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Sample records for coated fiber optic

  1. Radiation cured coatings for fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketley, A.D.; Morgan, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous protective coating is formed on a fiber optic by coating the fiber optic in a bath of a liquid radiation curable composition at a temperature up to 90 0 C and exposing the coated conductor to ultraviolet or high energy ionizing radiation to cure the coating

  2. The effect of irradiation process on the optical fiber coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeyu; Xiao, Chun; Rong, Liang; Ji, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Protective fiber coating decides the mechanical strength of an optical fiber as well as its resistance against the influence of environment, especially in some special areas like irradiation atmospheres. According to the experiment in this paper, it was found that the tensile force and peeling force of resistant radiation optical fiber was improved because of the special optical fiber coating.

  3. Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungjin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while ...

  4. Metal-coated optical fibers for high temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelus, Janusz D.; Wysokiński, Karol; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Nasiłowski, Piotr; Lipiński, Stanisław; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    An novel low-temperature method was used to enhance the corrosion resistance of copper or gold-coated optical fibers. A characterization of the elaborated materials and reports on selected studies such as cyclic temperature tests together with tensile tests is presented. Gold-coated optical fibers are proposed as a component of optical fiber sensors working in oxidizing atmospheres under temperatures exceeding 900 °C.

  5. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Nanoparticle-Embedded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs in scientific applications has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last few years. The use of NPs can help researchers to tune the physical characteristics of the sensing coating (thickness, roughness, specific area, refractive index, etc. leading to enhanced sensors with response time or sensitivity better than traditional sensing coatings. Additionally, NPs also offer other special properties that depend on their nanometric size, and this is also a source of new sensing applications. This review focuses on the current status of research in the use of NPs within coatings in optical fiber sensing. Most used sensing principles in fiber optics are briefly described and classified into several groups: absorbance-based sensors, interferometric sensors, fluorescence-based sensors, fiber grating sensors, and resonance-based sensors, among others. For each sensor group, specific examples of the utilization of NP-embedded coatings in their sensing structure are reported.

  6. Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers with flexural waves

    OpenAIRE

    ALCUSA-SÁEZ, E. P.; Díez, A.; Rivera-Pérez, E.; Margulis, W.; Norin, L.; Andrés, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Acousto-optic coupling in polyimide-coated single-mode optical fibers using flexural elastic waves is demonstrated. The effect of the polyimide coating on the acousto-optic interaction process is analyzed in detailed. Theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. Although the elastic attenuation is significant, we show that acousto-optic coupling can be produced with a reasonably good efficiency. To our knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of acousto-optic coupl...

  7. Electrically tunable Brillouin fiber laser based on a metal-coated single-mode optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    Full Text Available We explore tunability of the Brillouin fiber laser employing Joule heating. For this purpose, 10-m-length of a metal-coated single-mode optical cavity fiber has been directly included into an electrical circuit, like a conductor wire. With the current up to ∼3.5 A the laser tuning is demonstrated over a spectrum range of ∼400 MHz. The observed laser line broadening up to ∼2 MHz is explained by frequency drift and mode-hoping in the laser caused by thermal noise. Keywords: Brillouin fiber laser, Metal-coated optical fiber, Laser tuning, Fiber sensors

  8. Elasto-optics in double-coated optical fibers induced by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Ching; Lee, Haw-Long; Chou, Huann-Ming

    2002-04-01

    Stresses, microbending loss, and refractive-index changes induced simultaneously by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure in double-coated optical fibers are analyzed. The lateral pressure and normal stresses in the optical fiber, primary coating, and secondary coating are derived. Also presented are the microbending loss and refractive-index changes in the glass fiber. The normal stresses are affected by axial strain, hydrostatic pressure, material properties, and thickness of the primary and secondary coatings. It is found that microbending loss decreases with increasing thickness, the Young's modulus, and the Poisson's ratio of the secondary coating but increases with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the primary coating. Similarly, changes in refractive index in the glass fiber decrease with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the secondary coating but increase with the increasing Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the primary coating. Therefore, to minimize microbending loss induced simultaneously by axial strain and hydrostatic pressure in the glass fiber, the polymeric coatings should be suitably selected. An optimal design procedure is also indicated.

  9. Nanocrystalline samarium oxide coated fiber optic gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renganathan, B.; Sastikumar, D.; Srinivasan, R.; Ganesan, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This fiber optic gas sensor works at room temperature. • As-prepared and annealed Sm 2 O 3 nanoparticles are act as sensor materials. • Sm 2 O 3 clad modified fiber detect the ammonia, ethanol and methanol gases. • The response of evanescent wave loss has been studied for different concentrations. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Sm 2 O 3 coated fiber optic sensor is proposed for detecting toxic gases such as ammonia, methanol and ethanol vapors. Sm 2 O 3 in the as prepared form as well as annealed form have been used as gas sensing materials, by making them as cladding of a PMMA fiber. The spectral characteristics of the Sm 2 O 3 gas sensor are presented for ammonia, methanol and ethanol gases with different concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 ppm. The sensor exhibits a linear variation in the output light intensity with the concentration. The enhanced gas sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor for ethanol is discussed briefly

  10. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Polymeric Sensitive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Rivero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer technology is one of the fastest growing fields of contemporary research due to the possibility of using a wide variety of synthetic chemical routes for obtaining a polymeric network with a well-defined structure, resulting in materials with outstanding macroscopic properties. Surface engineering techniques based on the implementation of polymeric structures can be used as an interesting tool for the design of materials with functional properties. In this sense, the use of fabrication techniques for the design of nanostructured polymeric coatings is showing an important growth due to the intrinsic advantages of controlling the structure at a nanoscale level because physical, chemical, or optical properties can be considerably improved in comparison with the bulk materials. In addition, the presence of these sensitive polymeric coatings on optical fiber is a hot topic in the scientific community for its implementation in different market niches because a wide variety of parameters can be perfectly measured with a high selectivity, sensitivity, and fast response time. In this work, the two main roles that a polymeric sensitive matrix can play on an optical fiber for sensing applications are evaluated. In a first section, the polymers are used as a solid support for the immobilization of specific sensitive element, whereas in the second section the polymeric matrix is used as the chemical transducer itself. Additionally, potential applications of the optical fiber sensors in fields as diverse as biology, chemistry, engineering, environmental, industry or medicine will be presented in concordance with these two main roles of the polymeric sensitive matrices.

  11. Development of a TiO2-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danion, A.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO 2 -coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO 2 coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO 2 - coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  12. Fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotube coated tilted fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zigeng; Duan, Zhihui; Cui, Wenli; Han, Jie; Gu, Yiying; Wu, Zhenlin; Jing, Zhenguo; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-10-02

    In this work, a novel and simple optical fiber hot-wire anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is proposed and demonstrated. For the hot-wire wind speed sensor design, TFBG is an ideal in-fiber sensing structure due to its unique features. It is utilized as both light coupling and temperature sensing element without using any geometry-modified or uncommon fiber, which simplifies the sensor structure. To further enhance the thermal conversion capability, SWCNTs are coated on the surface of the TFBG instead of traditional metallic materials, which have excellent thermal characteristics. When a laser light is pumped into the sensor, the pump light propagating in the core will be easily coupled into cladding of the fiber via the TFBG and strongly absorbed by the SWCNTs thin film. This absorption acts like a hot-wire raising the local temperature of the fiber, which is accurately detected by the TFBG resonance shift. In the experiments, the sensor's performances were investigated and controlled by adjusting the inherent angle of the TFBG, the thickness of SWCNTs film, and the input power of the pump laser. It was demonstrated that the developed anemometer exhibited significant light absorption efficiency up to 93%, and the maximum temperature of the local area on the fiber was heated up to 146.1°C under the relatively low pump power of 97.76 mW. The sensitivity of -0.3667 nm/(m/s) at wind speed of 1.0 m/s was measured with the selected 12° TFBG and 1.6 μm film.

  13. Calculation of fast neutron dose in plastic-coated optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Henschel, H.

    1998-01-01

    The dose of fast neutrons in optical fibers with hydrogen-containing coating materials is considerably increased by energetic recoil protons. Their contribution to the dose in a SiO 2 fiber core is calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different fiber geometries and a fiber optic cable. With 14 MeV neutrons the dose in a single fiber is increased by about 21%, whereas in fiber bundles the dose increase can reach about 170%. Maximum dose enhancement in fiber bundles (about 610%) occurs at neutron energies around 5.5 MeV. The dose increase caused by 14 MeV neutrons in the fiber of a typical laboratory cable is about 124%

  14. Femtosecond laser direct-write of optofluidics in polymer-coated optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kevin A. J.; Haque, Moez; Ho, Stephen; Aitchison, J. Stewart; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Multifunctional lab in fiber technology seeks to translate the accomplishments of optofluidic, lab on chip devices into silica fibers. a robust, flexible, and ubiquitous optical communication platform that can underpin the `Internet of Things' with distributed sensors, or enable lab on chip functions deep inside our bodies. Femtosecond lasers have driven significant advances in three-dimensional processing, enabling optical circuits, microfluidics, and micro-mechanical structures to be formed around the core of the fiber. However, such processing typically requires the stripping and recoating of the polymer buffer or jacket, increasing processing time and mechanically weakening the device. This paper reports on a comprehensive assessment of laser damage in urethane-acrylate-coated fiber. The results show a sufficient processing window is available for femtosecond laser processing of the fiber without damaging the polymer jacket. The fiber core, cladding, and buffer could be simultaneously processed without removal of the buffer jacket. Three-dimensional lab in fiber devices were successfully fabricated by distortion-free immersionlens focusing, presenting fiber-cladding optical circuits and progress towards chemically-etched channels, microfluidic cavities, and MEMS structure inside buffer-coated fiber.

  15. Optical Fiber Nanotips Coated with Molecular Beacons for DNA Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Giannetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber sensors, thanks to their compactness, fast response and real-time measurements, have a large impact in the fields of life science research, drug discovery and medical diagnostics. In recent years, advances in nanotechnology have resulted in the development of nanotools, capable of entering the single cell, resulting in new nanobiosensors useful for the detection of biomolecules inside living cells. In this paper, we provide an application of a nanotip coupled with molecular beacons (MBs for the detection of DNA. The MBs were characterized by hybridization studies with a complementary target to prove their functionality both free in solution and immobilized onto a solid support. The solid support chosen as substrate for the immobilization of the MBs was a 30 nm tapered tip of an optical fiber, fabricated by chemical etching. With this set-up promising results were obtained and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.57 nM was reached, opening up the possibility of using the proposed nanotip to detect mRNAs inside the cytoplasm of living cells.

  16. Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sandra F H; Antunes, Paulo; Pecoraro, Edison; Lima, Patrícia P; Varum, Humberto; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S; André, Paulo S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we proposed a relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a Bragg grating written in an optical fiber, associated with a coating of organo-silica hybrid material prepared by the sol-gel method. The organo-silica-based coating has a strong adhesion to the optical fiber and its expansion is reversibly affected by the change in the RH values (15.0-95.0%) of the surrounding environment, allowing an increased sensitivity (22.2 pm/%RH) and durability due to the presence of a siliceous-based inorganic component. The developed sensor was tested in a real structure health monitoring essay, in which the RH inside two concrete blocks with different porosity values was measured over 1 year. The results demonstrated the potential of the proposed optical sensor in the monitoring of civil engineering structures.

  17. On-line defect detection of aluminum coating using fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Supriya S.; Shaligram, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    Aluminum metallization using the sprayed coating for exhaust mild steel (MS) pipes of tractors is a standard practice for avoiding rusting. Patches of thin metal coats are prone to rusting and are thus considered as defects in the surface coating. This paper reports a novel configuration of the fiber optic sensor for on-line checking the aluminum metallization uniformity and hence for defect detection. An optimally chosen high bright 440 nm BLUE LED (light-emitting diode) launches light into a transmitting fiber inclined at the angle of 60° to the surface under inspection placed adequately. The reflected light is transported by a receiving fiber to a blue enhanced photo detector. The metallization thickness on the coated surface results in visually observable variation in the gray shades. The coated pipe is spirally inspected by a combination of linear and rotary motions. The sensor output is the signal conditioned and monitored with RISHUBH DAS. Experimental results show the good repeatability in the defect detection and coating non-uniformity measurement.

  18. Double-layer optical fiber coating analysis in MHD flow of an elastico-viscous fluid using wet-on-wet coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    Full Text Available Modern optical fibers require a double-layer coating on the glass fiber in order to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low and high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE, nylon and Polysulfone. One of the most important things which affect the final product after processing is the design of the coating die. In the present study, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model in a pressure type die with the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD. Wet-on-wet coating process is applied for double-layer optical fiber coating. The coating process in the coating die is modeled as a simple two-layer Couette flow of two immiscible fluids in an annulus with an assigned pressure gradient. Based on the assumptions of fully developed laminar and MHD flow, the Oldroyd 8-constant model of non-Newtonian fluid of two immiscible resin layers is modeled. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the new technique of Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The effect of important parameters such as magnetic parameter Mi, the dilatant constant α, the Pseodoplastic constant β, the radii ratio δ, the pressure gradient Ω, the speed of fiber optics V, and the viscosity ratio κ on the velocity profiles, thickness of coated fiber optics, volume flow rate, and shear stress on the fiber optics are investigated. At the end the result of the present work is also compared with the experimental results already available in the literature by taking non-Newtonian parameters tends to zero. Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Oldroyd 8-constant fluid, MHD flow, Double-layer fiber coating, OHAM, ADM, Wet-on-wet coating process

  19. Performance of a fiber optic sensor for online measurement of coating thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emilia, Giulio

    1999-01-01

    Some aspects concerning a methodology for the measurement of thickness of dry and wet coatings which is based on a fiber optic probe are discussed in order to verify the feasibility of this approach and the capability of such a probe of on- line measuring. In this preliminary step of the research some problems discussed mainly concerning the methodology which has been proposed and which is based on the measuring of the reflectance of the coating plated on thin steel sheets for use in the food industry. Furthermore the effect of the main interfering and modifying quantities is discussed both theoretically and experimentally when the measurement has to be carried out in order to allow on-line coating thickness measurements with satisfactory accuracy.

  20. Side-detecting optical fiber coated with Zn(OH)2 nanorods for ultraviolet sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, S.; Parvizi, R.; Sadeghi, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an improved coupling efficiency and side detecting of UV radiation induced by light scattering and luminescent features of Zn(OH)2 nanorods coated multimode optical fibers. Uniform and high density Zn(OH)2 nanorods were grown hydrothermally on the core of chemically etched multimode optical fibers. The prepared samples were characterized through x-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The detecting technique was based on the intensity modulation of the side coupled light through the Zn(OH)2 nanorods. A simple and cost-effective UV radiation detecting setup has been designed. Experimentally estimated coupling efficiency of the proposed setup was obtained near 11%. The proposed device exhibited stable and reversible responses with a fast rising and decaying time of about 1.4 s and 0.85 s, respectively.

  1. Molecular imprinted polymer-coated optical fiber sensor for the identification of low molecular weight molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépinay, Sandrine; Ianoul, Anatoli; Albert, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    A biomimetic optical probe for detecting low molecular weight molecules (maltol, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, molecular weight of 126.11 g/mol), was designed, fabricated, and characterized. The sensor couples a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) and the Bragg grating refractometry technology into an optical fiber. The probe is fabricated first by inscribing tilted grating planes in the core of the fiber, and then by photopolymerization to immobilize a maltol imprinted MIP on the fiber cladding surface over the Bragg grating. The sensor response to the presence of maltol in different media is obtained by spectral interrogation of the fiber transmission signal. The results showed that the limit of detection of the sensor reached 1 ng/mL in pure water with a sensitivity of 6.3 × 10(8)pm/M. The selectivity of the sensor against other compounds and its reusability were also studied experimentally. Finally, the unambiguous detection of concentrations as little as 10nM of maltol in complex media (real food samples) by the MIP-coated tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor was demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prototype of a fiber optic sensor for online measurement of coating thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emilia, Giulio

    1999-09-01

    In this paper the experimental characterization of a transducer for on line measurement of coating thickness in food industry applications is described, which is composed by a fiber optic probe and by an eddy-current proximity one. The method is based on measuring reflectance by a fiber optic probe of the coating plated on thin steel sheets. The eddy current proximity probe should be used to measure the substrate position. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, a particular attention has been paid to the accuracy of the method, since an accuracy in the order of plus or minus 1 micrometer should be achieved for practical interest. With this aim, the effect of the main interfering and modifying quantities of geometrical (sensor size, probe head angle of incidence, working distance, ...) and optical (light source and photo-detector behavior stability, ...) type has been evaluated both theoretically and experimentally by using a calibration test bench in stationary working conditions. Furthermore, a calibration test bench has been built, where a translating and vibrating steel plate is realized, in order to evaluate the effect of translation velocity of the plate and also of cross vibrations. Results of dynamic calibration are also described and discussed, in order to get information about the final sensor configuration.

