, R. E.; Maertins, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cost/benefit analyses to evaluate advanced material technologies projects considered for general aviation and turboprop commuter aircraft through estimated life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and development costs are discussed. Specifically addressed is the selection of technologies to be evaluated; development of property goals; assessment of candidate technologies on typical engines and aircraft; sensitivity analysis of the changes in property goals on performance and economics, cost, and risk analysis for each technology; and ranking of each technology by relative value. The cost/benefit analysis was applied to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business-type jet aircraft configured with two TFE731-3 turbofan engines, and to a domestic, nonrevenue producing, business type turboprop aircraft configured with two TPE331-10 turboprop engines. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis was applied to a commercial turboprop aircraft configured with a growth version of the TPE331-10.

  5. Fracture toughness of irradiated candidate materials for ITER first wall/blanket structures: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Disk compact specimens of candidate materials for first wall/blanket structures in ITER have been irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 250{degrees}C. These specimens have been tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250{degrees}C to determine J-integral values and tearing moduli. The results show that irradiation at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness of austenic stainless steels, but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the temperature increases. Irradiation at 250{degrees}C is more damaging that at 90{degrees}C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The ferritic-martensitic steels HT-9 and F82H show significantly greater reductions in fracture toughness that the austenitic stainless steels.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  7. Short-term stability test for thorium soil candidate a reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clain, Almir F.; Fonseca, Adelaide M.G.; Dantas, Vanessa V.D.B.; Braganca, Maura J.C.; Souza, Poliana S., E-mail: almir@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adelaide@ird.gov.br, E-mail: vanessa@ird.gov.br, E-mail: maura@ird.gov.br, E-mail: poliana@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes a methodology to determine the soil short-term stability after the steps of production in laboratory. The short-term stability of the soil is an essential property to be determined in order to producing a reference material. The soil is a candidate of reference material for chemical analysis of thorium with metrological traceability to be used in environmental analysis, equipment calibration, validation methods, and quality control. A material is considered stable in a certain temperature if the property of interest does not change with time, considering the analytical random fluctuations. Due to this, the angular coefficient from the graphic of Th concentration versus elapsed time must be near to zero. The analytical determinations of thorium concentration were performed by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis. The slopes and their uncertainties were obtained from the regression lines at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, with control temperature of -20 deg C. From the obtained data a t-test was applied. In both temperatures the calculated t-value was lower than the critical value, so we can conclude with 95% confidence level that no significant changes happened during the period studied concerning thorium concentration in soil at temperatures of 20 deg C and 60 deg C, showing stability at these temperatures. (author)

  8. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-07-25

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan [1] has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  9. Assessment of candidates for target window material in accelerator-driven molybdenum-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strons, Philip [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-01

    NorthStar Medical Technologies is pursuing production of an important medical isotope, Mo-99, through a photo-nuclear reaction of a Mo-100 target using a high-power electron accelerator. The current target utilizes an Inconel 718 window. The purpose of this study was to evaluate other candidate materials for the target window, which separates the high-pressure helium gas inside the target from the vacuum inside the accelerator beamline and is subjected to significant stress. Our initial analysis assessed the properties (density, thermal conductivity, maximum stress, minimum window thickness, maximum temperature, and figure of merit) for a range of materials, from which the three most promising were chosen: Inconel 718, 250 maraging steel, and standard-grade beryllium. These materials were subjected to further analysis to determine the effects of thermal and mechanical strain versus beam power at varying thicknesses. Both beryllium and the maraging steel were calculated to withstand more than twice as high beam power than Inconel 718.

  10. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  11. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Modification of MELCOR for severe accident analysis of candidate accident tolerant cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: brad.merrill@inl.gov; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M., E-mail: shannon.bragg-sitton@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W., E-mail: paul.humrickhouse@inl.gov

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) systems are currently under development for LWRs. • Many performance analysis tools are specifically developed for UO{sub 2}–Zr alloy fuel. • Modifications were made to the MELCOR code for candidate ATF cladding. • Preliminary analysis results for SiC and FeCrAl cladding concepts are presented. - Abstract: A number of materials are currently under development as candidate accident tolerant fuel and cladding for application in the current fleet of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal for the development of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) systems for LWRs is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. Designed for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs, or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+), to achieve their goal enhanced ATF must endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system, while maintaining or improving performance during normal operation. Many available nuclear fuel performance analysis tools are specifically developed for the current UO{sub 2}–Zirconium alloy fuel system. The MELCOR severe-accident analysis code, under development at the Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL-NM) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is one of these tools. This paper describes modifications

  13. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pacheco, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  14. Microsystem reliability: Polymer adhesive and coating materials for packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob

    aggressive surroundings. Focus is on how the adhesion of protective polymer adhesives and coatings can be characterized theoretically and practically and optimized regarding intrinsic properties, the surroundings and their mutual influences. The main conclusion is that the mutual influences make a system...

  15. Material fundamentals and clinical performance of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Berndt, C C; Gross, K A; Kucuk, A

    2001-01-01

    The clinical use of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal implants has aroused as many controversies as interests over the last decade. Although faster and stronger fixation and more bone growth have been revealed, the performance of HA-coated implants has been doubted. This article will initially address the fundamentals of the material selection, design, and processing of the HA coating and show how the coating microstructure and properties can be a good predictor of the expected behavior in the body. Further discussion will clarify the major concerns with the clinical use of HA coatings and introduce a comprehensive review concerning the outcomes experienced with respect to clinical practice over the past 5 years. A reflection on the results indicates that HA coatings can promote earlier and stronger fixation but exhibit a durability that can be related to the coating quality. Specific relationships between coating quality and clinical performance are being established as characterization methods disclose more information about the coating.

  16. Polymer-coated fibrous materials as the stationary phase in packed capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Tahara, Ai; Imaizumi, Motohiro; Takeichi, Tsutomu; Wada, Hiroo; Jinno, Kiyokatsu

    2003-10-15

    Synthetic polymer filaments have been introduced as the support material in packed capillary gas chromatography (GC). The filaments of the heat-resistant polymers, Zylon, Kevlar, Nomex, and Technora, were longitudinally packed into a short fused-silica capillary, followed by the conventional coating process for open-tubular GC columns. The separation of several test mixtures such as n-alkylbenzenes and n-alkanes was carried out with these polymer-coated fiber-packed capillary columns. With the coating by various polymeric materials on the surface of these filaments, the retentivity was significantly improved over the parent fiber-packed column (without polymer coating) as well as a conventional open-tubular capillary of the same length. The results demonstrated a good combination of Zylon as the support and poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based materials as the coating liquid-phase for the successful GC separation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while successful applications for other separations such as poly(ethylene glycol) coating for the separation of alcohols were also obtained. From the results it has been suggested that the selectivity of the fiber-packed column could be tuned by selecting different coating materials, indicating the promising possibility for a novel usage of fine fibrous polymers as the support material that can be combined with newly synthesized coating materials specially designed for particular separations. Taking advantage of good thermal stability of the fibers, the column temperature could be elevated to higher than 350 degrees C with the combination of a short metallic capillary.

  17. Assessment of commutability for candidate certified reference material ERM-BB130 "chloramphenicol in pork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Emteborg, Håkan; Schimmel, Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), an effective antibiotic against many microorganisms, is meanwhile banned in the EU for treatment of food-producing animals due to adverse health effects. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) is currently developing a certified reference material (CRM) for CAP in pork, intended for validation and method performance verifications of analytical methods. The material will be certified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and has a target CAP level around the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 microg/kg. To prove that the material can be applied as a quality control tool for screening methods, a commutability study was conducted, involving five commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and one biosensor assay (BiaCore kit). Meat homogenates (cryo-milled wet tissue) with CAP concentrations around the MRPL and the candidate CRM (lyophilised powder) were measured by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as well as the six screening methods. Pairwise method comparisons of results obtained for the two sample types showed that the CRM can successfully be applied as quality control (QC) sample to all six screening methods. The study suggests that ERM-BB130 is sufficiently commutable with the investigated assays and that laboratories applying one of the investigated kits therefore benefit from using ERM-BB130 to demonstrate the correctness of their results. However, differences among the assays were observed, either in the abundance of bias between screening and confirmatory LC and GC methods, the repeatability of test results, or goodness of fit between the methods.

  18. Magnesium-containing layered double hydroxides as orthopaedic implant coating materials--An in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizbauer, Andreas; Kieke, Marc; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Angrisani, Gian Luigi; Willbold, Elmar; Diekmann, Julia; Flörkemeier, Thilo; Windhagen, Henning; Müller, Peter Paul; Behrens, Peter; Budde, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common artificial joint replacement procedures. Several different surface coatings have been shown to improve implant fixation by facilitating bone ingrowth and consequently enhancing the longevity of uncemented orthopaedic hip prostheses. In the present study, two different layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg-Fe- and Mg-Al-LDH, were investigated as potential magnesium (Mg)-containing coating materials for orthopaedic applications in comparison to Mg hydroxide (Mg(OH)2). In vitro direct cell compatibility tests were carried out using the murine fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 and the mouse osteosarcoma cell line MG 63. The host response of bone tissue was evaluated in in vivo experiments with nine rabbits. Two cylindrical pellets (3 × 3 mm) were implanted into each femoral condyle of the left hind leg. The samples were analyzed histologically and with μ-computed tomography (μ-CT) 6 weeks after surgery. An in vitro cytotoxicity test determined that more cells grew on the LDH pellets than on the Mg(OH)2-pellets. The pH value and the Mg(2+) content of the cell culture media were increased after incubation of the cells on the degradable samples. The in vivo tests demonstrated the formation of fibrous capsules around Mg(OH)2 and Mg-Fe-LDH. In contrast, the host response of the Mg-Al-LDH samples indicated that this Mg-containing biomaterial is a potential candidate for implant coating.

  19. Insulation Materials Comprising Fibers Having a Partially Cured Polymer Coating Thereon, Articles Including Such Insulation Materials, and Methods of Forming Such Materials and Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Richard E. (Inventor); Meeks, Craig L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Insulation materials have a coating of a partially cured polymer on a plurality of fibers, and the plurality of coated fibers in a cross-linked polymeric matrix. Insulation may be formed by applying a preceramic polymer to a plurality of fibers, heating the preceramic polymer to form a partially cured polymer over at least portions of the plurality of fibers, disposing the plurality of fibers in a polymeric material, and curing the polymeric material. A rocket motor may be formed by disposing a plurality of coated fibers in an insulation precursor, curing the insulation precursor to form an insulation material without sintering the partially cured polymer, and providing an energetic material over the polymeric material. An article includes an insulation material over at least one surface.

  20. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W

    2002-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB sub 2 (a superconductor with T sub c = 39 K), B sub 6 Si, B sub 4 C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li sub 1 sub 2 Si sub 7 , and Li sub 7 Sn sub 2. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 6 Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lith...

  1. A Damage Resistance Comparison Between Candidate Polymer Matrix Composite Feedline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T

    2000-01-01

    As part of NASAs focused technology programs for future reusable launch vehicles, a task is underway to study the feasibility of using the polymer matrix composite feedlines instead of metal ones on propulsion systems. This is desirable to reduce weight and manufacturing costs. The task consists of comparing several prototype composite feedlines made by various methods. These methods are electron-beam curing, standard hand lay-up and autoclave cure, solvent assisted resin transfer molding, and thermoplastic tape laying. One of the critical technology drivers for composite components is resistance to foreign objects damage. This paper presents results of an experimental study of the damage resistance of the candidate materials that the prototype feedlines are manufactured from. The materials examined all have a 5-harness weave of IM7 as the fiber constituent (except for the thermoplastic, which is unidirectional tape laid up in a bidirectional configuration). The resin tested were 977-6, PR 520, SE-SA-1, RS-E3 (e-beam curable), Cycom 823 and PEEK. The results showed that the 977-6 and PEEK were the most damage resistant in all tested cases.

  2. Numerical modeling of polyurea coated cementitious materials for flexure and impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothula, Naga Deepika

    The research focuses on predicting the mechanical properties of various cementitious based materials coated with polyurea using the finite element program ABAQUS. To determine the effect of the polyurea coated systems, simple finite element analyses are performed on the beam model for flexure and the concrete slab model for impact. The experimental results carried out by Hyungjoo Choi [1, 2] are used to validate the model and to study the effect of the coating conditions of polyurea (plain, top, bottom, both). The load-displacement curves are plotted. Results show that using polyurea coating increases of deflection and load at failure (ductility), ultimate strength and strain, of Poly (Vinyl Butyral) (PVB) and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) fiber reinforced specimens. The simulation response for various models matched the experimental results very closely. Impact models depict the stresses developed and show that applying polyurea coating on the bottom seems to produce the best results.

  3. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min-Jen [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Du-Cheng [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Hsien [Taiwan Textile Research Institute, Taipei 23674, Taiwan (China); Li, Ching-Fei, E-mail: chingfei.li@gmail.com [Phoenix Silicon International Corporation, Hsinchu 30094, Taiwan (China); Shieu, Fuh-Sheng, E-mail: fsshieu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO{sub 4} solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  4. Glass and glass–ceramic coatings, versatile materials for industrial and engineering applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitava Majumdar; Sunirmal Jana

    2001-02-01

    Among various coating systems for industrial and engineering applications, glass and glass–ceramic coatings have advantages of chemical inertness, high temperature stability and superior mechanical properties such as abrasion, impact etc as compared to other coating materials applied by thermal spraying in its different forms viz. PVD, CVD, plasma, etc. Besides imparting required functional properties such as heat, abrasion and corrosion resistance to suit particular end use requirements, the glass and glass–ceramic coatings in general also provide good adherence, defect free surface and refractoriness. Systematic studies covering the basic science of glass and glass–ceramic coatings, the functional properties required for a particular end-use along with the various fields of application have been reviewed in this paper.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of rosin-based polymers as film coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satturwar, P M; Mandaogade, P M; Fulzele, S V; Darwhekar, G N; Joshi, S B; Dorle, A K

    2002-04-01

    Rosin-based polymers (R-1 and R-2) were synthesized and characterized for physicochemical properties, molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity (Mw/Mn), glass transition temperature (Tg), and thermogravimetry (TGA). Films of the polymers were cast on a mercury substrate by solvent evaporation technique. Free films were characterized for surface topography by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus of elasticity. The polymers were further evaluated as film coating materials by evaluating drug release from coated pellets with diclofenac sodium as a model drug. Drug was loaded on non-pareil seeds by a solution-layering technique and coated with varying concentrations of polymer solutions. Sustained release of the drug was observed from coated pellets. The newly synthesized rosin-based polymers promise considerable utility for pharmaceutical coating.

  6. Multifunctional coating MAI D5 intended for the protection of refractory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhestkov, B. E.; Terent'eva, V. S.

    2010-01-01

    A thin-layer heterophase MAI D5 coating intended for the protection of carbon-containing composite materials (C-C-, C-SiC-, SiC-SiC-composite material) and refractory metal-based alloys against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion is tested. The coating is formed from a specially developed Si-Ti-Mo-B-Y microcomposition powder material. A new approach to creating self-healing heterophase coatings is used. At operating temperatures, the structure and phase composition of the MAI D5 coating provides rapid self-healing of random defects on the coating surface and in the base material owing to the presence of a silicon-containing eutectic, which favors rapid recovery of a protective amorphous silica layer consumed during operation. Under operating conditions, the coating undergoes self-organization to form a multilayer system with a number of functional oxide micro-, submicro-, and nanolayers. Samples with the MAI D5 coating are subjected to combined tests on bench plants located at MAI and TsAGI under conditions emulating the re-entry of a hypersonic aircraft, when its surface temperature reaches 2400 K. Certification tests are performed in wind tunnels located at TsAGI during a simultaneous action of a hypersonic dissociated-air flow and mechanical loads. The protection of heat-loaded structural elements in space vehicles made of ultrahigh-temperature materials against high-temperature gas corrosion and erosion by the MAI D5 coating in hypersonic dissociated-air flows is shown to be efficient.

  7. The Sensitivity of Abradable Coating Residual Stresses to Varying Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports recent research on abradable materials employed for aero-engine applications. Such thermal spray coatings are used extensively within the gas turbine, applied to the inner surface of compressor and turbine shroud sections, coating the periphery of the blade rotation path. The function of an abradable seal is to wear preferentially when rotating blades come into contact with it, while minimizing over-tip clearance and improving the efficiency of the engine. Thermal spraying of an abradable coating onto a substrate imparts two components of residual stress; rapid quenching stresses as the spray material cools on impact and stresses arising from differential thermal contraction. In-service thermal stresses are superimposed by the differential expansion of these bonded layers. The combination of the production and operation history will lead to thermal-mechanical fatigue damage within the abradable coating. The present paper will describe the numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of the thermal spray process. The sensitivity of residual stresses (with varying material properties, coating/substrate thickness, Poisson’s ratio, and substrate temperature) predicted by the Tsui and Clyne progressive deposition model enabled identification of performance drivers to coating integrity. Selecting material properties that minimize in-service stresses is a crucial stage in advancing future abradable performance.

  8. Conformal Deep Trench Coating with both Conducting and InsulatingMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Lili; Kim, Jung-Kuk; Ji, Qing; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Chen, Ye; Gough, Rick A.

    2006-06-01

    A thin film coating system has been developed for deposition of both conductive and insulating material. The system employs an RF discharge plasma source with four straight RF antennas, which is made of or covered with the deposition material, thus serving simultaneously as a sputtering target. The average deposition rate of the copper thin film can be as high as 500 nm/min when operated in CW mode. Film properties under different plasma conditions have been investigated experimentally. By adjusting RF power, gas pressure, duty factor, and substrate biasing conditions, several thin film coating schemes can be achieved, one of which has been demonstrated to be suitable for conformal deep trench coating. Conformal coating over trenches of high aspect ratio (>6:1) has been demonstrated at both micron and submicron scales.

  9. Unidirectional coating technology for organic field-effect transistors: materials and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huabin; Wang, Qijing; Qian, Jun; Yin, Yao; Shi, Yi; Li, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential for developing organic electronics. The encouraging development in solution-processed OFETs has attracted research interest because of their potential in low-cost devices with performance comparable to polycrystalline-silicon-based transistors. In recent years, unidirectional coating technology, featuring thin-film coating along only one direction and involving specific materials as well as solution-assisted fabrication methods, has attracted intensive interest. Transistors with organic semiconductor layers, which are deposited via unidirectional coating methods, have achieved high performance. In particular, carrier mobility has been greatly enhanced to values much higher than 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. Such significant improvement is mainly attributed to better control in morphology and molecular packing arrangement of organic thin film. In this review, typical materials that are being used in OFETs are discussed, and demonstrations of unidirectional coating methods are surveyed.

  10. Synthesis and Physical Property of Multi-Functional Siloxane Protective Coating Materials Applicable for Electronic Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Hyun; Cho, Hyeon Mo; Lee, Myong Euy [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Four multialkoxy-functionalized siloxane base-polymers were synthesized through either hydro-silylation or condensation reactions in order to prepare multi-networked siloxane polymers having appropriate physical properties for protective coating in fabrications of electronics. Formulations of 4 base-polymers gave coating materials and. Product A showed well-controlled flowing and leveling properties, and product A-2 was successfully applied to protective insulating coating for junction areas of connectors and chips in PDP controller. Tack free time, extrusion rate, dielectric breakdown voltage, hardness, thermal stability, water resistance and flame resistance of products and were examined.

  11. Wear of soft tool materials in sliding contact with zinc coated steel sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Burlat, M.; Bolt, P.J.; Schipper, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce costs of tooling for press operations, efforts are made to use alternative tool materials like wood or plastic. Friction and wear characteristics in sliding contact with zinc-coated steel sheet could, however, limit the applicability of these tool materials for automotive applicat

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF COATING MATERIAL DIFFERENCE AGAINST ENCAPSULATION EFFICIENCY OF RED GINGER OLEORESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanudin Jayanudin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different coating materials on the efficiency of red ginger oleoresin encapsulation and characterization of microcapsule surface. The encapsulation process begins by dissolving chitosan with 1 % (v/v acetic acid and dissolving sodium alginate using aquadest to be used as a coating material. Red ginger oleoresin alginate included in the solution was stirred. The mixture entered into the chitosan solution and added tween 80 was stirred using a homogenizer to emulsify. The emulsion that forms included in the spray dryer to be converted into a powder of microcapsules, and then analyzes the encapsulation efficiency and surface morphology of microcapsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Differences in the coating material used were chitosan, mixture of chitosan-alginate and mixture of chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP. Weight ratio of red ginger oleoresin and the coating material were 1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3. The research results obtained were the highest encapsulation efficiency obtained from the coating material of the chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP at a ratio of 1: 3, namely by 85 %.

  13. Fabrication of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials for conservation of historic stone sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    The present work was aimed to develop a new kind of stone conservation materials (TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating) by a facile sol-gel method for the protection of decayed sandstones of Chongqing Dazu stone sculptures in China. The hydrophobic property, surface morphology, water vapor permeability, ultraviolet aging resistance and mechanical properties were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating as a stone conservation material. The results showed that the addition of hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) contributed to improve the hydrophobic properties and incorporation of PEO-PPO-PEO (F127) surfactant resulted in the formation of superficial protrusions with micro- and nanoscopic structures and overall alteration of surface morphology and roughness, thus preventing the coating materials from cracking. After treatment with TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials, the ultraviolet aging resistance and mechanical properties of stone were also improved without the obvious effects on the breathability and color of the stone, indicating promising applications of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials for conservation of historic stone sculptures.

  14. High temperature oxidation of fuel cladding candidate materials in steam-hydrogen environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Brady, M. P.; Cheng, T.; Keiser, J. R.

    2013-09-01

    Alternative fuel cladding materials to Zr alloys are being investigated for enhanced accident tolerance, which specifically involves oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ⩾1200 °C for short times. Based on a comparison of a range of commercial and model alloys, conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only ˜18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application. Results at 1350 °C indicated that FeCrAl alloys and CVD SiC remain oxidation resistant in steam. At 1200 °C, high (⩾25% Cr) ferritic alloys appear to be good candidates for this application. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H2 additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys, but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed for type 317 L tubing in a H2-50%H2O environment at 10.3 bar compared to 100% H2O.

  15. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-01-24

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p materials (p materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  16. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I; Temchenko, Volodymyr P; Kyselov, Vitalii S; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO2) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application.

  17. The effect of specifi c relationship between material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, parts and tools are increasingly made of composite materials. Realization of specifi c connection between basic material and coating is very important. The quality of coating on products, in terms of wear and resistance to destruction, has a large impact on productivity and reliability of production processes, in particular their life. In this paper, based on experimental investigations, the effect of specific relationship between the base material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product is analyzed.

  18. Mixed-material coating formation on plasma-facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, R. P.; Grossman, A. A.; Luckhardt, S.; Seraydarian, R.; Sze, F. C.; Whyte, D. G.

    When any plasma confinement device is fabricated from more than a single material which can come into contact with either particle or heat flux, there is the potential for migration of one of these materials to the locations of other materials. This combination of materials, or mixed materials, can have substantially different properties than either of the original materials. The PISCES-B linear plasma device is examining the formation conditions and properties of mixed-material surface layers which can form on plasma-facing components. The PISCES-B device has been modified to incorporate an impurity gas (CD 4, CO, O 2, etc.) puffing system in the target interaction region. It is, therefore, possible to control the fraction of impurities in the incident plasma and to perform systematic tests on the conditions necessary to form mixed-materials surface layers. The concentration of the species in the plasma column is measured spectroscopically, as well as by a residual gas monitor on the vacuum chamber. Measurements of the rate of growth of the thickness of the mixed material layer are performed. A simple erosion model can adequately describe the growth rate of the mixed-material layer and may allow for growth rate predictions in other plasma environments. It is also important to investigate the role of redeposition of metallic impurities in the formation of mixed material layers. A beryllium evaporator has been independently installed upstream of the target-interaction region to allow seeding of the incident plasma with beryllium. The presence of beryllium on the sample surface is observed to reduce the chemical erosion of the graphite by more than the reduction of the surface carbon concentration. And finally, the hydrogen isotope retention properties of carbon-containing layers on beryllium could have serious implications for tritium accumulation in ITER.

  19. Steam oxidation and the evaluation of coatings and material performance through collaborative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, A.T. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom); Aguero, A. [INTA, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Over the last five years through the COST 536 Programme researchers across Europe have been collaborating to better understand the phenomena of steam oxidation and to characterise coated and uncoated materials for use in power plants. During this period fundamental study of the oxidation mechanisms and changes in the oxidation kinetics caused by the presence of steam have been undertaken. Materials covering a range of high temperature plant applications have been studied, from low alloy martensitic alloys through to Ni-based superalloy materials, with investigations into the effect of increasing temperatures and pressures on the oxidation kinetics, oxide morphology and spallation characteristics. In addition conventional and novel coatings have been evaluated to assess their potential use in new USC plant. This paper will present an overview of these activities demonstrating the effect that steam has on the oxidation of alloys and coatings. (orig.)

  20. Nano-magnetic particles used in biomedicine: core and coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Z; Karimi, L; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications have been developed by many researchers. Separation, immunoassay, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia are enhanced by the use of suitable magnetic nanoparticles and coating materials in the form of ferrofluids. Due to their low biocompatibility and low dispersion in water solutions, nanoparticles that are used for biomedical applications require surface treatment. Various kinds of coating materials including organic materials (polymers), inorganic metals (gold, platinum) or metal oxides (aluminum oxide, cobalt oxide) have been attracted during the last few years. Based on the recent advances and the importance of nanomedicine in human life, this paper attempts to give a brief summary on the different ferrite nano-magnetic particles and coatings used in nanomedicine.

  1. Preparation and performance of thermal insulation energy saving coating materials for exterior wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Chen, Gong; Chen, Yalei

    2014-05-01

    Nano zinc oxide with a high refractive index has good thermal reflection performance, hollow glass microspheres have good thermal reflection and insulation performance, and sepiolite nanofibers with many nanostructural pores have good thermal insulation performance. The dispensability of nano zinc oxide in coating materials was improved by optimizing surface silane coupling agent modification process, leading to the good thermal reflection performance. The thermal insulation performance was improved by hollow glass microspheres and sepiolite nanofibers. On this basis, the thermal insulation coating materials were prepared by exploring the effect of amount, complex mode, and other factors of the above three kinds of functional fillers on the thermal reflection and insulation performance of coating materials. The results showed that the surface modification effect of nano zinc oxide was the best when the silane coupling agent addition was 6%. The reflection and insulation performance of the coatings were the best when the additions of modified nano zinc oxide, hollow glass microspheres, and sepiolite nanofibers were 3%, 4%, and 4%, respectively. Compared with the control coating materials, the thermal insulation effect was improved obviously, which was evaluated by the -13.5 degrees C increase of maximum temperature difference between the upper and the lower surfaces.

  2. Nanoparticulate zinc oxide as a coating material for orthopedic and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarzadeh, Kaveh; Sharili, Amir S; Huang, Jie; Rawlinson, Simon C F; Allaker, Robert P

    2015-03-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants are prone to infection. In this study, we describe a novel system using zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) as a coating material to inhibit bacterial adhesion and promote osteoblast growth. Electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) was employed to deposit mixtures of nZnO and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) onto the surface of glass substrates. Nano-coated substrates were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus suspended in buffered saline or bovine serum to determine antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that 100% nZnO and 75% nZnO/25% nHA composite-coated substrates have significant antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, osteoblast function was explored by exposing cells to nZnO. UMR-106 cells exposed to nZnO supernatants showed minimal toxicity. Similarly, MG-63 cells cultured on nZnO substrates did not show release of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. These results were reinforced by both proliferation and differentiation studies which revealed that a substrate coated with exclusively nZnO is more efficient than composite surface coatings. Finally, electron and light microscopy, together with immunofluorescence staining, revealed that all cell types tested, including human mesenchymal cell (hMSC), were able to maintain normal cell morphology when adhered onto the surface of the nano-coated substrates. Collectively, these findings indicate that nZnO can, on its own, provide an optimal coating for future bone implants that are both antimicrobial and biocompatible.

  3. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  4. PO Solution for Scattering by the Complex Object Coated with Anisotropic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷红成; 黄培康; 刘学观; 郭辉萍

    2003-01-01

    The physical optics solution is presented for the calculation of scattering by the complex conducting bodies coated with anisotropic materials, which is based on the tangential plane approximation and the equivalent currents on an anisotropic material backed by an infinite metal surface illuminated by the plane wave given in our previous work. The analytical scheme is proposed to realize fast computation of the solution. Numerical results for several coated bodies such as dihedral corner reflector and cone-cylinder geometry are given and discussed.

  5. Emissivity Results on High Temperature Coatings for Refractory Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Lewis, Ronald K.; Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Milhoan, James D.; Koenig, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The directional emissivity of various refractory composite materials considered for application for reentry and hypersonic vehicles was investigated. The directional emissivity was measured at elevated temperatures of up to 3400 F using a directional spectral radiometric technique during arc-jet test runs. A laboratory-based relative total radiance method was also used to measure total normal emissivity of some of the refractory composite materials. The data from the two techniques are compared. The paper will also compare the historical database of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon emissivity measurements with emissivity values generated recently on the material using the two techniques described in the paper.

  6. Experimental investigations of the laser cladding of protective coatings on preheated base material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, Rafal; Sliwinski, Gerard; Conde, Ana; Navas, Carmen; de Damborenea, Juan J.

    2004-06-01

    The laser cladding technique was applied to obtain Co-based stellite SF6 coatings on the chromium steel base. The coatings were prepared by means of a direct cladding of metal powder using a 1.2 kW cw CO2 laser stand with a controlled preheating of the substrate material. Results of the metallographic tests revealed a fine-grained, dendritic microstructure and proper metallic bonding between substrate and coating. A nearly constant concentration of mian elements at different areas of the coating cross-section indicated on homogeneous chemical composition of the laser-cladded SF6 alloy samples. A significant decrease of the micro-crack number with increasing temperature of the base preheating was observed. This was accompanied by a drop of the wear and corrosion resistance.

  7. One Component Encapsulating Material Matrix as High Barrier Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for new flexible food packaging materials with effective high barrier against oxygen and moisture to protect food, minimize weight and...

  8. High Temperature Steam Oxidation Testing of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parkison, Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels in order to overcome the inherent shortcomings of light water reactor (LWR) fuels when exposed to beyond design basis accident conditions. The campaign has invested in development of experimental infrastructure within the Department of Energy complex capable of chronicling the performance of a wide range of concepts under prototypic accident conditions. This report summarizes progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in FY13 toward these goals. Alternative fuel cladding materials to Zircaloy for accident tolerance and a significantly extended safety margin requires oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥1200°C for short times. At ORNL, prior work focused attention on SiC, FeCr and FeCrAl as the most promising candidates for further development. Also, it was observed that elevated pressure and H2 additions had minor effects on alloy steam oxidation resistance, thus, 1 bar steam was adequate for screening potential candidates. Commercial Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys remain protective up to 1475°C in steam and CVD SiC up to 1700°C in steam. Alloy development has focused on Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Y and Fe-Cr-Al-Y alloys with the aluminaforming alloys showing more promise. At 1200°C, ferritic binary Fe-Cr alloys required ≥25% Cr to be protective for this application. With minor alloy additions to Fe-Cr, more than 20%Cr was still required, which makes the alloy susceptible to α’ embrittlement. Based on current results, a Fe-15Cr-5Al-Y composition was selected for initial tube fabrication and welding for irradiation experiments in FY14. Evaluations of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were conducted up to 1700°C in steam. The reaction of H2O with the alumina reaction tube at 1700°C resulted in Al(OH)3

  9. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  10. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, T.A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  11. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  12. Mechanical Properties of Air Plasma Sprayed Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bradley; Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis; Wadley, Haydn

    2015-01-01

    Development work in Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) has focused considerably on the identification of materials systems and coating architectures to meet application needs. The evolution of these systems has occurred so quickly that modeling efforts and requisite data for modeling lag considerably behind development. Materials property data exists for many systems in the bulk form, but the effects of deposition on the critical properties of strength and fracture behavior are not well studied. We have plasma sprayed bulk samples of baseline EBC materials (silicon, ytterbium disilicate) and tested the mechanical properties of these materials to elicit differences in strength and toughness. We have also endeavored to assess the mixed-mode fracture resistance, Gc, of silicon in a baseline EBC applied to SiCSiC CMC via four point bend test. These results are compared to previously determined properties of the comparable bulk material.

  13. Preliminary studies of biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2 O4 as a cathode material on electrochemical performances for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vediappan, Kumaran; Lee, Chang Woo

    2010-05-01

    Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is an inexpensive and pollution-free cathode material for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. In this study, spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material was coated with biomineral powders by the mechano-chemical method. In the course of the material synthesis, citric acid and acryl amide were added to serve as a complexing agent and a gelling agent, respectively, followed by a calcination process at 700 °C for 6 h in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The spinel LiMn2O4 and biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2O4 cathode materials were, from diverse viewpoints, characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the electrochemical cycling method to understand the mechanism of improvements in electrochemical performances. We suggest that the biominerals-coated spinel LiMn2O4 is a good candidate as a low cost and environmentally friendly cathode material showing the enlarged capacity characteristic of Li-ion rechargeable batteries.