  3. Through the optical combiner monitoring in remote fiber laser welding of zinc coated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Daniele; Colosimo, Bianca M.; Previtali, Barbara; Bassan, Daniele; Lai, Manuel; Masotti, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Thanks to the recent affirmation of the active fiber lasers, remote laser welding of zinc coated steels is under investigation with a particular emphasis on the overlap joint geometry. Due to the high power and high beam quality offered by these lasers, the remote laser welding process has become more practicable. However laser welding of lap zinc coated steels is still problematic because of the violent vaporisation of zinc. The presence of a gap between the plates allowing vapour degassing has been proven to avoid defects due to zinc vaporization. On the other hand variation in the gap value can lead to the welding defect formation. Therefore constant gap values should be ensured and deviation from the reference gap value has to be monitored during the execution of the welding process. Furthermore, the on-line monitoring of the gap values between the plates can be helpful for the on-line quality control of the welding process. The paper proposes a new monitoring solution for the measurement of the gap in remote fiber laser welding of overlapped zinc coated steels. In this solution, referred as Through the Optical Combiner Monitoring (TOCM) , the optical emissions from the welding process are directly observed through the optical combiner of the fiber laser source with spectroscopic equipment. The TOCM solution presented in the paper is integrated in an IPG YLS 3000 fiber laser source whose beam is deflected and focused by means of an El.En. ScanFiber scanning system with an equivalent focal length of 300 mm. After the definition of the right welding process conditions, spectroscopic tests are exploited to evaluate the optical emission from the welding plasma/plume. Acquired spectra are then analysed with multivariate data analysis approach in order to ensure gap monitoring. Results showed that with the proposed method it is possible to evaluate not only the gap between the plates but also the location inside the weld at which the variation occurs. Furthermore

  4. Detection of Cadmium Ion by Evanescent Wave Based Chitosan Coated Optical Fiber Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, I; Edy, S S; Saputra, B A; Aji, M P; Susanto; Kurdi, O

    2017-01-01

    Evanescent wave based-optical fiber sensor to detect cadmium ion is proposed. Chitosan was used by using the dip-coating method. The sensor was fabricated in U-bent shape. U-bent optical sensor at aconcentration of 2ppm and 5ppm had asensitivity of 0.2067 dBm/ppm and -0.7995 dBm/ppm, respectively. At a level of 2ppm - 5ppm, the optical sensor has a linear response with asensitivity of -0.283 dBm/ppm. The sensor takes 9.5 minutes to reach steady stateat aconcentration of 1 ppm. Atalevel of 2ppm - 5ppm, the sensor takes 5 minutes to 10.45 minutes to reach steady state. (paper)

  5. The influence of concentration of Nd-Fe-B powder in composite coating of optical fiber to the sensibility to external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojević Vesna J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-mode optical fiber with magnetic composite coating was investigated as an optical fiber sensor element (OFMSE for magnetic field sensing The composite coating was formed with dispersions of permanent magnet powder of Nd-Fe-B in poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-EVA solutions in toluene. The influence of the applied external magnetic field on the change of intensity of the light signal propagate trough developed optical fibers sensor element was investigated. In this paper the influence of the content of magnetic powder in the composite coating on the optical propagation characteristics of optical fiber were particularly investigated.

  6. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  7. Fabrication of Long Period Gratings by Periodically Removing the Coating of Cladding-Etched Single Mode Optical Fiber Towards Optical Fiber Sensor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ascorbe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a novel method to fabricate long period gratings using standard single mode optical fibers (SMF. These optical devices were fabricated in a three-step process, which consisted of etching the SMF, then coating it with a thin-film and, the final step, which involved removing sections of the coating periodically by laser ablation. Tin dioxide was chosen as the material for this study and it was sputtered using a pulsed DC sputtering system. Theoretical simulations were performed in order to select the appropriate parameters for the experiments. The responses of two different devices to different external refractive indices was studied, and the maximum sensitivity obtained was 6430 nm/RIU for external refractive indices ranging from 1.37 to 1.39.

  8. Fabrication of Long Period Gratings by Periodically Removing the Coating of Cladding-Etched Single Mode Optical Fiber Towards Optical Fiber Sensor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M; Del Villar, Ignacio; Matias, Ignacio R

    2018-06-07

    Here, we present a novel method to fabricate long period gratings using standard single mode optical fibers (SMF). These optical devices were fabricated in a three-step process, which consisted of etching the SMF, then coating it with a thin-film and, the final step, which involved removing sections of the coating periodically by laser ablation. Tin dioxide was chosen as the material for this study and it was sputtered using a pulsed DC sputtering system. Theoretical simulations were performed in order to select the appropriate parameters for the experiments. The responses of two different devices to different external refractive indices was studied, and the maximum sensitivity obtained was 6430 nm/RIU for external refractive indices ranging from 1.37 to 1.39.

  9. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  10. Clad modified optical fiber gas sensors based on nanocrystalline nickel oxide embedded coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, K.; Renganathan, B.; Ganesan, A. R.; Prakash, T.

    2017-07-01

    A clad modified optical fiber gas sensor for sensing volatile organic compound vapours (VOCs) such as formaldehyde (HCHO), ammonia (NH3), ethanol (C2H5OH) and methanol (CH3OH) up to 500 ppm was studied using nanocrystalline nickel oxide embedded coatings. Prior to the measurements, nickel oxide in two different crystallite sizes such as 24 nm and 76 nm was synthesized by calcination of reverse precipitated nickel hydroxide subsequently at 450 °C and 900 °C for 30 min. Then, samples physical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our gas sensing measurement concludes that the lower crystallite size (24 nm) nickel oxide nanocrystals exhibits superior performance to formaldehyde and ethanol vapours as compared with other two VOCs, the observed experimental results were discussed in detail.

  11. Observation of Biological Tissues Using Common Path Optical Coherence Tomography with Gold Coated Conical Tip Lens Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, K; Sugiyama, J; Totsuka, M; Imanaka, S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography(OCT) system with the use of a chemically etched single mode fiber. In our experiments, single mode optical fiber for 1310nm was used for preparing the tapered tips. Our system used a conical microlens that was chemically etched by selective chemical etching technique using an etching solution of buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF). From experimental results, we verified that our proposed optical coherence tomography system could operate as a common-path Fourier domain OCT system and conical tip lens fiber was very useful for a high lateral resolution common-path Fourier domain OCT system. Furthermore, we could observe a surface of paramecium bursaria and symbiotic chlorella in the paramecium bursaria using gold coated conical-tip fiber in the water.

  12. A disposable evanescent wave fiber optic sensor coated with a molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Xuan-Anh; Acha, Victor; Bonomi, Paolo; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette; Haupt, Karsten

    2015-02-15

    We have developed a disposable evanescent wave fiber optic sensor by coating a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) containing a fluorescent signaling group on a 4-cm long polystyrene optical waveguide. The MIP is composed of a naphthalimide-based fluorescent monomer, which shows fluorescence enhancement upon binding with carboxyl-containing molecules. The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the mycotoxin citrinin were used as model analytes. The coating of the MIP was either performed ex-situ, by dip-coating the fiber with MIP particles synthesized beforehand, or in-situ by evanescent-wave photopolymerization on the fiber. The sensing element was interrogated with a fiber-coupled spectrofluorimeter. The fiber optic sensor detects targets in the low nM range and exhibits specific and selective recognition over structural analogs and non-related carboxyl-containing molecules. This technology can be extended to other carboxyl-containing analytes, and to a broader spectrum of targets using different fluorescent monomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quasi-distributed sol-gel coated fiber optic oxygen sensing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkapli, Maizatul; Saharudin, Suhairi; Herman, Sukreen Hana; Abdullah, Wan Fazlida Hanim

    2018-03-01

    In the field of aquaculture, optical sensor technology is beginning to provide alternatives to the conventional electrical sensor. Hence, the development and characterization of a multipoint quasi-distributed optical fiber sensor for oxygen measurement is reported. The system is based on 1 mm core diameter plastic optical fiber where sections of cladding have been removed and replaced with three metal complexes sol-gel films to form sensing points. The sensing locations utilize luminophores that have emission peaks at 385 nm, 405 nm and 465 nm which associated with each of the sensing points. Interrogation of the optical sensor system is through a fiber optic spectrometer incorporating narrow bandpass emission optical filter. The sensors showed comparable sensitivity and repeatability, as well as fast response and recovery towards oxygen.

  14. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  15. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  16. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  17. Optical fiber taste sensors using potential sensitive dye coatings. Makuden'i kanjusei shikisomaku wo mochiita hikari fiber mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, S.; Yamaguchi, A. (Toyama National College of Maritime Technology, Toyama (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    The present paper proposes a new taste recognition system using optical response patterns from multi-channel optical fiber sensors having potential sensitive dye coatings. It was found that the sensors give large changes in optical absorption spectra of the dyes when they are immersed in various taste solutions. Consequently, it was shown that the sensors can be used as a taste sensor. Six dyes, which give large changes in dye absorption, were selected from twenty dyes and used for six-channel optical fiber taste sensors array. The absorption spectra change data were processed by multiple discriminant analysis and neural networks using back-propagation algorithm. From the analytical results, it was demonstrated that salty (NaCl), bitter (quinidine), sweet (sucrose), sour (HCl), and umami (sodium glutamate) substances can be recognized from each other by using the optical taste sensor system. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  19. Aluminum-coated optical fibers as efficient infrared timing fiducial photocathodes for synchronizing x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The timing fiducial system at the Nova Two-Beam Facility allows time-resolved x-ray and optical streak camera data from laser-produced plasmas to be synchronized to within 30 ps. In this system, an Al-coated optical fiber is inserted into an aperture in the cathode plate of each streak camera. The coating acts as a photocathode for a low-energy pulse of 1ω (λ = 1.054 μm) light which is synchronized to the main Nova beam. The use of the fundamental (1ω) for this fiducial pulse has been found to offer significant advantages over the use of the 2ω second harmonic (λ = 0.53 μm). These advantages include brighter signals, greater reliability, and a higher relative damage threshold, allowing routine use without fiber replacement. The operation of the system is described, and experimental data and interpretations are discussed which suggest that the electron production in the Al film is due to thermionic emission. The results of detailed numerical simulations of the relevant thermal processes, undertaken to model the response of the coated fiber to 1ω laser pulses, are also presented, which give qualitative agreement with experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies between the modeling results and the experimental data are discussed, and suggestions for further research are given

  20. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  1. In vivo Raman measurement of levofloxacin lactate in blood using a nanoparticle-coated optical fiber probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shupeng; Rong, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun; Yan, Jianshe

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring drug concentrations in vivo is very useful for adjusting a drug dosage during treatment and for drug research. Specifically, cutting-edge “on-line” drug research relies on knowing how drugs are metabolized or how they interact with the blood in real-time. Thus, this study explored performing in vivo Raman measurements of the model drug levofloxacin lactate in the blood using a nanoparticle-coated optical fiber probe (optical fiber nano-probe). The results show that we were able to measure real-time changes in the blood concentration of levofloxacin lactate, suggesting that this technique could be helpful for performing drug analyses and drug monitoring in a clinical setting without repeatedly withdrawing blood from patients. PMID:27231590

  2. Oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces by scanning near-field optical lithography using uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Birkelund, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Optically induced oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces using a scanning near-field optical microscope was achieved with both uncoated and aluminum-coated fiber probes. Line scans on amorphous silicon using uncoated fiber probes display a three-peak profile after etching in potassium...... hydroxide. Numerical simulations of the electromagnetic field around the probe-sample interaction region are used to explain the experimental observations. With an aluminum-coated fiber probe, lines of 35 nm in width were transferred into the amorphous silicon layer. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  3. POINT-BY-POINT INSCRIPTION OF FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS INTO BIREFRINGENT OPTICAL FIBER THROUGH PROTECTIVE ACRYLATE COATING BY TI:SA FEMTOSECOND LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Arkhipov,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals withpoint-by-point inscriptionof fiber Bragg gratings by the 800 nm Ti:Sa femtosecond laser pulses into a unique birefringent fiber with elliptical stress cladding of home manufacture. The proposed inscriptionmethod has advantages over the conventional phase mask method. The possibility to create complex grating structures and relatively high transparency of acrylate coating to the Ti:Sa femtosecond laser radiation of 800 nm gives the possibility for inscriptionof phase shifting gratings, chirped grating and superstructures without stripping the fiber. Also, this method makes it possible to inscribethese diffractive structures with and without co-doping of GeO2 in the fiber core. Achieved reflectance was 10%. The microscopic image of the diffractive structure in the fiber core is presented. The grating of 1.07 µm is realized by pulling the fiber with constant speed while the laser pulses are applied with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz. The results are usable in the sphere of creation of different fiber optic sensitive elements based on Bragg gratings.

  4. Multimode-singlemode-multimode optical fiber sensor coated with novolac resin for detecting liquid phase alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfu'ah, Amalia, Niza Rosyda; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Pratama, Detak Yan

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol sensor based on multimode-singlemode-multimode (MSM) optical fiber with novolac resin as the external medium is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Novolac resin swells when it is exposed by the alcohol. This effect causes a change in the polymer density leading to the refractive index's variation. The transmission light of the sensor depends on the refractive index of external medium. Based on the results, alcohol sensor based on MSM optical fiber structure using novolac resin has a higher sensitivity compared to the sensor without using novolac resin in the mixture of alcohol and distilled water. Alcohol sensor based on MSM optical fiber structure using novolac resin in the mixture of alcohol and distilled water with a singlemode fiber length of 5 mm has a sensitivity of 0.028972 dBm per % V/V, and in the mixture of alcohol and sugar solution of 10% w/w has a sensitivity of 0.005005 dBm per % V/V.

  5. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  6. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  7. Steady flow and heat transfer analysis of Phan-Thein-Tanner fluid in double-layer optical fiber coating analysis with Slip Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan; Shah, Rehan Ali; Islam, Saeed; Jan, Bilal; Imran, Muhammad; Tahir, Farisa

    2016-10-06

    Modern optical fibers require double-layer coating on the glass fiber to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE), nylon and Polysulfone. In this paper, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying PTT fluid model in a pressure type die using wet-on-wet coating process. The assumption of fully developed flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model, two-layer liquid flows of an immiscible fluid is modeled in an annular die, where the fiber is dragged at a higher speed. The equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved exactly and the effects of emerging parameters (Deborah and slip parameters, characteristic velocity, radii ratio and Brinkman numbers on the axial velocity, flow rate, thickness of coated fiber optics, and temperature distribution) are reported in graphs. It is shown that an increase in the non-Newtonian parameters increase the velocity in the absence or presence of slip parameters which coincides with related work. The comparison is done with experimental work by taking λ → 0 (non-Newtonian parameter).

  8. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  9. High Sensitivity Refractometer Based on TiO2-Coated Adiabatic Tapered Optical Fiber via ALD Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO2 nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry–Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO2 nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO2 on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373–1.3500. Due to TiO2’s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field. PMID:27537885

  10. Optimizing the fabrication of aluminum-coated fiber probes and their application to optical near-field lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S; Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, PS

    1998-01-01

    in terms of roughness and the presence of leaking holes in the coating. We report on how the quality of the coating depends on parameters such as deposition rate and background pressure during evaporation. We have used aluminum-coated fiber probes in lithographical studies of different materials, like side...

  11. Optical Detection of Ketoprofen by Its Electropolymerization on an Indium Tin Oxide-Coated Optical Fiber Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Sobaszek, Michał; Burnat, Dariusz; Białobrzeska, Wioleta; Cebula, Zofia; Sezemsky, Petr; Koba, Marcin; Stranak, Vitezslav; Ossowski, Tadeusz; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2018-04-27

    In this work an application of optical fiber sensors for real-time optical monitoring of electrochemical deposition of ketoprofen during its anodic oxidation is discussed. The sensors were fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) on a 2.5 cm-long core of polymer-clad silica fibers. ITO tuned in optical properties and thickness allows for achieving a lossy-mode resonance (LMR) phenomenon and it can be simultaneously applied as an electrode in an electrochemical setup. The ITO-LMR electrode allows for optical monitoring of changes occurring at the electrode during electrochemical processing. The studies have shown that the ITO-LMR sensor’s spectral response strongly depends on electrochemical modification of its surface by ketoprofen. The effect can be applied for real-time detection of ketoprofen. The obtained sensitivities reached over 1400 nm/M (nm·mg −1 ·L) and 16,400 a.u./M (a.u.·mg −1 ·L) for resonance wavelength and transmission shifts, respectively. The proposed method is a valuable alternative for the analysis of ketoprofen within the concentration range of 0.25⁻250 μg mL −1 , and allows for its determination at therapeutic and toxic levels. The proposed novel sensing approach provides a promising strategy for both optical and electrochemical detection of electrochemical modifications of ITO or its surface by various compounds.