  14. Theoretical Studies of Materials for High-Power Infrared Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-31

    of ß, would result in satisfactory materials. However, the physical properties of the materials containing chlorine , bromine, or iodine arc... KIWI «, nml K Hitlrr, Z. KWrorfcrn. «.«» O»»)- I0r. T. I I’l.t...-., Oi’l l"srr Trrhiiol. 4,7«,) (1972), HW I’ llill.i, J. r.ir S.t.Tclinol 3, 2...Components of Carbon Dioxide Layers,𔃻 Thin Solid Films 6, 423 (1970) This paper is concerned with protective films to prevent attack of NaCl components by

  15. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  16. Crystallization Behavior of Phosphate Glasses with Hydrophobic Coating Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeop Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effect of the addition of Li2O3, TiO2, and Fe2O3 on the crystallization behavior of P2O5–CaO–SiO2–K2O glasses and the effect of the crystallization behavior on the roughness and hydrophobicity of the coated surface. Exothermic behavior, including a strong exothermic peak in the 833–972 K temperature range when Fe2O3, TiO2, or Li2O3 was added, was confirmed by differential thermal analysis. The modified glass samples (PFTL1–3 showed diffraction peaks when heated at 1073 and 1123 K for 5 min; the crystallized phase corresponds to Fe3(PO42, that is, graftonite. We confirmed that the intensity of the diffraction peaks increases at high temperatures and with increasing Li2O3 content. In the case of the PFTL3 glass, a Li3Fe2(PO42 phase, that is, trilithium diiron(III tris[phosphate(V], was observed. Through scanning electron microscopy and the contact angles of the surfaces with water, we confirmed that the increase in surface roughness, correlated to the crystallization of the glass frit, increases hydrophobicity of the surface. The calculated values of the local activation energies for the growth of Fe3(PO42 on the PTFL1, PTFL2, and PFTL3 glass were 237–292 kJ mol−1, 182–258 kJ mol−1, and 180–235 kJ mol−1.

  17. A novel perfluorinated AR (antireflective) and protective coating for KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) and other optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, I.M.; Campbell, J.H.

    1990-12-17

    A new commercially available perfluorinated organic polymer has been used to prepare a combined quarterwave AR and protective coating for KDP and other optical materials. Coatings are applied from solution at room temperature by spin or dip, they are fully dense and have a refractive index of 1.29. The laser damage threshold at 1064 nm and 355 nm is the highest that we have ever measured for an AR coating material. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Bacterial assay for the rapid assessment of antifouling and fouling release properties of coatings and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Souza, F.; Bruin, A.; Biersteker, R.; Donnelly, G.T.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Rentrop, C.H.A.; Willemsen, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    An assay has been developed to accurately quantify the growth and release behaviour of bacterial biofilms on several test reference materials and coatings, using the marine bacterium Cobetia marina as a model organism. The assay can be used to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth and relea

  19. Vegetable oil based eco-friendly coating materials: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils (VO constitute the single, largest, easily available, low cost, non-toxic, non-depletable, biodegradable family yielding materials that are capable of competing with fossil fuel derived petro-based products. The outstanding feature of VO is their unique chemical structure with to unsaturation sites, epoxies, hydroxyls, esters and other functional groups along with inherent fluidity characteristics. These enable them to undergo various chemical transformations producing low molecular weight polymeric materials with versatile applications, particularly as chief ingredients in paints and coatings. In this manuscript, we have briefly described important VO derived materials such as alkyds, polyesteramides, polyetheramides, polyurethanes, epoxies, polyols, along with their preparation and applications as protective coatings. A small portion of the review is also dedicated to the future perspectives in the field. Inspite of their extensive utilization in the world of coatings, literature survey revealed that in the past (from 1990s to date no review has come up describing the chemistry and applications of VO polymer based coating materials.

  20. Fluoride release from restorative materials coated with an adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Letícia Algarves; Weidlich, Patrícia; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Maltz, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    The retention of both fluoride resins and resin-modified glass ionomer cements to dental tissues can be improved by the association of an adhesive system which promotes the bonding between the resin component and dentin, forming a hybrid layer. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate if the presence of the adhesive, being part of the hybrid layer composition, interfered with the fluoride released to tooth tissues. The restorative materials studied were: Vitremer (3M), Heliomolar (Vivadent) and Z100 (3M) using an adhesive application (Scotch Bond MultiPurpose Plus--3M). Ten discs of each material were prepared: 5 were covered with the adhesive and 5 were not. The discs were immersed in individual flasks containing artificial saliva which was changed daily. Fluoride release was measured at days 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 by a fluoride combined electrode (9609 BN--Orion) coupled to an ion analyzer (SA-720 Procyon). One-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test were applied to compare the materials. The results showed that the use of a dental adhesive significantly decreased the fluoride release of Vitremer and reduced the fluoride release of Heliomolar to undetectable levels with the methodology used.

  1. Titanium dioxide coated cementitious materials for air purifying purposes: Preparation, characterization and toluene removal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Anibal Maury; De Belie, Nele [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof [Research Group EnVOC, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653. B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Maentylae, Tapio; Levaenen, Erkki [Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, FIN-33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents promising results for air purification by heterogeneous photocatalysis on new titanium dioxide loaded cementitious materials. A set of eight concretes and plasters is enriched with TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by dip-coating and/or sol-gel methods. First, the macro-structural features of the cementitious materials have been studied in terms of porosity and roughness. The first parameter has been determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry or by vacuum saturation, and ranged between 9 and 75%, with the highest values obtained for autoclaved aerated white concrete. Surface roughness, determined by laser profilometry, has been characterized by the R{sub a} factor. This expresses the mean deviation of the profile from the centre line and ranged between 0.7 and 252 {mu}m, with the highest value obtained for conventional grey concrete finished with surface brush. Secondly, the weathering resistance of the TiO{sub 2} coatings has been determined by exposing them to different abrasive conditions and by performing SEM-Edax analyses to measure quantitatively the coating's titanium content. Hereby, it is shown that high porosity and roughness are favourable for TiO{sub 2} particles retention. Finally, the preliminary air purification potential of both dip-coated and sol-gel coated TiO{sub 2} enriched concrete samples has been investigated on lab-scale using toluene as a model pollutant. High removal efficiencies (up to 86%) were obtained with the dip-coated samples, indicating their attractive photocatalytic properties for future application as air purifying building materials. (author)

  2. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  3. Solar collectors. Technical progress report No. 1, September 5, 1978-March 5, 1979. [Listing of glazings, housing materials, acrylic coatings, etching processes and AR coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, B.; Gage, M.

    1979-04-27

    A broad information search was carried out in four areas: glazings, housing materials, acrylic coatings, etching processes and AR coatings. An extensive list of all (known) US transparent polymers was developed as well as tables of plastic, ceramic and metallic materials that could conceivably function as a housing. In addition, a compilation was made of commercially available solvent and water-base acrylic coatings for use as a uv protective coating for the glazing. Eighteen transparent polymers were chosen as possible glazings and twelve materials (plastic and wood) as possible housings and exposed in the Weather-Ometer as tensile bars and for the glazings as disks for optical transmission. These same materials were also exposed on our roof to monitor soiling. A variety of solvent and water-base acrylics were selected as protective coatings and ordered. Two commercial films - Tedlar 20 and Halar 500 - with strong absorption in the uv and two commercial films containing uv absorbers - Tedlar UT and Korad 201R - were laminated by several different processes to four promising glazing materials: polyvinyl fluoride (Tedlar), polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass), crosslinked ethylene/vinyl acetate and thermoplastic polyester (Llumar). A variety of etching processes were briefly explored and AR coating studies started on the above four glazing films.

  4. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  5. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D; Roquemore, A L; Jaworski, M; Skinner, C H; Miller, J; Creely, A; Raman, P; Ruzic, D

    2014-11-01

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an (241)Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm(2) thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  6. Biocompatibility improvement of titanium implants by coating with hybrid materials synthesized by sol-gel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, M; Bollino, F; Papale, F

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on zirconia and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been synthesized via sol-gel method in the present study. Those materials, still in the sol phase, have been used to coat a titanium grade 4 (Ti-4) substrate to improve its biological properties. Dip-coating technique has been used to obtain thin films. PEG, a biocompatible polymer, used as the organic phase, has been incorporated with different percentages in an inorganic zirconium-based matrix. Those hybrids have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect interactions between the two phases. The films have been examined using SEM to detect morphological changes with PEG percentages. The potential applications of the hybrid coatings in biomedical field have been evaluated by bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests. The coated titanium was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days and the hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface was subsequently evaluated, as that feature can be used as an index of bone-bonding capability. SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) was used to examine hydroxyapatite formation. NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were seeded on specimens to evaluate cells-materials interactions and cell vitality was inspected using WST-8 Assay.

  7. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers fo...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  8. Global blending optimization of laminated composites with discrete material candidate selection and thickness variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren N.; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    to a distinct choice among predefined numbers of candidates. The laminate thickness is variable but the number of plies must be integer. We solve the convex mixed binary non-linear programming problem by an outer approximation cutting-plane method augmented with a few heuristics to accelerate the convergence...

  9. Coating multilayer material with improved tribological properties obtained by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, A. O.; Mateescu, G.; Balasoiu, M.; Pompilian, G. O.; Lungu, M.

    2017-02-01

    This work is based on the Patent no. RO 128094 B1, granted by the Romanian State Office for Inventions and Trademarks. The goal of the work is to obtain for investigations tribological coatings with multilayer structure with improved tribological properties, deposited by magnetron sputtering process from three materials (sputtering targets). Starting from compound chemical materials (TiC, TiB2 and WC), as sputtering targets, by deposition in argon atmosphere on polished stainless steel, we have obtained, based on the claims of the above patent, thin films of multilayer design with promising results regarding their hardness, elastic modulus, adherence, coefficient of friction and wear resistance. The sputtering process took place in a special sequence in order to ensure better tribological properties to the coating, comparing to those of the individual component materials. The tribological properties, such as the coefficient of friction, are evaluated using the tribometer test.

  10. Physical characteristics of phycocyanin from spirulina microcapsules using different coating materials with freeze drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Purnamayati, L.; Kurniasih, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physical characteristics of phycocyanin microcapsules (F) from Spirulina sp. with different coating materials, such as κ-Carrageenan (C) and Na-alginate (A) in combination with maltodextrin (M) by freeze drying method. Microcapsules were prepared in three variations of coating materials i.e. maltodextrin (FM); maltodextrin and Na-alginate (FMA); and maltodextrin and carrageenan (FMC) with concentration of each materials were 10%; 9%:1.0%; and 9%:1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that FMA with Na-alginate 1.0% produced the highest bulk density and total soluble solid, there were 0,334 g/ml and 9,067%, respectively. Color analysis by chromameter showed that FMC produced the bluest color compared to other samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) investigated with Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in all of the samples.

  11. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  12. Characterization and Prediction of Cracks in Coated Materials: Direction and Length of Crack Propagation in Bimaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruncu, C I; Azari, Z; Casavola, C; Pappalettere, C

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of materials is governed by the surrounding environment. The contact area between the material and the surrounding environment is the likely spot where different forms of degradation, particularly rust, may be generated. A rust prevention treatment, like bluing, inhibitors, humidity control, coatings, and galvanization, will be necessary. The galvanization process aims to protect the surface of the material by depositing a layer of metallic zinc by either hot-dip galvanizing or electroplating. In the hot-dip galvanizing process, a metallic bond between steel and metallic zinc is obtained by immersing the steel in a zinc bath at a temperature of around 460°C. Although the hot-dip galvanizing procedure is recognized to be one of the most effective techniques to combat corrosion, cracks can arise in the intermetallic δ layer. These cracks can affect the life of the coated material and decrease the lifetime service of the entire structure. In the present paper the mechanical response of hot-dip galvanized steel submitted to mechanical loading condition is investigated. Experimental tests were performed and corroborative numerical and analytical methods were then applied in order to describe both the mechanical behaviour and the processes of crack/cracks propagation in a bimaterial as zinc-coated material.

  13. Low-Thermal-Conductivity Pyrochlore Oxide Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2005-01-01

    When turbine engines operate at higher temperatures, they consume less fuel, have higher efficiencies, and have lower emissions. The upper-use temperatures of the base materials (superalloys, silicon-based ceramics, etc.) used for the hot-section components of turbine engines are limited by the physical, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics of these materials. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are applied as thin layers on the surfaces of these materials to further increase the operating temperatures. The current state-of-the-art TBC material in commercial use is partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is applied on engine components by plasma spraying or by electron-beam physical vapor deposition. At temperatures higher than 1000 C, YSZ layers are prone to sintering, which increases thermal conductivity and makes them less effective. The sintered and densified coatings can also reduce thermal stress and strain tolerance, which can reduce the coating s durability significantly. Alternate TBC materials with lower thermal conductivity and better sintering resistance are needed to further increase the operating temperature of turbine engines.

  14. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility. [For decommissioned stainless steel equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J. L.; Younger, A. F.

    1980-06-02

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests.

  15. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F.

  16. Study on β-TCP Coated Porous Mg as a Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Geng; Lili Tan; Bingchun Zhang; Chunfu Wu; Yonglian He; Jingyu Yang; Ke Yang

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional honeycomb-structured magnesium (Mg) scaffolds with interconnected pores of accurately controlled pore size and porosity were fabricated by laser perforation technique. Biodegradable and bioactive β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) coatings were prepared on the porous Mg to further improve its biocompatibility, and the biodegradation mechanism was simply evaluated in vitro. It was found that the mechanical properties of this type of porous Mg significantly depended on its porosity. Elastic modulus and compressive strength similar to human bones could be obtained for the porous Mg with porosity of 42.6%-51%. It was observed that the human osteosarcoma cells (UMR106) were well adhered and proliferated on the surface of the β-TCP coated porous Mg, which indicates that the β-TCP coated porous Mg is promising to be a bone tissue engineering scaffold material.

  17. Evaluation of rhenium carbide as a prospective material for hard coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, G., E-mail: gerardo@cnyn.unam.mx; Tiznado, H.; Diaz, J.A.; Samano, E.C.; Reyes-Serrato, A.

    2011-03-01

    The literature reveals that interstitial alloys based on rhenium as a precursor might be extremely hard, becoming suitable to be used as hard coatings. In this work, we have produced rhenium carbide (ReC{sub x}) films by the reactive pulsed laser deposition method. Nanoindentation has been performed to estimate hardness. The maximum hardness value for ReC{sub x} films resulted to be 22.5 GPa. We found no evidence that ReC{sub x} films have hardness, or plasticity, higher than competitive hard coating materials. Our results and the fact that rhenium is expensive and scarce, suggest that preceding reports are overoptimistic on the prospective use of rhenium carbide as hard coatings.

  18. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  19. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating-Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Enrique; Sánchez, Fernando; O'Carroll, Anthony; Madramany, Borja; Hardiman, Mark; Young, Trevor M

    2017-09-28

    Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating) applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP). The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER). The materials, specifically the coating-laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), pull-off testing, peeling-adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case study compares two

  20. Effect of substrate materials on rutile crystalline orientation in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guan-jun; LI Chang-jiu; WANG Yu-yue

    2004-01-01

    TiO2 coatings are of technical importance owing to their promising applications to photocatalytical, electrical, optical and tribological coatings. Thermal spraying process has been widely used to deposit both metallic and nonmetallic coatings. During thermal spraying, spray particle at fully or partially melted condition is projected to a substrate and subsequently flattens, rapidly cools and solidifies. Therefore, a coating in lamellar structure is usually formed as a quenched microstructure. TiO2 coatings were deposited on different substrates through plasma spraying with fused-crushed powder in rutile phase as feedstock to reveal the crystalline orientation in the coatings. XRD results show that the coatings consist of rutile phase with a fraction of anatase phase, and the rutile phase presents a preferable crystalline orientation along [101] direction. It is found that the orientation factors of rutile phase in the thin coatings are significantly influenced by substrate materials. The thick coatings yield the same orientation factors of 0.22 to 0.23 on all substrates in spite of substrate materials. It is considered that the thermal properties of substrate materials are the dominant factors for the preferable crystalline orientation in rutile phase within plasmasprayed TiO2 coating.

  1. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of nanoparticle emission for TiO{sub 2} nanopowder coating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.-Y.; Chein, H.-M. [Industry Technology Research Institute, Energy and Environment Research Laboratories (China)], E-mail: hmchein@itri.org.tw

    2007-01-15

    In this study, nanoparticle emission of TiO{sub 2} nanopowder coated on different substrates including wood, polymer, and tile, was evaluated in a simulation box and measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for the first time. The coating process for the substrate followed the instructions given by the supply company. In the simulation box, UV light, a fan, and a rubber knife were used to simulate the sun light, wind, and human contacting conditions. Among the three selected substrates, tile coated with TiO{sub 2} nanopowder was found to have the highest particle emission (22 cm{sup 3} at 55 nm) due to nanopowder separation during the simulation process. The UV light was shown to increase the release of particle below 200 nm from TiO{sub 2} nanopowder coating materials. The results show that, under the conditions of UV lamps, a fan and scraping motion, particle number concentration or average emission rate decreases significantly after 60 and 90 min for TiO{sub 2}/polymer and TiO{sub 2}/wood, respectively. However, the emission rate continued to increase after 2 h of testing for TiO{sub 2}/tile. It is suggested that nanoparticle emission evaluation is necessary for products with nanopowder coating.

  3. Measurement of tritium penetration through concrete material covered by various paints coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Kurata, R.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Technology Group, Fusion Researdch and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura (Japan); Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The present study aims at obtaining fundamental data on tritium migration in porous materials, which include soaking effect, interaction between tritium and cement paste coated with paints and transient tritium sorption in porous cement. The amounts of tritium penetrated into or released from cement paste with epoxy and urethane paint coatings were measured. The tritium penetration amounts were increased with the HTO (tritiated water) exposure time. Time to achieve a saturated value of tritium sorption was more than 60 days for cement paste coated with epoxy paint and with urethane paint, while that for cement paste without any paint coating took 2 days to achieve it. The effect of tritium permeation reduction by the epoxy paint was higher than that of the urethane. Although their paint coatings were effective for reduction of tritium penetration through the cement paste which was exposed to HTO for a short period, it was found that the amount of tritium trapped in the paints became large for a long period. Tritium penetration rates were estimated by an analysis of one-dimensional diffusion in the axial direction of a thickness of a sample. Obtained data were helpful for evaluation of tritium contamination and decontamination. (authors)

  4. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Coats, D.A. (Marine Research Specialists, Ventura, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  6. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested.

  7. Max Phase Materials And Coatings For High Temperature Heat Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fuentes, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-19

    Molten salts have been used as heat transfer fluids in a variety of applications within proposed Gen IV nuclear designs and in advanced power system such as Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). However, operating at elevated temperatures can cause corrosion in many materials. This work developed coating technologies for MAX phase materials on Haynes-230 and characterized the corrosion of the coatings in the presence of commercial MgCl2-KCl molten salt. Cold spraying of Ti2AlC and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Ti2AlC or Zr2AlC were tested to determine the most effective form of coating MAX phases on structural substrates. Corrosion testing at 850°C for 100 hrs showed that 3.9 μm Ti2AlC by PVD was slightly protective while 117 μm Ti2AlC by cold spray and 3.6 μm Zr2AlC by PVD were completely protective. None of the tests showed decomposition of the coating (Ti or Zr) into the salt

  8. Poly-γ-glutamate-based Materials for Multiple Infection Prophylaxis Possessing Versatile Coating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ashiuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA possesses a nylon-like backbone and polyacrylate-like carboxyl groups, and shows an extraordinary solubility in water. In this study, the effective synthesis and structural analysis of some water-insoluble PGA ion-complexes (PGAICs using cationic surfactants, hexadecylpyridinium (HDP, dodecylpyridinium, benzalkonium and benzetonium, were examined. We demonstrated their spontaneous coating performance to the surfaces of different materials (i.e., plastics, metals, and ceramics as potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-Candida agents. The tests against Staphylococcus aureus revealed that, regardless of a variety of materials, PGAICs maintained surface antimicrobial activity, even after the water-soaking treatment, whereas those against Candida albicans indicated that, among PGAICs, PGA/HDP complex is most useful as an anti-fungal agent because of its coating stability. Moreover, the log reduction values against Influenza A and B viruses of PGA/HDP-coated surfaces were estimated to be 5.4 and 3.2, respectively, suggesting that it can be dramatically suppressed the infection of influenza. This is to our knowledge the first observation of PGA-based antiviral coatings.

  9. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H

    2014-05-10

    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of PEO-coated materials for a microchannel hemodialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Keely; Schilke, Karl F; Snider, Joshua; Lee, Woo-Kul; Truong, Mitchell; Coblyn, Matthew; Jovanovic, Goran; McGuire, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    The marked increase in surface-to-volume ratio associated with microscale devices for hemodialysis leads to problems with hemocompatibility and blood flow distribution that are more challenging to manage than those encountered at the conventional scale. In this work stable surface modifications with pendant polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains were produced on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polycarbonate microchannel, and polyacrylonitrile membrane materials used in construction of microchannel hemodialyzer test articles. PEO layers were prepared by radiolytic grafting of PEO-polybutadiene-PEO (PEO-PB-PEO) triblock polymers to the material surfaces. Protein repulsion was evaluated by measurement of surface-bound enzyme activity following contact of uncoated and PEO-coated surfaces with β-galactosidase. Protein adsorption was decreased on PEO-coated polycarbonate and PDMS materials to about 20% of the level recorded on the uncoated materials. Neither the triblocks nor the irradiation process was observed to have any effect on protein interaction with the polyacrylonitrile membrane, or its permeability to urea. This approach holds promise as a means for in situ application of safe, efficacious coatings to microfluidic devices for blood processing that will ensure good hemocompatibility and blood flow distribution, with no adverse effects on mass transfer.

  11. Development of anti-corrosion coating on low activation materials against fluoridation and oxidation in Flibe blanket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Takuya, E-mail: Nagasaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi 322-6, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kondo, Masatoshi; Muroga, Takeo; Sagara, Akio; Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi 322-6, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Tatsuya; Oishi, Tatsuya [Shinto Industrial Co., Ltd., Kururi 376-10, Tokitsu, Nagasaki 851-2107 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    W coating by vacuum plasma spray process and Cr coating by chromizing process were performed on fusion low activation materials, JLF-1 ferritic steel and NIFS-HEAT-2 vanadium alloy. The present study discusses feasibility of the coatings as anti-corrosion coating against fluoridation in Flibe for fusion low activation materials. Coatings were characterized by microstructural analysis and examination on chemical stability by corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were conducted with H{sub 2}O-47% HF solution at RT and He-1% HF-0.06 H{sub 2}O gas mixture at 823 K to simulate fluoridation and oxidation in Flibe. The coatings presented suppression of fluoride formation compared with JLF-1 or NIFS-HEAT-2, however weight loss due to WF{sub 6} formation was induced, and much Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed.

  12. Microstructure Based Material-Sand Particulate Interactions and Assessment of Coatings for High Temperature Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Muthuvel; Ghoshal, Anindya; Walock, Michael; Nieto, Andy; Bravo, Luis; Barnett, Blake; Pepi, Marc; Swab, Jeffrey; Pegg, Robert Tyler; Rowe, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    during hot burner rig testing to determine sand particle incoming velocities and their rebound characteristics upon impact on coated material targets. Further, engine sand ingestion tests were carried out to test the CMAS tolerance of the coated nozzle vanes. The findings from this on-going collaborative research to develop the next-gen sand tolerant coatings for turbine blades are presented in this paper.

  13. Zwitterionic Cellulose Carbamate with Regioselective Substitution Pattern: A Coating Material Possessing Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschner, Thomas; Lüdecke, Claudia; Kalden, Diana; Roth, Martin; Löffler, Bettina; Jandt, Klaus D; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A polyzwitterion is synthesized by regioselective functionalization of cellulose possessing a uniform charge distribution. The positively charged ammonium group is present at position 6, while the negative charge of carboxylate is located at positions 2 and 3 of the repeating unit. The molecular structure of the biopolymer derivative is proved by NMR spectroscopy. This cellulose-based zwitterion is applied to several support materials by spin-coating and characterized by means of atomic force microscope, contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The coatings possess antimicrobial activity depending on the support materials (glass, titanium, tissue culture poly(styrene)) as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and live/dead staining.

  14. Antistatic coating material consisting of poly (butylacrylate-co-styrene) core-nickel shell particle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Yeong JEONG; Byung-Yoon AHN; Sang-Koul LEE; Won-Ki LEE; Nam-Ju JO

    2009-01-01

    A transparent and antistatic coating material consisting of polymer core-metal shell particle was prepared. As a polymer core, poly(butylacrylate-co-styrene)s ([P(BA-co-sty)s]) with various compositions of butylacrylate and styrene were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. And the effect of comonomer composition on the thermal property of polymer core particle was investigated. By electroless plating method, the nickel particles were formed and deposited on the surface of P(BA-co-Sty) particles to form P(BA-co-Sty) core-nickel shell composite particles. SEM observation confirms that the nickel particles with size of 15 nm are distributed on the surface of the polymer core particles. The surface resistance of P(BA-co-Sty) core-nickel shell composite is 0.8×108Ω/cm2, enough to act as antistatic coating material.

  15. Preparation of nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志明; 韩峰; 邵利

    2002-01-01

    Semicontinuous seeded emulsion copolymerization of acrylic acid, acrylamide and divinylbenzene was carried out at 80℃ with ammonium persulphate as the initiator and the polyether with comb configuration as the emulsifier to prepare approximately mono-dispersed nano-sized polymer particles with average diameter 90nm. The particles were used to combine with special polyether and de-ionized water was added to obtain nano-sized hydrophilic aluminum fins coating materials with solid content of 10%. The aluminum fins were coated with the materials to get the film showing self-assembly properties in some degree. The obtained hydrophilic fins have contact angles <5° with de-ionized water, minimum value 0°, after 4 cycles of wet and dry, contact angles <10° with de-ionized water.

  16. Suitable coating material for microencapsulation of spray-dried fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirgar, M; Jinap, S; Zaidul, I S M; Mirhosseini, H

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to screen the most suitable coating material for the production of microencapsulated fish oil powder using ternary blends of maltodextrin (15, 25 % w/w), Arabic gum (2.5, 7.5 % w/w), and methylcellulose (0.5, 1.5 % w/w). The physical properties of fish oil emulsion and encapsulated powders were evaluated. Arabic gum (5 % w/w) showed the most significant (p coating material with desirable physical properties was expected to be obtained by the combination of 16 % (w/w) maltodextrin, 6.5 % (w/w) Arabic gum, and 0.88 % (w/w) methylcellulose respectively.

  17. Thermal Analysis and Testing of Candidate Materials for PAIDAE Inflatable Aeroshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Liles, Kaitlin A.; Hughes, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The Program to Advance Inflatable-Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is a NASA project tasked with developing and evaluating viable inflatable-decelerator aeroshell geometries and materials. Thermal analysis of material layups supporting an inflatable aeroshell was completed in order to identify expected material response, failure times, and to establish an experimental test matrix to keep barrier layer materials from reaching critical temperature limits during thermal soak. Material layups were then tested in the 8- foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT), where they were subjected to hypersonic aerothermal heating conditions, similar to those expected for a Mars entry. This paper presents a broad overview of the thermal analysis supporting multiple materials, and layup configurations tested in the 8'HTT at flight conditions similar to those that would be experienced during Mars entry trajectories. Direct comparison of TPS samples tested in the 8'HTT verify that the thermal model accurately predicted temperature profiles when there are up to four materials in the test layup. As the number of material layers in each test layup increase (greater than 4), the accuracy of the prediction decreases significantly. The inaccuracy of the model predictions for layups with more than four material layers is believed to be a result of the contact resistance values used throughout the model being inaccurate. In addition, the harsh environment of the 8'HTT, including hot gas penetrating through the material layers, could also be a contributing factor.

  18. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.

  19. Tribology of polymeric nanocomposites friction and wear of bulk materials and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites provides a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and provides rare, focused coverage of their tribological behavior and potential use in tribological applications. Providing engineers and designers with the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, property information and evaluation methodology needed to select the right polymeric nanocomposites for the job, this unique book also includes valuable real-world examples of polymeric nanocomposites in a

  20. Bibliography of information on mechanics of structural failure (hydrogen embrittlement, protective coatings, composite materials, NDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is comprised of approximately 1,600 reference citations related to four problem areas in the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the period 1962-1976, the effort being largely limited to documents published in the United States. Listings are subdivided into the four problem areas: Hydrogen Embrittlement; Protective Coatings; Composite Materials; and Nondestructive Evaluation. An author index is included.

  1. Search for circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Z.; Zhou, G.; Budaj, J.; Stellingwerf, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A unique short-period ({P = 0.65356(1)} d) Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by {Rappaport et al. (2012)}. This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material-comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of an additional planet may lead to variations in the orbital period of the planet. Our main aim is to search for comet-like tails similar to KIC012557548b and for long-term orbital period variations. We are curious about frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates. We concentrate on a sample of 20 close-in candidates with a period similar to KIC012557548b from the Kepler mission. We first improved the preliminary orbital periods and obtained the transit light curves. Subsequently we searched for the signatures of a circum-planetary material in these light curves. For this purpose the final transit light curve of each planet was fitted with a theoretical light curve, and the residuals were examined for abnormalities. We then searched for possible long-term changes of the orbital periods using the method of phase dispersion minimization. In 8 cases out of 20 we found some interesting peculiarities, but none of the exoplanet candidates showed signs of a comet-like tail. It seems that the frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates is very low. We searched for comet-like tails based on the period criterion. Based on our results we can conclude that the short-period criterion is not enough to cause comet-like tail formation. This result is in agreement with the theory of the thermal wind and planet evaporation (Perez-Becker & Chiang 2013). We also found 3 cases of candidates which

  2. Towards Washable Wearable Antennas: A Comparison of Coating Materials for Screen-Printed Textile-Based UHF RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiti Kellomäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available (Radio frequency identification RFID tags integrated into clothing enable monitoring of people without their conscious effort. This requires tags to be an unnoticeable part of clothing and comfortable to wear. In this study, RFID antennas were screen printed on two different fabrics, six different coating materials for the (integrated circuits ICs were applied, and the reliability of these RFID tags was tested with moisture and laundry tests. Generally, glue-type coating materials were easier to handle and could be spread precisely. All the tags were operational immediately after the coatings were applied, and five of the coating materials were seen to protect the IC from detaching in the laundry. It was found that the uneven fabric surface caused discontinuities and breaks in narrow conductors, and thus hard coatings may also be needed to keep the tag from breaking in laundry.

  3. Application of design of experiment on electrophoretic deposition of glass-ceramic coating materials from an aqueous bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Someswar Datta

    2000-04-01

    A process for application of abrasion- or corrosion-resistant glass-ceramic coating materials on metal substrate by electrophoretic deposition technique in an aqueous medium has been described. The effects of various process parameters, e.g. coating material concentration, time of deposition, applied current, pH of the suspension and concentration of the polymeric dispersant on the deposition efficiency have been studied. The process has been studied using a 23-factorial design technique of three independent variables; i.e. coating material concentration, applied current, and the time taken to achieve the best combination. The regression equation obtained explains the experimental results satisfactorily.

  4. Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor-Coated Cathode Material for High-Voltage Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Jung-Min; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-05-18

    A lithium ionic conductor, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), is introduced as a coating material on the surface of Mg-doped LiCoO2 to improve electrochemical performances for high-voltage (4.5 V) lithium ion batteries. Structure, morphology, elemental distribution, and electrical properties of the materials are thoroughly characterized by SEM, TEM, EELS, EDS, and C-AFM. The coating layer is electrically conductive with the aid of Mg ions which are used as a dopant for the active materials; therefore, this mixed electronic ionic conductor strongly enhances the electrochemical performances of initial capacity, cycling property, and rate capability. The LATP coating layer also demonstrates very promising applicability for 4.4 V prismatic full cells with graphite anode, which correspond to the 4.5 V half-cells with lithium anode. The 2900 mA h full cells show 85% of capacity retention after 500 cycles and more than 60% after 700 cycles.

  5. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  6. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Guo, Jiaming; Zeng, Feng; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2010-12-10

    Two kinds of porous carbon materials, including carbon aerogels (CAs), wormhole-like mesoporous carbons (WMCs), were synthesized and used as the coatings of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By using stainless steel wire as the supporting core, six types of fibers were prepared with sol-gel method, direct coating method and direct coating plus sol-gel method. Headspace SPME experiments indicated that the extraction efficiencies of the CA fibers are better than those of the WMC fibers, although the surface area of WMCs is much higher than that of CAs. The sol-gel-CA fiber (CA-A) exhibited excellent extraction properties for non-polar compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene), while direct-coated CA fiber (CA-B) presented the best performance in extracting polar compounds (phenols). The two CA fibers showed wide linear ranges, low detection limits (0.008-0.047μgL(-1) for BTEX, 0.15-5.7μgL(-1) for phenols) and good repeatabilities (RSDs less than 4.6% for BTEX, and less than 9.5% for phenols) and satisfying reproducibilities between fibers (RSDs less than 5.2% for BTEX, and less than 9.9% for phenols). These fibers were successfully used for the analysis of water samples from the Pearl River, which demonstrated the applicability of the home-made CA fibers.