  12. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  13. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  14. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  15. Repetitive Immunosensor with a Fiber-Optic Device and Antibody-Coated Magnetic Beads for Semi-Continuous Monitoring of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Midori; Saito, Hirokazu; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2017-09-19

    A rapid and reproducible fiber-optic immunosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 ( E. coli O157:H7) was described. The biosensor consisted of a flow cell, an optical fiber with a thin Ni layer, and a PC linked fluorometer. First, the samples with E. coli O157:H7 were incubated with magnetic beads coated with anti- E. coli O157:H7 antibodies and anti- E. coli O157:H7 antibodies labeled cyanine 5 (Cy5) to make sandwich complexes. Then the Cy5-( E. coli O157:H7)-beads were injected into a flow cell and pulled to the magnetized Ni layer on the optical fiber set in the flow cell. An excitation light (λ = 635 nm) was used to illuminate the optical fiber, and the Cy5 florescent molecules facing the optical fiber were exposed to an evanescent wave from the optical fiber. The 670 nm fluorescent light was measured using a photodiode. Finally, the magnetic intensity of the Ni layer was removed and the Cy5- E. coli O157:H7-beads were washed out for the next immunoassay. E. coli O157:H7, diluted with phosphate buffer (PB), was measured from 1 × 10⁵ to 1 × 10⁷ cells/mL. The total time required for an assay was less than 15 min (except for the pretreatment process) and repeating immunoassay on one optical fiber was made possible.

  16. Optical detection of glucose and glycated hemoglobin using etched fiber Bragg gratings coated with functionalized reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, S; Vasu, K S; Sampath, S; Asokan, S; Sood, A K

    2016-07-01

    An enhanced optical detection of D-glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) has been established in this study using etched fiber Bragg gratings (eFBG) coated with aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The read out, namely the shift in Bragg wavelength (ΔλB ) is highly sensitive to changes that occur due to the adsorption of glucose (or HbA1c ) molecules on the eFBG sensor coated with APBA-RGO complex through a five-membered cyclic ester bond formation between glucose and APBA molecules. A limit of detection of 1 nM is achieved with a linear range of detection from 1 nM to 10 mM in the case of D-glucose detection experiments. For HbA1c , a linear range of detection varying from 86 nM to 0.23 mM is achieved. The observation of only 4 pm (picometer) change in ΔλB even for the 10 mM lactose solution confirms the specificity of the APBA-RGO complex coated eFBG sensors to glucose molecules. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  18. Fiber-Optic U-Shaped Detection Elements for the Investigation of Photocatalytic Activity of Optical Fibers Coated with Layer of TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Mrázek, Jan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Hayer, Miloš; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2009), s. 900-904 ISSN 1546-198X. [6th Maghreb-Europe Meeting on Materials and Their Applications for Devices and Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors. Rabat, 30.10.2008-01.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : photocatalysis * anatase laayer * fiber - optic sensor Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.626, year: 2009

  19. Nanoscale patterning of gold-coated optical fibers for improved plasmonic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antohe, Iulia; Spasic, Dragana; Delport, Filip; Li, Jiaqi; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2017-05-01

    Merging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to fiber optic (FO) technology has brought remarkable achievements in the field by offering attractive advantages over the conventional prism-based SPR platforms, such as simplicity, cost-effectiveness and miniaturization. However, the performance of the existing FO-SPR instruments mainly depends on the device surface condition and in particular on the structural aspect of the thin gold (Au) plasmonic film deposited on the FO substrate. In this work, a simple cost-effective colloidal lithography technique (CLT) was adapted and applied for the first time to the micrometer-sized FO substrate, to design end reflection-type FO-SPR sensors with periodic arrays of Au triangularly-shaped nanostructures on the Au mirror FO tip distal end. The nanopatterned FO-SPR sensor tips were afterwards subjected to refractometric measurements in a sucrose dilution series and subsequently compared with their non-patterned counterparts. It was observed that the spectral dips of the nanopatterned FO-SPR sensor tips were shifted towards longer wavelengths after CLT patterning. Moreover, the sensor sensitivity was improved with up to 25% compared to the conventional non-patterned FO-SPR devices. The obtained results represent important steps in the development of a new generation of FO-SPR sensors with improved performance, which can ultimately be used in various applications, ranging from food analysis and environmental monitoring, to health control and medical diagnosis.

  20. Sensing application of an optical fiber dip coated with L-Cystein ethyl ester hydrochloride capped ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaray Madhulita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber in conjunction with ZnTe quantum dots (QDs is investigated for sensing application. ZnTe QDs, are synthesized by a simple chemical bottom up approach. Quantum dots are capped with L-Cystein ethyl ester hydrochloride (LEEH, to increase their stability. Then LEEH capped ZnTe QDs, whose size is estimated as 2.29 nm by effective mass approximation (EMA, are dip-coated on a cladding removed optical fiber. Different concentrations of alcohol and ammonia are used to investigate the sensing behavior. It is found that sensitivity of the sensor increases with the use of QDs for both alcohol and ammonia.

  1. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  2. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.; Parker, J.

    1978-01-01

    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  3. 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canagasabey, A.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.

    2003-01-01

    A study is presented on 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers. It is found that the intrinsic 244-nm photosensitivity of boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers is enhanced by 355-nm hypersensitization. Hypersensitization through standard polymer coating is also demonstrated.

  4. Development of a TiO{sub 2}-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination; Developpement d'un reacteur a base de fibres optiques photocatalytiquement actives pour la depollution de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danion, A

    2004-09-15

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO{sub 2}-coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO{sub 2} coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO{sub 2}- coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  5. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  6. Multimode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  7. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  8. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  9. Fiber optic fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic application of paint was, and still is, the most technically feasible method of reducing VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions, while reducing the cost to apply the coatings. Prior to the use of electrostatics, only two sides of the traditional fire triangle were normally present in the booth, fuel (solvent), and oxygen (air). Now the third leg (the ignition source) was present at virtually all times during the production operation in the form of the electrostatic charge and the resulting energy in the system. The introduction of fiber optics into the field of fire detection was for specific application to the electrostatic painting industry, but specifically, robots used in the application of electrostatic painting in the automotive industry. The use of fiber optics in this hazard provided detection for locations that have been previously prohibited or inaccessible with the traditional fire detection systems. The fiber optic technology that has been adapted to the field of fire detection operates on the principle of transmission of photons through a light guide (optic fiber). When the light guide is subjected to heat, the cladding on the light guide melts away from the core and allows the light (photons) to escape. The controller, which contains the emitter and receiver is set-up to distinguish between partial loss of light and a total loss of light. Glass optical fibers carrying light offer distinct advantages over wires or coaxial cables carrying electricity as a transmission media. The uses of fiber optic detection will be expanded in the near future into such areas as aircraft, cable trays and long conveyor runs because fiber optics can carry more information and deliver it with greater clarity over longer distances with total immunity to all kinds of electrical interference

  10. Optical properties of Lactuca and Taraxacum seed and fruit coats: Their role as light filters [phytochrome, photoblasty, fiber optics, transmission, spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, K.-O.; Vogelmann, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The optical properties of seed and fruit coats were examined from several varieties of light-sensitive achenes. Taraxacum vulgare L. and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dark fruit coats and L. sativa cvs Huvudsallat and Issallat with white fruit coats were examined. Transmission spectra varied among the different achenes: white fruit coats of Lactuca acted as neutral density filters between 450 and 780 nm, whereas Taraxacum transmitted 2–36% in this region. The ribbed fruit coat structure greatly affected transmission so that at different locations in the same coat, transmission varied between 20 to 80% at 660 and 730 nm. Fruit coats of Grand Rapids lettuce and Taraxacum transmitted more far-red than red light with T 660 /T 730 ratios of 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. The relationship between the optical properties of fruit coats and light-stimulated germination is discussed. (author)

  11. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  12. Optical Fiber Grating Hydrogen Sensors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jixiang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Gaopeng; Xiang, Feng; Qin, Yuhuan; Wang, Min; Yang, Minghong

    2017-03-12

    In terms of hydrogen sensing and detection, optical fiber hydrogen sensors have been a research issue due to their intrinsic safety and good anti-electromagnetic interference. Among these sensors, hydrogen sensors consisting of fiber grating coated with sensitive materials have attracted intensive research interests due to their good reliability and distributed measurements. This review paper mainly focuses on optical fiber hydrogen sensors associated with fiber gratings and various materials. Their configurations and sensing performances proposed by different groups worldwide are reviewed, compared and discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the challenges for fiber grating hydrogen sensors are also addressed.

  13. Optical fiber spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Weixin; Tian Guocheng; Ye Guoan; Zhou Zhihong; Cheng Weiwei; Huang Lifeng; Liu Suying; Tang Yanji; Hu Jingxin; Zhao Yonggang

    1998-12-01

    A method called 'Two Arm's Photo out and Electricity Send-back' is introduced. UV-365 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 5 meters long optical fiber. Another method called 'One Arm's Photo out and Photo Send-back' is also introduced. λ 19 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer has been reequipped by this way with 10 meters long optical fiber. Optical fiber spectrophotometer can work as its main set. So it is particularly applicable to radio activity work

  14. Fiber Optic Microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  15. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  16. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  17. Near Infrared Characterization of Hetero-Core Optical Fiber SPR Sensors Coated with Ta2O5 Film and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Watanabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the characteristics of optical fiber sensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR at 1,310 nm in which the scattering loss of silica optical fiber is low. SPR operation in the infrared wavelength range is achieved by coating a thin tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5 film. The novelty of this paper lies in the verification of how the hetero-core scheme could be operated as a commercial base candidate in the sense of easy fabrication, sufficient mechanical strength, and significant sensitivity as a liquid detector under the basis of a low loss transmission network in the near infrared wavelength region. The effect of Ta2O5 layer thickness has been experimentally revealed in the wavelength region extending to 1,800 nm by using the hetero-core structured optical fiber. SPR characterizations have been made in the wavelength region 1,000–1,300 nm, showing the feasible operation at the near infrared wavelength and the possible practical applications. In addition, the technique developed in this work has been interestingly applied to a multi-point water-detection and a water-level gauge in which tandem-connected SPR sensors system using hetero-core structured fibers were incorporated. The detailed performance characteristics are also shown on these applications.

  18. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film Coated Optical Fiber Sensors: A Novel Waveguide-Based Chemical Sensing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Joong; Lu, Ping; Culp, Jeffrey T; Ohodnicki, Paul R

    2018-02-23

    Integration of optical fiber with sensitive thin films offers great potential for the realization of novel chemical sensing platforms. In this study, we present a simple design strategy and high performance of nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) based optical gas sensors, which enables detection of a wide range of concentrations of small molecules based upon extremely small differences in refractive indices as a function of analyte adsorption within the MOF framework. Thin and compact MOF films can be uniformly formed and tightly bound on the surface of etched optical fiber through a simple solution method which is critical for manufacturability of MOF-based sensor devices. The resulting sensors show high sensitivity/selectivity to CO 2 gas relative to other small gases (H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , and CO) with rapid (optical fiber platform which results in an amplification of inherent optical absorption present within the MOF-based sensing layer with increasing values of effective refractive index associated with adsorption of gases.

  19. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  20. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  1. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  2. The strength and failure of silica optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C; Bai, R X; Yu, H; Canning, J; Law, S

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical strength and failure behavior of conventional and microstructured silica optical fibers was investigated using a tensile test and fracture mechanics and numerical analyses. The effect of polymer coating on failure behavior was also studied. The results indicate that all these fibers fail in a brittle manner and failure normally starts from fiber surfaces. The failure loads observed in coated fibers are higher than those in bare fibers. The introduction of air holes reduces fiber strength and their geometrical arrangements have a remarkable effect on stress distribution in the longitudinal direction. These results are potentially useful for the design, fabrication and evaluation of optical fibers for a wide range of applications.

  3. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  4. Improved 3-omega measurement of thermal conductivity in liquid, gases, and powders using a metal-coated optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffres, Scott N; Malen, Jonathan A

    2011-06-01

    A novel 3ω thermal conductivity measurement technique called metal-coated 3ω is introduced for use with liquids, gases, powders, and aerogels. This technique employs a micron-scale metal-coated glass fiber as a heater/thermometer that is suspended within the sample. Metal-coated 3ω exceeds alternate 3ω based fluid sensing techniques in a number of key metrics enabling rapid measurements of small samples of materials with very low thermal effusivity (gases), using smaller temperature oscillations with lower parasitic conduction losses. Its advantages relative to existing fluid measurement techniques, including transient hot-wire, steady-state methods, and solid-wire 3ω are discussed. A generalized n-layer concentric cylindrical periodic heating solution that accounts for thermal boundary resistance is presented. Improved sensitivity to boundary conductance is recognized through this model. Metal-coated 3ω was successfully validated through a benchmark study of gases and liquids spanning two-orders of magnitude in thermal conductivity. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1997-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  6. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.R.; Bayliss, S.C.; Bracken, D.S.; Bush, I.J.; Davis, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  7. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  8. Characterization of electrogenerated polypyrrole-benzophenone films coated on poly(pyrrole-methyl metacrylate) optic-conductive fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabeah, Khalil; Atias, Danit; Herrmann, Sebastien; Frenkel, Julia; Tavor, Dorith; Cosnier, Serge; Marks, Robert S

    2009-09-01

    A conductive surface was created for the development of a biosensing platform via chemical polymerization of pyrrole onto the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibers, with a subsequent electrogeneration of a photoactive linker pyrrole-benzophenone (PyBz) monomer on the fiber surface. Irradiation of the benzophenone groups embedded in the polypyrrole (Ppy) films by UV (350 nm) formed active radicals, allowing covalent attachment of the desired biomaterials. Characterization and optimization of this platform were carried out, with the platform showing conductive, stable, thin, controllable, and light-transmissible film features. Various parameters such as time deposition, process temperature, and activator plus pyrrole monomer concentrations were examined in the study. The morphology and permeability of the optic-fiber PMMA fibers were investigated to examine mass transfer ability. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry techniques were applied to characterize the electrical features of the surface and charge transfer. The platform potential was then demonstrated by the construction of both amperometric and optical biosensors.

  9. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  10. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  11. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  12. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures

  13. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  14. Chemistry Research of Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-27

    BROADENING IN OPTICAL FIBERS Herbert B. Rosenstock* Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 ABSTRACT A light pulse transmitted through a fiber...Marcatili, Marcuse , and Personick, "Dispersion Properties of Fibers" (Ch. 4 in "Optical Fiber Telecommunications," S. E. Miller and A. C. Chynoweth, eds

  15. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (μrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240 Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  16. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  17. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  18. Biosensing with optical fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Baldini, Francesco; Tombelli, Sara; Trono, Cosimo; Giannetti, Ambra

    2017-06-01

    Optical fiber gratings (OFGs), especially long-period gratings (LPGs) and etched or tilted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), are playing an increasing role in the chemical and biochemical sensing based on the measurement of a surface refractive index (RI) change through a label-free configuration. In these devices, the electric field evanescent wave at the fiber/surrounding medium interface changes its optical properties (i.e. intensity and wavelength) as a result of the RI variation due to the interaction between a biological recognition layer deposited over the fiber and the analyte under investigation. The use of OFG-based technology platforms takes the advantages of optical fiber peculiarities, which are hardly offered by the other sensing systems, such as compactness, lightness, high compatibility with optoelectronic devices (both sources and detectors), and multiplexing and remote measurement capability as the signal is spectrally modulated. During the last decade, the growing request in practical applications pushed the technology behind the OFG-based sensors over its limits by means of the deposition of thin film overlays, nanocoatings, and nanostructures, in general. Here, we review efforts toward utilizing these nanomaterials as coatings for high-performance and low-detection limit devices. Moreover, we review the recent development in OFG-based biosensing and identify some of the key challenges for practical applications. While high-performance metrics are starting to be achieved experimentally, there are still open questions pertaining to an effective and reliable detection of small molecules, possibly up to single molecule, sensing in vivo and multi-target detection using OFG-based technology platforms.