  7. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for the SHINE Subcritical Assembly Vessel and Components FY14 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory corrosion testing of candidate alloys—including Zr-4 and Zr-2.5Nb representing the target solution vessel, and 316L, 2304, 304L, and 17-4 PH stainless steels representing process piping and balance-of-plant components—was performed in support of the proposed SHINE process to produce 99Mo from low-enriched uranium. The test solutions used depleted uranyl sulfate in various concentrations and incorporated a range of temperatures, excess sulfuric acid concentrations, nitric acid additions (to simulate radiolysis product generation), and iodine additions. Testing involved static immersion of coupons in solution and in the vapor above the solution, and was extended to include planned-interval tests to examine details associated with stainless steel corrosion in environments containing iodine species. A large number of galvanic tests featuring couples between a stainless steel and a zirconium-based alloy were performed, and limited vibratory horn testing was incorporated to explore potential erosion/corrosion features of compatibility. In all cases, corrosion of the zirconium alloys was observed to be minimal, with corrosion rates based on weight loss calculated to be less than 0.1 mil/year with no change in surface roughness. The resulting passive film appeared to be ZrO2 with variations in thickness that influence apparent coloration (toward light brown for thicker films). Galvanic coupling with various stainless steels in selected exposures had no discernable effect on appearance, surface roughness, or corrosion rate. Erosion/corrosion behavior was the same for zirconium alloys in uranyl sulfate solutions and in sodium sulfate solutions adjusted to a similar pH, suggesting there was no negative effect of uranium resulting from fluid dynamic conditions aggressive to the passive film. Corrosion of the candidate stainless steels was similarly modest across the entire range of exposures. However, some sensitivity to corrosion of the stainless steels was

  8. Kajian Eksperimental Material dan Elemen Dinding Beton Beragregat Kasar Styrofoam dengan Lapisan Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Enda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concrete material is a type of material that is widely used in building construction. For the purposes of the non-structural, the use of normal concrete causes dead load due to non-structural concrete elements are quite large, because of that to reduce the weight of the non-structural concrete lightweight concrete is used with coarse aggregate of ALWA material, one type of that is styrofoam. From the research that has been done by previous researchers with the concrete with coarse aggregate styrofoam, it is known that the quality of the concrete decrease with the addition of the percentage of the aggregate of Styrofoam in the concrete, this is due to styrofoam as the building blocks of concrete are too weak, so in this study coarse aggregate styrofoam do retrofitting of the coating by using a cement paste, fly ash and water (ALWA styrofoam. Experiment is carried out with Styrofoam granules coated with coating with maximum size of the coating is 2 centimeters is used as coarse aggregate with the ratio of cement water are 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 with a targeted strength of 15 Mpa. The results of the test show that the weight of the concrete ALWA styrofoam 25% -30% lower than normal concrete, the concrete compressive strength increases with decreasing ALWA styrofoam cement water factor .As non-structural wall use/ partition, the results of the analysis show of the structure as a non-structural walls, the collapse pattern of charger wall portal ALWA styrofoam concrete panel begins with the destruction of the corner area and then proceed with the destruction of the bottom of portal column.

  9. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials FY 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Xie, YuLong; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Campbell, Luke W.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    This annual report presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Dr. Fei Gao. This project is divided into three tasks, namely (1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; (2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and (3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonlinearity, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the findings and insights obtained in each of these three tasks are provided in this report. Additionally, papers published this fiscal year or currently in review are included in Appendix together with presentations given this fiscal year.

  10. Search for a circum-planetary material and orbital period variations of short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Z; Budaj, J; Stellingwerf, R F

    2014-01-01

    A unique short-period Mercury-size Kepler exoplanet candidate KIC012557548b has been discovered recently by Rappaport et al. (2012). This object is a transiting disintegrating exoplanet with a circum-planetary material - comet-like tail. Close-in exoplanets, like KIC012557548b, are subjected to the greatest planet-star interactions. This interaction may have various forms. In certain cases it may cause formation of the comet-like tail. Strong interaction with the host star, and/or presence of an additional planet may lead to variations in the orbital period of the planet. Our main aim is to search for comet-like tails similar to KIC012557548b and for long-term orbital period variations. We are curious about frequency of comet-like tail formation among short-period Kepler exoplanet candidates. We concentrate on a sample of 20 close-in candidates with a period similar to KIC012557548b from the Kepler mission.

  11. The electrical conductivities of candidate beam-waveguide antenna shroud materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    The shroud on the beam-waveguide (BWG) antenna at DSS 13 is made from highly magnetic American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A36 steel. Measurements at 8.42 GHz showed that this material (with paint) has a very poor electrical conductivity that is 600 times worse than aluminum. In cases where the BWG mirrors might be slightly misaligned, unintentional illumination and poor electrical conductivity of the shroud walls can cause system noise temperature to be increased significantly. This potential increase of noise temperature contribution can be reduced through the use of better conductivity materials for the shroud walls. An alternative is to attempt to improve the conductivity of the currently used ASTM A36 steel by means of some type of plating, surface treatment, or high-conductivity paints. This article presents the results of a study made to find improved materials for future shrouds and mirror supports.

  12. Report on Reactor Physics Assessment of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, Nathan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-28

    This work focuses on ATF concepts being researched at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), expanding on previous studies of using alternate cladding materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The neutronic performance of two leading alternate cladding materials were assessed in boiling water reactors (BWRs): iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based composite cladding. This report fulfills ORNL Milestone M3FT-15OR0202332 within the fiscal year 2015 (FY15)

  13. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  14. SORPTION AND DISPERSION OF STRONTIUM RADIONUCLIDE IN THE BENTONITE-QUARTZ-CLAY AS BACKFILL MATERIAL CANDIDATE ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Poernomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of sorption and dispersion characteristics of strontium in the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz as candidate of raw material for backfill material in the radioactive waste repository has been performed. The objective of this research is to know the grain size effect of bentonite, clay, and quartz on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to-quartz can be gives physical characteristics of best such as bulk density (rb, effective porosity (e, permeability (K, best sorption characteristic such as distribution coefficient (Kd, and best dispersion characteristics such as dispersivity (a and effective dispersion coefficient (De of strontium in the backfill material candidate. The experiment was carried out in the column filled by the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz with the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to quartz of 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, 0/100 respectively at saturated condition of water, then flowed 0.1 N Sr(NO32 as buffer solution with tracer of 0.05 Ci/cm3 90Sr as strontium radionuclide simulation was leached from immobilized radioactive waste in the radioactive waste repository. The concentration of 90Sr in the effluents represented as Ct were analyzed by Ortec b counter every 30 min, then by using profile concentration of Co and Ct, values of Kd, a and De of 90Sr in the backfill material was determined. The experiment data showed that the best results were -80+120 mesh grain size of bentonite, clay, quartz respectively on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to clay to quartz of 70/10/20 with physical characteristics of rb = 0.658 g/cm3, e = 0.666 cm3/cm3, and K = 1.680x10-2 cm/sec, sorption characteristic of Kd = 46.108 cm3/g, dispersion characteristics of a = 5.443 cm, and De = 1.808x10-03 cm2/sec can be proposed as candidate of raw material of backfill material

  15. Antibacterial nitric oxide-releasing polyester for the coating of blood-contacting artificial materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Martins, Dorival; Simões, Maíra M S G; da Silva, Regiane; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Oliveira, Marcelo G

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria associated with blood-contacting artificial materials is a growing health problem, which demands new approaches in the field of biomaterials research. In this study, a poly(sulfhydrylated polyester) (PSPE) was synthesized by the polyesterification reaction of mercaptosuccinic acid with 3-mercapto-1,2-propanediol and blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from solution, leading to solid PSPE/PMMA films, with three different PSPE : PMMMA mass ratios. These films were subsequently S-nitrosated through the immersion in acidified nitrite solution, yielding poly(nitrosated)polyester/PMMA (PNPE/PMMA) films. A polyurethane intravascular catheter coated with PNPE/PMMA was shown to release nitric oxide (NO) in phosphate buffered saline solution (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C at rates of 4.6 nmol/cm(2)/h in the first 6 h and 0.8 nmol/cm(2)/h in the next 12 h. When used to coat the bottom of culture plates, NO released from these films exerted a potent dose- and time-dependent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This antibacterial effect of PSPE/PMMA films opens a new perspective for the coating of blood-contacting artificial materials, for avoiding their colonization with highly resistant bacteria.

  16. Plasma technology for creation of protective and decorative coatings for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, Oleg; Volokitin, Gennady; Skripnikova, Nelli; Shekhovtsov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    An experimental setup is developed to create a protective and decorative coating on the surface of building materials. Experimental study is conducted to create a protective coating using low-temperature plasma. The properties of the surface before and after the plasma treatment are investigated. At the increase of the plasma generator power (56-75 kW) the rate of the vitreous coating formation is significantly reduced, and the destruction of hydrous calcium silicates occurs at a lower depth (0.5-2.0 mm). In this case, the adhesive strength increases up to 2.34 MPa. At the increase of the exposure time at 56 kW (0.045 m/s melting rate) plasma generation power, the melt formation is observed not only at the surface but at depth of 0.7 mm and deeper. Also, a deep degradation of the material occurs and the adhesive strength decreases. The optimal heat flux density of plasma generator was established at 1.8-2.6 . 106 W/m2, which allows the achievement of the uniform layer formation on the wood surface that preserves its natural pattern visible.

  17. Spectral emissivity measurements of candidate materials for very high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.; Weber, S.J.; Martin, S.O.; Anderson, M.H. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K., E-mail: kumars@cae.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, T.R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Heat dissipation by radiation is an important consideration in VHTR components, particularly the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), because of the fourth power temperature dependence of radiated heat. Since emissivity is the material property that dictates the ability to radiate heat, measurements of emissivities of materials that are being specifically considered for the construction of VHTR become important. Emissivity is a surface phenomenon and therefore compositional, structural, and topographical changes that occur at the surfaces of these materials as a result of their interactions with the environment at high temperatures will alter their emissivities. With this background, an experimental system for the measurement of spectral emissivity has been designed and constructed. The system has been calibrated in conformance with U.S. DoE quality assurance standards using inert ceramic materials, boron nitride, silicon carbide, and aluminum oxide. The results of high temperature emissivity measurements of potential VHTR materials such as ferritic steels SA 508, T22, T91 and austenitic alloys IN 800H, Haynes 230, IN 617, and 316 stainless steel have been presented.

  18. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  19. Coating and enhanced photocurrent of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays with metal sulfide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokh, Michael; Diab, Mahmud; Magen, Osnat; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Flomin, Kobi; Rukenstein, Pazit; Tessler, Nir; Mokari, Taleb

    2014-08-27

    Hybrid nanostructures combining zinc oxide (ZnO) and a metal sulfide (MS) semiconductor are highly important for energy-related applications. Controlled filling and coating of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with different MS materials was achieved via the thermal decomposition approach of single-source precursors in the gas phase by using a simple atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Using different precursors allowed us to synthesize multicomponent structures such as nanowires coated with alloy shell or multishell structures. Herein, we present the synthesis and structural characterization of the different structures, as well as an electrochemical characterization and a photovoltaic response of the ZnO-CdS system, in which the resulting photocurrent upon illumination indicates charge separation at the interface.

  20. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in surface coating materials: Their compositions and potential as an alternative fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Choi, In-Young; Son, Youn-Suk; Song, Kyu-Yong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2016-03-01

    A sampling system was designed to determine the composition ratios of VOCs emitted from 31 surface coating materials (SCMs). Representative architectural, automotive, and marine SCMs in Korea were investigated. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were the predominant VOCs. The VOC levels (wt%) from automotive SCMs were significantly higher than those from architectural and marine paints. It was found that target SCMs comprised mainly VOCs with 6-10 carbon atoms in molecules, which could be adsorbed by activated carbon. The saturated activated carbon which had already adsorbed toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene was combusted. The saturated activated carbon was more combustible than new activated carbon because it comprised inflammable VOCs. Therefore, it could be an alternative fuel when using in a "fuelization system". To use the activated carbon as a fuel, a control technology of VOCs from a coating process was also designed and introduced.

  1. Uniformity Masks Design Method Based on the Shadow Matrix for Coating Materials with Different Condensation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An intuitionistic method is proposed to design shadow masks to achieve thickness profile control for evaporation coating processes. The proposed method is based on the concept of the shadow matrix, which is a matrix that contains coefficients that build quantitive relations between shape parameters of masks and shadow quantities of substrate directly. By using the shadow matrix, shape parameters of shadow masks could be derived simply by solving a matrix equation. Verification experiments were performed on a special case where coating materials have different condensation characteristics. By using the designed mask pair with complementary shapes, thickness uniformities of better than 98% are demonstrated for MgF2 ( and LaF3 ( simultaneously on a 280 mm diameter spherical substrate with the radius curvature of 200 mm.

  2. [Effect of periodontal regeneration using collagen-coated synthetic bone implant materials. Histopathological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, A

    1989-09-01

    Granulated artificial bone implant materials such as hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) have been frequently used in attempts to restore periodontal tissue lost as a result periodontitis. However, these materials are considered insufficient for the maintenance and stability of granules at sites losing bone, for active bone formation, or for periodontal ligament regeneration. We have now developed a complex consisting of HAP or TCP coated with atelocollagen (which has recently received attention as a biomaterial) and have conducted experiments to determine the effects of this material on the reconstruction of periodontal tissue. Implantations were performed using a HAP-atelocollagen complex, TCP-atelocollagen complex, HAP and TCP at three-wall bone defect sites in experimentally-induced periodontitis in dogs. A control group without the implants was included in the study. Histopathological observations were conducted 2, 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. Compared with the control group, the groups implanted with the complex displayed enhanced maintenance and stability of granules, suppression of epithelial downgrowth, and acceleration of new bone and cementum formation. These results indicate that the implant method using an atelocollagen-coated artificial bone implant material would be useful for periodontal surgical treatment, eliminating some of the disadvantages of conventional implant methods.

  3. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... of all the polymers corresponding to all combinations of donor and acceptor units is followed by characterization of all the materials with respect to molecular weight, electrochemical energy levels, band gaps, photochemical stability, carrier mobility, and photovoltaic parameters. The photovoltaic...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  4. Materials and vapour-phase techniques for the synthesis of ceramic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albella, J. M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey on recent advances in the synthesis of hard ceramic coatings is given, including materials processes and techniques. Emphasis is made on the parameters which control the coating properties (crystalline structure, morphology, etc, namely arrival energy of the atoms to the growing surface and substrate temperature. Some relevant coating materials are discussed in relation to their applications either as hard protective coatings or with decorative purposes, namely: the family of metal nitrides, carbides, and oxides, in different layer structures (monolithic, multilayers and nanocomposites and ternary compounds of the BCN system.

    Se hace un descripción de los avances recientes en la síntesis de recubrimientos duros de tipo cerámico, depositados mediante técnicas de deposición en fase vapor. Se dedica especial atención a los parámetros del proceso de deposición que controlan las propiedades finales de las capas (estructura cristalina, morfología, etc, tales como la energía de llegada de los átomos a las superficie en crecimiento, y la temperatura. Finalmente, se hace una revisión de los materiales más relevantes en lo que se refiere a sus aplicaciones como recubrimientos duros y protectores, o como recubrimientos decorativos, entre ellos, la familia de los nitruros, carburos y óxidos metálicos, depositados en diversos tipos de estructuras (monolíticas, multicapas y nanocomposites, y los compuestos ternarios del sistema BCN.

  5. 16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or...) Paint and other similar surface-coating materials containing lead and toys, children's articles,...

  6. Chlorine-rich plasma polymer coating for the prevention of attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont-Friedrich, Stephanie J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Giles, Carla; Griesser, Hans J.; Coad, Bryan R.

    2016-07-01

    The attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces, which is often followed by biofilm formation, causes adverse consequences in a wide range of areas. Here we have investigated the ability of thin film coatings from chlorinated molecules to deter fungal colonization of solid materials by contact killing of fungal cells reaching the surface of the coating. Coatings were deposited onto various substrate materials via plasma polymerization, which is a substrate-independent process widely used for industrial coating applications, using 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the process vapour. XPS surface analysis showed that the coatings were characterized by a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer nature, with only a very small amount of oxygen incorporated. The activity of these coatings against human fungal pathogens was quantified using a recently developed, modified yeast assay and excellent antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Plasma polymer surface coatings derived from chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules may therefore offer a promising solution to preventing yeast and mould biofilm formation on materials surfaces, for applications such as air conditioners, biomedical devices, food processing equipment, and others.

  7. Relativistic electron gas: A candidate for nature's left-handed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The electric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities for a relativistic electron gas are calculated from quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature and density as functions of temperature, chemical potential, frequency, and wave vector. The polarization and the magnetization depend linearly on both electric and magnetic fields, and are the sum of a zero-temperature and zero-density vacuum part with a temperature- and chemical-potential-dependent medium part. Analytic calculations lead to generalized expressions that depend on three scalar functions. In the nonrelativistic limit, results reproduce the Lindhard formula. In the relativistic case, and in the long wavelength limit, we obtain the following: (i) for ω =0 , generalized susceptibilities that reduce to known nonrelativistic limits; (ii) for ω ≠0 , Drude-type responses at zero temperature. The latter implies that both the electric permittivity ɛ and the magnetic permeability μ may be simultaneously negative, a behavior characteristic of metamaterials. This unambiguously indicates that the relativistic electron gas is one of nature's candidates for the realization of a negative index of refraction system. Moreover, Maxwell's equations in the medium yield the dispersion relation and the index of refraction of the electron gas. Present results should be relevant for plasma physics, astrophysical observations, synchrotrons, and other environments with fast-moving electrons.

  8. Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials: FY 2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Wu, Dangxin; Prange, Micah P.

    2014-10-01

    This annual reports presents work carried out during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Science-Driven Candidate Search for New Scintillator Materials” (Project number: PL13-SciDriScintMat-PD05) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project is divided into three tasks: 1) Ab initio calculations of electronic properties, electronic response functions and secondary particle spectra; 2) Intrinsic response properties, theoretical light yield, and microscopic description of ionization tracks; and 3) Kinetics and efficiency of scintillation: nonproportionality, intrinsic energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination. Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the three tasks is provided in this Annual Report. Furthermore, peer-reviewed articles published this FY or currently under review and presentations given this FY are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  9. CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF THE STUDY MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR MEN COAT PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Garments is a means of artistic creation with not only the function of defense of the body and regulating physiological functions, but also by its beautifying. In order to achieve men coat product, we have the possibility to choose the material from a group of three materials that are completely different of yarn contents. After comparing measurements made for three types o f materials were found in the composition of the material has a higher percentage of wool meets most conditions necessary for wearer comfort so is the material most commonly used to make the clothing for winter season. After comparing measurements made for three types of materials were found in the composition of the material has a higher percentage of wool meets most conditions necessary for wearer comfort so is the material most commonly used to make the clothing for winter season. The difference between the material properties and material transformation phases in the product have been presented in order to emphasize the need for close co-working between professionals involved in making a fashion product from yarn, yarn, fabric and garment finishing product. The types of materials used for making winter outer wear products greatly influences the design and technological design processes in their turn textiles are directly dependent on the characteristics by their structure. The difference between the material properties and material transformation phases in the product have been presented in order to emphasize the need for close co-working between professionals involved in making a fashion product from yarn, yarn, fabric and garment finishing product.

  10. Wear Test Results of Candidate Materials for the OK-542 Towed Array Handling Machine Level Winder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-29

    while extremely resistant to corrosion , is very strong mechanically and is readily available in bar form from local suppliers. Figure 32...Stainless Steel, Inconel 625, Nickel-Aluminum-Bronze, and Titanium. The specialty materials: Inconel 625, Monel, Stainless and Stellite , were clad-welded...C71500 Cu-Ni Wheel/Clad Stainless ............................................ 14 13. Clad Stellite

  11. A new candidate as the cathode material for intermediate and low temperature SOFCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; SUN Xueli; WEN Zhongsheng; SUN Juncai

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop the new cathode materials suitable for intermediate and low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT/LTSOFCs), LaNi1-xFexO3(x=0.4-0.8) (LNF) materials were synthesized using coprecipitation method. Their structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD and SEM, and their electronic conductivities at different temperatures were measured by dc four terminal method. Fuel cells were fabricated to evaluate the electrochemical properties of the LNF materials as cathodes at different temperatures. The performance of 450-497 mW·cm-2 was obtained in the temperature region of 580-650 ℃ for the LaNi0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode, and of 209-227 mW·cm-2 at 400-500 ℃ for the LaNi0.4Fe0.6O3. The excellent fuel cell performances indicate that the LNF materials are good cathodes for IT/LTSOFCs.

  12. Thermal transport properties of thermally sprayed coatings: An integrated study of materials, processing and microstructural effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Weiguang

    coatings. These results are analyzed from the point of view of modified percolation theory which considers the effect of anisotropic microstructural defects of sprayed coatings on the thermal transport property. In the case of the ceramic coatings (YSZ, Al2O3), the temperature dependent thermal conductivity is also examined for various starting microstructures in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The decisive role of starting microstructure on temperature dependent thermal conductivity is presented. In addition, sintering effects resulting from thermal cycling and isothermal exposure on both room temperature and temperature dependent thermal conductivity have been carefully examined in an effort to assess the relationship to effective starting microstructure and provide quantitative information for life prediction. This dissertation also extends to an investigation of thermal conductivity of metal and alloy thermal spray coatings. A range of metallic materials have been considered and the variation of thermal conductivity is interpreted from the point of view of intrinsic attributes (atomic structure, electronic structure and phase structure) as well as extrinsic effects (as a consequence of oxidation and defected microstructure). Finally, in order to achieve precise and reliable measurement of thermal transport property, the applicability and repeatability of both the laser and xenon flash techniques have been examined through the measurements on these coating systems: ceramics, semiconductors, metals, alloys and composites.

  13. MICRO-MATERIAL HANDLING, EMPLOYING E-BEAM COATINGS OF COPPER AND SILVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Van der Waals forces and other adhesive forces impose great challenges on micro-material handling. Mechanical grippers fail to release micro-parts reliably because of them. This paper explores how the problematic Van der Waals forces may be used for micro-material handling purposes using surface roughnesses generated by e-beam coatings of copper and silver on silicon. An atomic force microscope, model Asylum MFP 3 D-Bio with version 6.22A software, was used to measure the forces exerted by the surfaces. A silver coating of 1.41 nm rms surface roughness value is found to exert the highest Van der Waals force, followed by a copper coating of 2.72 nm rms; a copper coating of 217 nm rms exerts the least force. This implies that, in a reliable micro-material handling system, these coatings are suitable for the interactive surfaces of the placement position, micro-gripper, and the pick-up position respectively.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Van der Waalskragte en ander bindingskragte hou steeds groot uitdagings in vir mikromateriaalhantering. As gevolg van hierdie bindingskragte stel meganiese gryptoerusting nie die mikro-partikels vry nie. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe die Van der Waalskragte gebruik kan word vir die mikro-materiaalhanteringsproses deur die gebruik van oppervlakgrofheid gegenereer deur ’n e-straal-laagbedekking van koper en silwer op silikon. ’n Atoomkrag mikroskoop, model Asylum MFP 3 D-Bio met weergawe 6.22A programmatuur, is gebruik om die kragte deur die oppervlakke uitgeoefen te meet. Daar is gevind dat ’n silwer laagbedekking met ’n oppervlakgrofheid van 1.41nm wortel-gemiddelde-kwadraat (wgk die hoogste Van der Waalskrag uitoefen, gevolg deur ’n koper laagbedekking met ’n oppervlakgrofheid van 2.72nm wgk; ’n koper laagbedekking met ’n grofheid van 217nm wgk het die kleinste krag uitgeoefen. Dit impliseer dat, vir ’n betroubare mikro-materiaalhanteringsisteem, hierdie laagbedekkings geskik

  14. INVESTIGATION OF PROCESSES ON TREATMENT OF PLASMA COATINGS MADE OF MATERIALS BASED ON MULTIFUNCTIONAL OXIDE CERAMICS WITH LASER IRRADIATION IMPULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented paper is to optimize technological parameters of hardening high-energy processing used for sprayed coatings made of materials based on oxide ceramics with inclusions of solid lubricant. The paper presents results of the investigations on influence of power density and total number of laser irradiation impulses in a spot treatment on thickness of treated coating layers made of materials based on oxide ceramics. The considered wear-resistant coatings require increased cohesive and adhesive strength. Therefore, the total number of impulses should ensure melting and sealing of the coatings along the whole thickness that will fully contribute to obtain hardened nano-crystalline and amorphous structures.The work is based on complex metallography, X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic investigations on modified structural elements of composite coatings being treated with highly concentrated energy sources. The following main processes of hardened plasma coating formations have been revealed in the paper: com paction of sprayed materials due to thermal and shock-wave impacts of laser irradiation impulses. In this case material porosity is decreasing, cohesive and adhesive strength of coatings is increasing, grain structure is crushed, amorphous and nano-crystalline phases of higher strength are formed all these facts are evidenced by an increase in average micro-hardness of deposited compositions. Duration of thermal laser irradiation impulse impact on the material is sufficient to activate chemical processes in the boundaries of main phases of the composite coating. This leads to formation of finely dispersed (including nanoparticle size compounds that strengthen boundaries of the main phases and the coating as a whole. This is confirmed by the results of an X-ray diffraction analysis.

  15. Quaternized chitosan/κ-carrageenan/caffeic acid-coated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fibrous materials: Preparation, antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Markova, Nadya

    2016-11-20

    Novel fibrous materials with antioxidant and antibacterial properties from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), quaternized chitosan (QCh), κ-carrageenan (Car) and caffeic acid (CA) were obtained. These materials were prepared by applying electrospinning or electrospinning in conjunction with dip-coating and polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formation. It was found that the CA release depended on the fiber composition. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that CA incorporated in the fibers was in the amorphous state, whereas CA included in the coating was in the crystalline state. In contrast to the neat PHB mats, the CA-containing mats and the PEC QCh/Car-coated mats were found to kill the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and were effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of the fibrous materials containing both CA and QCh/Car coating was observed.

  16. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  17. Retention, isotope exchange, and thermal release of hydrogen in candidate materials for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, W. R.; Doyle, B. L.; Brice, D. K.; Picraux, S. T.

    1980-08-01

    The materials studied included TiC, TiB/sub 2/, VB/sub 2/, B/sub 4/C, B, Si, graphite, and the metals Ti, V, and 304L stainless steel. The TiC and TiB/sub 2/ were formed by chemical vapor deposition on a graphite substrate. The C/Ti ratio of the TiC was measured to be 1.0 +- .05 by ion backscattering analysis. The Ti and V were explosively bonded to copper substrates, and the VB/sub 2/ was made by borodizing vanadium. Carbon (compression annealed pyrolytic graphite from Union Carbide and Papyex graphite ribbon from Le Carbone) and single crystal silicon samples were included in the study as reference materials. The hydrogen retention and isotope exchange behavior for these materials were studied by measuring the amount of H or D retained as a function of incident fluence using the D(/sup 3/He,P)/sup 4/He nuclear reaction analysis techniques for D and H(/sup 15/N,..cap alpha gamma..) profiling for H.

  18. Polysaccharide Fabrication Platforms and Biocompatibility Assessment as Candidate Wound Dressing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Aduba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound dressings are critical for wound care because they provide a physical barrier between the injury site and outside environment, preventing further damage or infection. Wound dressings also manage and even encourage the wound healing process for proper recovery. Polysaccharide biopolymers are slowly becoming popular as modern wound dressings materials because they are naturally derived, highly abundant, inexpensive, absorbent, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. Polysaccharide biopolymers have also been processed into biomimetic platforms that offer a bioactive component in wound dressings that aid the healing process. This review primarily focuses on the fabrication and biocompatibility assessment of polysaccharide materials. Specifically, fabrication platforms such as electrospun fibers and hydrogels, their fabrication considerations and popular polysaccharides such as chitosan, alginate, and hyaluronic acid among emerging options such as arabinoxylan are discussed. A survey of biocompatibility and bioactive molecule release studies, leveraging polysaccharide’s naturally derived properties, is highlighted in the text, while challenges and future directions for wound dressing development using emerging fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting are outlined in the conclusion. This paper aims to encourage further investigation and open up new, disruptive avenues for polysaccharides in wound dressing material development.

  19. Effect of Mold Coating Materials and Thickness on Heat Transfer in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaiid, A.; Dargusch, M. S.; Davidson, C. J.; Tovar, S.; Loulou, T.; Rezaï-Aria, F.; Dour, G.

    2007-06-01

    In permanent mold casting or gravity die casting (GDC) of aluminum alloys, die coating at the casting-mold interface is the most important single factor controlling heat transfer and, hence, it has the greatest influence on the solidification rate and development of microstructure. This investigation studies the influence of coating thickness, coating composition, and alloy composition on the heat transfer at the casting-mold interface. Both graphite and TiO2-based coatings have been investigated. Two aluminum alloys have been investigated: Al-7Si-0.3Mg and Al-9Si-3Cu. Thermal histories throughout the die wall have been recorded by fine type-K thermocouples. From these measurements, die surface temperatures and heat flux density have been evaluated using an inverse method. Casting surface temperature was measured by infrared pyrometry, and the interfacial heat-transfer coefficient (HTC) has been determined using these combined pieces of information. While the alloy is liquid, the coating material has only a weak influence over heat flow and the thermal contact resistance seems to be governed more by coating porosity and thickness. The HTC decreases as the coating thickness increases. However, as solidification takes place and the HTC decreases, the HTC of graphite coating remains higher than that of ceramic coatings of similar thickness. After the formation of an air gap at the interface, the effect of coating material vanishes. The peak values of HTC and the heat flux density are larger for Al-7Si-0.3Mg than for Al-9Si-3Cu. Consequently, the apparent solidification time of Al-9Si-3Cu is larger than that of Al-7Si-0.3Mg and it increases with coating thickness.

  20. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature

  1. Process development and impurities analysis for the bottom antireflective coating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Huang, Tiao-Yuan; Cheng, Hsu-Chun; Ko, Chu-Jung; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2001-08-01

    The optical behavior of semiconductor bottom antireflective coating (BARC) material was investigated by both the measurement and simulation methods. The effects of spin- coating rate, interface reflection, BARC layer thickness and photoresist layer thickness were studied. Our results indicated that the 62.5 nm of BARC layer had strong effect on suppressing the light reflection of wavelength of 248 nm form the wafer surface, irrespective of the photoresist layer thickness. Based on the gravimetric method, a high throughput and one-step microwave digestion procedure was developed for the BARC materials. The digestion efficiency increased with the digestion duration and the temperature. By following the established one-step microwave digestion method and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination, the detection limits obtained for Cr, Ni, Cu, An and Pb were in 0.1 to 1.11 ppb levels. The spike recoveries of the metallic impurities were in the range 86- 102% for the BARC materials. The analytical results of the BARC samples were found to be in reasonably good agreement with our previous method, and the analytical throughput can achieve up to 20 samples per hour for the analysis of 5 elements.

  2. Characterization and antimicrobial performance of nano silver coatings on leather materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lkhagvajav, N; Koizhaiganova, M; Yasa, I; Çelik, E; Sari, Ö

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characterization and the antimicrobial properties of nano silver (nAg) coating on leather were investigated. For this purpose, turbidity, viscosity and pH of nAg solutions prepared by the sol-gel method were measured. The formation of films from these solutions was characterized according to temperature by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) equipment. The surface morphology of treated leathers was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial performance of nAg coatings on leather materials to the test microorganisms as Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida albicans and Aspergillius niger was evaluated by the application of qualitative (Agar overlay method) and quantitative (percentage of microbial reduction) tests. According to qualitative test results it was found that 20 μg/cm (2) and higher concentrations of nAg on the leather samples were effective against all microorganisms tested. Moreover, quantitative test results showed that leather samples treated with 20 μg/cm (2) of nAg demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli with 99.25% bacterium removal, whereas a 10 μg/cm (2) concentration of nAg on leather was enough to exhibit the excellent percentage reduction against S. aureus of 99.91%. The results are promising for the use of colloidal nano silver solution on lining leather as antimicrobial coating.