  19. Biosensing with optical fiber gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavaioli Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber gratings (OFGs, especially long-period gratings (LPGs and etched or tilted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs, are playing an increasing role in the chemical and biochemical sensing based on the measurement of a surface refractive index (RI change through a label-free configuration. In these devices, the electric field evanescent wave at the fiber/surrounding medium interface changes its optical properties (i.e. intensity and wavelength as a result of the RI variation due to the interaction between a biological recognition layer deposited over the fiber and the analyte under investigation. The use of OFG-based technology platforms takes the advantages of optical fiber peculiarities, which are hardly offered by the other sensing systems, such as compactness, lightness, high compatibility with optoelectronic devices (both sources and detectors, and multiplexing and remote measurement capability as the signal is spectrally modulated. During the last decade, the growing request in practical applications pushed the technology behind the OFG-based sensors over its limits by means of the deposition of thin film overlays, nanocoatings, and nanostructures, in general. Here, we review efforts toward utilizing these nanomaterials as coatings for high-performance and low-detection limit devices. Moreover, we review the recent development in OFG-based biosensing and identify some of the key challenges for practical applications. While high-performance metrics are starting to be achieved experimentally, there are still open questions pertaining to an effective and reliable detection of small molecules, possibly up to single molecule, sensing in vivo and multi-target detection using OFG-based technology platforms.

  20. An electromagnetically actuated fiber optic switch using magnetized ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandojirao-S, Praveen; Dhaubanjar, Naresh; Phuyal, Pratibha C.; Chiao, Mu; Chiao, J.-C.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a fiber optic switch actuated electromagnetically. The ferromagnetic gel coated optical fiber is actuated using external electromagnetic fields. The ferromagnetic gel consists of ferromagnetic powders dispersed in epoxy. The fabrication utilizes a simple cost-effective coating setup. A direct fiberto-fiber alignment eliminates the need for complementary optical parts and the displacement of fiber switches the laser coupling. The magnetic characteristics of magnetized ferromagnetic materials are performed using alternating gradient magnetometer and the magnetic hysteresis curves are measured for different ferromagnetic materials including iron, cobalt, and nickel. Optical fiber switches with various fiber lengths are actuated and their static and dynamic responses for the same volume of ferromagnetic gel are summarized. The highest displacement is 1.345 mm with an input current of 260mA. In this paper, the performance of fiber switches with various coating materials is presented.

  1. Fiber optics: A brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A basic introduction into the principles of fiber optics is presented. A review of both the underlying physical principles and the individual elements of typical fiber-optic systems are presented. The optical phenomenon of total internal reflection is reviewed. The basic construction of the optical fiber is presented. Both step-index and graded-index fiber designs are reviewed. Multimode and single-mode fiber constructions are considered and typical performance parameters given. Typical optical-fiber bandwidth and loss characteristics are compared to various common coaxial cables, waveguides, and air transmission. The constructions of optical-fiber cables are reviewed. Both loose-tube and tightly-buffered designs are considered. Several optical connection approaches are presented. Photographs of several representative optical connectors are included. Light Emitting Diode and Laser Diode emitters for fiber-optic applications are reviewed, and some advantages and shortcomings of each are considered. The phenomenon of modal noise is briefly explained. Both PIN and Avalanche photodetectors are reviewed and their performance parameters compared. Methods of data transmission over optical fiber are introduced. Principles of Wavelength, Frequency, and Time Division Multiplexing are briefly presented. The technology of fiber-optic sensors is briefly reviewed with basic principles introduced. The performance of a fiber-optic strain sensor is included as a practical example. 7 refs., 10 figs

  2. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  3. Introduction to optical fiber sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moukdad, S.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have many advantages over other types of sensors, for example: Low weight, immunity from EMI, electrical isolation, chemical passivity, and high sensitivity. In this seminar, a brief explanation of the optical fiber sensors, their use, and their advantages will be given. After, a description of the main optical fiber sensor components will be presented. Principles of some kinds of optical fiber sensors will be presented, and the principle of the fiber-optic rotation sensor and its realization will be discussed in some details, as well as its main applications. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Photometric device using optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert; Perez, J.-J.

    1981-02-01

    Remote measurements in radioactive environment are now possible with optical fibers. Measurement instruments developed by CEA are constitued of: - an optical probe (5 mm to 1 meter optical path length), - a photometric measurement device, - optical fiber links. 'TELEPHOT' is a photometric device for industrial installations. It is uses interferentiel filters for 2 to 5 simultaneous wave lengths. 'CRUDMETER' measures the muddiness of water. It can be equipped with a high sensitivity cell of 50 cm optical path length tested up to 250 bars. Coupling a double beam spectrophotometer to a remote optical probe, up to 1 meter optical path length, is carried out by means of an optical device using optical fibers links, eventually several hundred meter long. For these equipments special step index large core fibers, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, have been developed as well connectors. For industrial control and research these instruments offer new prospect thanks to optical fibers use [fr

  5. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  6. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  7. Optical fibers for FTTH application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

  8. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  9. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  10. Environmental performance of an elliptical core polarization maintaining optical fiber for fiber optic gyro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Vincent P.; Squires, Emily M.; Watkins, James J.

    1994-03-01

    Corning has introduced a new polarization-maintaining optical fiber to satisfy customer requirements for a range of commercial and military FOG applications. This fiber has an elliptical core, matched-clad design, and is intended for operation in the 780 to 850 nm wavelength region. The fiber has a beat length less than 1.5 mm, attenuation rate less than 10 dB/km, and a typical coiled h-parameter less than 1.5 X 10-4 m-1 in the designated operating wavelength range. It has a cladding diameter of 80 micrometers and a coating diameter of 185 micrometers . The coating is an acrylate system, similar to that used in telecommunications optical fibers. We report on the performance of this elliptical core fiber for a variety of environmental exposures representative of an automotive application.

  11. Fiber-optic seismic sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G. W.; Udd, E.

    1985-01-01

    A vibration sensor is constructed by providing two preferably matched coils of fiber-optic material. When the sensor experiences vibration, a differential pressure is exerted on the two fiber coils. The differential pressure results in a variation in the relative optical path lengths between the two fibers so that light beams transmitted through the two fibers are differently delayed, the phase difference therebetween being a detectable indication of the vibration applied to the sensor

  12. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  13. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  14. Fiber-Optic Sensor Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Constructs and evaluates fiber-optic sensors for a variety of measurands. These measurands include acoustic, pressure, magnetic, and electric field as well...

  15. An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Allred, David D.

    2017-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose tip is coated with a highly conductive, opaque material. When heated, this sensing tip becomes an isothermal cavity that emits like a blackbody. This emission is used to predict the sensing tip temperature. In this work, analytical and experimental research has been conducted to further advance the development of optical fiber thermometry. An inexpensive optical fiber thermometer is developed by applying a thin coating of a high-temperature cement onto the tip of a silica optical fiber. An FTIR spectrometer is used to detect the spectral radiance exiting the fiber. A rigorous mathematical model of the irradiation incident on the detection system is developed. The optical fiber thermometer is calibrated using a blackbody radiator and inverse methods are used to predict the sensing tip temperature when exposed to various heat sources. - Highlights: • An inexpensive coating for an optical fiber thermometer sensing tip is tested. • Inverse heat transfer methods are used to estimate the sensing tip temperature. • An FTIR spectrometer is used as the detector to test the optical fiber thermometer using various heat sources.

  16. Fiber optic strain measurements using an optically-active polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Leonard J.; Neumeister, Gary C.

    1992-03-01

    A study encompassing the use of an optically-active polymer as the strain-sensing medium in an organic matrix composite was performed. Several compounds were synthesized for use as the inner cladding material for silica fiber-optic cores. These materials include a diacetylene containing polyamide. It is possible to dynamically modify the optical properties of these materials through changes in applied strain or temperature. By doing so the characteristic absorption in the visible is reversibly shifted to a higher energy state. The polymer-coated fiber-optic cores were initially studied in epoxy resin. Additionally, one of the polyamide/diacetylene polymers was studied in a spin-fiber form consisting of 15 micron filaments assembled in multifilament tows. The most promising configuration and materials were then investigated further by embedding in graphite/epoxy composite laminates. In each case the shift in the visible absorption peak was monitored as a function of applied mechanical strain.

  17. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  18. Anisotropic effective permittivity of an ultrathin gold coating on optical fiber in air, water and saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Mandia, David J; Barry, Seán T; Albert, Jacques

    2014-12-29

    The optical properties of an ultrathin discontinuous gold film in different dielectric surroundings are investigated experimentally by measuring the polarization-dependent wavelength shifts and amplitudes of the cladding mode resonances of a tilted fiber Bragg grating. The gold film was prepared by electron-beam evaporation and had an average thickness of 5.5 nm ( ± 1 nm). Scanning electron imaging was used to determine that the film is actually formed of individual particles with average lateral dimensions of 28 nm ( ± 8 nm). The complex refractive indices of the equivalent uniform film in air at a wavelength of 1570 nm were calculated from the measurements to be 4.84-i0.74 and 3.97-i0.85 for TM and TE polarizations respectively (compared to the value for bulk gold: 0.54-i10.9). Additionally, changes in the birefringence and dichroism of the films were measured as a function of the surrounding medium, in air, water and a saturated NaCl (salt) solution. These results show that the film has stronger dielectric behavior for TM light than for TE, a trend that increases with increasing surrounding index. Finally, the experimental results are compared to predictions from two widely used effective medium approximations, the generalized Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman theories for gold particles in a surrounding matrix. It is found that both of these methods fail to predict the observed behavior for the film considered.

  19. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  20. Investigation of passive and active silica-tin oxide nanostructured optical fibers fabricated by " inverse dip-coating " and " powder in tube " method based on the chemical sol-gel process and laser emission

    OpenAIRE

    Granger , Geoffroy; Restoin , Christine; Roy , Philippe; Jamier , Raphaël; Rougier , Sébastien; Duclere , Jean-René; Lecomte , André; Dauliat , Romain; Blondy , Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a study of original nanostructured optical fibers based on the SiO 2-SnO 2-(Yb 3+) system. Two different processes have been developed and compared: the sol-gel chemical method associated to the " inverse dip-coating " (IDC) and the " powder in tube " (PIT) process. The microstructural and optical properties of the fibers are studied according to the concentration of SnO 2. X-Ray Diffraction as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy studies show t...

  1. Optical fiber powered pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, P.; Neveux, L.; Ostrowsky, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the system described, a pressure sensor and its associated electronics are optically powered by a 20 mw laser and a photovoltaic cell via an optical fiber. The sensor is periodically interrogated and sends the measures obtained back to the central unit using an LED and a second fiber. The results obtained as well as the expected evolution will be described

  2. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  3. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  4. Fiber optic sensor and method for making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

    2010-05-18

    A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

  5. Multicore optical fiber grating array fabrication for medical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Paul S.; Feder, K. S.; Kremp, T.; Taunay, T. F.; Monberg, E.; Puc, G.; Ortiz, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we report on a fiber grating fabrication platform suitable for parallel fabrication of Bragg grating arrays over arbitrary lengths of multicore optical fiber. Our system exploits UV transparent coatings and has precision fiber translation that allows for quasi-continuous grating fabrication. Our system is capable of both uniform and chirped fiber grating array spectra that can meet the demands of medical sensors including high speed, accuracy, robustness and small form factor.

  6. Fiber optic spectrophotometer with photodiode linear array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, F.; Vernet, P.

    1988-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements are used in a great number of industrial processes, in nuclear environment and with optical precision components. Especially the evolution of a chemical process or of an optical coating could be followed by these measurements. Spectrophotometers, using optical fibers to transport the signal out of the instrument make possible the measurement ''in-situ'' and in real time. The advantage of using a diode array to detect the signal is an instantaneous measurement all over the spectral range without moving parts. It allows an excellent reproductibility. The instrument is controlled by a micro computer. The spectrophotometer is described and technical performance presented. An extension using optical fibers on a ''classical'' spectrophotometer (a H.P. one) is also described and technical performance presented

  7. Polymer optical fiber bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Scott Wu; Andresen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings are reported. We have written fiber Bragg gratings for 1550 nm and 850 nm operations, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  8. Fiber Optics: A Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of the impact of fiber optics on telecommunications and its application to information processing and library services, including information retrieval, news services, remote transmission of library services, and library networking. (RAA)

  9. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  10. Detection of volatile organic compounds using an optical fiber sensor coated with a sol-gel silica layer containing immobilized Nile red

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejun; Lian, Xiaokang; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Han, Wei; Wei, Fangfang; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    A simple volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor based on a tapered small core singlemode fiber (SCSMF) structure is reported. The tapered SCSMF fiber structure with a waist diameter of 7.0 μm is fabricated using a customized microheater brushing technique. Silica based material containing immobilized Nile red was prepared by a sol-gel method and was used as a coating applied to the surface of the tapered fiber structure. Different coating thicknesses created by a 2-pass and 4-pass coating process are investigated. The experiments demonstrate that both sensors show a linear response at different gas concentrations to all three tested VOCs (methanol, ethanol and acetone). The sensor with a thicker coating shows better sensitivities but longer response and recovery times. The best measurement resolutions for the 4-pass coating sensor are estimated to be 2.3 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 3.1 ppm for methanol, ethanol and acetone, respectively. The fastest response and recovery time of 1 min and 5 min are demonstrated by the sensor in the case of methanol.

  11. Engineering modes in optical fibers with metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger; Qiu, Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a preliminary theoretical study on optical fibers with fine material inclusions whose geometrical inhomogeneity is almost indistinguishable by the operating wavelength.We refer to such fibers as metamaterial optical fibers, which can conceptually be considered...... as an extension from the previously much publicized microstructured optical fibers. Metamaterials can have optical properties not obtainable in naturally existing materials, including artificial anisotropy as well as graded material properties. Therefore, incorporation of metamaterial in optical fiber designs can...

  12. Radiation damage in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.; Ogle, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Optical fibers provide important advantages over coaxial cables for many data transmission applications. Some of these applications require that the fibers transmit data during a radiation pulse. Other applications utilize the fiber as a radiation-to-light transducer. In either case, radiation-induced luminescence and absorption must be understood. Most studies of radiation effects in fibers have emphasized time scales of interest in telecommunication systems, from the msec to hour range. Few studies have concentrated on response at times below 1 + s. At Los Alamos, both laboratory electron accelerators and nuclear tests have been used as radiation sources to probe this early time region. The use of a fiber (or any optical medium) as a Cerenkov radiation-to-light transducer is discussed. Since the radiation induces attenuation in the medium, the light output is not proportional to the radiation input. The nonlinearity introduced by this attenuation is calculated

  13. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  14. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  15. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  16. Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ∼100  mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ∼30  mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments.

  17. Enabling technologies for fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-04-01

    In order for fiber optic sensors to compete with electrical sensors, several critical parameters need to be addressed such as performance, cost, size, reliability, etc. Relying on technologies developed in different industrial sectors helps to achieve this goal in a more efficient and cost effective way. FAZ Technology has developed a tunable laser based optical interrogator based on technologies developed in the telecommunication sector and optical transducer/sensors based on components sourced from the automotive market. Combining Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology with the above, high speed, high precision, reliable quasi distributed optical sensing systems for temperature, pressure, acoustics, acceleration, etc. has been developed. Careful design needs to be considered to filter out any sources of measurement drifts/errors due to different effects e.g. polarization and birefringence, coating imperfections, sensor packaging etc. Also to achieve high speed and high performance optical sensing systems, combining and synchronizing multiple optical interrogators similar to what has been used with computer/processors to deliver super computing power is an attractive solution. This path can be achieved by using photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology which opens the doors to scaling up and delivering powerful optical sensing systems in an efficient and cost effective way.