  3. Characterization and antimicrobial performance of nano silver coatings on leather materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lkhagvajav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the characterization and the antimicrobial properties of nano silver (nAg coating on leather were investigated. For this purpose, turbidity, viscosity and pH of nAg solutions prepared by the sol-gel method were measured. The formation of films from these solutions was characterized according to temperature by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG equipment. The surface morphology of treated leathers was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The antimicrobial performance of nAg coatings on leather materials to the test microorganisms as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillius niger was evaluated by the application of qualitative (Agar overlay method and quantitative (percentage of microbial reduction tests. According to qualitative test results it was found that 20 μg/cm2 and higher concentrations of nAg on the leather samples were effective against all microorganisms tested. Moreover, quantitative test results showed that leather samples treated with 20 μg/cm2 of nAg demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli with 99.25% bacterium removal, whereas a 10 μg/cm2 concentration of nAg on leather was enough to exhibit the excellent percentage reduction against S. aureus of 99.91%. The results are promising for the use of colloidal nano silver solution on lining leather as antimicrobial coating.

  4. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakhudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

  5. New π-Conjugated Materials Based on Furylenevinylene Candidate for Organic Solar Cells Application: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alamy Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific properties of organic-conjugated molecules and polymers are of great importance since they have become the most promising materials for the optoelectronic device technology such as solar cells. The use of low band gap materials is a viable method for better harvesting of the solar spectrum and increasing its efficiency. The control of the parameters of these materials is a research issue of ongoing interest. In this work, a quantum chemical investigation was performed to explore the optical and electronic properties of a series of different compounds based on furylenevinylene. Different electron side groups were introduced to investigate their effects on the electronic structure. The theoretical knowledge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energy levels of the components is basic in studying organic solar cells; so the HOMO, LUMO, Gap energy and open circuit voltage (Voc of the studied compounds have been calculated and reported. These properties suggest that these materials behave as good candidate for organic solar cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.763 

  6. B4CN3 and B3CN4 monolayers as the promising candidates for metal-free spintronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongzhe; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yongping; Tang, Nujiang; Du, Youwei

    2016-09-01

    The search for candidates of spintronic materials, especially among the two-dimensional (2D) materials, has attracted tremendous attentions over the past decades. By using a particle swarm optimization structure searching method combined with density functional calculations, two kinds of boron carbonitride monolayer structures (B4CN3 and B3CN4) are proposed and confirmed to be dynamically and kinetically stable. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that the magnetic ground states of the two B x C y N z systems are ferromagnetic ordering with a high Curie temperature of respectively 337 K for B4CN3 and 309 K for B3CN4. Furthermore, based on their respective band structures, the B4CN3 is found to be a bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), while the B3CN4 is identified to be a type of spin gapless semiconductor (SGS), both of which are potential spintronic materials. In particular, carrier doping in the B4CN3 can induce a transition from BMS to half-metal, and its spin polarization direction is switchable depending on the doped carrier type. The BMS property of B4CN3 is very robust under an external strain or even a strong electric field. By contrast, as a SGS, the electronic structure of B3CN4 is relatively sensitive to external influences. Our findings successfully disclose two promising materials toward 2D metal-free spintronic applications.

  7. Growth and properties of REBiO 3 new buffer materials for coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Pu, M. H.; Sun, R. P.; Wang, W. T.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, C. H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-09-01

    A new series of ABO 3-type REBiO 3 have been derived from the system Bi 2O 3-RE 2O 3, in which cubic RE 2O 3 stabilize cubic structure of δ-Bi 2O 3, enabling the formation of REBiO 3 at relatively low temperature range. A chemical solution deposition (CSD) route has been used to deposit epitaxial thin films of REBiO 3. The crystal lattice, chemical stability, texture development, combined with the successful deposition of high quality superconducting layer demonstrate that the newly developed compounds may play as potential alternatives of buffer layer materials for REBCO-based coated conductors.

  8. Waves scattering induced by an interface crack in a coated material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jun; LIU Yong; XU Jin-quan

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the two-dimensional problem of elastic wave scattering from a finite crack at the interface between a coated material layer and its substrate. By adopting the Fourier transform method and introducing the crack opening displacement function, the boundary value problem is simplified for numerically solving a system of Cauchy-type singular integral equations by means of Jacobi polynomial expansion. The stress intensity factors and the crack opening displacements are defined in terms of the integral equations solutions. The influence of the dimensionless wave number and the ratio of crack length to layer thickness on the stress intensity factors and crack opening displacements are discussed.

  9. Optimization on electrochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 as candidate catalytic material for Green diesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, W. W.; Nugraha, R. E.; Winarni, I. D.; Adreane, M.; Rahmawati, F.

    2016-04-01

    In the effort to support the discovery of new renewable energy sources in Indonesia, biofuel is one of promising options. The conversion of vegetable oil into ready-biofuel, especially green diesel, needs several steps, one of which is a hydrogenation or hydro-deoxygenation reaction. In this case, the catalyst plays a very important role regarding to its activity and selectivity, and Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) becoming a new generation of heterogeneous catalyst in this area. In this research, a preliminary study to optimize electrochemical synthesis of the catalytic material based on MOFs, namely HKUST-1 [Cu3(BTC)2], has been conducted. Some electrochemical reaction parameters were tested, for example by modifying the electrochemical synthetic conditions, i.e. by performing variation of voltages (12, 13, 14, and 15 Volt), temperatures (RT, 40, 60, and 80 °C) and solvents (ethanol, water, methanol and dimethyl-formamide (DMF)). Material characterization was carried out by XRD, SEM, FTIR, DTA/TG and SAA. The results showed that the optimum synthetic conditions of HKUST-1 are performed at room temperature in a solvent combination of water: ethanol (1: 1) and a voltage of 15 Volt for 2 hours. The XRD-analysis revealed that the resulted peaks are identical to the simulated powder pattern generated from single crystal data and comparable to the peaks of solvothermal method. However, the porosity of the resulting material through electrochemical method is still in the range of micro-pore according to IUPAC and 50% smaller than the porosity resulted from solvothermal synthesis. The corresponding compounds are thermally stable until 300 °C according to TG/DTA.

  10. Angular Scattering Reflectance and Polarization Measurements of Candidate Regolith Materials Measured in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark D.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Vandervoort, Kurt; Vides, Christina L.

    2016-10-01

    The reflectance and polarization of light reflected from a solar system object indicates the chemical and textural state of the regolith. Remote sensing data are compared to laboratory angular scattering measurements and surface properties are determined.We use a Goniometric Photopolarimeter (GPP) to make angular reflectance and polarization measurements of particulate materials that simulate planetary regoliths. The GPP employs the Helmholtz Reciprocity Principle ( 2, 1) - the incident light is linearly polarized - the intensity of the reflected component is measured. The light encounters fewer optical surfaces improving signal to noise. The lab data are physically equivalent to the astronomical data.Our reflectance and polarization phase curves of highly reflective, fine grained, media simulate the regolith of Jupiter's satellite Europa. Our lab data exhibit polarization phase curves that are very similar to reports by experienced astronomers (4). Our previous reflectance phase curve data of the same materials agree with the same astronomical observers (5). We find these materials exhibit an increase in circular polarization ratio with decreasing phase angle (3). This suggests coherent backscattering (CB) of photons in the regolith (3). Shkuratov et al.(3) report that the polarization properties of these particulate media are also consistent with the CB enhancement process (5). Our results replicate the astronomical data indicating Europa's regolith is fine-grained, high porous with void space exceeding 90%.1. Hapke, B. W. (2012). ISBN 978-0-521-88349-82. Minnaert, M. (1941).Asrophys. J., 93, 403-410.3. Nelson, R. M. et al. (1998). Icarus, 131, 223-230.4. Rosenbush, V. et al. (2015). ISBN 978-1-107-04390-9, pp 340-359.5. Shkuratov, Yu. et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 396-416.

  11. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  12. Moisture-cured silicone-urethanes-candidate materials for tissue engineering: a biocompatibility study in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówka, P; Kozakiewicz, J; Jurkowska, A; Sienkiewicz, E; Przybylski, J; Lewandowski, Z; Przybylski, J; Lewandowska-Szumieł, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to verify the response of human bone-derived cells (HBDCs) to moisture-cured silicone-urethanes (mcSUUs) in vitro, as the first step toward using them as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Good surgical handling, tissue cavity filling, stable mechanical properties, and potentially improved oxygen supply to cells after implantation justify the investigation of these nondegradable elastomers. A set of various mcSUUs were obtained by moisture-curing NCO-terminated prepolymers, synthesized from oligomeric siloxane diols of two different oligosiloxane chain lengths, and two different diisocyanates (MDI and IPDI), using two different NCO/OH molar ratios. Dibutyltindilaurate (DBTL) or N-dimethylethanolamine (N-met) served as catalysts. After 7 days of culture, cell number, viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were determined, and after 21 days, cell viability and collagen production were determined. Material characteristics significantly influenced the cell response. The mcSUUs prepared with DBTL (widely used in the syntheses of biomaterials) were cytotoxic. The MDI-based mcSUUs were significantly more favored by HBDCs than the IPDI-based ones in all performed tests. MDI-based material with low 2/1 NCO/OH and short chain length was the best support for cells, comparable with tissue-culture polystyrene (with ALP activity even higher). HBDCs cultured on porous scaffolds from this mcSUU produced a tissue-like structure in culture. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  13. Lightweight ZERODUR®: A Candidate Material for Affordable Future UVOIR Space Telescopes of All Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Westerhoff, T.; Leys, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent Developments now make available for spaceborne applications highly lightweighted mirrors in ZERODUR®, regarded to be the “gold standard” material for thermal stability. ZERODUR® has flown on over 30 missions, including two great observatories, but not previously to this high degree of lightweighting. Now highly lightweighted mirror substrates can be made from a single billet of low expansion glass which exhibits remarkably low thermal expansion, anisotropy and inhomogeneity. This staility has the potential to simplify every aspect of a mission payload cost. A 1.2m open-back isogrid lightweighted mirror substrate has been made by SCHOTT exhibiting 88% lightweighting and a first Eigenfrequency over 200Hz. Also a recently made 0.3m isogrid lightweighted mirror exhibits ribs thinner than 0.9mm. Mirror or mirror segment substrates can be cost-effectively manufactured from monolithic blanks in apertures as small as 0.3m aperture to over 4m aperture (until recently SCHOTT maintained a line to make 8m ZERODUR® billets). We will describe this technology, the attributes of isogrid lightweighted mirror blanks, and the relevance of this material and manufacturing approach to upcoming UVOIR missions from suborbital to Explorer class to next generation Great Observatory. Lightweight ZERODUR® supports optical telescope systems requiring great stability, even in the presence of payload and scene thermal perturbations. Furthermore, mirrors or mirror segments made with the approach described can be made to remarkably short schedule, cost effectively and with little risk.

  14. Conducting Graphite/Cellulose Composite Film as a Candidate for Chemical Vapor-Sensing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihua Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A type of conductive graphite/cellulose composite film used for chemical vapor-sensing material was prepared at room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl. Graphite was pretreated with both oxidation and reduction processes. Due to the use of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI, as a covalent cross-linking agent in [BMIm]Cl, there were limited chemical bonds between the graphite and cellulose. The composite film was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD. When these conducting films were exposed to certain organic vapors, their electrical resistances quickly changed, showing gas sensitivity. The percolation threshold of the conducting film was about 5 wt%. The gas-sensing behavior of these films in solvent were the opposite of those gas-sensing materials based on a non-polar polymer matrix. A typical negative vapor coefficient (NVC was observed when the film was placed in polar organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone.

  15. Bacterial assay for the rapid assessment of antifouling and fouling release properties of coatings and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Fraddry; Bruin, Anouk; Biersteker, Rens; Donnelly, Glen; Klijnstra, Job; Rentrop, Corne; Willemsen, Peter

    2010-04-01

    An assay has been developed to accurately quantify the growth and release behaviour of bacterial biofilms on several test reference materials and coatings, using the marine bacterium Cobetia marina as a model organism. The assay can be used to investigate the inhibition of bacterial growth and release properties of many surfaces when compared to a reference. The method is based upon the staining of attached bacterial cells with the nucleic acid-binding, green fluorescent SYTO 13 stain. A strong linear correlation exists between the fluorescence of the bacterial suspension measured (RFU) using a plate reader and the total bacterial count measured with epifluorescence microscopy. This relationship allows the fluorescent technique to be used for the quantification of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. As the bacteria proliferate on the surface over a period of time, the relative fluorescence unit (RFU) measured using the plate reader also shows an increase with time. This was observed on all three test surfaces (glass, Epikote and Silastic T2) over a period of 4 h of bacterial growth, followed by a release assay, which was carried out by the application of hydrodynamic shear forces using a custom-made rotary device. Different fixed rotor speeds were tested, and based on the release analysis, 12 knots was used to provide standard shear force. The assay developed was then applied for assessing three different antifouling coatings of different surface roughness. The novel assay allows the rapid and sensitive enumeration of attached bacteria directly on the coated surface. This is the first plate reader assay technique that allows estimation of irreversibly attached bacterial cells directly on the coated surface without their removal from the surface or extraction of a stain into solution.

  16. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  17. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Bismuth Chalcohalides: Candidate Photovoltaic Materials with Easily, Continuously Controllable Band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioku, Hironobu; Higashi, Masanobu; Abe, Ryu

    2016-09-01

    Although bismuth chalcohalides, such as BiSI and BiSeI, have been recently attracting considerable attention as photovoltaic materials, the methods available to synthesize them are quite limited thus far. In this study, a novel, facile method to synthesize these chalcohalides, including BiSBr1-xIx solid solutions, at low temperatures was developed via the substitution of anions from O2- to S2- (or Se2-) using bismuth oxyhalide precursors. Complete phase transition was readily observed upon treatment of BiOI particles with H2S or H2Se at surprisingly low temperatures of less than 150 °C and short reaction times of less than 1 h, producing BiSI and BiSeI particles, respectively. This method was also applied for synthesizing BiSBr1-xIx, where continuous changes in their band gaps were observed depending on the ratio between iodine and bromine. The composition of all elements (except oxygen) in the chalcohalides thus produced was almost identical to that of the oxyhalide precursors, attributed to the suppressed volatilization of halogens at such low temperatures. All chalcohalides loaded on FTO clearly exhibited an anodic photocurrent in an acetonitrile solution containing I-, attributed to their n-type nature, e.g., the BiSI electrode exhibited high IPCE (64% at 700 nm, +0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl).

  18. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination VIII: Identification of crystalline material in two interstellar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsforth, Zack; Brenker, Frank E.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Schmitz, Sylvia; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Cloetens, Peter; Lemelle, Laurence; Tresserras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Solé, Vicente A.; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Westphal, Andrew J.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Changela, Hitesh; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Srama, Ralf; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; von Korff, Joshua; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements, we identified crystalline material in two particles of extraterrestrial origin extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. The first particle, I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook), consisted of a mosaiced olivine grain approximately 1 µm in size with internal strain fields up to 0.3%. The unit cell dimensions were a = 4.85 ± 0.08 Å, b = 10.34 ± 0.16 Å, c = 6.08 ± 0.13 Å (2σ). The second particle, I1043,1,30 (Orion), contained an olivine grain ≈ 2 µm in length and >500 nm in width. It was polycrystalline with both mosaiced domains varying over ≈ 20° and additional unoriented domains, and contained internal strain fields Fo65 (2σ). Orion also contained abundant spinel nanocrystals of unknown composition, but unit cell dimension a = 8.06 ± 0.08 Å (2σ). Two additional crystalline phases were present and remained unidentified. An amorphous component appeared to be present in both these particles based on STXM and XRF results reported elsewhere.

  19. Self-healing Action of Permeable Crystalline Coating on Pores and Cracks in Cement-based Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guiming; YU Jianying

    2005-01-01

    The self-healing action of a permeable crystalline coating on the porous mortar was investigated by two times impermeability test. Moreover, the self-healing mechanism of cement-based materials with the permeable crystalline coating was studied by SEM. The results indicate that the permeable crystalline coating not only seals the pores and cracks in mortar during its curing process, but also heals the permeable pathway caused by first impermeability test or cracks produced by freeze-thaw cycles. Therefore, cement-based materials can be improved by the permeable crystalline coating for the self-healing function. SEM images prove that the self-healing function is realized by generating a great quantity of non-soluble dendritic crystalline within the pores and cracks, which prevents the penetration of water and other liquids.

  20. Preparation and characterization of SnO2 and Carbon Co-coated LiFePO4 cathode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Liu, Shuxin; Huang, Yongmao

    2014-04-01

    The SnO2 and carbon co-coated LiFePO4 cathode materials were successfully synthesized by solid state method. The microstructure and morphology of LiFePO4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the SnO2 and carbon co-coated LiFePO4 cathode materials exhibited more uniform particle size distribution. Compared with the uncoated LiFePO4/C, the structure of LiFePO4 with SnO2 and carbon coating had no change. The existence of SnO2 and carbon coating layer effectively enhanced the initial discharge capacity. Among the investigated samples, the one with DBTDL:LiFePO4 molar ratios of 7:100 exhibited the best electrochemical performance.

  1. Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings: Smart and Green Materials for Corrosion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion degradation of materials and metallic structures is one of the major issues that give rise to depreciation of assets, causing great financial outlays in their recovery and or prevention. Therefore, the development of active corrosion protection systems for metallic substrates is an issue of prime importance. The promising properties and wide application range of hybrid sol-gel-derived polymers have attracted significant attention over recent decades. The combination of organic polymers and inorganic materials in a single phase provides exceptional possibilities to tailor electrical, optical, anticorrosive, and mechanical properties for diverse applications. This unlimited design concept has led to the development of hybrid coatings for several applications, such as transparent plastics, glasses, and metals to prevent these substrates from permeation, mechanical abrasion, and corrosion, or even for decorative functions. Nevertheless, the development of new hybrid products requires a basic understanding of the fundamental chemistry, as well as of the parameters that influence the processing techniques, which will briefly be discussed. Additionally, this review will also summarize and discuss the most promising sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of steel, aluminium, and their alloys conducted at an academic level.

  2. Polyethylene Maleate Copolyesters as Coating Materials for Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal-based Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Gupta

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene maleate (PEM was synthesised by direct polycondensation of maleic anhydride and ethylene glycol in toluene under reflux usingp-toluene sulphonic acid as a catalyst. Structure of PEM was further modified by varying nature of diols and acid components, chain length of glycols, incorporation of aromatic and fluorine groups in the chain. Formation of PEM was monitored by gas chromatography. The parameters like degree of polymerisation, number average molecular weight (Mn, and weight average molecular weight (Mw were calculated from the extent of reaction and stoichiometric ratio of the reactants. The number average molecular weight was also determined using Knauer vapour pressure osmometer. Cohesive energy, volume, and solubility parameters of PEM-based copolyesters were calculated by group contribution method. These PEM-based copolyesters’ have been evaluated as sorbent-coating materials for the detection of organ0 phosphorus(OPcompo using dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP as model compound and piezoelectric crystal detector. PEMbisphenol A is found to be the most sensitive and potential coating material for the detection of OP compounds using piezoelectric crystal detector. Potential PEM-based copolyesters have been characterised by viscosity, infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, Mn and thermal stability.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Coated Silicon Nanoparticle as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Zhancg; L.J. Fu; J. Gao; Y. P. Wu; H.Q. Wu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Silicon has been regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Its theoretical capacity (4 000 mAh/g) is much higher than that of the commercialized graphite (372 mAh/g)[1]. However,the cycle performance of silicon is poor due to the severe volume expansion and shrinkage during Li+ insertion/extraction which results in pulverization of Si particles, eventually losing its Li+ storage ability[2]. To solve this problem, nanosized Si particles were utilized and achieved a partial improvement by reducing the absolute volume change. Nevertheless, a new problem was encountered with nanosized material that small Si particles were aggregated to be larger one during Li+ insertion/extraction, and then pulverized again[3]. In this work, we have succeeded to improve the cycle performance of nanosized Si particles by synthesis of carbon coated silicon nanoparticle.

  4. CRACK PROPAGATING IN FUNCTIONALLY GRADED COATING WITH ARBITRARILY DISTRIBUTED MATERIAL PROPERTIES BONDED TO HOMOGENEOUS SUBSTRATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanqi Cheng; Danying Gao; Zheng Zhong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,a finite crack with constant length(Yoffe type crack)propagating in a functionally graded coating with spatially varying elastic properties bonded to a homoge-neous substrate of finite thickness under anti-plane loading was studied.A multi-layered model is employed to model arbitrary variations of material properties based on two linearly-distributed material compliance parameters.The mixed boundary problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations that are solved numerically.Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy,efficiency and versatility of the model.The numerical results show that the graded parameters,the thicknesses of the interracial layer and the two homogeneous layers,the crack size and speed have significant effects on the dynamic fracture behavior.

  5. Study on the Tribological Behaviors of Different PEEK Composite Coatings for Use as Artificial Cervical Disk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Song; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Weiqiang; Tyagi, Rajnesh

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) is a type of biomaterial which may be used for modifying the surface of materials used in implants. Hence, in the present investigation, the potentiality of PEEK and its composites coatings has been explored for improving the friction and wear behavior of the Ti6Al4V to be used for cervical disks. The structural characteristics, micro-hardness, friction, and wear characteristics of PEEK/Al2O3 and PEEK/SiO2 composite coatings have been investigated and compared with pure PEEK coating and bare titanium alloy sample. According to the XRD analysis results, these coated samples were mainly orthorhombic crystalline form. The contact angle values of PEEK and its composite coatings were higher, while micro-hardness values of these samples decreased significantly. The thickness values of the three coated samples were all above 70 μm on average. The average friction coefficients with a counterface of ZrO2 ball decreased significantly, especially under NCS (newborn calf serum) lubricated condition. After comprehensive evaluation, the PEEK/Al2O3 coating demonstrated optimum tribological properties and could be applied as bearing materials for artificial cervical disk.

  6. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  7. Characterization and transformation of an industrial by-product (coated paper sludge into a pozzolanic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective re-use of industrial by-products calls for an understanding of their chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics. The by-product used in this study was coated paper industry sludge from a plant whose sole prime material is recycled paper. Due to its high organic and calcium carbonate content and the presence of several clayey materials such as talc and kaolinite, incineration conditions had a significant effect on the mineralogy of such sludge. The present study examined the impact of such conditions on the pozzolanic properties of coated paper sludge. Several temperature intervals ranging from 600 to 750 ºC were studied to determine the conditions yielding the most promising pozzolanic properties.La necesidad de dar un correcto uso a los subproductos industriales requiere del conocimiento de sus características, tanto desde un punto de vista químico como mineralógico y físico. El subproducto utilizado para esta investigación es un lodo de papel estucado procedente de la industria papelera, la cual usa como materias primas un 100% de material reciclado. Debido al alto contenido de materia orgánica y carbonato cálcico y a la presencia de diferentes materiales arcillosos, como el talco y la caolinita, las condiciones de calcinación presentan un papel principal en la mineralogía de este lodo. En el actual trabajo se considera el papel que juegan estas condiciones, tiempo y permanencia en horno, en las propiedades puzolánicas del lodo de papel estucado como material cementante. Por esta razón, se estudiaron diferentes intervalos de temperatura, entre 600 y 750 ºC y 2 horas de permanencia en horno con el objetivo de obtener las mejores propiedades puzolánicas.

  8. High temperature corrosion in chloridizing atmospheres: development of material quasi-stability diagrams and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doublet, S.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Chlorine gas is widely encountered in chemical industries, e. g. in waste incinerators and plastic/polymer decomposition mills. The presence of chlorine may significantly reduce the life-time of the components. Although metallic materials have been widely used under such conditions there is still a need for data on the role of the different alloying elements in commercial alloys. The purpose of this work is to produce a clear picture of which alloying elements play a detrimental role and which elements are beneficial. These results can be used as a tool for general assessment of metallic alloys with regard to their performance in chloridizing high temperature environments. A previous study has already been performed in oxidizing-chloridizing atmospheres and led to the elaboration of material quasi-stability diagrams. As a follow-up the present work has been performed in reducing-chloridizing atmospheres in order to validate these diagrams at low partial pressures of oxygen. The behaviour of 9 commercial materials where the content of the major alloying elements was varied in a systematic manner was investigated in reducing-chloridizing atmospheres (in Ar containing up to 2 vol.% Cl{sub 2} and down to 1 ppm O{sub 2}) at 800 deg. C. As the thermodynamical approach to corrosion in such atmospheres could not explain all the phenomena which occur, kinetics calculations i.e. diffusion calculations were carried out. Pack cementation and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) coatings were also developed from the best alloying elements previously found by the calculations and the corrosion experiments. Corrosion tests on the coated materials were then performed in the same conditions as the commercial alloys. (authors)

  9. Press-hardening of zinc coated steel - characterization of a new material for a new process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, T.; Larour, P.; Lackner, J.; Steck, T.; Jesner, G.

    2016-11-01

    Press-hardening of zinc-coated PHS has been limited to the indirect process until a pre-cooling step was introduced before the hot forming to prevent liquid metal embrittlement. Even though that's only a minor change in the process itself it does not only eliminate LME, but increases also the demands on the base material especially in terms of hardenability or phase transformations at temperatures below 700 °C in general. This paper deals with the characterization of a modified zinc-coated material for press-hardening with pre-cooling that assures a robust process. The pre-cooling step itself and especially the transfer of the blank in the hot-forming die is more demanding than the standard 22MnB5 can stand to ensure full hardenability. Therefore the transformation behavior of the modified material is shown in CCT and TTT diagrams. Of the same importance are the changed hot forming temperature and flow curves for material at lower temperatures than typically used in direct hot forming. The resulting mechanical properties after hardening from tensile testing and bending tests are shown in detail. Finally some results from side impact crash tests and correlations of the findings with mechanical properties such as fracture elongation, tensile strength, VDA238 bending angle at maximum force as well as postuniform bending slope are given as well. Fracture elongation is shown to be of little help for damage prediction in side impact crash. Tensile strength and VDA bending properties enable however some accurate prediction of the PHS final damage behavior in bending dominated side impact load case.

  10. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in space research has been shifting from space exploration to commercialization of space. In order to utilize space for commercial purposes it is necessary to understand the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment where most of the activities will be carried out. The studies on the LEO environment are mainly focused towards understanding the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on spacecraft materials. In the first few shuttle flights, materials looked frosty because they were actually being eroded and textured: AO reacts with organic materials on spacecraft exteriors, gradually damaging them. When a spacecraft travel in LEO (where crewed vehicles and the International Space Station fly), the AO formed from the residual atmosphere can react with the spacecraft surfaces, causing damage to the vehicle. Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The major degradation effects in polymers are due to their exposure to atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet and synergistic effects, which result in different damaging effects by modification of the polymer's chemical properties. In hydrocarbon containing polymers the main AO effect is the surface erosion via chemical reactions and the release of volatile reaction products associated with the mass loss. The application of a thin protective coating to the base materials is one of the most commonly used methods of preventing AO degradation. The purpose is to provide a barrier between base material and AO environment or, in some cases, to alter AO reactions to inhibit its diffusion. The effectiveness of a coating depends on its continuity, porosity, degree of

  11. Application of High Temperature Corrosion-Resistant Materials and Coatings Under Severe Corrosive Environment in Waste-to-Energy Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yuuzou

    2007-06-01

    Corrosion-resistant materials (CRMs) and coatings are key technologies to increase power generation efficiency and reduce maintenance in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. Corrosion environment became severe as steam temperatures have increased. The steam condition of more than 400 °C/3.9 MPa became possible in WTE boilers by using highly durable corrosion-resistant coatings, such as thermal spray of Al/80Ni20Cr alloy, HVOF-sprayed NiCrSiB alloy, Alloy 625 weld overlay for waterwall tubes and also superheater tubes. Also, the use of 310S type stainless steels and high Cr-high Mo-Ni base and high Si-Cr-Ni-Fe alloys have progressed because of a better understanding of corrosion mechanisms. Furthermore, high durability coatings using cermet and ceramic materials were applied to high temperature superheaters. This paper describes the major developments and the application of CRMs and coating technologies in the last 30 years in WTE plants, the corrosion mechanisms of alloys, the deterioration mechanisms of spray coating layers, and future subjects for the development of corrosion-resistant materials and coatings.

  12. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  13. Characterisation of bentonites from Kutch, India and Milos, Greece - some candidate tunnel back-fill materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    During the past decades comprehensive investigations have been made on bentonite clays in order to find optimal components of the multi-barrier system of repositories for radioactive waste. The present study gives a mineralogical characterisation of some selected bentonites, in order to supply some of the necessary background data on the bentonites for evaluating their potential as tunnel back-fill materials. Two bentonites from the island of Milos, Greece (Milos BF 04 and BF 08), and two bentonites from Kutch, India (Kutch BF 04 and BF 08) were analysed for their grain size distribution, cation exchange properties and chemical composition. The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and evaluated quantitatively by use of the Siroquant software. Both the bulk bentonite and the <1mum fraction were analyzed when relevant. Prior to the chemical analyses the <1 mum fractions were converted to homo-ionic clays and purified by dialysis. The chemical data were used for calculating the structural formula of the smectites. Milos BF 04 contains ca. 10% particles >63 mum. The bentonite is distinguished by a high content of dolomite and calcite, which make up almost 25% of the bulk sample. The major accessory minerals are K-feldspars and plagioclase, whereas the content of sulphur-bearing minerals is very low (0.06% total S). Smectite makes up around 60% of the bulk sample, which has a CEC value of 73 meq/100 g. The pool of interlayer cations has a composition Mg>Ca>>Na>>K. The X-ray diffraction characteristics and the high potassium content (1.03% K{sub 2}O) of the <1 mum fraction suggest that the smectite is interstratified with ca. 10% illitic layers. Based on the charge distribution the smectite should be classified as montmorillonite and according to the structural formula, Mg predominates over Fe in the octahedral sheet. However, remnants of Mg-carbonates, if present, may be a source of error in the formula calculation. Milos BF 08 has a

  14. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  15. Developing and Evaluating Candidate Materials for Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Sung Ho; Hwang Sung Sik and others

    2006-03-15

    High temperature mechanical behavior High temperature behavior of two F-M steels were investigated, considering the transient temperature range of the SCWR (above 800 .deg. C). T91 and T122 specimens were five times cyclically heat treated to the temperature 810 .deg. C and 845 .deg. C respectively. And the heat treatments were found to have little effect on the creep rupture behavior at 550, 600, or 650 .deg. C. However, the microstructural change was detected by the rapid hardness change after the holding the specimens at 840 .deg. C even for 10 sec. (by INL, previously ANL-W) A 20Cr Fe-base ODS alloy (MA956) was isothermally heat treated at 475 .deg. C for various times and then impact tested. The material was found to become very brittle after the heat treatment even for 100 hrs by the drastic decrease of the impact absorption energy (from 300 J to about the nil) and by the typically brittle fracture surface. (by KAIST) Corrosion and SCC Behavior in SCW (1) The corrosion behaviors of the F-M steels (T91, T92, and T122) and high Ni alloys (alloy 625, Alloy 690, and alloy 800H) and an ODS alloy (MA 956) were studied in the aerated SCW (8 ppm of D.O; dissolved oxygen) under 25 MPa from 300 to 600 .deg. C with an interval of 50 .deg. C. The test durations were 100, 200, and 500 hrs respectively. In general high Ni alloys were definitely more resistant to corrosion in SCW than F-M steels. As the Cr content increases the resistance of F-M steels to corrosion becomes better. The resistance of F-M steels to corrosion at 350 .deg. C, a subcritical temperature, was revealed to be comparatively similar to those at 550 .deg. C, a 200 .deg. C higher temperature. (2) The SCC resistance of F-M steels, T91 and T92, was evaluated by CERT (constant extension rate test) method. T91 specimens were tested at 500, 550 and 600 .deg. C in a fully deaerated SCW (below 10 ppb D.O), and SCC did not happen in the T91 specimens. T92 specimens were tested at 500 .deg. C in SCW of different

  16. Synthesis and analysis of Mo-Si-B based coatings for high temperature oxidation protection of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Patrick J.

    The use of Ni-based superalloys in turbine engines has all but been exhausted, with operating temperatures nearing the melting point of these materials. The use of ceramics in turbine engines, particularly ceramic matrix composites such as SiC/C and SiC/SiC, is of interest due to their low density and attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The same materials are also in consideration for leading edges on hypersonic vehicles. However, SiC-based composites degrade in high temperature environments with low partial pressures of oxygen due to active oxidation, as well as high temperature environments containing water or sand. The need for a protective external coating for SiC-based composites in service is obvious. To date, no coating investigated for SiC/C or SiC/SiC has been proven to be resistant to oxidation and corrosion at intermediate and high temperatures, as well as in environments deficient in oxygen. The Mo-Si-B coating shows great promise in this area, having been proven resistant to attack from oxidation at extreme temperatures, from water vapor and from calcia-magnesia-aluminosilicate (CMAS). The adaptation of the Mo-Si-B coating for ceramic materials is presented in detail here. Evaluation of the coating under a range of oxidation conditions as well as simulated re-entry conditions confirms the efficacy of the Mo-Si-B based coating as protection from catastrophic failure. The key to the oxidation and corrosion resistance is a robust external aluminoborosilica glass layer that forms and flows quickly to cover the substrate, even under the extreme simulated re-entry conditions. Suppression of active oxidation of SiC, which may occur during atmospheric re-entry and hypersonic flight trajectories, has also been examined. In order to adapt the Mo-Si-B based coating to low partial pressures of oxygen and elevated temperatures, controlled amounts of Al were added to the Mo-Si-B based coating. The resulting coating decreased the inward

  17. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-22

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

  18. Mechanical properties of chemically bonded sand core materials dipped in sol-gel coating impregnated with filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    -displacement curve from which the mechanical properties of the materials are deduced. The fracture surfaces were examined using a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope. From the results, the strengths of the core materials were slightly reduced by the coating in tensile and flexural modes, while...... the strengths were increased under compression. The mode of fracture of the chemically bonded sand core materials was observed to be intergranular through the binder. The stiffness of the chemically bonded sand core materials was determined. For better understanding of the mechanical properties......A novel sol-gel coating impregnated with filter dust was applied on chemically bonded sand core materials by dipping. After curing, the strengths of the core materials were measured under uniaxial loading using a new strength testing machine (STM). The STM presents the loading history as a force...

  19. Scanning electron microscopic study of the surface of feline gastric epithelium: a simple method of removing the coating material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tikriti, M; Henry, R W; Al-Bagdadi, F K; Hoskins, J; Titkemeyer, C

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic examination of the gastric surface epithelial cells is often hindered by the presence of a coating material. Several methods for removal of coating material on feline gastric mucosa were utilized. The cleansed tissues were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope to assess damage caused by the use of various cleansing methods to surface epithelial cells. The stretched stomach washed several times, including rubbing the mucosal surface with gloved fingers, yielded the best results with no apparent damage to the surface epithelial cells. Flushing unstretched stomachs with saline only did not adequately remove coating material. Flushing unstretched stomachs with saline while stroking the surface with a cotton tipped applicator stick removed debris but damaged the surface epithelium.

  20. Biodegradable and elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) as a coating material for nitinol bare stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ji; Hwang, Moon Young; Kim, JiHeung; Chung, Dong June

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized and evaluated biodegradable and elastomeric polyesters (poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS)) using polycondensation between glycerol and sebacic acid to form a cross-linked network structure without using exogenous catalysts. Synthesized materials possess good mechanical properties, elasticity, and surface erosion biodegradation behavior. The tensile strength of the PGS was as high as 0.28 ± 0.004 MPa, and Young's modulus was 0.122 ± 0.0003 MPa. Elongation was as high as 237.8 ± 0.64%, and repeated elongation behavior was also observed to at least three times the original length without rupture. The water-in-air contact angles of the PGS surfaces were about 60°. We also analyzed the properties of an electrospray coating of biodegradable PGS on a nitinol stent for the purpose of enhancing long-term patency for the therapeutic treatment of varicose veins disease. The surface morphology and thickness of coating layer could be controlled by adjusting the electrospraying conditions and solution parameters.

  1. Fluorinated Epoxy Resins-based Sorbent Coating Materials for Quartz Piezoelectric Crystal Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C Gupta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated epoxy resins were synthesised and evaluated as sorbent coating materials for the detection of organophosphorus compounds using quartz piezoelectric crystal detector. These resins were prepared by reacting excess of epichlorohydrin with each of or in combination of fluorinated diols, ie, a, a, a', a' tetrakis (trifluoromethyl 1,3 benzene dimethanol (TTFMBD, 4,4'bis-2-hydroxy hexafluoro isopropyl biphenyl (BHHFIBP, 4,4'dihydroxyocta fluorodiphenyl (DHOFDP and 2,2,3,3,4,4 hexafluoro 1,5 pentanediol (HFPD in the presence of sodium hydroxide at reflux temperature. These polymers were extracted in organic solvents and dried. Each of these fluoroepoxy resins were coated over quartz piezoelectric crystal by solution-casting method and tested using dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP as model compound. Change in the  frequency (AF of quartz piezoelectric crystal oscillator was recorded. Sensitive and potential fluorinated epoxy resins, ie, diglycidylethers (DGE of HFPD-TTFMBD (in the molar ratio 6:4 and DGE (HFPD-BHHFIBP in the molar ratio 4:6 were characterised by viscosity, number average molecular weight (Mn, epoxy equivalent, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal stability.

  2. An Experimental Technique for the Evaluation of Strain Dependent Material Properties of Hard Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shad A. Reed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel vibration experiment consisting of a free-free boundary condition, an electromagnetic excitation source, a vacuum chamber, and a laser vibrometer based surface measurement system has been developed that permits high levels of excitation on highly damped specimens with a minimal amount of unwanted systematic error. While some of the aspects of this experiment are not unique, when combined with a processing technique that accounts for the nonlinearities present in the system, this experiment permits, accurate measurement of strain dependent stiffness and damping properties of hard coatings at high strain levels. This procedure has been demonstrated using a titanium beam that has been coated with a free-layer damping treatment of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel. The results indicate that Magnesium Aluminate Spinel has both nonlinear stiffness and damping properties. The stiffness asymptotes to a minimum value around 650 microstrain while the damping is a maximum around 100 microstrain. Additionally, the data contained herein cover a larger strain range for this material than previously reported.

  3. Biodegradable and Elastomeric Poly(glycerol sebacate as a Coating Material for Nitinol Bare Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized and evaluated biodegradable and elastomeric polyesters (poly(glycerol sebacate (PGS using polycondensation between glycerol and sebacic acid to form a cross-linked network structure without using exogenous catalysts. Synthesized materials possess good mechanical properties, elasticity, and surface erosion biodegradation behavior. The tensile strength of the PGS was as high as 0.28 ± 0.004 MPa, and Young's modulus was 0.122 ± 0.0003 MPa. Elongation was as high as 237.8 ± 0.64%, and repeated elongation behavior was also observed to at least three times the original length without rupture. The water-in-air contact angles of the PGS surfaces were about 60°. We also analyzed the properties of an electrospray coating of biodegradable PGS on a nitinol stent for the purpose of enhancing long-term patency for the therapeutic treatment of varicose veins disease. The surface morphology and thickness of coating layer could be controlled by adjusting the electrospraying conditions and solution parameters.

  4. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada); King, F

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg{sup 2+}-enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg{sup 2+} interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg{sup 2+} content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package.

  5. Ultra-thin Glass Film Coated with Graphene:A New Material for Spontaneous Emission Enhancement of Quantum Emitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Sun; Chun Jiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-thin glass film coated with graphene as a new kind of surrounding material which can greatly enhance spontaneous emission rate (SER) of dipole emitter embedded in it. With properly designed parameters, numerical results show that SER-enhanced factors as high as 1.286 × 106 can be achieved. The influences of glass film thickness and chemical potential/doping level of graphene on spontaneous emission enhancement are also studied in this paper. A comparison is made between graphene and other coating materials such as gold and silver to see their perfor-mances in SER enhancement.

  6. Effect of carbon coating on electrochemical performance of hard carbons as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Heon-Young; Oh, Seh-Min; Lee, Seo-Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Sung-Man

    Surface modification by a soft-carbon coating is used to improve the electrochemical performance of hard carbons as the negative-electrode (anode) material in lithium-ion batteries. The coating process involves simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal-tar pitch and hard carbon powders at 1000 °C. The carbon coating significantly reduces the reaction of lithium with surface functional groups or absorbed species caused by air exposure. This is attributed to the effective suppression of the diffusion of both air and water into the hard carbon by the soft-carbon coating, and the better resistance of soft carbon to air. As a result, the charge-discharge coulombic efficiency during cycling, as well as during the first cycle, is improved.

  7. High-temperature thermo-mechanical behavior of functionally graded materials produced by plasma sprayed coating: Experimental and modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Gon-Ho; Baik, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in aerospace industries to protect exterior surfaces from harsh environments. In this study, functionally graded materials (FGMs) were investigated with the aim to optimize their high temperature resistance and strength characteristics. NiCrAlY bond coats were deposited on Inconel-617 superalloy substrate specimens by the low vacuum plasma spraying technique. Functionally graded Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with gradually varying amounts of YSZ (20%-100%) were fabricated from composite powders by vacuum plasma spraying. Heat shield performance tests were conducted using a high- temperature plasma torch. The temperature distributions were measured using thermocouples at the interfaces of the FGM layers during the tests. A model for predicting the temperature at the bond coating-substrate interface was established. The temperature distributions simulated using the finite element method agreed well with the experimental results.

  8. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  9. Material Evaluation and Process Optimization of CNT-Coated Polymer Powders for Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangqin Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs as nano-reinforcements were introduced to facilitate the laser sintering process and enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric composites. A dual experimental-theoretical method was proposed to evaluate the processability and predict the process parameters of newly developed CNT-coated polyamide 12 (CNTs/PA12 powders. The thermal conductivity, melt viscosity, phase transition and temperature-dependent density and heat capacity of PA12 and CNTs/PA12 powders were characterized for material evaluation. The composite powders exhibited improved heat conduction and heat absorption compared with virgin polymer powders, and the stable sintering range of composite powders was extended and found to be favourable for the sintering process. The microstructures of sintered composites revealed that the CNTs remained at the powder boundaries and formed network architectures, which instantaneously induced the significant enhancements in tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness without sacrificing tensile modulus.

  10. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  11. Development of Ca-doped LaCr03 feed material and its plasma coating for SOFC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, R. D.; Nair, Sathi R.; Prakash, Deep; Sinha, P. K.; Sharma, B. P.; Sreekumar, K. P.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Das, A. K.; Gantayet, L. M.

    2010-02-01

    In order to realize SOFC as power generating devices, multiple cells are connected in series through an interconnect material to accumulate the voltage output. The interconnect should have very low permeability for the gases used. A novel solution combustion process has been developed for producing the phase pure, well-sinterable powders of Ca-doped LaCrO3 interconnect material. A process has been developed to produce the coarse granules as a feed material using combustion-synthesized powder for plasma spray through (a) preparation of granules through cold iso-static pressing followed by breaking and sieving (b) sintering of the green granules followed by sieving. The flow ability and deposition efficiency studies on +45-75 and 75-125 μm powders suggested that +45-75 powder is more suitable for the plasma spray coating. The plasma process parameters; plasma power, flow rate of carrier gases and distance between substrate and plasma gun have been optimized to achieve required coating characteristics. The as-produced coating using 20 kW power plasma gun on the porous Sr-doped LaMnO3 cathode substrates has been examined by SEM. An adherent coating of about 100 μm has been observed in the micrographs. No large cracks were observed throughout the coating. However, the coating was not found to be impervious in nature. Also the micrographs showed incomplete melting of the plasma-coated material. The similar experiments were performed using a higher power (approx 60 Kw) plasma gun. The coated coupons were tested for leakage by checking water penetration. It was found that water did not penetrate for quite a long time. Therefore, the coupon was further tested for leakage by keeping it over a port connected to vacuum pump. The vacuum attained was 7×10-3 mbar and it was maintained for four consecutive days. The SEM studies on the coated sample showed a quite dense coating along with a very few small local pores.

  12. Glass-ceramic coating material for the CO2 laser based sintering of thin films as caries and erosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Marin Dean; Wollgarten, Susanne; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Poprawe, Reinhart; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    The established method of fissure-sealing using polymeric coating materials exhibits limitations on the long-term. Here, we present a novel technique with the potential to protect susceptible teeth against caries and erosion. We hypothesized that a tailored glass-ceramic material could be sprayed onto enamel-like substrates to create superior adhesion properties after sintering by a CO2 laser beam. A powdered dental glass-ceramic material from the system SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-Al2O3-MgO was adjusted with individual properties suitable for a spray coating process. The material was characterized using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), heating microscopy, dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain size analysis, biaxial flexural strength measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gas pycnometry. Three different groups of samples (each n=10) where prepared: Group A, powder pressed glass-ceramic coating material; Group B, sintered hydroxyapatite specimens; and Group C, enamel specimens (prepared from bovine teeth). Group B and C where spray coated with glass-ceramic powder. All specimens were heat treated using a CO2 laser beam process. Cross-sections of the laser-sintered specimens were analyzed using laser scanning microscopy (LSM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and SEM. The developed glass-ceramic material (grain size d50=13.1mm, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)=13.310(-6)/K) could be spray coated on all tested substrates (mean thickness=160μm). FTIR analysis confirmed an absorption of the laser energy up to 95%. The powdered glass-ceramic material was successfully densely sintered in all sample groups. The coating interface investigation by SEM and EDX proved atomic diffusion and adhesion of the glass-ceramic material to hydroxyapatite and to dental enamel. A glass-ceramic material with suitable absorption properties was successfully sprayed and laser-sintered in thin films on hydroxyapatite as well as on bovine enamel

  13. Morphology of hydroxyapatite coated nanotube surface of Ti-35Nb-xHf alloys for implant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Un [Functional Coatings Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon, Kyungnam (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 305 W. 12th Ave. Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the morphology of hydroxyapatite coated nanotube surface of Ti-35Nb-xHf for implant materials using various experiments. For this study, Ti-35Nb-xHf (x = 0, 3, 7 and 15 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting and heat treated for 12 h at 1000 Degree-Sign C in an argon atmosphere and then water quenching. Nanotube formation on the Ti-35Nb-xHf alloys was achieved by anodizing in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolytes containing 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature. Anodization was carried out using an electrochemical method and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on the nanotubular Ti-35Nb-xHf alloys surface for the biomaterials by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The morphologies of nanotubular and HA coated surface were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The wettability of HA coated surface was measured by contact angle goniometer. The microstructure of Ti-35Nb-xHf alloys was transformed needle-like to equiaxed structure with Hf content and {alpha} Double-Prime phase decreased, whereas {beta} phase increased as Hf content increased. HA coating surface was affected by microstructure of bulk and morphology of nanotube formation. In case of low Hf content, tip of nanotube formed at {beta} phase was coated with HA film, whereas {alpha} Double-Prime phase was not coated with HA film. In case of high Hf content, nanotube surface was coated uniformly with HA film. The wettability of HA coated nanotubular surface was higher than that of non coated samples.

  14. Research on Using Natural Coating Materials on the Storage Life of Mango Fruit cv. Nam Dok Mai and Technology Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee MUANGDECH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the suitable type and concentration of 3 natural coating materials, namely, Aloe vera gel, chitosan and carnaubar wax, on postharvest storage life of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Nam Dok Mai. The experiment was divided into 3 treatments to compare the 3 types of coating materials and each appropriate concentration, to find the appropriate combination treatment, and to evaluate the benefit of this technology. The objectives of this research were to compare different concentrations and study the type of natural coating materials. At 20 % Aloe vera jelly, 1 % chitosan and 4 % carnaubar wax gave the longest storage life with good quality at 12 days at a storage temperature of 25 °C and 75±5 % relative humidity (p ≤ 0.05. Further investigation was done by using these optimal concentrations alone or in combination under 2 different conditions, 25 °C with 75±5 % relative humidity and 13 °C with 90±5 % relative humidity. It was found that coating with combination of 20 % Aloe vera jelly and 1 % chitosan gave the best result in alleviating the formation of brown spot and extended the storage life up to 12 days as well as slowing down the weight loss, changes in peel and pulp color, firmness, texture, quality such as concentrate by titratable acidity, total soluble solids and respiratory rate significantly compared to control and other treatment (p ≤ 0.05. The use of the coating materials did not alter the quality of the fruit when ripe. Technology dissemination to farmers and exporters was performed by using the training manuals created by the author. The results of the pre-test and after training post-test showed that farmers and exporters increased their knowledge, attitudes, awareness and skills in the use of the natural coating materials for prolonging storage life of mangos.

  15. Synthesis and Application of Jatropha Oil based Polyurethane as Paint Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Alim Mas’ud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of renewable sources in the preparation of various industrial materials has been revitalized in response to environmental concerns. Natural oils are considered to be the most important genre of renewable sources. Jatropha curcas oil (JPO based polyol is an alternative material that may possibly replace petrochemical-based polyol for polyurethane coating material. Polyurethane was synthesized by reacting JPO-based polyol with isocyanate. To produce JPO-based polyol, JPO was first epoxidized to form epoxidized J. curcas oil (EJP, subsequently it was converted to polyol by the opening ring reaction with acrylic acid (AA using triethylamine (TEA as a catalyst. The JPO-based polyurethane film resulting from this study is compared with polyurethane film from commercial polyol for gloss, hardness, and adhesion quality. The result showed that the source of polyol has an influence on gloss, hardness, and adhesion of polyurethane film, but the differences with using isocyanate has less influence. Using visual observation, polyurethane film produced from L.OHV polyol, H.OHV polyol and commercial polyol have similar quality.

  16. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  17. Material-Process-Performance Relationships for Roll-to-Roll Coated PEM Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Scott; Neyerlin, K.C.; Stickel, Jonathan; Ulsh, Michael; More, Karren; Wood, David

    2017-04-26

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) coating is the most economical and highest throughput method for producing fuel cell electrodes. R2R coating encompasses many different methodologies to create uniform films on a moving web substrate. Here we explore two coating methods, gravure and slot die, to understand the impacts of each on film uniformity and performance.

  18. Narrow gap HST welding process and its application to candidate pipe material for 700 C USC boiler component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi; Fukuda, Yuji [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Lab.; Mitsuhata, Koichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing steam temperature and pressure conditions of 700 C USC (Ultra Super Critical) power plants under consideration require the adoption of Ni-based alloys. One of the most crucial issues for the application of 700 C USC power plants is the establishment of welding technology for the thick-walled components. This paper reports the research results on the practicability of candidate material for the thickwalled components. The weld test was conducted on Ni-based Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr- 13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) by using the narrow gap HST (Hot wire Switching TIG) welding process developed by Babcock-Hitachi K.K with the matching filler wire of Alloy617. The weldability and strength properties of weld joint were examined. The sound weld joint was achieved. The advantages of narrow gap HST welding process for the thick-walled components of Ni-based alloy were discussed from the viewpoints of weld metal chemical composition and creep rupture strength. Due to the good shielding effect, the melting loss of alloy elements in the weld consumable during the narrow gap HST welding procedure was suppressed successfully. The narrow gap HST weld joint showed comparable strength with the parent metal. (orig.)

  19. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  20. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussev, M. N.; Byun, T. S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Maloy, S. A.; Terrani, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is high resistance of the cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure, since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and the process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate the deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisting of a high-resolution video camera, a light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources. The in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. As the first application, ten (10) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., five FeCrAl alloys and five nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800 °C, while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys.

  1. The influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme ratio on preparation virgin coconut oil for candidate in-house reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Anjani, Rafika Debby; Purwanti, Napthalina Putri

    2017-03-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an excellent product which has result of oil processing business opportunities in the international market. Standardization of virgin coconut oil necessary to satisfy the requirements industry needs. This research is expected as procedure preparation of reference materials. Preparation of virgin coconut oil by Sacharomycescerevisiaeenzyme. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ratio of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can affect the yield of virgin coconut oil produced. The preparation of virgin coconut oil enzymatically using a variety of mass ratio of 0.001 to 0.006% is obtained yield average of 12.40%. The optimum separation of virgin coconut oil on the use of enzymes with a mass ratio of 0.002%. The average water content at a ratio of 0.002% is 0.04 % with a value of uncertainty is 0.005%. The average iodine number in virgin coconut oil produced is 2.4403 ± 0,1974 grams of iodine per 100 grams of oil and optimum iodine number is obtained from the manufacturing process virgin coconut oil with a ratio of 0.006% Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sacharomycescerevisiae with a ratio of 0.002% results virgin coconut oil with acid number 0.3068 ± 0.1098%. The peroxide value of virgin coconut oil between 0.0108 ± 0.009 to 0.0114 ± 0015milli-equivalent per kilograms. Organoleptic test results and test chemical parameters can be used as the test data that can be developed in prototype preparation of candidate in-house reference material in the testing standards of quality virgin coconut oil.

  2. Chitosan acetate as an active coating material and its effects on the storing of Prunus avium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi Feng; Yan, Jing Quan; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xiao Jie; Liu, Cheng Sheng; Chen, Xi Guang

    2010-03-01

    In this article, chitosan acetate (CA) was prepared by the method of solid-liquid reaction. CA was a stable faint yellow powder with water solubility. CA kept the same backbone in the chemical structure as the raw material of chitosan, and it also had the similar antibacterial properties with chitosan. CA could form a coating film on the outside surface of the sweet cherries, could effectively retard the loss of the water, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid of sweet cherries, and could induce a significant increase in the peroxidase and catalase activities in the fruit. The CA coating could also increase the ratio of the total soluble solids and titratable acidity in the fruit. The application of CA effectively maintained quality attributes and extended postharvest life of the sweet cherries. The results revealed that the CA salts had potential application in active edible coating materials in the storage of fresh fruit.

  3. Application of magnetron sputtering for producing bioactive ceramic coatings on implant materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Z Shi; C Z Chen; H J Yu; S J Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering is a versatile deposition technique that can produce thin, uniform, dense calcium phosphate coatings. In this paper, principle and character of magnetron sputtering is introduced, and development of the hydroxyapatite and its composite coatings application is reviewed. In addition, influence of heat treatment on magnetron sputtered coatings is discussed. The heat treated coatings have been shown to exhibit bioactive behaviour both in vivo and in vitro. At last, the future application of the bioactive ceramic coating deposited by magnetron sputtering is mentioned.

  4. Progress in development of coated indexable cemented carbide inserts for machining of iron based work piece materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czettl, C.; Pohler, M.

    2016-03-01

    Increasing demands on material properties of iron based work piece materials, e.g. for the turbine industry, complicate the machining process and reduce the lifetime of the cutting tools. Therefore, improved tool solutions, adapted to the requirements of the desired application have to be developed. Especially, the interplay of macro- and micro geometry, substrate material, coating and post treatment processes is crucial for the durability of modern high performance tool solutions. Improved and novel analytical methods allow a detailed understanding of material properties responsible for the wear behaviour of the tools. Those support the knowledge based development of tailored cutting materials for selected applications. One important factor for such a solution is the proper choice of coating material, which can be synthesized by physical or chemical vapor deposition techniques. Within this work an overview of state-of-the-art coated carbide grades is presented and application examples are shown to demonstrate their high efficiency. Machining processes for a material range from cast iron, low carbon steels to high alloyed steels are covered.

  5. A Study on Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) Technology and Super Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; LI Jian-ping; ZENG Xiang-cai; MA Wen-cun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the dense and columnar crystalline TiCN coating layers with very good bonding strength between a layer and another layer was deposited using Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) where CH3CN organic composite with C/N atomic clusters etc. was utilized at 700 ~ 900 ℃. Effect of coating processing parameters, such as coating temperature, pressure and different gas flow quantity on structures and properties of TiCN coating layers were investigated. The super coating mechanis mand structures were analyzed. The new coating processing parameters and properties of carbide inserts with super coating layers were gained by using the improved high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) equipment and HT-CVD, in combination with MT-CVD technology.

  6. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  7. Influence of binding material of PZT coating on microresonator's electrical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Brunius, Alfredas; Cekas, Elingas; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2017-06-01

    Microresonators are fundamental components integrated in hosts of MEMS applications: covering the automotive sector, the telecommunication industry, electronic equipment for surface/material characterization and motion sensing, and etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of PZT film fabricated with three binding materials: polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) and to evaluate applicability in control of microresonators Q factor. Micro particles of PZT powder were mixed with 20% solution of PVB, PMMA and PS in benzyl alcohol. For investigation of mechanical and electrical properties multilayer cantilevers were made. Obtained PZT and polymer paste was screen printed on copper (thickness 40 μm) using polyester monofilament screen meshes (layer thickness 50 μm) and dried for 30 min at 100°C. Electric dipoles of the PZT particles in composite material were aligned using high voltage generator (5 kV) and a custom-made holder. Electric field was held for 30 min. Surfaces of the applied films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope NanoWizard(R)3 NanoScience. Dynamic and electrical characteristics of the multilayer were investigated using laser triangular displacement sensor LK-G3000. The measured vibration amplitude and generated electrical potential was collected with USB oscilloscope PicoScope 3424. As the results showed, these cantilevers were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. However, roughness of PZT coatings with PMMA and PS were higher, what could be the reason of the worse quality of the top electrode. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is the possibility to apply it on any uniform or non-uniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  8. Defining and comparing vibration attributes of AlSi10 foam and CFRP coated AlSi10 foam materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, O.; Yünlü, L.

    2017-06-01

    Now, Aluminum materials have begun being manufactured as porous structures and being used with additive composite materials through emerging manufacturing technologies. These materials those porous structures have also begun being used in many areas such as automotive and aerospace due to light-weighted structures. In addition to examining mechanical behavior of porous metallic structures, examining vibration behavior is important for defining characteristic specifications. In this study, vibration attributes belong to %80 porous AlSi10 foam and CFRP coated %80 porous AlSi10 foam are determined with modal analysis. Modal parameters such as natural frequencies and damping coefficient from frequency response functions at the end of hammer impact tests. It is found that natural frequency of CFRP coated AlSi10 foam’s is 1,14 times bigger than AlSi10 foam and damping coefficient of CFRP coated AlSi10 foam is 5 times bigger than AlSi10 foam’s with tests. Dynamic response of materials in various conditions is simulated by evaluating modal parameters with FEM. According to results of the study, CFRP coating on AlSi10 foam effect vibration damping and resonance avoidance ability positively.

  9. Nano-coatings Used in Building Materials%建筑纳米涂料崭露头角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠敏

    2012-01-01

    To introduce the definition,application,status quo,properties,and market prospect of nano-coatings used in building materials.%介绍建筑纳米涂料定义,应用现状,性能优势和市场前景。

  10. An Improved Technique for Measuring Electromagnetic Properties of Curved Surfaces Coating Materials with Open-Ended Coaxial Line Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul-Kadum A. Hassan; XU Deming; NIU Maode; ZHANG Yujian

    2001-01-01

    An improved open-ended coaxialprobe technique for measuring electromagnetic prop-erties of coating materials with curved surfaces (bothconvex and concave) is studied. FDTD modeling indi-cates that the reflection coefficient of the loaded probeis more sensitive to concave surface samples than tothose with convex surface. In order to satisfy concavesurface materials testing, we proposed a technique toimprove the measurement accuracy by modifying thestandard coaxial probe. A ring patch is added at theend of extended inner conductor throughout the airgap between the probe and the material under test.The performance of the proposed technique is exam-ined. The derived ε* and μ* of several microwave ab-sorbing materials coated on prototype boxes by usingthe new probe are relatively in agreement with thepublished data.

  11. Removal of arsenic from contaminated water sources by sorption onto iron-oxide-coated polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2002-12-01

    The modification of polymeric materials (polystyrene and polyHIPE) by coating their surface with appropriate adsorbing agents (i.e. iron hydroxides) was investigated in the present work, in order to apply the modified media in the removal of inorganic arsenic anions from contaminated water sources. The method, termed adsorptive filtration, has been classified as an emerging technology in water treatment processes as it presents several advantages towards conventional technologies: the production of high amounts of toxic sludge can be avoided and it is considered as economically more efficient; whereas it has not yet been applied in full-scale treatment plants for low-level arsenic removal. The present experiments showed that both modified media were capable in removing arsenic from the aqueous stream, leading to residual concentration of this toxic metalloid element below 10 microg/L, which is the new maximum concentration limit set recently by the European Commission and imposed by the USEPA. Though, among the examined materials, polyHIPE was found to be more effective in the removal of arsenic, as far as it concerns the maximum sorptive capacity before the filtration bed reaches the respective breakthrough point.

  12. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  13. The Effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design Course to Teacher Candidates' Gaining of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkoparam, Süleyman Burak; Kiliç, Muhammet Emre; Usta, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Competencies of teacher candidates in Turkish Teaching department of Mevlana (Rumi) University and the effect of Instructional Technology and Material Design (ITMD) Course on TPACK. The study is a study of quantitative type and single-group pretest-posttest…

  14. Quaternized chitosan-coated nanofibrous materials containing gossypol: preparation by electrospinning, characterization and antiproliferative activity towards HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Toshkova, Reneta; Rashkov, Iliya; Gardeva, Elena; Yossifova, Liliya; Alexandrov, Marin

    2012-10-15

    Nanofibrous polylactide-based materials loaded with a natural polyphenolic compound gossypol (GOS) with antitumor properties were prepared by electrospinning. The nanofibrous materials were coated with a thin film of crosslinked quaternized chitosan (QCh). GOS incorporated in the nanofibrous mats was in the amorphous state. GOS release was diffusion-controlled and its in vitro release profiles depended on the mat composition. The nanofibrous materials exhibited high cytotoxicity towards HeLa tumor cells. Interestingly, it was particularly pronounced in the case of fibrous materials, which contain both QCh and GOS. The observed strong antiproliferative effect of the nanofibrous mats was mainly due to induction of cell apoptosis.

  15. Carbon nanotube-coated silicone as a flexible and electrically conductive biomedical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Makoto, E-mail: matsuoka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Akasaka, Tsukasa [Department of Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Totsuka, Yasunori [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Watari, Fumio [Department of Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Artificial cell scaffolds that support cell adhesion, growth, and organization need to be fabricated for various purposes. Recently, there have been increasing reports of cell patterning using electrical fields. We fabricated scaffolds consisting of silicone sheets coated with single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and evaluated their electrical properties and biocompatibility. We also performed cell alignment with dielectrophoresis using CNT-coated sheets as electrodes. Silicone coated with 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} SWCNTs exhibited the least sheet resistance (0.8 k{Omega}/sq); its conductivity was maintained even after 100 stretching cycles. CNT coating also improved cell adhesion and proliferation. When an electric field was applied to the cell suspension introduced on the CNT-coated scaffold, the cells became aligned in a pearl-chain pattern. These results indicate that CNT coating not only provides electro-conductivity but also promotes cell adhesion to the silicone scaffold; cells seeded on the scaffold can be organized using electricity. These findings demonstrate that CNT-coated silicone can be useful as a biocompatible scaffold. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fabricated a CNT-coated silicone which has conductivity and biocompatibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity was maintained after 100 cycles of stretching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNT coatings enabled C2C12 cells adhere to the silicone surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were aligned with dielectrophoresis between CNT-coated silicone surfaces.

  16. The relationship between the microstructure and thermal diffusivity of plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, C. [National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, Quebec (Canada); Boire-Lavigne, S.; Saint-Jacques, R.G. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Tungsten and tungsten alloy coatings are candidate materials for plasma facing components of divertor plates in future fusion reactors. In normal operation, the sprayed coatings will be submitted to intense heat fluxes and particle bombardment. This work intends to investigate the relationship between the microstructure of plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings and their thermal diffusivity as determined by the laser flash method. The microstructural investigation was carried out on copper-infiltrated coatings. Such a preparation technique permitted the measurement of the total real contact area between the lamellae within the tungsten coatings. The spraying atmosphere was found to strongly influence the interfacial contact between lamellae and coating thermal diffusivity.

  17. MULTILAYER COATINGS Ti/TiN, Cr/CrN AND W/WN DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION TO BASE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Horník

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of single and multilayer layer PVD coatings based on Cr and Ti widely used in tool application. Additionally, W and WN based coating which are not so widespread were designed and deposited as functionally graded material. The coatings properties were evaluated from the point of view of hardness and adhesion. The hardness measuring was carried out using nanoindentation method. The scratch test was performed to test adhesion. Moreover, the presence of metallic interlayer in functionally graded materials further increases the coating adhesion by gradually approaching its composition to the substrate. Coatings consisting of W and WN have showed very good adhesion. With regard to the results of the scratch test, the multilayer coatings of CrN, TiN and WN have increased adhesion and can be assumed to have their protective function improved. Results will be appliedin development of functionally graded layers for functionally graded materials.

  18. In-situ Measurement of Low-Z Material Coating Thickness on High Z Substrate for Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D [PPPL; Roquemore, A L [PPPL; Jaworski, M [PPPL; Skinner, C H [PPPL; Miller, J [PPPL; Creely, A [PPPL; Raman, P [2University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA; Ruzic, D [2University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA

    2014-07-01

    Rutherford backscattering (RBS) of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 hours of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm^2 thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  19. Evaluation of W-Si-C thick coating as a plasma facing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Hyun Kwang [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: drstone@kist.re.kr; Jung, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yu Chan; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong-Ik; Han, Seung-Hee [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Kyeong Ho [ChungNam National University, Deajeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Pil-Ryung [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kooknin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-30

    We present tungsten alloy coating of 150-200 {mu}m thickness with improved plasma erosion resistance fabricated by plasma spraying of granular W-SiC composite powders. During increasing the SiC concentration to 8 wt%, we observed the increase in the hardness of the coating from 250 to 440 Hv. The plasma erosion depth of the coating decreased by 10 times compared with pure tungsten in the same erosion environment.