  18. Numerical Investigations on a Distributed Fiber-Optic Lighting System with an End Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhua; Gong Huaping; Tu Yumeng; Meng Ying

    2011-01-01

    A novel distributed fiber-optic decorative lighting system with the reflection coating on the extremity of fiber-optic is designed, which used the multi-mold optical fiber made up of large core diameter(Diameter of core and cladding is 105μm and 125μm, respectly). After introducing the distributional optical fiber decorative lighting system briefly, the ralationship between corrosion depth of the optical fiber core and the leakage of fiber-optic has been analyzed with the Rsoft, and then the relationship of the lighting power and the uniformity of lighting power with the leakage rate of optical fiber lamp, the reflective of reflection coating has been discussed.The simulation analysis shows that, when the core diameter is corroded to 80∼85 μm, the leakage rate of optical fiber may achieve 5.0%, which suits the optical fiber decorative lighting. Considering all kinds of factors, when optical fiber lamp's quantity is 20, the coating index of reflection is 95%, optical fiber lamp's leakage of light rate is 5.0%, and the optical fiber lamp's distance is 1 meter, the quite high illuminating power may be achieved, as well as the good lighting uniformity.Finally the experimental study of decorative lighting system is given. And the experimental result is in keeping well with the theory simulation conclusion.

  19. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battiato, James

    1998-01-01

    Coupled mode theory was used to model reflection fiber gratings. The effects of experimental parameters on grating characteristics were modeled for both uniform and non-uniform grating profiles using this approach...

  1. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  2. Shipboard Smoke Detection with Optical Fiber Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitesel, Henry

    1994-01-01

    ...) and scattering across an air gap. Utilizing spectrographic techniques and dual detector designs potentially compensates for optical power changes, ambient light changes, dirt coatings, and water coatings...

  3. Hydrodynamic Coating of a Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, D.; de Ryck, A.

    We discuss how a solid (especially a fiber) is coated when drawn out of a bath of liquid. 1. For slow withdrawals out of pure viscous liquids, the data are found to be fitted by the famous Landau law: then, the coating results from a balance between viscosity and capillarity. For quicker withdrawals, the thickness of the entrained film suddenly diverges, at a velocity on order 1 m/s. Inertia is shown to be responsible for this effect. At still higher velocities, the thickness decreases with the velocity because the solid can only entrain the viscous boundary layer. 2. For complex fluids, surface effects are found in the low velocity regime: out of a surfactant solution, films are thicker than predicted by Landau, by a factor of order 2. The thickening factor is shown to be fixed by the Marangoni flow due to the presence of surfactants; out of an emulsion, the film can be enriched with oil , which can be understood by a simple model of capture; out of a polymer solution, a strong swelling of the film is observed if normal stresses are present. Hence, the problem has two families of solution: (i) at low velocity, the thickness of the layer is fixed by a balance between viscous and surface forces and thus is sensitive to the presence of surfactants, or other heterogeneities; (ii) at high velocity, inertia must be considered and the film thickness is fixed by the bulk properties of the liquid (density and viscosity). In these regimes, it is not affected by the presence of surfactants in the bath. Nous décrivons le dépôt de liquide sur un solide (le plus souvent une fibre) qui advient quand on tire ce solide d'un bain. 1. Si le retrait se fait lentement hors d'un liquide pur et visqueux, les données expérimentales suivent la loi de Landau : le dépôt résulte d'un compromis entre forces visqueuses et forces capillaires. Pour des retraits plus rapides, on observe que l'épaisseur du dépôt diverge, pour une vitesse de l'ordre du mètre par seconde. Nous montrons

  4. Optical fiber meta-tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Maria; Micco, Alberto; Crescitelli, Alessio; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; La Ferrara, Vera; Galdi, Vincenzo; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first example of a "meta-tip" configuration that integrates a metasurface on the tip of an optical fiber. Our proposed design is based on an inverted-Babinet plasmonic metasurface obtained by patterning (via focused ion beam) a thin gold film deposited on the tip of an optical fiber, so as to realize an array of rectangular aperture nanoantennas with spatially modulated sizes. By properly tuning the resonances of the aperture nanoantennas, abrupt variations can be impressed in the field wavefront and polarization. We fabricated and characterized several proof-of-principle prototypes operating an near-infrared wavelengths, and implementing the beam-steering (with various angles) of the cross-polarized component, as well as the excitation of surface waves. Our results pave the way to the integration of the exceptional field-manipulation capabilities enabled by metasurfaces with the versatility and ubiquity of fiber-optics technological platforms.

  5. Study of the technics of coating stripping and FBG writing on polyimide fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, ZhiQiang; Qi, HaiFeng; Ni, JiaSheng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    Compared with ordinary optical fiber, polyimide fiber has the characteristics of high temperature resistance and high strength, which has important application in the field of optical fiber sensing. The common methods of polyimide coating stripping were introduced in this paper, including high temperature stripping, chemical stripping and arc ablation. In order to meet the requirements of FBG writing technology, a method using argon ion laser ablation coating was proposed. The method can precisely control the stripping length of the coating and completely does not affect the tensile strength of the optical fiber. According to the experiment, the fabrication process of polyimide FBG is stripping-hydrogen loadingwriting. Under the same conditions, 10 FBG samples were fabricated with good uniformity of wavelength bandwidth and reflectivity. UV laser ablation of polyimide coating has been proved to be a safe, reliable and efficient method.

  6. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  7. Enhancing Optical Communications with Brand New Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morioka, Toshio; Awaji, Yoshinari; Ryf, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have often been considered to offer effectively infinite capacity to support the rapid traffic growth essential to our information society. However, as demand has grown and technology has developed, we have begun to realize that there is a fundamental limit to fiber capacity of ~ 100...... Tb/s per fiber for systems based on conventional single-core single-mode optical fiber as the transmission medium. This limit arises from the interplay of a number of factors including the Shannon limit, optical fiber nonlinearities, the fiber fuse effect, as well as optical amplifier bandwidth...... new fibers for space-division multiplexing and mode-division multiplexing....

  8. Handbook of fiber optics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Chai

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Yeh supplies a firm theoretical foundation in such topics as propagation of light through fibers, fiber fabrication, loss mechanisms, and dispersion properties. He then expands from this into such practical areas as fiber splicing, measuring loss in fibers, fiber-based communications networks, remote fiber sensors, and integrated optics. Whether involved in fiber optics research, design, or practical implementation of systems, this handbook will be extremely useful.Key Features* Here is a comprehensive, ""one-stop"" reference with state-of-the-art information on fiber optics Included is da

  9. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  10. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  11. Fiber optic evanescent wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1991-09-01

    The role of modern analytical chemistry is not restricted to quality control and environmental surveillance, but has been extended to process control using on-line analytical techniques. Besides industrial applications, highly specific, ultra-sensitive biochemical analysis becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool, both in central clinical laboratories and in the doctor's office. Fiber optic sensor technology can fulfill many of the requirements for both types of applications. As an example, the experimental arrangement of a fiber optic sensor for biochemical affinity assays is presented. The evanescent electromagnetic field, associated with a light ray guided in an optical fiber, is used for the excitation of luminescence labels attached to the biomolecules in solution to be analyzed. Due to the small penetration depth of the evanescent field into the medium, the generation of luminescence is restricted to the close proximity of the fiber, where, e.g., the luminescent analyte molecules combine with their affinity partners, which are immobilized on the fiber. Both cw- and pulsed light excitation can be used in evanescent wave sensor technology, enabling the on-line observation of an affinity assay on a macroscopic time scale (seconds and minutes), as well as on a microscopic, molecular time scale (nanoseconds or microseconds).

  12. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  13. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible

  14. Applications of fiber optics in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckle, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors

  15. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  16. Catching Attention in Fiber Optics Class

    OpenAIRE

    Kezerashvili, R. Ya.; Leng, L.

    2004-01-01

    Following a brief review on the history and the current development of fiber optics, the significance of teaching fiber optics for science and non-science major college students is addressed. Several experimental demonstrations designed to aid the teaching and learning process in fiber optics lectures are presented. Sample laboratory projects are also proposed to help the students to understand the physical principles of fiber optics.

  17. Fiber Optics: Deregulate and Deploy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwinski, Jan H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes fiber optic technology, explains its use in education and commercial settings, and recommends regulations and legislation that will speed its use to create broadband information networks. Topics discussed include distance learning; interactive video; costs; and the roles of policy makers, lawmakers, public advocacy groups, and consumers.…

  18. A study of tribological behaviors of the phenolic composite coating reinforced with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haojie; Zhang Zhaozhu; Luo Zhuangzhu

    2007-01-01

    The nitric acid treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces, thereafter these fibers (CFO) and unmodified carbon fibers (CF) were incorporated into the phenolic composite coating for wear investigations. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Tribological behaviors of carbon fibers filled phenolic coatings were investigated using a ring on block wear tests under dry friction condition, and the worn surfaces and the transfer films formed on the surface of counterpart ring were, respectively, studied by SEM and optical microscope. The results show that the additions of carbon fibers were able to reduce the friction coefficient of the phenolic coating and enhance the wear life of it, especially, the wear life of the phenolic coating was the best when content of carbon fibers is at 10 wt.%. Moreover, we found that the friction and wear behaviors of the phenolic coating reinforced with 10 wt.% CFO were better than those of the coating reinforced with 10 wt.% CF. FTIR and XPS analyses indicated that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the oxidated treatment. In both cases, appropriate treatments could effectively improve the mechanical and tribological properties in the phenolic composite coating due to the enhanced fiber-matrix interfacial bonding

  19. All-optical fiber compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Luben M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple all-optical fiber compressor, based on an idea of dispersion management using a fiber of positive dispersion in the first part and of negative dispersion in the second one at the working wavelength, is investigated. The method allows a combination of the advantages of the classic fiber-grating and of the multisoliton compression. It is possible to improve substantially the quality of the compressed pulse compared to the multisoliton compression. The compression factor could be increased up to 2-2.5 times when the fraction of the input pulse energy appearing within the compressed pulse enhances more than 2 times. Thus, the peak power of the compressed pulse is able to increase about 5 times and the quality of the obtained pulses should be comparable with those obtained by the fiber-grating compressor

  20. Nonlinear fiber optics formerly quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    1995-01-01

    The field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown substantially since the First Edition of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, published in 1989. Like the First Edition, this Second Edition is a comprehensive, tutorial, and up-to-date account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes widely scattered research material and presents it in an accessible manner for students and researchers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of nonlinear fiber optics. Particular attention is paid to the importance of nonlinear effects in the design of optical fiber communication systems. This is

  1. Optical fibers and RF a natural combination

    CERN Document Server

    Romeiser, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The optical fiber industry has experienced a period of consolidation and reorganization and is now poised for a new surge in growth. To take advantage of that growth, and to respond to the demand to use fiber more efficiently, designers need a better understanding of fiber optics. Taking the approach that optical fibers are an extension of RF-based communications, the author explains basic optical concepts, applications, and systems; the nature and performance characteristics of optical fibers; and optical sources, connectors and splices. Subsequent chapters explore current applications of fib

  2. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  4. Career Directions--Fiber Optic Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber that is roughly the diameter of a human hair. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Each optical fiber is capable of carrying an enormous amount of…

  5. Overview of Fiber-Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaula, Ramon P.; Moore, Emery L.

    1987-01-01

    Design, development, and sensitivity of sensors using fiber optics reviewed. State-of-the-art and probable future developments of sensors using fiber optics described in report including references to work in field. Serves to update previously published surveys. Systems incorporating fiber-optic sensors used in medical diagnosis, navigation, robotics, sonar, power industry, and industrial controls.

  6. Supersymmetric Transformations in Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Andrés; Llorente, Roberto; García-Meca, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently emerged as a tool to design unique optical structures with degenerate spectra. Here, we study several fundamental aspects and variants of one-dimensional SUSY in axially symmetric optical media, including their basic spectral features and the conditions for degeneracy breaking. Surprisingly, we find that the SUSY degeneracy theorem is partially (totally) violated in optical systems connected by isospectral (broken) SUSY transformations due to a degradation of the paraxial approximation. In addition, we show that isospectral constructions provide a dimension-independent design control over the group delay in SUSY fibers. Moreover, we find that the studied unbroken and isospectral SUSY transformations allow us to generate refractive-index superpartners with an extremely large phase-matching bandwidth spanning the S +C +L optical bands. These singular features define a class of optical fibers with a number of potential applications. To illustrate this, we numerically demonstrate the possibility of building photonic lanterns supporting broadband heterogeneous supermodes with large effective area, a broadband all-fiber true-mode (de)multiplexer requiring no mode conversion, and different mode-filtering, mode-conversion, and pulse-shaping devices. Finally, we discuss the possibility of extrapolating our results to acoustics and quantum mechanics.

  7. Erbium Doped Fiber Optic Gravimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G G; Pérez-Torres, J R; Flores-Bravo, J A; Álvarez-Chávez, J A; Martínez-Piñón, F

    2017-01-01

    Gravimeters are devices that can be used in a wide range of applications, such as mining, seismology, geodesy, archeology, geophysics and many others. These devices have great sensibility, which makes them susceptible to external vibrations like electromagnetic waves. There are several technologies regarding gravimeters that are of use in industrial metrology. Optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, and together with long period gratings can form high sensibility sensors of small size, offering advantages over other systems with different technologies. This paper shows the development of an optical fiber gravimeter doped with Erbium that was characterized optically for loads going from 1 to 10 kg in a bandwidth between 1590nm to 1960nm, displaying a weight linear response against power. Later on this paper, the experimental results show that the previous described behavior can be modeled as characteristic function of the sensor. (paper)

  8. Nanostructured sapphire optical fiber for sensing in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Kai; Ma, Yiwei; Tian, Fei; Du, Henry

    2017-05-01

    We describe an innovative and scalable strategy of transforming a commercial unclad sapphire optical fiber to an allalumina nanostructured sapphire optical fiber (NSOF) that overcomes decades-long challenges faced in the field of sapphire fiber optics. The strategy entails fiber coating with metal Al followed by subsequent anodization to form anodized alumina oxide (AAO) cladding of highly organized pore channel structure. We show that Ag nanoparticles entrapped in AAO show excellent structural and morphological stability and less susceptibility to oxidation for potential high-temperature surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). We reveal, with aid of numerical simulations, that the AAO cladding greatly increases the evanescent-field overlap both in power and extent and that lower porosity of AAO results in higher evanescent-field overlap. This work has opened the door to new sapphire fiber-based sensor design and sensor architecture.

  9. Magneto-Optic Field Coupling in Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Gregory P. (Inventor); Mohanchandra, Panduranga K. (Inventor); Emmons, Michael C. (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention is a magneto-optic coupled magnetic sensor that comprises a standard optical fiber Bragg grating system. The system includes an optical fiber with at least one Bragg grating therein. The optical fiber has at least an inner core and a cladding that surrounds the inner core. The optical fiber is part of an optical system that includes an interrogation device that provides a light wave through the optical fiber and a system to determine the change in the index of refraction of the optical fiber. The cladding of the optical fiber comprises at least a portion of which is made up of ferromagnetic particles so that the ferromagnetic particles are subject to the light wave provided by the interrogation system. When a magnetic field is present, the ferromagnetic particles change the optical properties of the sensor directly.

  10. Consequences of TiO.sub.2./sub. doping on the optical properties of porous silica layers coated on silica optical fibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdelmalek, F.; Lacroix, M.; Chovelon, J. M.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Berková, Daniela; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kašík, Ivan; Chomát, Miroslav; Gagnaire, H.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 340, 1/2 (1999), s. 280-287 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/98/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical sensors * optical fibres Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.101, year: 1999

  11. Engineering surface plasmon based fiber-optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, Anuj; Muth, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Ordered arrays of nanoholes with subwavelength diameters, and submicron array periodicity were fabricated on the tips of gold-coated optical fibers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. This provided a convenient platform for evaluating extraordinary transmission of light through subwavelength apertures and allowed the implementation of nanostructures for surface plasmon engineered sensors. The fabrication procedure was straightforward and implemented on single mode and multimode optical fibers as well as etched and tapered fiber tips. Control of the periodicity and spacing of the nanoholes allowed the wavelength of operation to be tailored. Large changes in optical transmission were observed at the designed wavelengths, depending on the surrounding refractive index, allowing the devices to be used as fiber-optic sensors

  12. Engineering surface plasmon based fiber-optic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, Anuj [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Muth, John F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)], E-mail: muth@unity.ncsu.edu

    2008-04-15

    Ordered arrays of nanoholes with subwavelength diameters, and submicron array periodicity were fabricated on the tips of gold-coated optical fibers using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. This provided a convenient platform for evaluating extraordinary transmission of light through subwavelength apertures and allowed the implementation of nanostructures for surface plasmon engineered sensors. The fabrication procedure was straightforward and implemented on single mode and multimode optical fibers as well as etched and tapered fiber tips. Control of the periodicity and spacing of the nanoholes allowed the wavelength of operation to be tailored. Large changes in optical transmission were observed at the designed wavelengths, depending on the surrounding refractive index, allowing the devices to be used as fiber-optic sensors.