  20. Evaluation of Method-Specific Extraction Variability for the Measurement of Fatty Acids in a Candidate Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    To address community needs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) for infant/adult nutritional formula based on milk and whey protein concentrates with isolated soy protein called SRM 1869 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula. One major component of this candidate SRM is the fatty acid content. In this study, multiple extraction techniques were evaluated to quantify the fatty acids in this new material. Extraction methods that were based on lipid extraction followed by transesterification resulted in lower mass fraction values for all fatty acids than the values measured by methods utilizing in situ transesterification followed by fatty acid methyl ester extraction (ISTE). An ISTE method, based on the identified optimal parameters, was used to determine the fatty acid content of the new infant/adult nutritional formula reference material.

  1. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furko, M., E-mail: monika.furko@bayzoltan.hu [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary); Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Balázsi, C. [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary)

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn{sup 2+} is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  2. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell using polypyrrole coated carbon nanotubes composite as anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yongjin; Xiang, Cuili; Yang, Lini [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Li-Xian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China); Xu, Fen [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Cao, Zhong [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410076 (China)

    2008-09-15

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed using polypyrrole (PPy) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite as an anode material and Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The composite PPy-CNTs were synthesized by the in situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole on the CNTs using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the composite modified anode were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and discharge experiments. The PPy-CNTs modified anode showed better electrochemical performance than that of plain carbon paper. The amount of the loading of the composite on the anode was also investigated. The power output of the MFC increased along with the increase of the composite loading. In the absence of exogenous electron mediators, the MFC with the composite modified anode contained 5 mg cm{sup -2} PPy-CNTs exhibited a maximum power density 228 mW m{sup -2}, which is much higher than those reported in the literature so far for E. coli using efficient electron mediators. These results show that the PPy-CNTs composite anode is promising for MFC application. (author)

  3. Part II: crystalline fluorapatite-coated hydroxyapatite implant material: a dog study with histologic comparison of osteogenesis seen with FA-coated HA grafting material versus HA controls: potential bacteriostatic effect of fluoridated HA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, William D; Okudera, Hajima; Kitamura, Yutaka; Kimoto, Kazunari; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Krutchkoff, David J

    2011-01-01

    Success of osteogenesis in bone graft procedures can be enhanced by inhibiting oral bacterial infections through the use of prophylactic bacteriostatic fluoride within the grafting environment. Ideally, the fluoride ion should be chemically sequestered and thus unavailable unless needed at times during the process of early infection. As fluoride within fluorapatite is tightly bound at neutral pH and becomes available only during acidic conditions, fluorapatite is an ideal store for the fluoride ion which becomes released for bacteriostasis only during an acidic environment found with incipient bacterial infection. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the histologic properties of new bone formed surrounding fluorapatite (FA)-coated microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) grafting material with comparable bone formed following the use of control HA material (OsteoGen, Impladent, Ltd, Holliswood, NY). The results of histologic analysis within dog studies here showed no detectable difference in new bone following therapeutic grafting procedures using each of the above 2 mineral coatings.

  4. Nanoparticle dispersion-strengthened coatings and electrode materials for electrospark deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levashov, E.A. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Technological University, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: levashov@shs.misis.ru; Vakaev, P.V. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Technological University, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Zamulaeva, E.I. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Technological University, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, A.E. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Technological University, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pogozhev, Yu.S. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Technological University, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Shtansky, D.V. [Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Technological University, Leninsky pr., 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Voevodin, A.A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 2941 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Sanz, A. [SKF Engineering and Research Centre, P.O. Box 2350 Kelvinbaan 16, 3430 DT Nieuwegein, 3439 MT Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2006-11-23

    Advanced electrode compositions were developed using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Electrospark deposition (ESD) was applied to produce tribological coatings which were disperse-strengthened by incorporation of nanosized particles. Nanostructured electrodes of cemented carbides were produced using powder metallurgy technologies. They allow increasing the coatings density, thickness, hardness, Young's modulus and wear resistance. Positive effects of the nanostructure of electrodes on the deposition process and structure and properties of the coatings are discussed. In that case the tungsten carbide phases become predominant in the coatings. A mechanism of the dissolution reaction of WC with Ni at the contact surface of electrode was proposed. It was shown that the formation of the coating structure starts on the electrode and is accomplished on the substrate.

  5. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  6. Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than natural based material composites and the specimen (Epoxy+6%glass fiber+6%RHA has higher resistance erosion than composites reinforced with carrot powder and sawdust at 30cm , angle 60°, grin size of sand 425µm , temperature 30Ċ , 300 gm salt content in 2liter of water and 15 hour. Coating specimen with mixed epoxy resin -RHA with particles size in the range (1.4-4.2 µm improves erosion wear resistance characteristics of the coated specimen, coating thickness was (16 ± 1 μm and after erosion at (15 hour the thickness was (10 μm .

  7. Case Report: Analytical Electron Microscopy of Lung Granulomas Associated with Exposure to Coating Materials Carried by Glass Wool Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Angela S.; Moreira, Valéria B.; Castro, Marcos César S.; Soares, Porfírio J.; Algranti, Eduardo; Andrade, Leonardo R.

    2010-01-01

    Context Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) are noncrystalline inorganic fibrous material used for thermal and acoustical insulation (e.g., rock wool, glass wool, glass microfibers, and refractory ceramic fibers). Neither epidemiologic studies of human exposure nor animal studies have shown a noticeable hazardous effect of glass wools on health. However, MMVFs have been anecdotally associated with granulomatous lung disease in several case reports. Case presentation Here, we describe the case of a patient with multiple bilateral nodular opacities who was exposed to glass wool fibers and coating materials for 7 years. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed an increased total cell count (predominantly macrophages) with numerous cytoplasmic particles. Lung biopsy showed peribronchiolar infiltration of lymphoid cells and many foreign-body–type granulomas. Alveolar macrophages had numerous round and elongated platelike particles inside the cytoplasm. X-ray microanalysis of these particles detected mainly oxygen/aluminum/silicon and oxygen/magnesium/silicon, compatible with kaolinite and talc, respectively. No elemental evidence for glass fibers was found in lung biopsy. Discussion The contribution of analytical electron microscopy applied in the lung biopsy was imperative to confirm the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis associated with a complex occupational exposure that included both MMVFs and coating materials. Relevance to clinical or professional practice This case study points out the possible participation of other components (coating materials), beyond MMVFs, in the etiology of pneumoconiosis. PMID:20123612

  8. Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of food packaging applications, high oxygen and water vapour barriers are the prerequisite conditions for preserving the quality of the products throughout their whole lifecycle. Currently available polymers and/or biopolymer films are mostly used in combination with barrier materials derived from oil based plastics or aluminium to enhance their low barrier properties. In order to replace these non-renewable materials, current research efforts are focused on the development of sustainable coatings, while maintaining the functional properties of the resulting packaging materials. This article provides an introduction to food packaging requirements, highlights prior art on the use of whey-based coatings for their barriers properties, and describes the key properties of an innovative packaging multilayer material that includes a whey-based layer. The developed whey protein formulations had excellent barrier properties almost comparable to the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH barrier layer conventionally used in food packaging composites, with an oxygen barrier (OTR of <2 [cm³(STP/(m²d bar] when normalized to a thickness of 100 μm. Further requirements of the barrier layer are good adhesion to the substrate and sufficient flexibility to withstand mechanical load while preventing delamination and/or brittle fracture. Whey-protein-based coatings have successfully met these functional and mechanical requirements.

  9. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings VI: An automated spinning water jet apparatus for the high-throughput characterization of fouling-release marine coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafslien, Shane J; Bahr, James A; Daniels, Justin W; Wal, Lyndsi Vander; Nevins, Jonathan; Smith, Jeremy; Schiele, Kris; Chisholm, Bret

    2007-07-01

    Large numbers of coatings can be generated very quickly using a combinatorial high-throughput approach. Rapid screening assays are typically required to adequately evaluate and down select coating candidates to identify promising compositions. An automated, spinning water jet apparatus was developed to rapidly characterize the adhesion strength of marine organisms to coating surfaces. Coating arrays are cast in multiwell plates and subjected to a jet of water of controlled pressure and duration. Array plates are manipulated by a robotic arm to facilitate accurate and repeatable water jet treatments. Jet pressures of 40-688 kPa can be generated and precisely maintained by computer control. A five axis robotic arm selects plates from three plate stacking hotels yielding a total of 39 plates or 936 individual coating samples for each experimental run. All robotic instructions, process parameters, and data are stored and controlled by the computer. The large plate handling capacity offered by the robotic system enables the analysis of a wide variety of coatings for "fouling-release" properties. A brief example demonstrating the capability of the automated water jet apparatus to evaluate marine bacterial adhesion to coating surfaces is provided.

  10. Correcting and coating thin walled X-ray Optics via a combination of controlled film deposition and magnetic smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville

    The project goal is to demonstrate that thin walled (price. Since the desired surface area for the next generation X-ray telescope is >10x that of Chandra, the >10x requirement is then for >200 m^2 of surface area with a surface finish of better than 0.5 nm. Therefore, replication of some sort is called for. Because no replication technology has been shown to achieve ≤1" angular resolution, post fabrication figure corrections are likely going to be necessary. Some have proposed to do this in orbit and others prelaunch including us. Our prelaunch approach is to apply in-plane stresses to the thin walled mirror shells via a magnetic field. The field will be held in by some magnetically hard material such as NiCo. By use of a so called magnetic smart material (MSM) such as Terfenol-D, we already shown that strong enough stresses can be generated. Preliminary work has also shown that the magnetic field can be held in well enough to apply the figure correcting stresses pre-launch. What we call "set-it and forget-it." However, what is unique about our approach is that at the cost of complexity and some areal coverage, our concept will also accommodate in-orbit adjustments. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge ours is one of two known stress modification processes that are bi-axial. Our plan is first to validate set-it and forget-it first on cantilevers and then to expand this to working on 5 cm x 5 cm pieces. We will work both with NiCo and glass or Si coated with Terfenol-D. Except for the NiCo, substrates we will also coat the samples with NiCo in order to have a film that will hold in the magnetic field. As part of the coating process, we will control the stress of the film by varying the voltage bias while coating. The bias stress control can be used to apply films with minimal stress such as Terfenol-D and X-ray reflecting coatings such as Ir. Ir is a highly desirable coating for soft X-ray astronomy mirrors that can have significant built in stress unless

  11. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  12. Development and characterization of silicone/phosphorus modified epoxy materials and their application as anticorrosion and antifouling coatings

    OpenAIRE

    T. Balakrishnan; Alagar, M.; Denchev, Z.; Kumar, S. Ananda

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy resin is chosen for our present study owing to its exceptional combination of properties such as easy processing, high safety, excellent solvent and chemical resistance, toughness, low shrinkage on cure, good electrical, mechanical and corrosion resistance with excellent adhesion to many substrates. This versatility in formulation made epoxy resins widely applied for surface coatings, adhesives, laminates, composites, potting, painting materials, encapsulant for semiconductor and insula...

  13. STUDY ON THE OXIDIZED GRAPHITE MATERIAL COATED WITH N-DOPED PHENOLIC RESIN FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-quan Zou; Chun-yang Wang; Qin-min Pan; Tong Zhao; Ling-zhi Wang; Shi-bi Fang

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-coated oxidized graphite has been prepared by a liquid-state deposition method. Oxidized graphite was prepared by wet chemical oxidation. Oxidation increases the reversible capacity of graphite, but its initial charge and discharge efficiency was reduced. Phenolic resin was applied to form the disordered carbon layer on the oxidized graphite. The efficiency and reversible charge capacity were obviously increased. The morphology of carbon materials was investigated by SEM.

  14. Location of the Bacteriophage P22 Coat Protein C-terminus Provides Opportunities for the Design of Capsid Based Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Servid, Amy; Jordan, Paul; O’Neil, Alison; Prevelige, Peter; Douglas, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Rational design of modifications to the interior and exterior surfaces of virus-like particles (VLPs) for future therapeutic and materials applications is based on structural information about the capsid. Existing cryo-electron microscopy based models suggest that the C-terminus of the bacteriophage P22 coat protein (CP) extends towards the capsid exterior. Our biochemical analysis through genetic manipulations of the C-terminus supports the model where the CP C-terminus is exposed on the ext...

  15. A study of the photocatalytic effects of aqueous suspensions of platinized semiconductor materials on the reaction rates of candidate redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of powdered semiconductor materials in photocatalyzing candidate redox reactions was investigated. The rate of the photocatalyzed oxidation of cyanide at platinized TiO2 was studied. The extent of the cyanide reaction was followed directly using an electroanalytical method (i.e. differential pulse polarography). Experiments were performed in natural or artificial light. A comparison was made of kinetic data obtained for photocatalysis at platinized powders with rate data for nonplatinized powders.

  16. Simulation of the effects of coated material SEY property on output electron energy distribution and gain of microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wang, Xingchao; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Chunliang; Liu, Hulin; Chen, Ping; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang; Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu; Tian, Liping; Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui

    2016-12-01

    To obtain a high spatial resolution of a image intensifier based on microchannel plate (MCP), the long tail in the exit energy distribution of the output electrons (EDOE) is undesirable. The existing solution is increasing the penetration depth of the MCP output electrode, which will result in a serious gain reduction. Coating the MCP output electrode with efficient secondary electron yield (SEY) materials is supposed to be an effective approach to suppress the unfavorable tail component in the EDOE without negative effects on the gain. In our work, a three-dimensional MCP single channel model is developed in CST STUDIO SUITE to systematically investigate the dependences of the EDOE and the gain on the SEY property of the coated material, based on the Finite Integral Technique and Monte Carlo method. The results show that besides the high SEY of the coated material, the low incident energy corresponding to the peak SEY is another essential element affecting the electron yield in the final stage of multiplication and suppressing the output energy spread.

  17. Distal Embolization of Hydrophilic-Coating Material From Coronary Guidewires After Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundeken, Maik J.; Li, Xiaofei; Kurpershoek, C. Eline; Kramer, Miranda C.; Vink, Aryan; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Koch, Karel T.; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; de Winter, Robbert J.; van der Wal, Allard C.

    2015-01-01

    Background-Coronary guidewires are indispensable during percutaneous coronary interventions. Nowadays, most guidewires have hydrophilic coatings to improve their trackability, allowing easy lesion passage and facilitating balloon and stent positioning. Recent reports, however, have raised concerns a

  18. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  19. Thermal Conductivity and Sintering Behavior of Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings, having significantly reduced long-term thermal conductivities, are being developed using an approach that emphasizes real-time monitoring of thermal conductivity under conditions that are engine-like in terms of temperatures and heat fluxes. This is in contrast to the traditional approach where coatings are initially optimized in terms of furnace and burner rig durability with subsequent measurement in the as-processed or furnace-sintered condition. The present work establishes a laser high-heat-flux test as the basis for evaluating advanced plasma-sprayed and physical vapor-deposited thermal barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. The candidate coating materials for this program are novel thermal barrier coatings that are found to have significantly reduced thermal conductivities due to an oxide-defect-cluster design. Critical issues for designing advanced low conductivity coatings with improved coating durability are also discussed.

  20. Diamond-like carbon and ceramic materials as protective coatings grown by pulsed laser deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Perera Mercado, Yibran Argenis

    2004-01-01

    A rather large number of nitride, carbide, and oxide thin films are used as hard and wear-resistant coatings, for optical, corrosive, and refractory applications that are of crucial importance. Additional requirements place even more stringent conditions on the deposition processes. The properties of coatings deposited by pulsed laser deposition are determined by the deposition parameters, the composition of the PLD plasma and its ionization states, the substrate conditions, etc.. In this way...

  1. The low cycle fatigue behavior of a plasma-sprayed coating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C, but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

  2. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of a plasma-sprayed coating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

  3. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  4. The synergistic effect of inert oxide and metal fluoride dual coatings on advanced cathode materials for lithium ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Jun-Ho; Hong, Suk-Gi

    2016-06-21

    The effect of Al2O3/LiF dual coatings on the electrochemical performance of over-lithiated layered oxide (OLO) has been investigated. A uniform coating of Al2O3 and LiF is obtained on the surface of the layered pristine material. The OLO with a dual Al2O3/LiF coating with a ratio of 1 : 1.5 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. An initial discharge capacity of 265.66 mA h g(-1) is obtained at a C-rate of 0.1C. This capacity is approximately 15 mA h g(-1) higher than that of pristine OLO. The capacity retention (92.8% at the 50th cycle) is also comparable to that of pristine OLO (91.4% at the 50th cycle). Coating the cathode with a dual layer comprising Al2O3 and LiF leads to improved charging and discharging kinetics, and prevents direct contact between the cathode and the electrolyte.

  5. Carbon-coated LiFePO4-porous carbon composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haifang; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2013-03-07

    This work introduces a facile strategy for the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO(4)-porous carbon (C-LiFePO(4)-PC) composites as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The LiFePO(4) particles obtained are about 200 nm in size and homogeneously dispersed in porous carbon matrix. These particles are further coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from sucrose. The C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites display a high initial discharge capacity of 152.3 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C, good cycling stability, as well as excellent rate capability (112 mA h g(-1) at 5 C). The likely contributing factors to the excellent electrochemical performance of the C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites could be related to the combined effects of enhancement of conductivity by the porous carbon matrix and the carbon coating layers. It is believed that further carbon coating is a facile and effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO(4)-PC.

  6. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  7. Charge, spin and orbital order in the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, Joost de

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a detailed study of the magnetic, structural and orbital order parameters of the candidate multiferroic material LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Multiferroic oxides with a strong magnetoelectric coupling are of high interest for potential information technology applications, but they are rare because the traditional mechanism of ferroelectricity is incompatible with magnetism. Consequently, much attention is focused on various unconventional mechanisms of ferroelectricity. Of these, ferroelectricity originating from charge ordering (CO) is particularly intriguing because it potentially combines large electric polarizations with strong magneto-electric coupling. However, examples of oxides where this mechanism occurs are exceedingly rare and none is really well understood. LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is often cited as the prototypical example of CO-based ferroelectricity. In this material, the order of Fe valences has been proposed to render the triangular Fe/O bilayers polar by making one of the two layers rich in Fe{sup 2+} and the other rich in Fe{sup 3+}, allowing for a possible ferroelectric stacking of the individual bilayers. Because of this new mechanism for ferroelectricity, and also because of the high transition temperatures of charge order (T{sub CO} {proportional_to}320K) and ferro magnetism (T{sub N}{proportional_to}240 K) LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has recently attracted increasing attention. Although these polar bilayers are generally accepted in the literature for LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, direct proof is lacking. An assumption-free experimental determination of whether or not the CO in the Fe/O bilayers is polar would be crucial, given the dependence of the proposed mechanism of ferroelectricity from CO in LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} on polar bilayers. This thesis starts with a detailed characterization of the macroscopic magnetic properties, where growing ferrimagnetic contributions observed in magnetization could be ascribed to increasing oxygen off-stoichiometry. The

  8. Influence of material properties upon immobilization of histidine-tagged protein on Ni-Co coated chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Cheng-Hao

    2014-04-01

    In protein research, protein microarray facilitates high-throughput study of protein abundance and function. An appropriate microarray surface that can be used to immobilize protein samples is a prerequisite for the investigation of molecular interactions. Ni-Co alloy coated protein microarray chip has been found to adsorb histidine-tagged proteins effectively based on the method of immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Due to the ingredient of bi-metallic elements, different electroplating conditions resulted in distinct binding affinities. Therefore, the influence of Ni-Co material properties on the immobilization of histidine-tagged protein was systematically investigated in this study. In the experiments, the contact angle measurement suggested that no strong relationship can be established between the wettability of chip surface and its corresponding protein immobilization. ESCA test demonstrated that the major ingredients of the Ni-Co alloy coated protein microarray chip were Ni and Co. In addition, the XRD test concluded that a Ni-Co protein chip that consists mostly of hcp lattice has better binding capability. SEM micrographs provide direct image evidence. These material tests summarize that the Ni-Co alloy coated protein microarray chip adsorbs His-tagged proteins through its surface morphology. Therefore, it can provide specific binding due to the affinity adsorption between the intermediate metals and the protein.

  9. Advanced Anticorrosion Coating Materials Derived from Sunflower Oil with Bifunctional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Thiruparasakthi; Sathiyanarayanan, Sadagopan; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-09-09

    High-performance barrier films preventing permeation of moisture, aggressive chloride ions, and corrosive acids are important for many industries ranging from food to aviation. In the current study, pristine sunflower oil was used to form uniform adherent films on iron (Fe) via a simple single-step thermal treatment (without involving any initiator/mediator/catalyst). Oxidation of oil on heating results in a highly conjugated (oxidized) crystalline lamellar network with interlayer separation of 0.445 nm on Fe. The electrochemical corrosion tests proved that the coating exhibits superior anticorrosion performance with high coating resistance (>10(9) ohm cm2) and low capacitance values (<10(-10) F cm(-2)) as compared to bare Fe, graphene, and conducting polymer based coatings in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions. The electrochemical analyses reveal that the oil coatings developed in this study provided a two-fold protection of passivation from the oxide layer and barrier from polymeric films. It is clearly observed that there is no change in structure, morphology, or electrochemical properties even after a prolonged exposure time of 80 days. This work indicates the prospect of developing highly inert, environmentally green, nontoxic, and micrometer level passivating barrier coatings from more sustainable and renewable sources, which can be of interest for numerous applications.

  10. Inverse gold photonic crystals and conjugated polymer coated opals for functional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landon, P.B.; Gutierrez, Jose; Ferraris, John P.; Martinez, I.L.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Wu, Y.-C.; Lee, Sergey; Parikh, Kunjal; Gillespie, Jessica; Ussery, Geoffrey; Karimi, Behzad; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar; Glosser, R

    2003-10-01

    Inverse gold photonic crystals templated from synthetic opals with a face centered cubic (FCC) crystal lattice were constructed by heat converting gold chloride to metallic gold. Tetrahedral formations constructed of alternating large and small octahedrons oriented in the zinc sulfide structure were created by controlling the infiltration of gold chloride. Silica spheres were coated with polyanilinesulfonic acid, polypyrrole, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and 5 nm colloidal gold. Ordinary yeast cells were coated with polyanilinesulfonic acid, polypyrrole and 5 nm colloidal gold. Spheres coated with MEH-PPV were dispersed in H{sub 2}O and coated with polyelectrolytes which recharged and sterically stabilized the colloidal surfaces. The recharged spheres self-assembled by sedimentation with a FCC crystalline lattice possessing 500 {mu}m wide and 1 mm long crystallites. Silica spheres with diameters as large as 1500 {mu}m were self-assembled along the [1 0 0] direction of the FCC crystal lattice. Opals infiltrated with gold and opals constructed from polymer coated spheres were co-infiltrated with polypropylene yielding inverse polypropylene composite photonic crystals.

  11. Bioceramic dip-coating on Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Bunyamin; Hanyaloglu, C

    2008-05-01

    The focus of the present study is based on more economical and rapid bioceramic coating on the most common implant substrates such as Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS used often in orthopedics. For ceramic dip coating of implant substrates, Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, P2O5, Na2CO3 and KH2PO4 are used to provide the gel. Ceramic films on sandblasted substrates have been deposited by using a newly manufactured dip-coating apparatus. Sample characterization is evaluated by SEM and XRD analysis. A smooth and homogeneous coating films have been obtained and average of 20 MPa bonding strength has been achieved for both Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS alloys after sintering at 750 degrees C under flowing argon. The level of importance of the process parameters on coating was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The current process appears to be cheap, easy, and flexible to shape variations and high production rates for orthopedic applications.

  12. Protective coatings for CoSb{sub 3}-base thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska, E.; Zawadzka, K.; Mars, K.; Nocun, M.; Opoka, A.; Wojciechowski, K. [AGH-UST, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics

    2010-07-01

    Doped cobalt antimonides, are used as components of thermoelectric devices at temperatures not exceeding 450 C because of poor thermal and chemical stability. In absence of oxygen they degrade by sublimation of antimony, while in air they easily oxidize to form volatile antimony oxides and non-volatile thick double oxide scales. In both cases, protective coatings are indispensable to ensure safe performance of thermoelectric devices over extended times. The most promising solution, reported so far, is a thick aerogel coating, which practically stops antimony loss by sublimation. The assessment of coating effectiveness is generally based on thermogravimetric tests in vacuum, so no conclusion can be drawn about permeability of oxygen and oxidation prevention. The paper presents investigations on the development of protective coatings, which would prevent oxidation of CoSb{sub 3}. Two types of coatings were applied: magnetron sputtered Cr-Si thin layers and thick enamel layers. Testing involved interrupted oxidation in air for 20-80 h at 500 C and 600 C. The Cr-Si thin layers appeared oxygen-tight at 500 C while the enamel layers - even at 600 C. (orig.)

  13. New chemical approach to obtain dense layer phosphate-based ionic conductor coating on negative electrode material surface: Synthesis way, outgassing and improvement of C-rate capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleutot, Benoit; Davoisne, Carine; Gachot, Grégory; Cavalaglio, Sébastien; Grugeon, Sylvie; Viallet, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) based batteries have severe gassing behavior during charge/discharge and storage process, due to interfacial reactions between active material and electrolyte solution. In the same time, the electronic and ionic conductivity of pristine LTO is very poor and induces the use of nanoparticles which increase the outgassing phenomena. The coating of LTO particles could be a solution. For this the LTO spinel particles are modified with ionic conductor Li3PO4 coating using a spray-drying method. For the first time a homogeneous thin dense layer phosphate based conductor is obtained without nanoparticles, as a thin film material. It is so possible to study the influence of ionic conductor deposited on the negative electrode material on performances by the controlled layer thickness. This coating was characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and TEM. The electrochemical performance of Li3PO4 coated Li4Ti5O12 is improved at high C-rate by the surface modification (improvement of 30 mAh g-1 at 5 C-rate compared to pristine LTO for 5 nm of coating), inducing by a modification of surface energy. An optimum coating thickness was studied. This type of coating allows a significant decrease of outgassing phenomena due the conformal coating and opens the way to a great number of studies and new technologies.

  14. Testing carbon-coated VO{sub x} prepared via reaction under autogenic pressure at elevated temperature as li-insertion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odani, A.; Koltypin, M.; Aurbach, D. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 52900 (Israel); Pol, V.G.; Pol, S.V.; Gedanken, A. [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Ramat-Gan, 52900 (Israel)

    2006-06-06

    V{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles covered by a 15 nm thick uniform carbon coating are prepared by reaction under autogenic pressure at elevated temperature of VO(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3} at 700 C. Further oxidation of this material produces carbon-coated V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles. Both materials reversibly insert Li electrochemically in nonaqueous Li-salt solutions. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction.

  16. Enhanced biocompatibility of Co-Cr implant material by Ti coating and micro-arc oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheol-Min; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Yong-Sik; Han, Suk-Ku

    2009-07-01

    The biocompatibility of Co-Cr alloy was significantly improved by forming a rough TiO(2) layer on its surface. The TiO(2) layer was formed by coating the Co-Cr alloy with titanium (Ti) through electron beam deposition followed by microarc oxidation (MAO). When Ti was coated on the surface, the biocompatibility of the Co-Cr alloy was enhanced and it was further improved by the MAO treatment. There were close relationships between the phase, morphology, and thickness of the TiO(2) layer and the applied voltage. The biocompatibility of the specimens coated with Ti and subjected to MAO treatment was evaluated by in vitro alkaline phosphatase activity tests. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanical response under contact loads of AlCrN-coated tool materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Botero, C. A.; Cornu, N.; Ramírez, G.; Mestra, A.; Llanes, L.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanical behavior under contact loading of systems consisting of PVD AlCrN film deposited onto two distinct hard substrates - cemented carbides and tool steel is studied by means of indentation testing techniques, under monotonic and cyclic condition. Experimental work includes assessment of critical applied loads for emergence of circular cracks at the coating surface, as well as evaluation of both surface and subsurface damage evolution. Results indicate that both coated systems are susceptible to mechanical degradation associated with repetitive contact load. Furthermore, significant differences on contact fatigue behavior between the two studied coated systems are evidenced under consideration of cracking evolution at top surface and penetration towards the substrate. In this regard, the intrinsic mechanical properties of the substrate are pointed out as key feature for rationalizing the experimental findings.

  18. Tungsten nitride coatings obtained by HiPIMS as plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, Vasile; Velicu, Ioana-Laura; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Burducea, Ion; Dinca, Paul; Malinský, Petr

    2017-09-01

    In this work, tungsten nitride coatings with nitrogen content in the range of 19-50 at% were prepared by reactive multi-pulse high power impulse magnetron sputtering as a function of the argon and nitrogen mixture and further exposed to a deuterium plasma jet. The elemental composition, morphological properties and physical structure of the samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Deuterium implantation was performed using a deuterium plasma jet and its retention in nitrogen containing tungsten films was investigated using thermal desorption spectrometry. Deuterium retention and release behaviour strongly depend on the nitrogen content in the coatings and the films microstructure. All nitride coatings have a polycrystalline structure and retain a lower deuterium level than the pure tungsten sample. Nitrogen content in the films acts as a diffusion barrier for deuterium and leads to a higher desorption temperature, therefore to a higher binding energy.

  19. Conformal coating of thin polymer electrolyte layer on nanostructured electrode materials for three-dimensional battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Sanketh R; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Zhan, Xiaobo; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2011-01-12

    Various three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have been proposed to address effective power delivery in micro/nanoscale devices and for increasing the stored energy per electrode footprint area. One step toward obtaining 3D configurations in batteries is the formation of core-shell nanowires that combines electrode and electrolyte materials. One of the major challenges however in creating such architectures has been the coating of conformal thin nanolayers of polymer electrolytes around nanostructured electrodes. Here we show conformal coatings of 25-30 nm poly(methyl methacralate) electrolyte layers around individual Ni-Sn nanowires used as anodes for Li ion battery. This configuration shows high discharge capacity and excellent capacity retention even at high rates over extended cycling, allowing for scalable increase in areal capacity with electrode thickness. Our results demonstrate conformal nanoscale anode-electrolyte architectures for an efficient Li ion battery system.

  20. Carbon-coated Ni 20Si 80 alloy-graphite composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Yong; Kim, Young-Lae; Hong, Moon-Ki; Lee, Sung-Man

    A carbon-coated Ni 20Si 80 alloy-graphite composite has been studied as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite is prepared by simple heat-treatment of a mixture of coal tar pitch and a Ni 20Si 80-graphite composite at 900 °C and under argon. The Ni 20Si 80 alloy powders are synthesized by mechanical alloying. The composite demonstrates promising electrochemical properties such as high reversible capacity, excellent cycle performance, and sufficiently high initial charge-discharge coulombic efficiency. This suggests buffering and conductive actions on the main active material, viz., Ni 20Si 80 alloy, of the graphite. These two effects are strongly enhanced by the carbon coating treatment.

  1. Graphite intercalated polyaniline composite with superior anticorrosive and hydrophobic properties, as protective coating material on steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, R. M. N. M.; Mantilaka, M. M. M. G. P. G.; Hara, Masanori; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Wijayasinghe, H. W. M. A. C.; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Pitawala, H. M. T. G. A.

    2017-07-01

    Solid polymer composite systems are widely being used for potential technological applications in secondary energy sources and electrochromic devices. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a composite material composed of polyaniline (PANI) and natural needle platy (NPG) vein graphite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the structural and electrochemical properties of the prepared PANI/NPG graphite composite. XPS, FTIR, and micro-Raman analysis confirmed the existence of relevant functional groups and bonding in the prepared PANI/NPG composite material. The composite shows a very low corrosion rate, approximately 29 μm per year, and high hydrophobicity on steel surfaces, which helps to prevent the corrosion due to O2 penetration towards the metal surface. It indicates that the composite can be used as a high potential surface coating material to anticorrosion. The specific capacitance of PANI/NPG composite is 833.3 F g-1, which is higher than that of PANI. This synergistic electrical performance result proves the prepared PANI/NPG graphite composite as a suitable protective coating material for steel surfaces.

  2. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  3. Advanced Antireflection Coatings for High-Performance Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop and refine antireflection coatings incorporating lanthanum titanate as an intermediate refractive index material; Investigate wet/dry thermal oxidation of aluminum containing semiconductor compounds as a means of forming a more transparent window layer with equal or better optical properties than its unoxidized form; Develop a fabrication process that allows integration of the oxidized window layer and maintains the necessary electrical properties for contacting the solar cell; Conduct an experimental demonstration of the best candidates for improved antireflection coatings.

  4. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Farnum, E.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Vitkovski, I.V. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). MHD-Machines Lab.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

  5. Surface characterization and effectiveness evaluation of anti-graffiti coatings on highly porous stone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Mariateresa; Masieri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems, provided as water emulsion, were applied on a highly porous stone. The behavior of the anti-graffiti treatments was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric tests, and water static contact angle measurements. The presence of a protective coating enhanced the removal of paint sprayed on the stone. However, penetration of the staining agent below the surface, due to the high porosity of the substrate, caused difficulties in eliminating the paint. In fact, repeated cleaning procedures, involving hot water, mechanical action, and chemical removers, did not allow a complete removal of the paint. The examined systems behaved against graffiti in different ways. No affinity between the wax-based product and the paint was observed; nevertheless, this behavior did not result in good anti-graffiti performances. On the contrary, the penetration of the paint into the fluorine-based coating yielded a good anti-graffiti effectiveness, since the stain was easily eliminated from the surfaces. The anti-graffiti coatings survived in limited areas after the cleaning processes, although the studied compounds are suggested as sacrificial products. Such behavior may affect the maintenance activities, when the surface is no longer protected and the coating need to be renewed, since compatibility problems, as well as harmful accumulation, could occur because of further treatments on these surfaces.