  13. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  14. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  15. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  16. Textile fibers coated with carbon nanotubes for smart clothing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Sandra; Lalek, Bartłomiej; Janczak, Daniel; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Łucja; Krzemiński, Jakub; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Łekawa-Raus, Agnieszka

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials: graphene, fullerenes and in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are extremely interesting and extraordinary materials. It is mostly thanks to theirs unusual electrical and mechanical properties. Carbon nanotubes are increasingly examined to enable its usage in many fields of science and technology. It has been reported that there is a high possibility to use CNTs in electronics, optics, material engineering, biology or medicine. However, this material still interests and inspire scientists around the world and the list of different CNTs applications is constantly expanding. In this paper we are presenting a study on the possibility of application carbon nanotubes as a textile fiber coating for smart clothing applications. Various suspensions and pastes containing CNTs have been prepared as a possible coating onto textile fibers. Different application techniques have also been tested. Those techniques included painting with nanotube suspension, spray coating of suspensions and immersion. Following textile fibers were subject to tests: cotton, silk, polyester, polyamide and wool. Obtained composites materials were then characterized electrically by measuring the electrical resistance.

  17. Fiber optics physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. It began with telephone, then came telefax and email. Today we use search engines, music downloads and internet videos, all of which require shuffling of bits and bytes by the zillions. The key to all this is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat all other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul; wireless devices rely on fibers, too. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative ...

  18. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  19. Fiber optic vibration sensor using bifurcated plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Bidin, N.; Yasin, M.

    2016-11-01

    An extrinsic fiber optic vibration sensor is demonstrated for a fiber optic displacement sensor based on a bundled multimode fiber to measure a vibration frequency ranging from 100 until 3000 Hz. The front slope has a sensitivity of 0.1938mV/mm and linearity of 99.7% within a measurement range between 0.15-3.00 mm. By placing the diaphragm of the concave load-speaker within the linear range from the probe, the frequency of the vibration can be measured with error percentage of less than 1.54%. The graph of input against output frequency for low, medium and high frequency range show very high linearity up to 99%. Slope for low, medium, and high frequency range are calculated as 1.0026, 0.9934, and 1.0007 respectively. Simplicity, long term stability, low power consumption, wide dynamic and frequency ranges, noise reduction, ruggedness, linearity and light weight make it promising alternative to other well-establish methods for vibration frequency measurement.

  20. Interferometric optical fiber microcantilever beam biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavering, Thomas A.; Meller, Scott A.; Evans, Mishell K.; Pennington, Charles; Jones, Mark E.; VanTassell, Roger; Murphy, Kent A.; Velander, William H.; Valdes, E.

    2000-12-01

    With the proliferation of biological weapons, the outbreak of food poisoning occurrences, and the spread of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria, the demand has arisen for portable systems capable of rapid, specific, and quantitative target detection. The ability to detect minute quantities of targets will provide the means to quickly assess a health hazardous situation so that the appropriate response can be orchestrated. Conventional test results generally require hours or even several days to be reported, and there is no change for real-time feedback. An interferometric optical fiber microcantilever beam biosensor has successfully demonstrated real time detection of target molecules. The microcantilever biosensor effectively combines advanced technology from silicon micromachining, optical fiber sensor, and biochemistry to create a novel detection device. This approach utilizes affinity coatings on micromachiend cantilever beams to attract target molecules. The presence of the target molecule causes bending in the cantilever beam, which is monitored using an optical displacement system. Dose-response trials have shown measured responses at nanogram/ml concentrations of target molecules. Sensitivity is expected to extend from the nanogram to the picogram range of total captured mass as the microcantilever sensors are optimized.

  1. Use of optical fibers in spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of single or small numbers of fiber optic fibers in astronomical spectroscopy with the goal of greater spectrophotometric and radial velocity accuracy is discussed. The properties of multimode step index fibers which are most important for this application are outlined, as are laboratory tests of currently available fibers.

  2. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Morisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-coated polycarbonate (PC. Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a fast response time less than 1 minute.

  3. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Morisawa; Shinzo Muto

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-)coated polycarbonate (PC). Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a...

  4. Effect of boron nitride coating on fiber-matrix interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.; Brun, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Coatings can modify fiber-matrix reactions and consequently interfacial bond strengths. Commercially available mullite, silicon carbide, and carbon fibers were coated with boron nitride via low pressure chemical vapor deposition and incorporated into a mullite matrix by hot-pressing. The influence of fiber-matrix interactions for uncoated fibers on fracture morphologies was studied. These observations are related to the measured values of interfacial shear strengths

  5. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  6. Fiber Optics Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2010-01-01

    Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

  7. Surface modification and characterization of aramid fibers with hybrid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianrui; Zhu, Yaofeng; Ni, Qingqing; Fu, Yaqin, E-mail: fyq01@zstu.edu.cn; Fu, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aramid fibers modification sizing synthesized by sol–gel in the absence of water. • The strength and interfacial adhesion property of modified fibers were improved. • Modified fibers show a special surface structure. • The mechanism explains the function of structure. - Abstract: Aramid fibers were modified through solution dip-coating and interfacial in situ polymerization using a newly synthesized SiO{sub 2}/shape memory polyurethane (SiO{sub 2}/SMPU) hybrid. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the synthesized SiO{sub 2}/SMPU hybrid successfully coated the fiber surface. The surface morphology of the aramid fibers and the single fiber tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the composites were determined. The IFSS of the fiber coated with the hybrid improved by 45%, which benefited from a special “pizza-like” structure on the fiber surface.

  8. Surface modification and characterization of aramid fibers with hybrid coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianrui; Zhu, Yaofeng; Ni, Qingqing; Fu, Yaqin; Fu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aramid fibers modification sizing synthesized by sol–gel in the absence of water. • The strength and interfacial adhesion property of modified fibers were improved. • Modified fibers show a special surface structure. • The mechanism explains the function of structure. - Abstract: Aramid fibers were modified through solution dip-coating and interfacial in situ polymerization using a newly synthesized SiO 2 /shape memory polyurethane (SiO 2 /SMPU) hybrid. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the synthesized SiO 2 /SMPU hybrid successfully coated the fiber surface. The surface morphology of the aramid fibers and the single fiber tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the composites were determined. The IFSS of the fiber coated with the hybrid improved by 45%, which benefited from a special “pizza-like” structure on the fiber surface

  9. Radiation hardening of optical fibers and fiber sensors for space applications: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Pinsard, E.; Laurent, A.; Ladaci, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Mescia, L.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-11-01

    In these ICSO proceedings, we review recent advances from our group concerning the radiation hardening of optical fiber and fiber-based sensors for space applications and compare their benefits to state-of-the-art results. We focus on the various approaches we developed to enhance the radiation tolerance of two classes of optical fibers doped with rare-earths: the erbium (Er)-doped ones and the ytterbium/erbium (Er/Yb)-doped ones. As a first approach, we work at the component level, optimizing the fiber structure and composition to reduce their intrinsically high radiation sensitivities. For the Erbium-doped fibers, this has been achieved using a new structure for the fiber that is called Hole-Assisted Carbon Coated (HACC) optical fibers whereas for the Er/Ybdoped optical fibers, their hardening was successfully achieved adding to the fiber, the Cerium element, that prevents the formation of the radiation-induced point defects responsible for the radiation induced attenuation in the infrared part of the spectrum. These fibers are used as part of more complex systems like amplifiers (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier, EDFA or Yb-EDFA) or source (Erbium-doped Fiber Source, EDFS or Yb- EDFS), we discuss the impact of using radiation-hardened fibers on the system radiation vulnerability and demonstrate the resistance of these systems to radiation constraints associated with today and future space missions. Finally, we will discuss another radiation hardening approach build in our group and based on a hardening-by-system strategy in which the amplifier is optimized during its elaboration for its future mission considering the radiation effects and not in-lab.

  10. Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2005-01-01

    the waveguiding mechanism of LC filled PCFs. The principle of tunable fibers based on LCs is thereafter discussed and an alignment and coating study of LC in capillaries is presented. Next, the Liquid Crystal Photonic BandGap (LCPBG) fiber is presented and the waveguiding mechanism is analyzed through plane...... hole. The presence of a LC in the holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) guiding type into a Photonic BandGap (PBG) guiding type, where light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-billed holes. The high dielectric and optical anisotropy...

  11. Metal-coated semiconductor nanostructures and simulation of photon extraction and coupling to optical fibers for a solid-state single-photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suemune, Ikuo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Liu, Xiangming; Odashima, Satoru; Asano, Tomoya; Iijima, Hitoshi; Huh, Jae-Hoon; Idutsu, Yasuhiro; Sasakura, Hirotaka; Kumano, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    We have realized metal-coated semiconductor nanostructures for a stable and efficient single-photon source (SPS) and demonstrated improved single-photon extraction efficiency by the selection of metals and nanostructures. We demonstrate with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations that inclination of a pillar sidewall, which changes the structure to a nanocone, is effective in improving the photon extraction efficiency. We demonstrate how such nanocone structures with inclined sidewalls are fabricated with reactive ion etching. With the optimized design, a photon extraction efficiency to outer airside as high as ∼97% generated from a quantum dot in a nanocone structure is simulated, which is the important step in realizing SPS on-demand operations. We have also examined the direct contact of such a metal-embedded nanocone structure with a single-mode fiber facet as a simple and practical method for preparing fiber-coupled SPS and demonstrated practical coupling efficiencies of ∼16% with FDTD simulation. (paper)

  12. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  13. Time domain optical spectrometry with fiber optic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrometers which use optical fibers to obtain time domain spectral dispersion are reviewed. Pulse transmission through fiber optic waveguides is discussed and the basic requirements for sources and detectors are given. Multiplex spectrometry and time-of-flight spectrometry are then discussed. Resolution, fiber requirements, instrumentation and specific spectrometers are presented

  14. Soliton robustness in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menyuk, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Simulations and experiments indicate that solitons in optical fibers are robust in the presence of Hamiltonian deformations such as higher-order dispersion and birefringence but are destroyed in the presence of non-Hamiltonian deformations such as attenuation and the Raman effect. Two hypotheses are introduced that generalize these observations and give a recipe for when deformations will be Hamiltonian. Concepts from nonlinear dynamics are used to make these two hypotheses plausible. Soliton stabilization with frequency filtering is also briefly discussed from this point of view

  15. Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are reported. We have written 3mm FBGs for 1550nm operation, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer.......Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are reported. We have written 3mm FBGs for 1550nm operation, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  16. Optical interference coatings for optics and photonics [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Optical interference coatings play as an important role in the progress in optics and photonics. In this article we give a minireview of the evolution of optical interference coatings from the theory, the design, to the manufacture. Some interesting but challenging topics for the future are also discussed.

  17. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  18. Laboratory Equipment Type Fiber Optic Refractometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Carome

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Using fiber optics and micro optics technologies we designed aninnovative fiber optic index of refraction transducer that has uniqueproperties. On the base of this transducer a laboratory equipment typefiber optic refractometer was developed for liquid index of refractionmeasurements. Such refractometer may be used for medical,pharmaceutical, industrial fluid, petrochemical, plastic, food, andbeverage industry applications. For example, it may be used formeasuring the concentrations of aqueous solutions: as the concentrationor density of a solute increase, the refractive index increasesproportionately. The paper describes development work related to designof laboratory type fiber optic refractometer and describes experimentsto evaluation of its basic properties.

  19. Modifications of optical properties with ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.; Abdel-Latif, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Coatings of ceramic materials that exhibited high thermal absorptivities and emissivities were chemical vapor deposited on graphite and refractory metals. In this paper the coatings prepared were SiC and B 4 C, and the substrates used were graphite, molybdenum, titanium, and Nb-1Zr. The coatings are characterized with regard to adherence, optical properties, and response to potential harsh environments

  20. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Shiryayev, Oleg; Lawand, Lydia

    2017-09-28

    Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs) for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI) change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber's modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  1. Dynamic Characterization of Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Andresen, Søren; Yuan, Wu

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing interest in fiber sensors based on polymer optical fibers, it becomes fundamental to determine the real applicability and reliability of this type of sensor. The viscoelastic nature of polymers gives rise to questions about the mechanical behavior of the fibers. In particular...

  2. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. ... and Lin [3] and Ghatak et al [4] have studied the use of optical fibers as sensing elements. ... at the interface, an evanescent wave propagates parallel to the interface. .... the ends of the fiber are fixed with fiber holders on either side.

  3. Radiation damage in commercial optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Franceschini, F.A.; Serra, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results obtained by exposure of commercial optical fibers to 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, are reported. The possibility of utilizing these fibers as far as a total dose of 6000 rad in the light spectrum is shown. It is also shown that it is possible to obtain total recovery of irradiated fibers by annealing at 500 0 C. (author)

  4. Characterization of metal-coated fiber tip for NSOM lithography by tip-to-tip scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicova, I.; Pudis, D.; Suslik, L.; Skriniarova, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the optical field characterization, a tip-to-tip scan of two metal-coated fiber tips with circular aperture at the apex was performed. The optical field irradiated from the fiber probe in illumination mode was analyzed by NSOM represented by fiber probe in collection mode. The near-field intensity profile of the source fiber tip in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the tip was taken. Experimental stage requires high resolution 3D motion system controlled by computer (Fig. 1). The source and the detector fiber tip were placed on the moving and static part of the 3D nanoposition system, respectively. As a light source, a modulated 473 nm DPSS laser was used. After the source fiber tip characterization, the NSOM lithography was performed. In the experimental setup from Fig. 1, the detector fiber tip was replaced by a sample fixed in a vacuum holder. As a sample, a 600 nm positive photoresist AZ 5214E was spin-coated on a GaAs substrate. Exposure was carried out by irradiation of the sample at desired positions through the fiber tip aperture. The sample was developed in AZ 400K developer for 30 s and rinsed in DI water. A promising tip-to-tip scanning technique for characterization of metal-coated fiber tips with aperture at the apex was presented. Nearly-circular aperture shapes were documented from NSOM measurements with diameter estimated to be less than 460 nm. By knowing the source-detector distance and the FWHM of the near-field intensity profile, the tip-to-tip scan proves an easy and fast method to analyze the fiber tip aperture properties. The fiber tip resolution was confirmed by preparation of 2D planar structures in thin photoresist layer, where the NSOM lithography uses the metal-coated fiber tip characterized in previous section. (authors)

  5. Current measurements by Faraday rotation in single mode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.I.; Jahoda, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Development of techniques for measuring magnetic fields and currents by Faraday rotation in single-mode optical fibers has continued. We summarize the results of attempts to measure the toroidal plasma current in the ZT-40 Reversed-Field-Pinch using multi-turn fiber coils. The fiber response is reproducible and in accord with theory, but the amount and distribution of the stress-induced birefringence in this case are such that prediction of the sensor response at low currents is difficult if not impossible. The low-current difficulty can be overcome by twisting the fiber to induce a circular birefringence bias. We report the results of auxiliary experiments with a fiber that has been twisted with 15 turns per meter and then re-coated to lock the twist in place

  6. Optical fiber sensors for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

    2007-02-06

    A diaphragm optic sensor comprises a ferrule including a bore having an optical fiber disposed therein and a diaphragm attached to the ferrule, the diaphragm being spaced apart from the ferrule to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The cavity is formed by creating a pit in the ferrule or in the diaphragm. The components of the sensor are preferably welded together, preferably by laser welding. In some embodiments, the entire ferrule is bonded to the fiber along the entire length of the fiber within the ferrule; in other embodiments, only a portion of the ferrule is welded to the fiber. A partial vacuum is preferably formed in the pit. A small piece of optical fiber with a coefficient of thermal expansion chosen to compensate for mismatches between the main fiber and ferrule may be spliced to the end of the fiber.

  7. Fiber Optics: A New World of Possibilities in Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John

    1990-01-01

    The background and history of light and fiber optics are discussed. Applications for light passed either directly or indirectly through optical fibers are described. Suggestions for science activities that use fiber optics are provided. (KR)

  8. Development of self-sensing BFRP bars with distributed optic fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Shen, Sheng; Wu, Gang; Hong, Wan

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a new type of self-sensing basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars is developed with using the Brillouin scattering-based distributed optic fiber sensing technique. During the fabrication, optic fiber without buffer and sheath as a core is firstly reinforced through braiding around mechanically dry continuous basalt fiber sheath in order to survive the pulling-shoving process of manufacturing the BFRP bars. The optic fiber with dry basalt fiber sheath as a core embedded further in the BFRP bars will be impregnated well with epoxy resin during the pulling-shoving process. The bond between the optic fiber and the basalt fiber sheath as well as between the basalt fiber sheath and the FRP bar can be controlled and ensured. Therefore, the measuring error due to the slippage between the optic fiber core and the coating can be improved. Moreover, epoxy resin of the segments, where the connection of optic fibers will be performed, is uncured by isolating heat from these parts of the bar during the manufacture. Consequently, the optic fiber in these segments of the bar can be easily taken out, and the connection between optic fibers can be smoothly carried out. Finally, a series of experiments are performed to study the sensing and mechanical properties of the propose BFRP bars. The experimental results show that the self-sensing BFRP bar is characterized by not only excellent accuracy, repeatability and linearity for strain measuring but also good mechanical property.

  9. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

  10. Fiber optic sensing for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  11. A microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliyanov, Grigoriy Andreev; Jensen, Jesper Bo; Hoiby, Poul E.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate selective detection of fluorophore labeled antibodies from minute samples probed by a sensor layer of the complementary biomolecules immobilized inside the air holes of microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers.......We demonstrate selective detection of fluorophore labeled antibodies from minute samples probed by a sensor layer of the complementary biomolecules immobilized inside the air holes of microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers....

  12. A novel thermoset polymer optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, T.A C; Steendam, R; Pennings, A.J; Hadziioannou, G

    Polymer optical fibers are being investigated with a view to overcoming some of the disadvantages of glass optical fibers in communications applications. Dense cross-linked polymers, such as the polyisocyanurate discussed here (see figure), have been found to be superior in some respects to the

  13. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA-supported program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to develop carbon fiber-aluminum matrix composites is described. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to uniformly deposit thin, smooth, continuous coats of TiC on the fibers of graphite tows. Wet chemical coating of fibers, followed by high-temperature treatment, was also used, but showed little promise as an alternative coating method. Strength measurements on CVD coated fiber tows showed that thin carbide coats can add to fiber strength. The ability of aluminum alloys to wet TiC was successfully demonstrated using TiC-coated graphite surfaces. Pressure-infiltration of TiC- and ZrC-coated fiber tows with aluminum alloys was only partially successful. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of carbide coats on carbon as barriers to prevent reaction between alluminum alloys and carbon. Initial results indicate that composites of aluminum and carbide-coated graphite are stable for long periods of time at temperatures near the alloy solidus.

  14. A volatile-solvent gas fiber sensor based on polyaniline film coated on superstructure fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, L; Chen, T C; Su, W K; Mau, J C; Liu, W F

    2008-01-01

    A fiber sensor based on a polyaniline (PANI) film that is coated on the surface of an etched superstructure fiber grating to detect volatile solvent vapors is experimentally demonstrated. This sensing mechanism is based on the interaction of the testing gas with the polyaniline coating film, which changes the film index, resulting in a shift in the Bragg wavelength. The sensitivity of this sensor to ammonia (NH 3 ) gas is about 0.073 pm ppm −1 , which depends on the optical characteristics of the fiber grating, the diameter of the fiber cladding and the constituents of the sensing film. Methanol concentrations can also be measured using this sensing scheme. The sensitivity of this sensor must be improved to provide a simple, reliable, repeatable and non-destructive method for sensing various chemical gases. (technical design note)

  15. Fiber optic applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, P.; Kwapien, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic technology possesses many desirable attributes for applications in commercial nuclear power plants. The non-electrical nature of fiber optics is an important factor in an industry governed by federal safety regulations such as Class 1E isolation and separation criteria. Immunity from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), an increasing industry problem area, is another significant characteristic. Because of the extremely wide bandwidth offered, fiber optics better addresses the data acquistion and communication requirements of the complex processes of a nuclear power plant. Potential for fiber optic sensor applications exists within the nuclear industry because their small size and physical flexibility allows access into normally inaccessible areas. They possess high accuracy and allow environmentally sensitive electronics to be remotely located. The purpose of this paper is to explore current applications for fiber optic technology in modern nuclear plants, document examples of present day usage in C-E plants and suggest possible future application areas

  16. Optical coatings:trends and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norbert Kaiser; Torsten Feigl; Olaf Stenzel; Ulrike Schulz; Ming-hong Yang

    2005-01-01

    New applications in optoelectronics, photonics, telecommunication, displays, optical data processing, biomedicine, sensors, energy control, automobile, aerospace, and architecture stimulation are important developments in physics and technology of optical coatings. This paper will focus on the latest advances in the areas of new optical film systems and devices, new optical coating materials and film fabrication techniques, process control and monitoring, and different advanced applications. Particularly, focus is on optical films that combine optical design with microstructural features tailored on the nanometer and micrometer scales. Evaluation of film stability and integrity in harsh industrial environments and their compatibility with organic polymers are important as well.

  17. Pulsed laser damage to optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Gillies, G.T.; Magnuson, D.W.; Pagano, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes some observations of pulsed laser damage to optical fibers with emphasis on a damage mode characterized as a linear fracture along the outer core of a fiber. Damage threshold data are presented which illustrate the effects of the focusing lens, end-surface preparation, and type of fiber. An explanation based on fiber-beam misalignment is given and is illustrated by a simple experiment and ray trace

  18. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  19. Radiation resistance of optical fibers, (10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Tsunemi; Ara, Katsuyuki; Morimoto, Naoki; Sanada, Kazuo; Inada, Koichi.

    1991-01-01

    Optical fibers have many excellent characteristics such as the light weight of the material, insulation, the noninductivity of electromagnetic interference noise, the wide band of signal transmission, and small loss. Also in the field of atomic energy, the utilization of optical fibers is positively expanded, and the research on the method of application and so on has been advanced. However in optical fibers, there is the problem that color centers are formed at the relatively low level of radiation, and they are colored. Accordingly, for effectively utilizing optical fibers in radiation environment, it is indispensable to improve their radiation resistance. For the purpose of solving this problem, the authors have carried out the basic research on the effect that radiation exerts to optical fibers and the development of the optical fibers having excellent radiation resistance. For the purpose of expanding the range of application of GeO 2 -doped silica core fibers including GI type in radiation regions, the transmission characteristics of the fibers during irradiation were examined by using the Cl content as the parameter. Therefore, the results are reported. The fibers put to the test, the testing method and the results are described. (K.I.)

  20. Essentials of modern optical fiber communication

    CERN Document Server

    Noé, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    This is a concise introduction into optical fiber communication. It covers important aspects from the physics of optical wave propagation and amplification to the essentials of modulation formats and receivers. The combination of a solid coverage of necessary fundamental theory with an in-depth discussion of recent relevant research results enables the reader to design modern optical fiber communication systems. The book serves both graduate students and professionals. It includes many worked examples with solutions for lecturers. For the second edition, Reinhold Noé made many changes and additions throughout the text so that this concise book presents the essentials of optical fiber communication in an easy readable and understandable way.

  1. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.; Grant, Sheila A.

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy.

  2. Poly aniline Nano fiber as Modified Cladding for Optical Fiber Sensor to Detect Acetone Vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiruddin maddu; Ahmad aminuddin; Setyanto Tri Wahyudi; Hamdani Zain

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we used poly aniline nano fiber as modified cladding material for a fiber optic sensor system to detect the acetone vapor. The sensor was designed based on variation of evanescent field absorption on the core-modified cladding interface when exposed with varied acetone vapor. Poly aniline nano fiber synthesized by interfacial polymerization was coated onto the un-cladded core and acts as sensing element. Response of the fiber optic sensor was investigated by measuring the transmission light intensity via fiber optic sensor system while exposed with acetone vapor. Based on the sensor response curve, it is obtained a very fast response time of 30 s and recovery time of 10 s. The fiber optic sensor also exhibits a good reversibility and repeatability. Sensitivity of the sensor to variation of acetone vapor pressure was obtained 1.25 %/mmHg, that means the transmission intensity of the sensor changes 1.25 % for acetone vapor change of 1 mmHg. (author)

  3. Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Bosch Ojeda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable developments can be seen in the field of optical fibre biosensors in the last decade. More sensors for specific analytes have been reported, novel sensing chemistries or transduction principles have been introduced, and applications in various analytical fields have been realised. This review consists of papers mainly reported in the last decade and presents about applications of optical fiber biosensors. Discussions on the trends in optical fiber biosensor applications in real samples are enumerated.

  4. Nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor based on four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Frosz, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor, which uses the shifts of four-wave mixing Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks caused by the strain-induced changes in the structure and refractive index of a microstructured optical fiber. The sensor thus uses the inherent nonlinearity of the fiber a...

  5. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  6. [The recent development of fiber-optic chemical sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wei, Jian-ping; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yang, Xue-feng

    2014-08-01

    The present article provides a brief review of recent research on fiber-optic chemical sensor technology and the future development trends. Especially, fiber-optic pH chemical sensor, fiber-optic ion chemicl sensor, and fiber-optic gas chemical sensor are introduced respectively. Sensing film preparation methods such as chemical bonding method and sol-gel method were briefly reviewed. The emergence of new type fiber-microstructured optical fiber opened up a new development direction for fiber-optic chemical sensor. Because of its large inner surface area, flexible design of structure, having internal sensing places in fibers, it has rapidly become an important development direction and research focus of the fiber-optic chemical sensors. The fiber-optic chemical sensor derived from microstructured optical fiber is also discussed in detail. Finally, we look to the future of the fiber-optic chemical sensor.

  7. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  8. PROTECTIVE COATINGS OF FIBER BRAGG GRATING FOR MINIMIZING OF MECHANICAL IMPACT ON ITS WAVELENGTH CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Munko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the scheme for the study of the Bragg wavelength shift dependence on the applied tensile force. Samples of fiber Bragg gratings with different coatings have been studied: the restored acrylate coating, the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve without metal rod, the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod, the metal capillary, polyvinylchloride tube. For different coatings of diffractive structure, dependences of wavelength shift for the Bragg grating resonance have been obtained on the tensile strength applied to the ends of an optical fiber. It was determined that the studied FBG coatings give the possibility to reduce the mechanical impact on the Bragg wavelength shift for 1.1-15 times as compared to an uncoated waveguide. The most effective version of coated fiber Bragg grating is the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod. When the force (equal to 6 N is applied to the 100 mm optical fiber area with the inscribed diffractive structure, the Bragg wavelength shift is 7.5 nm for the unprotected sample and 0.5 nm for the one coated with the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve.

  9. Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A low-cost and biodegradable oil absorbent based on kapok fiber was prepared. ► The polymer-coated kapok fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity. ► Coated kapok fiber can be reused and the absorbed oil can be easily recovered. ► Adsorption of oil is spontaneous and exothermic physisorption and chemisorption. -- Abstract: Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution–immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface

  10. Behavior of optical fibers under heavy irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, T.; Sagawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of optical diagnostics are planned in a fusion reactor. Complicated optical systems such as periscopes are thought to be primary candidates for optical measurements, especially for visible wavelengths. However, optical fibers have several advantages over such optical systems. Also, the optical fibers could be a far better transmission line for signals under a high electromagnetic field. However, they have been considered vulnerable to heavy irradiation. In this study, several kinds of optical fibers were irradiated in the JMTR fission reactor. The optical transmissivity in fibers was measured in situ during fast neutron and gamma irradiation, up to doses of 2 x 10 24 n m -2 and 5 x 10 9 Gy, respectively. The irradiation temperature ranged from 300 to 700 K. For pure ionizing irradiation environments, some methods for improving the radiation resistance of optical fibers were indicated. The results showed that effects of the irradiation associated with fast neutrons would be different from the effects of pure ionizing irradiation. Some fibers were found to withstand the heavy irradiation, especially in an infrared wavelength range. (orig.)

  11. Polymer coated fiber Bragg grating thermometry for microwave hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Indu Fiesler; Hui, Kaleo; Astrahan, Melvin

    2010-09-01

    Measuring tissue temperature distribution during electromagnetically induced hyperthermia (HT) is challenging. High resistance thermistors with nonmetallic leads have been used successfully in commercial HT systems for about three decades. The single 1 mm thick temperature sensing element is mechanically moved to measure tissue temperature distributions. By employing a single thermometry probe containing a fixed linear sensor array temperature, distributions during therapy can be measured with greater ease. While the first attempts to use fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology to obtain multiple temperature points along a single fiber have been reported, improvement in the detection system's stability were needed for clinical applications. The FBG temperature sensing system described here has a very high temporal stability detection system and an order of magnitude faster readout than commercial systems. It is shown to be suitable for multiple point fiber thermometry during microwave hyperthermia when compared to conventional mechanically scanning probe HT thermometry. A polymer coated fiber Bragg grating (PFBG) technology is described that provides a number of FBG thermometry locations along the length of a single optical fiber. The PFBG probe developed is tested under simulated microwave hyperthermia treatment to a tissue equivalent phantom. Two temperature probes, the multiple PFBG sensor and the Bowman probe, placed symmetrically with respect to a microwave antenna in a tissue phantom are subjected to microwave hyperthermia. Measurements are made at start of HT and 85 min later, when a 6 degrees C increase in temperature is registered by both probes, as is typical in clinical HT therapy. The optical fiber multipoint thermometry probe performs highly stable, real-time thermometry updating each multipoint thermometry scan over a 5 cm length every 2 s. Bowman probe measurements are acquired simultaneously for comparison. In addition, the PFBG sensor's detection

  12. Coatings influencing thermal stress in photonic crystal fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Dongqing; Li, Yan; Li, Yao; Hu, Minglie

    2018-06-01

    We studied how coating materials influence the thermal stress in the fiber core for three holding methods by simulating the temperature distribution and the thermal stress distribution in the photonic-crystal fiber laser. The results show that coating materials strongly influence both the thermal stress in the fiber core and the stress differences caused by holding methods. On the basis of the results, a two-coating PCF was designed. This design reduces the stress differences caused by variant holding conditions to zero, then the stability of laser operations can be improved.

  13. Realization of fiber optic displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Lakomski, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors are very promising because of their inherent advantages such as very small size, hard environment tolerance and impact of electromagnetic fields. In this paper three different types of Intensity Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors (I-FODS) are presented. Three configurations of I-FODS were realized in two varieties. In the first one, the cleaved multimode optical fibers (MMF) were used to collect reflected light, while in the second variety the MMF ended with ball lenses were chosen. To ensure an accurate alignment of optical fibers in the sensor head the MTP C9730 optical fiber ferrules were used. In this paper the influence of distribution of transmitting and detecting optical fibers on sensitivity and linear range of operation of developed I-FODS were investigated. We have shown, that I-FODS with ball lenses receive average 10.5% more reflected power in comparison to the cleaved optical fibers and they increase linearity range of I-FODS by 33%. In this paper, an analysis of each type of the realized sensor and detailed discussion are given.

  14. Microstructured optical fibers - Fundamentals and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years optical fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane have attracted much attention from both researchers and industry. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect. Among the many unique applications offered...... by these fibers are mode guidance in air, highly flexible dispersion engineering, and the use of very heterogeneous material combinations. In this paper, we review the different types and applications of microstructured optical fibers, with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  15. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Al Handawi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber’s modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  16. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  17. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  18. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  19. Fiber optic communications fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have advanced dramatically over the last four decades, since the era of copper cables, resulting in low-cost and high-bandwidth transmission. Fiber optics is now the backbone of the internet and long-distance telecommunication. Without it we would not enjoy the benefits of high-speed internet, or low-rate international telephone calls. This book introduces the basic concepts of fiber-optic communication in a pedagogical way. The important mathematical results are derived by first principles rather than citing research articles. In addition, physical interpre

  20. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  1. A home-made SPME fiber coating for Arson Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Khairul Ahmad; Abdul Rahim Yacob; Selvaraju, Geetha

    2008-01-01

    A number of adsorbents are available commercially as coatings for SPME fibers but some analytical methodologies might demand specific properties for the extraction of selected compounds, special coatings that have particular volume and a selectivity towards particular analytes. This paper presents a simple, fast, effective and environmental friendly methodology for the determination of accelerants in arson samples using headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography. A new fiber prepared by sol-gel method, containing 1:1 molar ratio of octyltriethoxysilane (C 8 -TEOS): methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) was employed in this technique. The efficiency of the new fiber coating prepared by sol-gel technology for the determination of accelerants was compared to that of commercial PDMS/ DVB fibers. Poly dimethylsiloxane divinylbenzene (PDMS/ DVB) is the most common fiber coating for the extraction of hydrocarbon compounds. Compared with commercial PDMS/ DVB fiber, the new homemade fiber exhibited higher extraction capability and good selectivity for accelerants. The homemade fiber was also applied for the simulated arson samples. The home-made SPME adsorbent was shown to be a good alternative to commercially available fiber for the determination of accelerants in arson cases. (author)

  2. Optical Fiber Thermometer Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal Bin; Mohd. Noor, Uzer

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating has generated much interest in use as sensors to measure strain, temperature, and other physical parameters. It also the most common component used to develop this sensor with the advantages of simple, intrinsic sensing elements, electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, compact size and potentially low cost [6]. This paper reports the design of an optical fiber thermometer based on fiber Bragg gratings. The system was developed for detecting temperature and strain by monitoring the shift of Bragg wavelength. The shifting of Bragg wavelength is used to indicate the temperature and strain due to the change in the surrounding temperature and strain. When the temperature and strain reach the exact wavelength level of the system, the temperature and strain value will display on the Arduino liquid crystal display (LCD). The optical fiber will provide the broadband light source and after passing the FBG the Bragg wavelength into the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The system is based on FBG as a physical quantity sensor. The temperatures measured is taken from the water bath and that of the strain is provided by amount of slotted mass used. The outcome of this project is to characterize the Bragg wavelength shifting from the fiber Bragg grating output. As the conclusion, this project provides an efficient optical fiber thermometer in measuring temperature and strain in order to replace the use of conventional electrical instruments.