  6. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  7. Energy efficient graphite polyurethane electrically conductive coatings for thermally actuated smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Dervishi, E.; Berry, B.; Viswanathan, T.; Bourdo, S.; Kim, H.; Sproles, R.; Hudson, M. K.

    2007-02-01

    The concept of graphite-polyurethane coatings as efficient, electrical resistors is the focus of this paper. A 60-40 graphite-polyurethane mix (weight %) demonstrated an electrical resistivity of 40.71 Ω mm. The graphite-polyurethane mix was coated on electrically insulating Kapton tape, which was then wrapped on a nichrome wire (nominal dimensions: 100 mm length and 1.5 mm diameter). This three-phase assembly was heated by Joule heating of the graphite-polyurethane layer. Steady state temperatures as high as 180 °C were attained under free convection conditions, at a very low power requirement of about 2.5 W as opposed to about 18 W for uncoated wires. Interestingly, the effect on transients (heating and cooling times) was not as dramatic. Experiments were also performed under vacuum conditions, following which an analysis is offered regarding the different modes of heat transfer. These coatings can potentially be used as efficient resistors for highly conductive, moderately high temperature shape memory alloys (e.g. the copper-aluminium-nickel system) or electrically insulating shape memory polymers. Any other thermally activated shape memory alloy (e.g. the popular nickel-titanium system) may also use the coatings as resistors due to the potentially dramatic energy savings that may be realized without a dramatic adverse impact on the frequency response.

  8. External polyacrylate-coating as alternative material for preparation of photopolymerized sol-gel monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; de Castro, Patrícia Mendonça; Molina, Celso; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Polachini, Ferminio César; Messaddeq, Younes; Nunes, Adriana Palombo; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2008-06-30

    Photopolymerized sol-gel monolithic columns for use in capillary electrochromatography were prepared in 125 microm i.d. polyacrylate-coated fused-silica capillaries. The polyacrylate-coating, unlike the polyimide one, is transparent to the radiation used (approximately 370 nm), and thus, no coating removal is necessary. This is a very important particularity since intrinsic capillary column characteristics, such as flexibility and mechanical resistance, are unchanged. A mixture containing metacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as the polymeric precursor, hydrochloric acid as the catalyst, toluene as the porogen and bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phenylphosphine oxide (Irgacure 819) as the photoinitiator was irradiated at 370 nm for 20 min inside the capillaries to prepare the columns through sol-gel approach. The versatility and viability of the use of polyacrilate as a new capillary external coating were shown through preparation of two columns under different conditions, which were tested in electrochromatography for separation of standard mixture containing thiourea (marker compound), propylbenzene, phenanthrene and pyrene.

  9. Bio-based Interpenetrating Network Polymer Composites from Locust Sawdust as Coating Material for Environmentally Friendly Controlled-Release Urea Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Wan, Yongshan; Li, Yuncong C; Zhao, Chenhao

    2016-07-20

    A novel polymer-coated nitrogen (N) fertilizer was developed using bio-based polyurethane (PU) derived from liquefied locust sawdust as the coating material. The bio-based PU was successfully coated on the surface of the urea fertilizer prills to form polymer-coated urea (PCU) fertilizer for controlled N release. Epoxy resin (EP) was also used to further modify the bio-based PU to synthesize the interpenetrating network (IPN), enhancing the slow-release properties of the PCU. The N release characteristics of the EP-modified PCU (EMPCU) in water were determine at 25 °C and compared to that of PCU and EP-coated urea (ECU). The results showed that the EP modification reduced the N release rate and increased the longevity of the fertilizer coated with bio-based PU. A corn growth study was conducted to further evaluate the filed application of the EMPCU. In comparison to commercial PCU and conventional urea fertilizer, EMPCU was more effective and increased the yield and total dry matter accumulation of the corn. Findings from this work indicated that bio-based PU derived from sawdust can be used as coating materials for PCU, particularly after EP modification. The resulting EMPCU was more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than conventional urea fertilizers coated by EP.

  10. On the Use of the Electrospinning Coating Technique to Produce Antimicrobial Polyhydroxyalkanoate Materials Containing In Situ-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinneth Lorena Castro-Mayorga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electro-hydrodynamic processing, comprising electrospraying and electrospinning techniques, has emerged as a versatile technology to produce nanostructured fiber-based and particle-based materials. In this work, an antimicrobial active multilayer system comprising a commercial polyhydroxyalkanoate substrate (PHA and an electrospun PHA coating containing in situ-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was successfully developed and characterized in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties. The obtained materials reduced the bacterial population of Salmonella enterica below the detection limits at very low silver loading of 0.002 ± 0.0005 wt %. As a result, this study provides an innovative route to generate fully renewable and biodegradable materials that could prevent microbial outbreaks in food packages and food contact surfaces.

  11. Effect of CeO{sub 2}-coating on the electrochemical performances of LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jingwen, E-mail: cathyao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) and National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu Feng, E-mail: wufeng863@vip.sina.com [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 (China); Qiu Xinping [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Power Sources, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li Ning; Su Yuefeng [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > The first study the effect of CeO{sub 2} coating on LiFePO{sub 4}/C at low temperature. > Coated cathode shows improved capacities at high rates and low temperature. > CeO{sub 2}-coating decreases electrode polarization and increases charge-transfer reaction activity. - Abstract: The effect of CeO{sub 2} coating on LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode material has been investigated. The crystalline structure and morphology of the synthesized powders have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and their electrochemical performances both at room temperature and low temperature are evaluated by CV, EIS and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. It is found that, nano-CeO{sub 2} particles distribute on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} without destroying the crystal structure of the bulk material. The CeO{sub 2}-coated LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode material shows improved lithium insertion/extraction capacity and electrode kinetics, especially at high rates and low temperature. At -20 deg. C, the CeO{sub 2}-coated material delivers discharge capacity of 99.7 mAh/g at 0.1C rate and the capacity retention of 98.6% is obtained after 30 cycles at various charge/discharge rates. The results indicate that the surface treatment should be an effective way to improve the comprehensive properties of the cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  12. Vegetable-Oil-Based Hyperbranched Polyester-Styrene Copolymer Containing Silver Nanoparticle as Antimicrobial and Corrosion-Resistant Coating Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pongamia oil (PO was converted to Pongamia oil hydroxyl (POH via epoxidation process. The esterification of POH with linolenic acid was carried out to form hyperbranched polyester (HBPE, and further styrenation was performed at the conjugated double bond in the chain of linolenic acid. After styrenation, silver nanoparticle was added in different weight percentages (0.1–0.4 wt%. The structural elucidation of POH, HBPE, and HBPE-St was carried out by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Physicochemical and physicomechanical analyses were performed by standard method. Thermal behavior of the HBPE-St was analyzed by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The coatings of HBPE-St were prepared on mild steel strips. The anticorrosive behavior of HBPE-St resin-based coatings in acid, saline, and tap water was evaluated, and the molecular weight of HBPE-St was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antibacterial activities of the HBPE-St copolymers were tested in vitro against bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The HBPE-St copolymers exhibited good antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial and corrosion-resistant coating materials.

  13. Deposition and characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite coatings grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition over different substrate materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Awadesh Kr Mallik; Nanadadulal Dandapat; Prajit Ghosh; Utpal Ganguly; Sukhendu Jana; Sayan Das; Kaustav Guha; Garfield Rebello; Samir Kumar Lahiri; Someswar Datta

    2013-04-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) coatings have been deposited over different substrates used for biomedical applications by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). DLN has an interconnecting network of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and quartz-like oxygenated silicon. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform–infra red (FT–IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for structural characterization. Typical DLN growth rate is about 1 m/h, measured by stylus profilometer. Due to the presence of quartz-like Si:O in the structure, it is found to have very good adhesive property with all the substrates. The adhesion strength found to be as high as 0.6 N on SS 316 L steel substrates by scratch testing method. The Young’s modulus and hardness have found to be 132 GPa and 14.4 GPa, respectively. DLN coatings have wear factor in the order of 1 × 10-7 mm3/N-m. This coating has found to be compatible with all important biomedical substrate materials and has successfully been deposited over Co–Cr alloy based knee implant of complex shape.

  14. Damage threshold of coating materials on x-ray mirror for x-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takahisa; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Miura, Takanori; Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kim, Jangwoo; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yabashi, Makina; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the damage threshold of coating materials such as Mo, Ru, Rh, W, and Pt on Si substrates, and that of uncoated Si substrate, for mirror optics of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). Focused 1 μm (full width at half maximum) XFEL pulses with the energies of 5.5 and 10 keV, generated by the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA), were irradiated under the grazing incidence condition. The damage thresholds were evaluated by in situ measurements of X-ray reflectivity degradation during irradiation by multiple pulses. The measured damage fluences below the critical angles were sufficiently high compared with the unfocused SACLA beam fluence. Rh coating was adopted for two mirror systems of SACLA. One system was a beamline transport mirror system that was partially coated with Rh for optional utilization of a pink beam in the photon energy range of more than 20 keV. The other was an improved version of the 1 μm focusing mirror system, and no damage was observed after one year of operation.

  15. METAL OXIDE DOPED ANTIBACTERIAL POLYMERIC COATED TEXTILE MATERIALS AND ASSESSEMENT OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY WITH ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEDIK Gorkem

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of a food conveyor belt is an essential property in some cases. However, every antibacterial chemical is not suitable to contact with food materials. Many metal oxides are suitable option for this purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial properties of zinc oxide doped PVC polymer coated with electron spin resonance technique. Therefore, optimum zinc oxide containing PVC paste was prepared and applied to textile surface. Coating construction was designed as double layered, first layer did not contain antibacterial agent, thin second layer contained zinc oxide at 10-35% concentration. Oxygen radicals released from zinc oxide containing polymeric coated surface were spin trapped with DMPO (dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and measured with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR. Besides conveyor belt samples, oxygen radical release from zinc oxide surface was measured with ESR under UV light and dark conditions. Oxygen radical release was determined even at dark conditions. Antibacterial properties were tested with ISO 22196 standard using Listeria innocua species. Measured antibacterial properties were related with ESR results. Higher concentration of zinc oxide resulted in higher antibacterial efficiency. DCFH-DA flourometric assay was carried out to determine oxidative stress insidebacteria. It is tought that, this technique will lead to decrease on the labour and time needed for conventional antibacterial tests.

  16. Ureteral Stents and Foley Catheters-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: The Role of Coatings and Materials in Infection Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Lo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections affect many patients, especially those who are admitted to hospital and receive a bladder catheter for drainage. Catheter associated urinary tract infections are some of the most common hospital infections and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Early removal is one of the mainstays of prevention as 100% of catheters become colonized. Patients with ureteral stents are also affected by infection and antibiotic therapy alone may not be the answer. We will review the current evidence on how to prevent infections of urinary biomaterials by using different coatings, new materials, and drug eluting technologies to decrease infection rates of ureteral stents and catheters.

  17. Suppression of conductivity deterioration of copper thin films by coating with atomic-layer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuong, Nguyen Thanh; Okada, Susumu

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical calculations are performed to explore the electronic structures and electron conducting properties of copper (Cu) thin films coated with graphene or h-boron-nitride (h-BN) layers. The Shockley surface states of Cu surfaces are preserved by the graphene and h-BN coatings which prevent the surface oxidation of Cu because of the weak interaction between the Cu surface and graphene or the h-BN layers. Furthermore, the Shockley surface states in Cu thin films possess quasi-two dimensional free-electron characteristics and exhibit a high conductivity of 1.62 × 107 (Ωm)-1 at room temperature. These hybrid structures may be suitable as interconnects in memory devices that can stably store data for long periods.

  18. Materials and Coatings Damage Resulting from Environmental Degradation Aboard Naval Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Lemieux

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance and preservation of seawater and fuel, ballast tanks and voids resulting from the environmental degradation of coatings present a unique and costly problem for the United States Naval Fleet. Present methods of inspection require human entry into the tanks only after a series of measurements have been taken to ensure safety. With the advent of remotely operated vehicles and cameras having a high level of accuracy and functionality, it has now become economically feasible to employ these instruments for the inspection of tanks and voids of the United States Naval Fleet. This paper presents two unique remotely operated inspections systems, which allow for unmanned inspection of tanks and voids along with quantitative results of the damaged coating areas.

  19. Characterization and antimicrobial performance of nano silver coatings on leather materials

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lkhagvajav; Koizhaiganova,M.; Yasa, I.; Çelik, E.; Ö. Sari

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the characterization and the antimicrobial properties of nano silver (nAg) coating on leather were investigated. For this purpose, turbidity, viscosity and pH of nAg solutions prepared by the sol-gel method were measured. The formation of films from these solutions was characterized according to temperature by Differential Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) equipment. The surface morphology of treated leathers was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The a...

  20. Materials and Coatings for Extreme Performances: Investigations, Applications, Ecologically Safe Technologies for Their Production and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-16

    In conditions of impact of high temperature oxidizing medium, plasma coatings based on refractory oxides of zirconium , hafnium as well as their...and time of contact are increase. Zirconium is very chemically active element. That is why it reduces almost all oxides . Due to difference...work deals with processes of production of nanosized molybdenum carbide powders by reducing oxides both in the presence of solid carbon and in

  1. Novel POSS-PCU Nanocomposite Material as a Biocompatible Coating for Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sarwat B; Yang, Shi Yu; Green, Mark; Keshtgar, Mo; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-12-16

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that enable them to potentially replace traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins in various bioimaging applications. However, the inherent toxicity of their cores based on cadmium salts limits their widespread biomedical use. We have developed a novel nanocomposite polymer emulsion based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) that can be used to coat quantum dots to nullify their toxicity and enhance photostability. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer emulsion and describe its application for coating QDs for biological application. The polymer was synthesized by a process of emulsion polymerization and formed stable micelles of ∼33 nm in diameter. CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs were efficiently stabilized by the polymer emulsion through encapsulation within the polymer micelles. Characterization studies showed no significant change in the unique photophysical properties of QDs after coating. The polymer was biocompatible to HepG2, HUVECs, and mouse skeletal muscle cells at 2.5% after 24 h exposure on in vitro testing. Polymer encapsulated QDs showed enhanced photostability on exposure to high degrees of UV irradiation and air as well as significantly reduced cytotoxicity on exposure to HepG2 cells at 30 μg/mL for 24 h. We have therefore concluded that the POSS-PCU polymer emulsion has the potential to make a biocompatible and photostable coating for QDs enabling a host of biomedical applications to take this technology to the next level.

  2. Hafnia-Based Materials Developed for Advanced Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, and thus help achieve engine goals of low emissions and high efficiency. Under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project, advanced T/EBCs are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vaporcontaining combustion environments. The coating system is required to have increased phase stability, lower lattice and radiation thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance under high-heat-flux and thermal-cycling engine conditions. Advanced heat-flux testing approaches (refs. 1 to 4) have been established at the NASA Glenn Research Center for 1650 C coating developments. The simulated combustion water-vapor environment is also being incorporated into the heat-flux test capabilities (ref. 3).

  3. Coatings of titanium substrates with xCaO · (1 - x)SiO2 sol-gel materials: characterization, bioactivity and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, M; Papale, F; Bollino, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to develop low temperature sol-gel coatings to modify the surface of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (a material generally used in dental application) and to evaluate their bioactivity and biocompatibility on the substrate. Glasses of composition expressed by the following general formula xCaO · (1 - x)SiO2 (0.0sol-gel route starting from tetraethyl orthosilicate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. Those materials, still in the sol phase, have been used to coat titanium substrates by means of the dip-coating technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) allowed the materials to be characterized and a microstructural analysis of the coatings obtained was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The potential applications of the coatings in the biomedical field were evaluated by bioactivity and biocompatibility tests. The coated titanium was immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days and the hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface was subsequently evaluated via SEM-EDXS analysis, as an index of bone-bonding capability. To investigate cell-material interactions, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (3T3) were seeded onto the specimens and the cell viability was evaluated by a WST-8 assay.

  4. Functionally graded mullite coatings for gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tushar

    The next generation of heat exchangers and gas turbines require high performance materials as they need to operate at higher temperatures for higher efficiency. SiC and Si3N4 are promising candidates as they have excellent high temperature properties. However, when used in complex combustion environments found in gas-turbine applications, these materials have two major concerns; namely hot-corrosion and recession. It is well established that environmental barrier coatings (EBC) can be utilized to overcome these limitations. Although chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite (3Al2O 3.2SiO2) coatings developed before this study have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres containing Na/V salts and water vapor. There is thus strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica component from the surfaces of mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. In this study, CVD has been used to deposit mullite coatings with potential promise to protect Si-based ceramics for high temperature applications. The composition of these functionally graded mullite coatings was varied from silica-rich close to the coating/substrate (SiC) interface for coefficient of thermal expansion match to alumina-rich towards the outer surface of the coating. In the process, the highest alumina-rich mullite ever reported has been deposited. The phase transformation and hot-corrosion behavior of the coatings was also investigated in this work. The coatings show immense potential to protect Si-based ceramics. It is expected that these coatings will have very broad impact by enabling gas turbines to operate at higher temperatures leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.

  5. Effect of silica coating and silane surface treatment on the bond strength of soft denture liner to denture base material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Atsu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of different surface treatments on the tensile bond strength of an autopolymerizing silicone denture liner to a denture base material after thermocycling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty rectangular heat-polymerized acrylic resin (QC-20 specimens consisting of a set of 2 acrylic blocks were used in the tensile test. Specimens were divided into 5 test groups (n=10 according to the bonding surface treatment as follows: Group A, adhesive treatment (Ufi Gel P adhesive (control; Group S, sandblasting using 50-µm Al2O3; Group SCSIL, silica coating using 30-µm Al2O3 modified by silica and silanized with silane agent (CoJet System; Group SCA, silica coating and adhesive application; Group SCSILA, silica coating, silane and adhesive treatment. The 2 PMMA blocks were placed into molds and the soft lining materials (Ufi Gel P were packed into the space and polymerized. All specimens were thermocycled (5,000 cycles before the tensile test. Bond strength data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Duncan tests. Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR analysis were used for the chemical analysis and a profilometer was used for the roughness of the sample surfaces. RESULTS: The highest bond strength test value was observed for Group A (1.35±0.13; the lowest value was for Group S (0.28±0.07 and Group SCSIL (0.34±0.03. Mixed and cohesive type failures were seen in Group A, SCA and SCSILA. Group S and SCSIL showed the least silicone integrations and the roughest surfaces. CONCLUSION: Sandblasting, silica coating and silane surface treatments of the denture base resin did not increase the bond strength of the silicone based soft liner. However, in this study, the chemical analysis and surface profilometer provided interesting insights about the bonding mechanism between the denture base resin and silicone

  6. Microencapsulation of grape polyphenols using maltodextrin and gum arabic as two alternative coating materials: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolun, Aysu; Altintas, Zeynep; Artik, Nevzat

    2016-12-10

    Phenolic compounds obtained from fruits have recently gained a great attention due to their bioactive roles. However, they are sensitive and they can be easily affected by physicochemical factors that create a great challenge to incorporate them into the food products. Hence, this work aimed to investigate microencapsulation of these compounds to provide a solution for this problem by improving their stability and protecting them against oxidation, light, moisture and temperature. A lab scale spray-dryer was chosen to produce microcapsules of polyphenols using different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin and gum arabic as a coating material. Two different core: coating material ratios (1:1 and 1:2), three different maltodextrin: gum arabic ratios (10:0, 8:2 and 6:4), and four different inlet temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180°C) were investigated. When all parameters (yields, hygroscopicity, total and surface phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, individual phenolic compounds and particle morphology) were evaluated; the most efficient microcapsules were obtained with an 8:2 ratio of maltodextrin: gum arabic at 140°C inlet temperature. Microcapsules were also comprehensively studied and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  7. On the Material Characterisation of Wind Turbine Blade Coatings: The Effect of Interphase Coating–Laminate Adhesion on Rain Erosion Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cortés

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rain erosion damage, caused by repeated droplet impact on wind turbine blades, is a major cause for concern, even more so at offshore locations with larger blades and higher tip speeds. Due to the negative economic influence of blade erosion, all wind turbine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs are actively seeking solutions. In most cases, since the surface coating plays a decisive role in the blade manufacture and overall performance, it has been identified as an area where a solution may be obtained. In this research, two main coating technologies have been considered: In-mould coatings (Gel coating applied during moulding on the entire blade surface and the post-mould coatings specifically developed for Leading Edge Protection (LEP. The coating adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock waves created by the collapsing water droplets on impact. The stress waves are reflected and transmitted to the laminate substrate, so microstructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation and may accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations based on their potential stress reduction on the interface. Nevertheless, in order to use them, it is necessary to measure the contact adhesion resistance of the multi-layered system interfaces. The rain erosion performance is assessed using an accelerated testing technique, whereby the test material is repeatedly impacted at high speed with water droplets in a Whirling Arm Rain Erosion Rig (WARER. The materials, specifically the coating–laminate interphase region and acoustic properties, are further characterised by several laboratory tests, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, pull-off testing, peeling–adhesion testing and nanoindentation testing. This body of work includes a number of case studies. The first case

  8. Pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography of low conductivity and insulator materials by application of ultrathin metallic coating on nanoscale specimen geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adineh, Vahid R; Marceau, Ross K W; Chen, Yu; Si, Kae J; Velkov, Tony; Cheng, Wenlong; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel approach for analysis of low-conductivity and insulating materials with conventional pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography (APT), by incorporating an ultrathin metallic coating on focused ion beam prepared needle-shaped specimens. Finite element electrostatic simulations of coated atom probe specimens were performed, which suggest remarkable improvement in uniform voltage distribution and subsequent field evaporation of the insulated samples with a metallic coating of approximately 10nm thickness. Using design of experiment technique, an experimental investigation was performed to study physical vapor deposition coating of needle specimens with end tip radii less than 100nm. The final geometries of the coated APT specimens were characterized with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and an empirical model was proposed to determine the optimal coating thickness for a given specimen size. The optimal coating strategy was applied to APT specimens of resin embedded Au nanospheres. Results demonstrate that the optimal coating strategy allows unique pulsed-voltage atom probe analysis and 3D imaging of biological and insulated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Charge-discharge Behavior of Surface-coated LiMn2O3.95F0.05 Cathode Materials at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yong CHEN; Yan Rong LI; Zuo Long YU

    2003-01-01

    With inorganic salts such as LiNO3, Li2CO3, surface-coated LiMn2O3.95F0.05 were prepared by melt-impregnation method. When these surface-coated LiMn2O3.95F0.05 were used as cathode materials, their charge-discharge characters were carefully compared. As a result, they exhibited good charge-discharge properties at 50℃ high temperature. Especially, LiNO3 surface-coated LiMn2O3.95F0.05 retained nearly 80% initial reversible capacity after 130 cycles at 50℃.

  10. Production and Characterization of New 2D Materials for Technological Applications in Composites and Surface Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Kouroupis-agalou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we firstly developed a new method to evaluate the exfoliation results of Graphene and other 2D materials (Graphene Oxide, Boron Nitride).This was essential to understand the fundamental processes behind the production of 2D materials. Additionally, that helped us to understand the production development of 2D-based composite materials and bio- compatible materials, such as gelatin fibers. We evaluated the processed 2D nanomaterials with commonly used characterization tec...

  11. Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to backfill, seal, and/or densify porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Janda K.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Neiser, Richard A.; Moffatt, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to fill, seal, and/or density porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive substrates. Such coatings may be dielectrics, ceramics, or semiconductors and, by the present invention, may have deposited onto and into them sol-gel ceramic precursor compounds which are subsequently converted to sol-gel ceramics to yield composite materials with various tailored properties.

  12. Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to backfill, seal, and/or densify porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J.K.; Reed, S.T.; Ashley, C.S.; Neiser, R.A.; Moffatt, W.C.

    1999-07-20

    Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to fill, seal, and/or density porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive substrates. Such coatings may be dielectrics, ceramics, or semiconductors and, by the present invention, may have deposited onto and into them sol-gel ceramic precursor compounds which are subsequently converted to sol-gel ceramics to yield composite materials with various tailored properties. 6 figs.

  13. Research and Development on Advanced Graphite Materials. Volume 34- Oxidation-Resistance Coatings for Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-06-01

    the manage- ment of R. M. Bushong , Director of the Advanced Materials Project, and of R. C. Stroup, Manager of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The...Reduction of Polynuclear Aromatics, by I. C. Lewis, H. Leibecki, and S. L. Bushong . Volume XXIX - Evaluation of Graphite Materials in a Subscale Solid

  14. Characterization of Environmental Stability of Pulsed Laser Deposited Oxide Ceramic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, THADM

    2004-03-02

    A systematic investigation of candidate hydrogen permeation materials applied to a substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition has been performed. The investigation focused on application of leading permeation-resistant materials types (oxide, carbides, and metals) on a stainless steel substrate. and evaluation of the stability of the applied coatings. Type 304L stainless steel substrates were coated with aluminum oxide, chromium oxide, and aluminum. Characterization of the coating-substrate system adhesion was performed using scratch adhesion testing and microindentation. Coating stability and environmental susceptibility were evaluated for two conditions-air at 350 degrees Celsius and Ar-H2 at 350 degrees Celsius for up to 100 hours. Results from this study have shown the pulsed laser deposition process to be an extremely versatile technology that is capable of producing a sound coating/substrate system for a wide variety of coating materials.

  15. Synthesis of Polyaniline-Coated Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Composite Electrode Material for Supercapacitor and Its Enhanced Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Xu, Jianxiong; Xu, Lijian; Du, Jingjing; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-07-01

    The polyaniline-coated ordered mesoporous carbon (PCOMC) material was prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline monomers on the ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC). The synthesized PCOMC materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and Fourier infrared spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the polyaniline was successfully incorporated and well deposited on the external surface and inner pores of the OMC material. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of the original OMC and PCOMC materials are compared by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results showed that the electrochemical performance of the OMC material was enhanced after the incorporation of polyaniline. The specific capacitance of PCOMC electrode (813.4 F/g) measured by cyclic voltammetry at the scan rate of 2 mV/s was much higher than that of the OMC electrode (200.9 F/g). The discharge specific capacitance of the PCOMC supercapacitor could be kept at 119.4 F/g when the current density was 5 A/g, indicating its good rate performance even at high charge/discharge current density. Moreover, the PCOMC supercapacitor exhibited long cycling stability with the capacitance retention remained 77% after 3500 cycles.

  16. Analysis of the Effect of Surface Modification on Polyimide Composites Coated with Erosion Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndalama, Tchinga; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Sutter, James K. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance performance of composite coatings through modification of graphite-reinforced polyimide composite surfaces prior to metal bond coat/ hard topcoat application for use in the erosive and/or oxidative environments of advanced engines. Graphite reinforced polyimide composites, PMR-15 and PMR-II-50, formed by sheet molding and pre-pregging will be surface treated, overlaid with a bond coat and then coated with WC-Co. The surface treatment will include cleaning, RF plasma or ultraviolet light- ozone etching, and deposition of SiO(x) groups. These surface treatments will be studied in order to investigate and improve adhesion and oxidation resistance. The following panels were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center(NASA-GRC): Eight compression molded PMR-II-50; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. Two vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. Eight compression molded PMR-15; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. One vacuum-bagged PMR-15; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. All panels were made using a 12 x 12 in. T650-35 8HS (3K-tow) graphite fabric. A diamond-wafering blade, with deionized water as a cutting fluid, was used to cut PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 panels into 1 x 1 in. pieces for surface tests. The panel edges exhibiting delamination were used for the preliminary surface preparation tests as these would be unsuitable for strength and erosion testing. PMR-15 neat resin samples were also provided by NASA GRC. Surface profiles of the as-received samples were determined using a Dektak III Surface profile measuring system. Two samples of compression molded PMR-II-50 and PMR-15, vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 were randomly chosen for surface profile measurement according to ANSI/ASME B46.1. Prior to each measurement, the samples were blasted with compressed air to remove any artifacts. Five 10 mm-long scans were made on each sample. The short and long wavelength cutoff filter values were set at 100 and 1000 m, diamond stylus radius was 12.5 microns. Table 1 is a summary of the

  17. Standard Test Method for Dust Erosion Resistance of Optical and Infrared Transparent Materials and Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the resistance of transparent plastics and coatings used in aerospace windscreens, canopies, and viewports to surface erosion as a result of dust impingement. This test method simulates flight through a defined particle cloud environment by means of independent control of particle size, velocity, impact angle, mass loading, and test duration. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Radiological decontamination strippable coatings using PVA and PVP based core-shell polymeric scintillation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Sang; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Strippable coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination. These coatings are polymer mixtures, such as water-based organic polymers that are applied to a surface by paintbrush, roller or spray applicator. In this study, the core-shell composite polymer for decontamination from the surface contamination was synthesized by the method of emulsion polymerization and blends of polymers. The strippable polymer emulsion is composed of the poly(styrene-ethyl acrylate) [poly(St-EA)] composite polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The morphology of the composite emulsion particle was core-shell structure, with polystyrene (PS) as the core and poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) as the shell. Core-shell polymers of styrene (St)/ethyl acrylate (EA) pair were prepared by sequential emulsion polymerization in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an emulsifier using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Related tests and analysis confirmed the success in synthesis of composite polymer. The products are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA that were used, respectively, to show the structure, the thermal stability of the prepared polymer. Two-phase particles with a core-shell structure were obtained in experiments where the estimated glass transition temperature and the morphologies of emulsion particles. Decontamination factors (DF) of the strippable polymeric emulsion were evaluated with the polymer blend contents

  19. Structural and Optical Properties of Spray Coated Carbon Hybrid Materials Applied to Transparent and Flexible Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wroblewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and flexible electrodes were fabricated with cost-effective spray coating technique on polyethylene terephthalate foil substrates. Particularly designed paint compositions contained mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene platelets to achieve their desired rheology and electrooptical layers parameters. Electrodes were prepared in standard technological conditions without the need of clean rooms or high temperature processing. The sheet resistance and optical transmittance of fabricated layers were tuned with the number of coatings; then the most suitable relation of these parameters was designated through the figure of merit. Optical measurements were performed in the range of wavelengths from 250 to 2500 nm with a spectrophotometer with the integration sphere. Spectral dependence of total and diffusive optical transmission for thin films with graphene platelet covered by multiwalled carbon nanotubes was designated which allowed determining the relative absorbance. Layer parameters such as thickness, refractive index, energy gap, and effective reflectance coefficient show the correlation of electrooptical properties with the technological conditions. Moreover the structural properties of fabricated layers were examined by means of the X-ray diffraction.

  20. Supplementary Material for: In silico screening for candidate chassis strains of free fatty acid-producing cyanobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Motwalli, Olaa Amin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Finding a source from which high-energy-density biofuels can be derived at an industrial scale has become an urgent challenge for renewable energy production. Some microorganisms can produce free fatty acids (FFA) as precursors towards such high-energy-density biofuels. In particular, photosynthetic cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting carbon dioxide into FFA. However, current engineered strains need several rounds of engineering to reach the level of production of FFA to be commercially viable; thus new chassis strains that require less engineering are needed. Although more than 120 cyanobacterial genomes are sequenced, the natural potential of these strains for FFA production and excretion has not been systematically estimated. Results Here we present the FFA SC (FFASC), an in silico screening method that evaluates the potential for FFA production and excretion of cyanobacterial strains based on their proteomes. A literature search allowed for the compilation of 64 proteins, most of which influence FFA production and a few of which affect FFA excretion. The proteins are classified into 49 orthologous groups (OGs) that helped create rules used in the scoring/ranking of algorithms developed to estimate the potential for FFA production and excretion of an organism. Among 125 cyanobacterial strains, FFASC identified 20 candidate chassis strains that rank in their FFA producing and excreting potential above the specifically engineered reference strain, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We further show that the top ranked cyanobacterial strains are unicellular and primarily include Prochlorococcus (order Prochlorales) and marine Synechococcus (order Chroococcales) that cluster phylogenetically. Moreover, two principal categories of enzymes were shown to influence FFA production the most: those ensuring precursor availability for the biosynthesis of lipids, and those involved in handling the oxidative stress associated to FFA synthesis

  1. Modification of LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material by CeO2-coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 was coated by a layer of 1.0 wt% CeO2 via sol-gel method. The bared and coated LiMn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3O2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),cyclic voltammogram (CV) and galvanotactic charge-discharge test. The results show that the coating layer has no effect on the crystal structure,only coating on the surface; the 1.0 wt% CeO2-coated LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 exhibits better discharge capacity and cycling performance than the bared LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2. The discharge capacity of 1.0 wt% CeO2-coated cathode is 182.5 mAh.g-1 at a current density of 20 mA.g-1,in contrast to 165.8 mAh.g-1of the bared sample. The discharge capacity retention of 1.0 wt% CeO2-coated sample after 12 cycles reaches 93.2%,in comparison with 86.6% of the bared sample. CV results show that the CeO2 coating could suppress phase transitions and prevent the surface of cathode material from direct contact with the electrolyte,thus enhance the electro-chemical performance of the coated material.

  2. Improving rate performance of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials by hybrid coating of nano-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shi-Xi, E-mail: zhaosx@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ding, Hao; Wang, Yan-Chao [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Bao-Hua [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Nan, Ce-Wen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: •This paper reports an improved solid-state method which leads to a uniform coating. The influence of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon coating on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} was studied. •LiFePO{sub 4} coating with Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon shows a higher capacity than pure carbon coating sample. •Results indicate that the surface structure has an important influence on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4}. The addition of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can decrease the interfacial resistance of Li FePO{sub 4}. -- Abstract: Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles was prepared by direct dispersing LiFePO{sub 4} precursor in starch slurry with nano-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The existence of nano-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was confirmed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). And the particle size and morphology were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope analysis (TEM). The effects of the mixture coating on rate performance of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode vs Li anode at 25 °C was investigated. Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and carbon mixing coated LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials exhibited markedly improved rate capability relative to bare carbon-coated LiFePO{sub 4}. Analyses on cell impedance showed that the Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating decreased the interfacial impedance. Transmission electron microscope analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammograms (CV) were carried out to explain the reason of better rate performance by Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} coating.

  3. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  4. Poliuretanos como materiais de revestimento de superfície Polyurethanes as materials for surface coatings 41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M.B. Coutinho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os poliuretanos são polímeros extremamente versáteis. São aplicados numa ampla gama de materiais com propriedades diversas. Esses polímeros podem ser encontrados sob a forma de elastômeros, fibras e espumas, podendo ainda apresentar biocompatibilidade. Na indústria de revestimentos, incluindo os adesivos, os poliuretanos têm sido utilizados e têm apresentado excelente desempenho na proteção de uma grande variedade de substratos como aço, concreto, plásticos, metais, papel, couro e madeira. Devido ao movimento mundial de restrição ao uso de substâncias orgânicas voláteis tóxicas (VOC, vêm sendo de fundamental importância a pesquisa e desenvolvimento de sistemas aquosos. Entre esses destacam-se os poliuretanos dispersos em água, que estão em amplo crescimento na indústria de revestimentos, como mostra esta revisão.Polyurethanes, extremely versatile materials, may present biocompatibility and be found as elastomers, fibers and foams. In the coating industry, polyurethanes may be used as protecting coatings for substrates such as steel, concrete, plastics, metals, paper, leather and wood. The research and development of aqueous systems has been growing due to the world-wide movement for restriction of volatile organic compounds (VOC emission. In this work, the latest advances in the field of polyurethane coatings have been reviewed.

  5. Acoustic method of investigating the material properties and humidity sensing behavior of polymer coated piezoelectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Cinzia

    2006-09-01

    The relative humidity (RH) sensing behavior of a polymeric film was investigated by means of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines implemented on single crystal piezoelectric substrates, such as quartz and LiNbO3, and on thin piezoelectric polycrystalline films, such as ZnO and AlN, on Si and GaAs. The same SAW delay line configuration was implemented on each substrate and the obtained devices' operating frequency was in the range of 105-156MHz, depending on the type of the substrate, on its crystallographic orientation, and on the SAW propagation direction. The surface of each SAW device was covered by the same type RH sensitive film of the same thickness and the RH sensitivity of each polymer coated substrate, i.e., the SAW relative phase velocity shift per RH unit changes, was investigated in the 0%—80% RH range. The perturbational approach was used to relate the SAW sensor velocity response to the RH induced changes in the physical parameters of the sensitive polymer film: the incremental change in the mass density and shear modulus of the polymer film per unit RH change were estimated. The shift of the bare SAW delay lines operating frequency induced by the presence of the polymer film, at RH =0% and at T =-10°C, allowed the experimental estimation of the mass sensitivity values of each substrate. These values were in good accordance with those reported in the literature and with those theoretically evaluated by exact numerical calculation. The shift of the bare SAW delay lines propagation loss induced by the polymer coating of the device surface, at RH =0% and at ambient temperature, allowed the experimental estimation of the elastic sensitivity of each substrate. These values were found in good accordance with those available from the literature. The temperature coefficient of delay and the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the bare substrates were also estimated. The membrane sensitivity to ethanol, methanol and isopropylic

  6. Conformal Coating of a Phase Change Material on Ordered Plasmonic Nanorod Arrays for Broadband All-Optical Switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peijun; Weimer, Matthew S.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Chen, Xinqi; Hock, Adam S.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Schaller, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Actively tunable optical transmission through artificial metamaterials holds great promise for next-generation nanophotonic devices and metasurfaces. Plasmonic nanostructures and phase change materials have been extensively studied to this end due to their respective strong interactions with light and tunable dielectric constants under external stimuli. Seamlessly integrating plasmonic components with phase change materials, as demonstrated in the present work, can facilitate phase change by plasmonically enabled light confinement and meanwhile make use of the high sensitivity of plasmon resonances to the variation of dielectric constant associated with the phase change. The hybrid platform here is composed of plasmonic indium tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) conformally coated with an ultrathin layer of a prototypical phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO2), which enables all-optical modulation of the infrared as well as the visible spectral ranges. The interplay between the intrinsic plasmonic nonlinearity of ITO-NRAs and the phase transition induced permittivity change of VO2 gives rise to spectral and temporal responses that cannot be achieved with individual material components alone.

  7. A supercritical fluid-based coating technology. 2: solubility considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Dos Santos, I; Thies, C; Richard, J; Le Meurlay, D; Gajan, V; VandeVelde, V; Benoit, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Solubility measurements of candidate coating materials have been performed in supercritical (SC) CO(2) so as to select appropriate coating materials for implementation of a solvent-free coating process previously described. Solubility of lipidic compounds such as waxes (paraffin, beeswax, Carnauba wax), pure triglycerides (tricaprin, trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin) and mixture of glycerides and fatty acid esters (Gelucire) in SC CO(2) were evaluated in a static mode under different temperature and pressure conditions, ranging from 13-52 degrees C and from 50-220 bar, whether the CO(2)was in its liquid or SC state. It was shown that the compounds which are mixtures of various components give rise to a selective extraction of the lower melting point components, as evidenced from thermal analysis of soluble and insoluble fractions of the coating materials.

  8. Bismuthene on a SiC substrate: A candidate for a high-temperature quantum spin Hall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, F.; Li, G.; Dudy, L.; Bauernfeind, M.; Glass, S.; Hanke, W.; Thomale, R.; Schäfer, J.; Claessen, R.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum spin Hall materials hold the promise of revolutionary devices with dissipationless spin currents but have required cryogenic temperatures owing to small energy gaps. Here we show theoretically that a room-temperature regime with a large energy gap may be achievable within a paradigm that exploits the atomic spin-orbit coupling. The concept is based on a substrate-supported monolayer of a high-atomic number element and is experimentally realized as a bismuth honeycomb lattice on top of the insulating silicon carbide substrate SiC(0001). Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we detect a gap of ~0.8 electron volt and conductive edge states consistent with theory. Our combined theoretical and experimental results demonstrate a concept for a quantum spin Hall wide-gap scenario, where the chemical potential resides in the global system gap, ensuring robust edge conductance.

  9. Entrapment of Rhizobium sp. by fluidized bed technique using polymers as coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rivera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The spray-drying technique was applied for the development of three solid formulations of Rhizobium. Sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC with concentrations of 0.5 % were used as polymers. Results showed that none of the solid formulations had negative effects in vitro on the growth-promoting capacities of Rhizobium sp. G58 (p < 0.05. PCA´s first three components explained 84.5 % of the total variance. This analysis concluded that the solid formulation had not negative effects on the biological nitrogen fixation activity in vitro or on the process of nodulation in greenhouse experiments. Symbiosis between Rhizobium and the plant was effective, which suggested that, under controlled conditions, the coating process with the polymers had allowed a controlled release of the bacteria and a proper transfer of Rhizobium sp. from the microparticles to the root of the plant.

  10. Single-material multilayer ZnS as anti-reflective coating for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Ammar T.; Najim, Aus A.; Muhi, Malek A. H.; Gbashi, Kadhim R.

    2017-04-01

    Multilayer Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) is a promising low cost antireflective coating for solar cell applications, in this work; thin films with novel structure containing cubic and hexagonal phases were successfully deposited by thermal evaporation technique with three different layers. XRD analysis confirms the existence of both phases and high specific surface area. AFM analysis reveals that films with three layers have lower roughness and average grain size than other films. The optical measurements obtained by UV-vis, the calculated values of refractive index and reflectivity using some well known refractive index-band gap relations indicate that thin films with triple layer TL-ZnS have lower refractive index and reflectivity than other films, empirical equations were suggested and show the quantum confinement effects on band gap and reflectivity.

  11. Graphene oxide-SiO2 hybrid nanostructure as coating material for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qishu; Xuan, Han; Zhang, Kehua; Ding, Yi; Xu, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been considered as a promising stationary phase for chromatographic separation. However, the very strong adsorption of the analytes on the GO surface lead to the severe peak tailing, which in turn resulting in decreased separation performance. In this work, GO and silica nanoparticles hybrid nanostructures (GO/SiO2 NPs@column) were coated onto the capillary inner wall by passing the mixture of GO and silica sol through the capillary column. The successful of coating of GO/SiO2 NPs onto the capillary wall was confirmed by SEM and electroosmotic flow mobilities test. By partially covering the GO surface with silica nanoparticles, the peak tailing was decreased greatly while the unique high shape selectivity arises from the surface of remained GO was kept. Consequently, compared with the column modified with GO (GO@column), the column modified with GO and silica nanoparticles through layer-by-layer method (GO-SiO2 NPs@column), or the column modified with silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs@column), GO/SiO2 NPs@column possessed highest resolutions. The GO/SiO2 NPs@column was applied to separate egg white and both acidic and basic proteins as well as three glycoisoforms of ovalbumin were separated in a single run within 36 min. The intra-day, inter-day, and column-to-column reproducibilities were evaluated by calculating the RSDs of the retention of naphthalene and biphenyl in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography. The RSD values were found to be less than 7.1%.

  12. Co- and Ce/Co-coated ferritic stainless steel as interconnect material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk-Windisch, Hannes; Claquesin, Julien; Sattari, Mohammad; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Chromium species volatilization, oxide scale growth, and electrical scale resistance were studied at 650 and 750 °C for thin metallic Co- and Ce/Co-coated steels intended to be utilized as the interconnect material in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFC). Mass gain was recorded to follow oxidation kinetics, chromium evaporation was measured using the denuder technique and Area Specific Resistance (ASR) measurements were carried out on 500 h pre-exposed samples. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). The findings of this study show that a decrease in temperature not only leads to thinner oxide scales and less Cr vaporization but also to a significant change in the chemical composition of the oxide scale. Very low ASR values (below 10 mΩ cm2) were measured for both Co- and Ce/Co-coated steel at 650 and 750 °C, indicating that the observed change in the chemical composition of the Co spinel does not have any noticeable influence on the ASR. Instead it is suggested that the Cr2O3 scale is expected to be the main contributor to the ASR, even at temperatures as low as 650 °C.

  13. Fabrication of ZrO2/Mo-Si/Ni Functionally Graded Material by Dip-Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A slurry dip-coating technique was developed for fabrication of ZrO2/Mo-Si/Ni functionally graded material (FGM)on the stainless steel substrate. The rheological behavior of ZrO2-Ni-ethanol slurry was characterized by viscositytest. The amount of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) additives, which served as the dispersant and binder in ZrO2-Ni-ethanolslurry, was optimized. The results showed that the characters of mixed slurries with added 9 vol. pct (relativelyto total powders) MoSi2 powders prepared by mechanical alloying changed little. The stainless steel substrate wascoated several times by dipping in the slurries, and followed by drying in air every dipping. After debinding in Arin graphite die, the coated FGM plate was finally hot pressed at 1300℃ for 1 h under the pressure of 5 MPa in Arin the same die. Microstructural observations of the sintered FGM specimens revealed that the graded layers wereformed on the stainless steel substrate, in which no cracks were observed.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of ruthenium oxide-coated carbon nanofibers as anode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yura; Choi, Jin-Yeong; Park, Heai-Ku; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-12-01

    In this study, ruthenium oxide (RuO2) coated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized and applied as anode materials of Li secondary batteries. The CNFs were grown on Ni foam via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method after CNFs/Ni foam was put into the 0.01 M RuCl3 solution. The ruthenium oxide-coated CNFs/Ni foam was dried in a dryer at 80 °C. The morphologies, compositions, and crystal quality of RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS. The electrochemical characteristics of RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam as anode of Li secondary batteries were investigated using three-electrode cell. The RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam was directly employed as a working electrode without any binder, and lithium foil was used as the counter and reference electrodes. LiClO4 (1 M) was employed as electrolyte and dissolved in a mixture of propylene carbonate (PC): ethylene carbonate (EC) in a 1:1 volume ratio. The galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry measurements were carried out at room temperature by using a battery tester. In particular, synthesized RuO2/CNFs/Ni foam showed the highest retention rate (47.4%). The initial capacity (494 mAh/g) was reduced to 234 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  15. Enhancing the Thermal and Upper Voltage Performance of Ni-Rich Cathode Material by a Homogeneous and Facile Coating Method: Spray-Drying Coating with Nano-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke; Xie, Hongbin; Hu, Guorong; Peng, Zhongdong; Cao, Yanbing; Yu, Fan

    2016-07-13

    The electrochemical performance of Ni-rich cathode material at high temperature (>50 °C) and upper voltage operation (>4.3 V) is a challenge for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of the rapid capacity degradation over cycling. Here we report improved performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 materials via a LiAlO2 coating, which was prepared from a Ni0.80Co0.15Al0.05(OH)2 precursor by spray-drying coating with nano-Al2O3. Investigations by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that an Al2O3 layer is uniformly distributed on the precursor and a LiAlO2 layer on the as-prepared cathode material. Such a coating shell acts as a scavenger to protect the cathode material from attack by HF and serious side reactions, which remarkably enhances the cycle performance at 55 °C and upper operating voltage (4.4 and 4.5 V). In particular, the sample with a 2% Al2O3 coating shows capacity retentions of 90.40%, 85.14%, 87.85%, and 81.1% after 150 cycles at a rate of 1.0C at room temperature, 55 °C, 4.4 V, and 4.5 V, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of the pristine one. This is mainly due to the significant improvement of the structural stability led by the effective coating technique, which could be extended to other cathode materials to obtain LIBs with enhanced safety and excellent cycling stability.

  16. Degradation and in vitro cell–material interaction studies on hydroxyapatite-coated biodegradable porous iron for hard tissue scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizzati Mohd Daud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes degradation and cell–material interaction studies on hydroxyapatite (HA-coated biodegradable porous iron proposed for hard tissue scaffolds. Porous iron scaffolds are expected to serve as an ideal platform for bone regeneration. To couple their inherent mechanical strength, pure HA and HA/poly(ε-caprolactone (HA/PCL were coated onto porous iron using dip coating technique. The HA/PCL mixture was prepared to provide a more stable and flexible coating than HA alone. Degradation of the samples was evaluated by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation. Human skin fibroblast (HSF and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC were put in contact with the samples and their interaction was observed. Results showed that coated samples degraded ∼10 times slower (0.002 mm/year for HA/PCL-Fe, 0.003 mm/year for HA-Fe than the uncoated ones (0.031 mm/year, indicating an inhibition effect of the coating on degradation. Both HSF and hMSC maintained high viability when in contact with the coated samples (100–110% control for hMSC during 2–5 days of incubation, indicating the effect of HA in enhancing cytocompatibility of the surface. This study provided early evidence of the potential translation of biodegradable porous iron scaffolds for clinical use in orthopedic surgery. However, further studies including in vitro and in vivo tests are necessary.

  17. Structural stability at high pressure, electronic, and magnetic properties of BaFZnAs: A new candidate of host material of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi-Juan, Chen; Zheng, Deng; Xian-Cheng, Wang; Shao-Min, Feng; Zhen, Yuan; Si-Jia, Zhang; Qing-Qing, Liu; Chang-Qing, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The layered semiconductor BaFZnAs with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure has been successfully synthesized. Both the in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the high-pressure Raman scattering measurements demonstrate that the structure of BaFZnAs is stable under pressure up to 17.5 GPa at room temperature. The resistivity and the magnetic susceptibility data show that BaFZnAs is a non-magnetic semiconductor. BaFZnAs is recommended as a candidate of the host material of diluted magnetic semiconductor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Project of Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  18. Development of a Equipment to Measure Gas Transport Properties: Application to Study Mixtures of Candidates Buffer Materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.L.; Barcala, J.M.; Oller, J.C.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the design, the construction and a testing of a system set-up for the measurement of gas transport, created at CIEMAT, and its application to study mixtures of candidate buffer materials for Low-Medium Level Waste Repertories. The measure of the gas flows is carried on by mass flow meters of several ranges, white the pressure of the applied within the sample is controlled. Two National l Instrument's acquisition system that permits the control and recording of the parameters. A specific application developed for this test, with National Instruments LabWIEW DSC, permits to mange the system. A client interface lets to follow the experiment course from a remote location through Internet. (Author) 21 refs.

  19. Titanium coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes — A promising novel material for biomedical application as an implantable orthopaedic electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przekora, Agata, E-mail: agata.przekora@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Faculty of Pharmacy with Medical Analytics Division, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Benko, Aleksandra; Nocun, Marek; Wyrwa, Jan; Blazewicz, Marta [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, A. Mickiewicz 30 Ave., 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Faculty of Pharmacy with Medical Analytics Division, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to fabricate titanium (Ti) material coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) that would have potential medical application in orthopaedics as an implantable electronic device. The novel biomedical material (Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O) would possess specific set of properties, such as: electrical conductivity, non-toxicity, and ability to inhibit connective tissue cell growth and proliferation protecting the Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface against covering by cells. The novel material was obtained via an electrophoretic deposition of CNTs-H{sub 2}O on the Ti surface. Then, physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. Electrical property evaluation revealed that a Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O material is highly conductive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that there are mainly COOH groups on the Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface that are found to inhibit cell growth. Biological properties were assessed using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19). Conducted cytotoxicity tests and live/dead fluorescent staining demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O does not exert toxic effect on hFOB cells. Moreover, fluorescence laser scanning microscope observation demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O surface retards to a great extent cell proliferation. The study resulted in successful fabrication of highly conductive, non-toxic Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O material that possesses ability to inhibit osteoblast proliferation and thus has a great potential as an orthopaedic implantable electronic device. - Highlights: • Functionalized carbon nanotubes were electrophoretically deposited on Ti surface. • Physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. • Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O is highly conductive and there are mainly COOH groups on its surface. • Novel material is non-toxic and retards to a great extent osteoblast proliferation. • Ti-CNTs-H{sub 2}O has a promising potential as implantable orthopaedic

  20. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO2 as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddo, V.; Marcì, G.; Palmisano, G.; Yurdakal, S.; Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L.; Palmisano, L.

    2012-11-01

    Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO2 sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO2 as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO2 with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO2 particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  1. Nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon composite as an electrode material for asymmetric hybrid capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-02-01

    A nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon (TAC) composite was synthesized by a modified sol-gel reaction and employed it as a negative electrode active material for an asymmetric hybrid capacitor. The structural characterization showed that the TiO2 nano-layer was deposited on the surface of the activated carbon and the TAC composite has a highly mesoporous structure. The evaluation of electrochemical characteristics of the TAC electrode was carried out by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained specific capacitance of the TAC composite was 42.87 F/g, which showed by 27.1% higher than that of the activated carbon (AC). The TAC composite also exhibited an excellent cycle performance and kept 95% of initial capacitance over 500 cycles.

  2. The thermal insulating materials and its coatings for underground piping; Los aislamientos termicos y sus recubrimientos para tuberias subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcido Lopez, Salvador [Aislantes Minerales, S. A. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Energy Saving through the adequate selection and application of the thermal insulating materials, as well as its coatings for underground piping conducting fluids, both at high and at low temperature. The benefits are outlined at economical level for the investor as well as at ecological level (of vital importance today) and are observed as practical examples in industrial and commercial processes. [Espanol] Ahorro de energeticos mediante la adecuada seleccion y aplicacion de los aislamientos termicos, asi como de sus recubrimientos para tuberias subterraneas que conducen fluidos tanto en alta como en baja temperatura. Los beneficios son destacados tanto a nivel economico para el inversionista, como a nivel ecologico (de vital importancia en la actualidad), y son observados con ejemplos practicos en procesos industriales y comerciales.

  3. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  4. Importance of material matching in the calibration of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation: material specificity and nanoparticle surface coating effects on retention time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haiou; Quevedo, Ivan R.; Linder, Sean W.; Fong, Andrew; Mudalige, Thilak K.

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with dynamic light scattering or multiangle light scattering detectors is a promising technique for the size-based separation of colloidal particles (nano- and submicron scale) and the online determination of the particle size of the separated fractions in aqueous suspensions. In most cases, the applications of these detectors are problematic due to the material-specific properties of the analyte that results in erroneous calculations, and as an alternative, different nanoparticle size standards are required to properly calibrate the size-based retention in AF4. The availability of nanoparticle size standards in different materials is limited, and this deviation from ideal conditions of retention is mainly due to material-specific and particle coating-specific membrane-particle interactions. Here, we present an experimental method on the applicability of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NP) as standard for AF4 calibration and compare with gold nanoparticle (Au NP) standards having different nominal sizes and surface functionalities.

  5. Vegetable oil based eco-friendly coating materials: A review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alam, Manawwer; Akram, Deewan; Sharmin, Eram; Zafar, Fahmina; Ahmad, Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils (VO) constitute the single, largest, easily available, low cost, non-toxic, non-depletable, biodegradable family yielding materials that are capable of competing with fossil fuel derived petro-based products...

  6. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  7. The Effect of Counterpart Material on the Sliding Wear of TiAlN Coatings Deposited by Reactive Cathodic Pulverization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Felipe Cano Ordoñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the effect of the counterpart materials (100Cr6, Al2O3 and WC-Co on the tribological properties of TiAlN thin films deposited on AISI H13 steel substrate by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The structural characterization of the TiAlN films, performed by X-ray diffraction, showed (220 textured fcc crystalline structure. The values of hardness and elastic modulus obtained by nanoindentation were 27 GPa and 420 GPa, respectively, which resulted in films with a relatively high resistance to plastic deformation. Ball-on-disk sliding tests were performed using normal loads of 1 N and 3 N, and 0.10 m/s of tangential velocity. The wear coefficient of the films was determined by measuring the worn area using profilometry every 1000 cycles. The mechanical properties and the chemical stability of the counterpart material, debris formation and the contact stress influences the friction and the wear behavior of the studied tribosystems. Increasing the hardness of the counterpart decreases the coefficient of friction (COF due to lower counterpart material transference and tribofilm formation, which is able to support the contact pressure. High shear stress concentration at the coating/substrate interface was reported for higher load promoting failure of the film-substrate system for all tribopairs

  8. Advanced Materials for Aircraft Propulsion Systems. Phase I. Investigation of Corrosion Resistant Coatings for Service at 3000 F and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diffusion barrier between the coating and metallic substrate. Preliminary studies were limited to development of coatings that would be applicable to the protection of Ni-base and Co-base superalloys. (Author)

  9. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, A. B.; Matthewson, M. J.; Castelino, K. T.; Wojcik, J.; Walewski, A.

    2006-04-01

    Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments are typically exposed to high temperatures and elevated humidity. This calls for better performing protective coatings. Recently developed sol-gel derived inorganicorganic hybrid materials called hybrid glass offered improved protective performance as compared to standard dual polymer coated fibers [1]. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of online UV curing for the protective ability of hybrid glass coatings. For this purpose two types of UV-curable hybrid glass candidates representing two different concentrations of acrylate groups were applied online to silica fibers as single and dual coats. Samples of fibers were collected and subjected to dynamic fatigue testing by two-point bending. The stress corrosion parameter, n, as well as the strength of the fibers were determined. Both the strength and n were higher for fibers with two layers of coating as compared to single coatings even when the thickness of both one and two layer coatings was the same. This may be caused by the greater degree of cross linking of the inorganic component when the coating is exposed twice to the heat generated in the UV chamber. Coating materials with reduced acrylate group content had higher values of the fatigue parameter n but at the same time reduced strength.

  10. Titanium coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes--a promising novel material for biomedical application as an implantable orthopaedic electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekora, Agata; Benko, Aleksandra; Nocun, Marek; Wyrwa, Jan; Blazewicz, Marta; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to fabricate titanium (Ti) material coated with functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) that would have potential medical application in orthopaedics as an implantable electronic device. The novel biomedical material (Ti-CNTs-H2O) would possess specific set of properties, such as: electrical conductivity, non-toxicity, and ability to inhibit connective tissue cell growth and proliferation protecting the Ti-CNTs-H2O surface against covering by cells. The novel material was obtained via an electrophoretic deposition of CNTs-H2O on the Ti surface. Then, physicochemical, electrical, and biological properties were evaluated. Electrical property evaluation revealed that a Ti-CNTs-H2O material is highly conductive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that there are mainly COOH groups on the Ti-CNTs-H2O surface that are found to inhibit cell growth. Biological properties were assessed using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19). Conducted cytotoxicity tests and live/dead fluorescent staining demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H2O does not exert toxic effect on hFOB cells. Moreover, fluorescence laser scanning microscope observation demonstrated that Ti-CNTs-H2O surface retards to a great extent cell proliferation. The study resulted in successful fabrication of highly conductive, non-toxic Ti-CNTs-H2O material that possesses ability to inhibit osteoblast proliferation and thus has a great potential as an orthopaedic implantable electronic device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-01-01

    Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic) materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1) Anti-reflection coatings, 2) Hard coatings, 3) Clean coat, 4) Mirror coatings, 5) Color tint coating (one of coloring processes), 6) Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes), and 7) Anti-fog...

  12. Crack propagation studies and bond coat properties in thermal barrier coatings under bending

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Ray; N Roy; K M Godiwalla

    2001-04-01

    Ceramic based thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are currently considered as a candidate material for advanced stationary gas turbine components. Crack propagation studies under bending are described that were performed on plasma sprayed ZrO2, bonded by MCrAlY layer to Ni base superalloy. The crack propagation behaviour of the coatings at room temperature in as received and oxidized conditions revealed a linear growth of the cracks on the coating till the yield point of the super alloy was reached. High threshold load at the interface between the ceramic layer and the bond coat was required to propagate the crack further into the bond coat. Once the threshold load was surpassed the crack propagated into the brittle bond coat without an appreciable increase in the load. At temperatures of 800°C the crack propagated only in the TBC (ceramic layer), as the ductile bond coat offered an attractive sink for the stress relaxation. Effects of bond coat oxidation on crack propagation in the interface region have been examined and are discussed.

  13. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XV: an investigation of polysiloxane anti-fouling/fouling-release coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Partha; Crowley, Elizabeth; Htet, Maung; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chisholm, Bret J

    2011-05-09

    As part of ongoing efforts aimed at the development of extensive structure−property relationships for moisture-curable polysiloxane coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties for potential application as environmental friendly coatings to combat marine biofouling, a combinatorial/high-throughput (C/HT) study was conducted that was focused on four different compositional variables. The coatings that were investigated were derived from solution blends of a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HO-PDMS-OH), QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and methyltriacetoxysilane. The compositional variables investigated were alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane, chain length of the monovalent alkyl group attached to the QAS nitrogen atom, concentration of the QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and molecular weight of the HO-PDMS-OH. Of these variables, the composition of the alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane was a unique variable that had not been previously investigated. The antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) characteristics of the 24 unique coating compositions were characterized using HT assays based on three different marine microorganisms, namely, the two bacteria, Cellulophaga lytica and Halomonas pacifica, and the diatom, Navicula incerta. Coatings surfaces were characterized by surface energy, water contact angle hysteresis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A wide variety of responses were obtained over the compositional space investigated. ANOVA analysis showed that the compositional variables and their interactions significantly influenced AF/FR behaviors toward individual marine microorganisms. It was also found that utilization of the ethoxysilane-functional QASs provided enhanced AF character compared to coatings based on methoxysilane-functional analogues. This was attributed to enhanced surface segregation of QAS groups at the coating-air interface and confirmed by phase images using AFM.

  14. Photometric stereo sensor for robot-assisted industrial quality inspection of coated composite material surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Eva; Zambal, Sebastian; Stöger, Matthias; Eitzinger, Christian

    2015-04-01

    While composite materials are increasingly used in modern industry, the quality control in terms of vision-based surface inspection remains a challenging task. Due to the often complex and three-dimensional structures, a manual inspection of these components is nearly impossible. We present a photometric stereo sensor system including an industrial robotic arm for positioning the sensor relative to the inspected part. Two approaches are discussed: stop-and-go positioning and continuous positioning. Results are presented on typical defects that appear on various composite material surfaces in the production process.

  15. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  16. Synthesis of dittmarite/Mg(OH){sub 2} composite coating on AZ31 using hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing, E-mail: qzhaoyuping@bit.edu.cn; Mahmood, Waqas; Zhu, Yanying

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis of dittmarite Mg(OH){sub 2} coating on AZ31 alloy by hydrothermal method. • The mechanism of composite coating growth and its characterizations. • The coating is corrosion resistant significantly. • Lack of hydroxyl deposition on the coating surface. • Strong adhesion between the coating and the substrate. • The synthesized coating meets the cytotoxicity standards. - Abstract: In this work, we have used hydrothermal method for the synthesis of dittmarite/Mg(OH){sub 2} composite (DMC) layer on AZ31 alloy of magnesium. The synthesized coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In a test immersion into the Hank's mixture for 31 days, the synthesized coating inhibited corrosion of AZ31 significantly and the amorphous calcium apatite precursor deposited on the coating surface. In another tape test, we noticed strong adhesion between the coating and substrate that eventually concludes that the synthesized coating is hydrophilic and a promising candidate to be used in the absorbable implant materials. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the AZ31 alloy with DMC coating, grown under different conditions on L-929 cells in vitro was examined indirectly through the growth inhibition method (MTT assay). The cytotoxicity of the deposited coating lie between 0 ∼ 1 that indicates it as a promising biomaterial.

  17. The hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance of coatings developed for cobalt-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockeram, B.V.; Wilson, W.L.

    2000-05-01

    One potential approach for reducing the level of nuclear plant radiation exposure that results from activated cobalt wear debris is the use of a wear resistant coating. However, large differences in stiffness between a coating/substrate can result in high interfacial stresses that produce coating de-adhesion when a coated substrate is subjected to high stress wear contact. Scratch adhesion and indentation tests have been used to identify four promising coating processes [1,2]: (1) the use of a thin Cr-nitride coating with a hard and less-stiff interlayer, (2) the use of a thick, multilayered Cr-nitride coating with graded layers, (3) use of the duplex approach, or nitriding to harden the material subsurface followed by application of a multilayered Cr-nitride coating, and (4) application of nitriding alone. The processing, characterization, and adhesion of these coating systems are discussed. The wear resistance and performance has been evaluated using laboratory pin-on-disc, 4-ball, and high stress rolling contact tests. Based on the results of these tests, the best coating candidate from the high-stress rolling contact wear test was the thin duplex coating, which consists of ion nitriding followed deposition of a thin Cr-nitride coating, while the thin Cr-nitride coating exhibited the best results in the 4-ball wear test.

  18. Impact of the Excitation Source and Plasmonic Material on Cylindrical Active Coated Nano-Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Liu, Yan; Malureanu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    , as well as to their far-field radiation characteristics, in the presence of an electric or a magnetic line source. A constant frequency canonical gain model is used to account for the gain introduced in the dielectric part of the nano-particle, whereas three different plasmonic materials (silver, gold...

  19. Removal of coatings and surfaces on metallic, mineral and ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, F.W.; Redeker, C. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Materials Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Various techniques for use in decontamination in decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. The methods may be classified by their physical effects, namely chemical electrochemical, mechanical and thermal. A main issue is the dryice-laserbeam-blasting process. By dryice-laserbeam-blasting surfaces of concrete and ceramic materials can be removed. (orig.)

  20. The Acoustic Field Scattered from Some Approximate Pressure Release Materials Coating a Finite Cyclinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    the Hankel function as the argument asymptotically approaches infinity in equation (A-16). In Arfken 1 17 , the asymptotic form of the Hankel function...L, E. Horsely and C. M. Thompson, "The Aging of Cork-Rubber Decoupling Materials," Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 8458, (1981). 117. G. Arfken