  3. All-optical fiber anemometer based on laser heated fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaorui; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Cho, L H; Lu, Chao

    2011-05-23

    A fiber-optic anemometer based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented. A short section of cobalt-doped fiber was utilized to make a fiber-based "hot wire" for wind speed measurement. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were fabricated in the cobalt-doped fiber using 193 nm laser pulses to serve as localized temperature sensors. A miniature all-optical fiber anemometer is constructed by using two FBGs to determine the dynamic thermal equilibrium between the laser heating and air flow cooling through monitoring the FBGs' central wavelengths. It was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the sensor can be adjusted through the power of pump laser or the coating on the FBG. Experimental results reveal that the proposed FBG-based anemometer exhibits very good performance for wind speed measurement. The resolution of the FBG-based anemometer is about 0.012 m/s for wind speed range between 2.0 m/s and 8.0 m/s.

  4. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  5. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  6. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  7. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  8. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  9. Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Thomsen, Carsten L.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a generic nonlinear coupling coefficient, η2 NL ¼ ηjγ=β2jfiber2=jγ=β2jfiber1, which gives a quantitative measure for the efficiency of nonlinear matching of optical fibers by describing how a fundamental soliton couples from one fiber into another. Specifically, we use η...

  10. Optical fibers and sensors for chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.

    1988-01-01

    The idea of using optical fibers in nuclear environment occurs as soon as 1967, too soon for practical realizations. In 1973 the first glass fibers were made available in Switzerland. From 1973 to 1988 three periods show the development: conception from 1973 to 1978, technique strengthening from 1978 to 1983 and nuclear and non nuclear industrial development since 1983. 45 refs., 27 figs [fr

  11. Elasto-plastic bond mechanics of embedded fiber optic sensors in concrete under uniaxial tension with strain localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbin; Li, Guang; Wang, Guanglun

    2003-12-01

    Brittleness of the glass core inside fiber optic sensors limits their practical usage, and therefore they are coated with low-modulus softer protective materials. Protective coatings absorb a portion of the strain, and hence part of the structural strain is sensed. The study reported here corrects for this error through development of a theoretical model to account for the loss of strain in the protective coating of optical fibers. The model considers the coating as an elasto-plastic material and formulates strain transfer coefficients for elastic, elasto-plastic and strain localization phases of coating deformations in strain localization in concrete. The theoretical findings were verified through laboratory experimentation. The experimental program involved fabrication of interferometric optical fiber sensors, embedding within mortar samples and tensile tests in a closed-loop servo-hydraulic testing machine. The elasto-plastic strain transfer coefficients were employed for correction of optical fiber sensor data and results were compared with those of conventional extensometers.

  12. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    As a new method of radiation measurements, several optical methods using optical fiber sensors have been developed. One is the application of 'radio-luminescence' from the optical fiber itself such as plastic scintillating fibers. Other researches are made to develop the 'combined-sensors' by combination of optical fibers and scintillating materials. Using the time domain method of optical fiber sensors, the profile of radiation distribution along the optical fiber can be easily determined. A multi-parameter sensing system for measurement of radiation, temperature, stress, etc, are also expected using these optical fiber sensors. (author)

  13. A fiber optic temperature sensor based on multi-core microstructured fiber with coupled cores for a high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, A.; Markiewicz, K.; Szostkiewicz, L.; Kolakowska, A.; Fidelus, J.; Stanczyk, T.; Wysokinski, K.; Budnicki, D.; Ostrowski, L.; Szymanski, M.; Makara, M.; Poturaj, K.; Tenderenda, T.; Mergo, P.; Nasilowski, T.

    2018-02-01

    Sensors based on fiber optics are irreplaceable wherever immunity to strong electro-magnetic fields or safe operation in explosive atmospheres is needed. Furthermore, it is often essential to be able to monitor high temperatures of over 500°C in such environments (e.g. in cooling systems or equipment monitoring in power plants). In order to meet this demand, we have designed and manufactured a fiber optic sensor with which temperatures up to 900°C can be measured. The sensor utilizes multi-core fibers which are recognized as the dedicated medium for telecommunication or shape sensing, but as we show may be also deployed advantageously in new types of fiber optic temperature sensors. The sensor presented in this paper is based on a dual-core microstructured fiber Michelson interferometer. The fiber is characterized by strongly coupled cores, hence it acts as an all-fiber coupler, but with an outer diameter significantly wider than a standard fused biconical taper coupler, which significantly increases the coupling region's mechanical reliability. Owing to the proposed interferometer imbalance, effective operation and high-sensitivity can be achieved. The presented sensor is designed to be used at high temperatures as a result of the developed low temperature chemical process of metal (copper or gold) coating. The hermetic metal coating can be applied directly to the silica cladding of the fiber or the fiber component. This operation significantly reduces the degradation of sensors due to hydrolysis in uncontrolled atmospheres and high temperatures.

  14. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  15. An all-optical fiber optic photoacoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathachary, Supriya V.; Motameni, Cameron; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2018-02-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic Fabry-Perot photoacoustic transducer is proposed in this work. The transducer will consist of separate transmit and receive fibers. The receiver will be composed of a Fabry-Perot Ultrasound sensor with a selfwritten waveguide with all-optical ultrasound detection with high sensitivity. In previous work, we have shown an increase in resonator Q-factor from 1900 to 3200 for a simulated Fabry-Perot ultrasound detector of 45 μm thickness upon including a waveguide to limit lateral power losses. Subsequently, we demonstrated a prototype device with 30nm gold mirrors and a cavity composed of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene. This 80 µm thick device showed an improvement in its Q-factor from 2500 to 5200 after a selfaligned waveguide was written into the cavity using UV exposure. Current work uses a significantly faster fabrication technique using a combination of UV-cured epoxies for the cavity medium, and the waveguide within it. This reduces the fabrication time from several hours to a few minutes, and significantly lowers the cost of fabrication. We use a dip-coating technique to deposit the polymer layer. Future work will include the use of Dielectric Bragg mirrors in place of gold to achieve better reflectivity, thereby further improving the Q-factor of the device. The complete transducer presents an ideal solution for intravascular imaging in cases where tissue differentiation is desirable, an important feature in interventional procedures where arterial perforation is a risk. The final design proposed comprises the transducer within a guidewire to guide interventions for Chronic Total Occlusions, a disease state for which there are currently no invasive imaging options.

  16. Fiber optic based optical tomography sensor for monitoring plasma uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benck, Eric C.; Etemadi, Kasra

    2001-01-01

    A new type of fiber optic based optical tomography sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of plasma uniformity. Optical tomography inverts optical emission measurements into the actual plasma distribution without assuming radial symmetry. The new sensor is designed to operate with only two small windows and acquire the necessary data in less than a second. Optical tomography is being tested on an ICP-GEC RF plasma source. Variations in plasma uniformity are measured as a function of different plasma conditions

  17. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang

    2018-02-08

    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  18. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of new and improved ceramic fibers has spurred the development and application of ceramic composites with improved strength, strength/weight ratio, toughness, and durability at increasingly high temperatures. For many systems, the ceramic fibers can be used without modification because their properties are adequate for the chosen application. However, in order to take maximum advantage of the fiber properties, it is often necessary to coat the ceramic fibers with materials of different composition and properties. Examples include (1) boron nitride coatings on a ceramic fiber, such as Nicalon silicon carbide, to prevent reaction with the ceramic matrix during fabrication and to enhance fiber pullout and increase toughness when the ceramic composite is subjected to stress; (2) boron nitride coatings on ceramic yarns, such as Nicalon for use as thermal insulation panels in an aerodynamic environment, to reduce abrasion of the Nicalon and to inhibit the oxidation of free carbon contained within the Nicalon; and (3) ceramic coatings on carbon yarns and carbon-carbon composites to permit use of these high-strength, high-temperature materials in oxidizing environments at very high temperatures. This paper describes a pilot-plant-sized CVD facility for continuous coating of ceramic fibers and some of the results obtained so far with this equipment

  19. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  20. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  1. Tapered Fiber Coated with Hydroxyethyl Cellulose/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite for Relative Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple relative humidity (RH sensor is demonstrated using a tapered fiber coated with hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinylidene fluoride (HEC/PVDF composite as a probe. This coating acts as an inner cladding whose refractive index decreases with the rise in humidity and thus allows more light to be transmitted in humid state. A difference of up to 0.89 dB of the transmitted optical power is observed when RH changes from 50% to 80% in case of the silica fiber probe. The proposed sensor has a sensitivity of about 0.0228 dB/%RH with a slope linearity of more than 99.91%. In case of the plastic optical fiber (POF probe, the output voltage of the sensor increases linearly with a sensitivity of 0.0231 mV/%RH and a linearity of more than 99.65% as the relative humidity increases from 55% to 80%.

  2. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  3. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  4. Graphite coated PVA fibers as the reinforcement for cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Liu, Zhichao

    2018-02-01

    A new preconditioning method was developed to PVA fibers as the reinforcement in cement-based materials. Virgin PVA fibers exhibits limited adhesion to graphite powders due to the presence of oil spots on the surface. Mixing PVA fibers with a moderately concentrated KMnO4-H2SO4 solution can efficiently remove the oil spots by oxidation without creating extra precipitate (MnO2) associated with the reduction reaction. This enhances the coating of graphite powders onto fiber surface and improves the mechanical properties of PVA fiber reinforced concrete (PVA-FRC). Graphite powders yields better fiber distribution in the matrix and reduces the fiber-matrix bonding, which is beneficial in uniformly distributing the stress among embedded fibers and creating steady generation and propagation of tight microcracks. This is evidenced by the significantly enhanced strain hardening behavior and improved flexural strength and toughness.

  5. Fiber Optic Sensors For Detection of Toxic and Biological Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yuan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of public and military personnel from chemical and biological warfareagents is an urgent and growing national security need. Along with this idea, we havedeveloped a novel class of fiber optic chemical sensors, for detection of toxic and biologicalmaterials. The design of these fiber optic sensors is based on a cladding modificationapproach. The original passive cladding of the fiber, in a small section, was removed and thefiber core was coated with a chemical sensitive material. Any change in the opticalproperties of the modified cladding material, due to the presence of a specific chemicalvapor, changes the transmission properties of the fiber and result in modal powerredistribution in multimode fibers. Both total intensity and modal power distribution (MPDmeasurements were used to detect the output power change through the sensing fibers. TheMPD technique measures the power changes in the far field pattern, i.e. spatial intensitymodulation in two dimensions. Conducting polymers, such as polyaniline and polypyrrole,have been reported to undergo a reversible change in conductivity upon exposure tochemical vapors. It is found that the conductivity change is accompanied by optical propertychange in the material. Therefore, polyaniline and polypyrrole were selected as the modifiedcladding material for the detection of hydrochloride (HCl, ammonia (NH3, hydrazine(H4N2, and dimethyl-methl-phosphonate (DMMP {a nerve agent, sarin stimulant},respectively. Several sensors were prepared and successfully tested. The results showeddramatic improvement in the sensor sensitivity, when the MPD method was applied. In thispaper, an overview on the developed class of fiber optic sensors is presented and supportedwith successful achieved results.

  6. Influence of Polyaniline Coated Kenaf Fiber on Kenaf Paper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Hisham Nur Syafiqah; Abd Razak Saiful Izwan; Mat Nayan Nadirul Hasraf; Wan Abdul Rahman Wan Aizan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber paper sheet made up of kenaf fiber (KF) incorporated with polyaniline coated kenaf fiber (KF-PANI). This study proposed on dispersion of conductive filler in different amount (wt %) into kenaf pulp for developing different electrical conductivity. The conductive sheet (KF/KF-PANI) revealed a percolation concentration at 25 wt% of KF-PANI. Its scanning electron micrograph showed good paper formation with...

  7. Influence of Polyaniline Coated Kenaf Fiber on Kenaf Paper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hisham Nur Syafiqah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber paper sheet made up of kenaf fiber (KF incorporated with polyaniline coated kenaf fiber (KF-PANI. This study proposed on dispersion of conductive filler in different amount (wt % into kenaf pulp for developing different electrical conductivity. The conductive sheet (KF/KF-PANI revealed a percolation concentration at 25 wt% of KF-PANI. Its scanning electron micrograph showed good paper formation with no significant damages.

  8. Evanescent field refractometry in planar optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher; Jantzen, Alexander; Gray, Alan C; Gow, Paul C; Carpenter, Lewis G; Bannerman, Rex H S; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2018-02-15

    This Letter demonstrates a refractometer in integrated optical fiber, a new optical platform that planarizes fiber using flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD). The unique advantage of the technology is survivability in harsh environments. The platform is mechanically robust, and can survive elevated temperatures approaching 1000°C and exposure to common solvents, including acetone, gasoline, and methanol. For the demonstrated refractometer, fabrication was achieved through wet etching an SMF-28 fiber to a diameter of 8 μm before FHD planarization. An external refractive index was monitored using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), written into the core of the planarized fiber. A direct comparison to alternative FBG refractometers is made, for which the developed platform is shown to have comparable sensitivity, with the added advantage of survivability in harsh environments.

  9. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  10. Fiber-Optic Optical-Microwave Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used to conduct programs of basic science and applied research in the development of laser sources, high-power fiber amplifiers, photonic control of phased...

  11. Designing in-building optical fiber networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Jung, H.D.; Guignard, P.

    2010-01-01

    Optical fiber in-building networks carrying wired and wireless services can outperform CAT-5E networks regarding versatility and installation costs. POF-based point-to-point architectures are optimum for small buildings, and (optically routed) SMF-based bus architectures for larger buildings.

  12. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe T. Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core.

  13. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Noe T.; Ochmann, Timothy; Kienzle, Nicholas; Ruff, Brad; Haase, Mark R.; Hopkins, Tracy; Pixley, Sarah; Mast, David; Schulz, Mark J.; Shanov, Vesselin

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core. PMID:28344254

  14. Two mode optical fiber in space optics communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Martin

    2017-11-01

    In our contribution we propose to use of a two-mode optical fiber as a primary source in a transmitting optical head instead of the laser diode. The distribution of the optical intensity and the complex degree of the coherence on the output aperture of the lens that is irradiated by a step-index weakly guiding optical fiber is investigated. In our treatment we take into account weakly guided modes with polarization corrections to the propagation constant and unified theory of second order coherence and polarization of electromagnetic beams.

  15. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering For Optical Fiber Gyrocopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; We, Albert C.; Keur, M.; Lukas, Greg; Ott, Daniel M...; Sriram, S.

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes are of interest for low-cost, high performance rotation sensors. Integrated optical implementations of the processing optics offer the hope of mass-production, and associated cost reductions. The development of a suitable integrated optical system has been reported by other authors at a wavelength of 850nm [1]. Despite strong technical advantages at 1.3μm wavelength [2], no results have yet appeared. This wavelength is preferred for telecommunications applications applications, thus significantly reduced fiber costs may be realized. Lithium niobate is relatively immune from the photorefractive effect at this wavelength, whereas it is not at at 850nm [3].

  16. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  17. Optical fibers and their instrumentation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert.

    1982-09-01

    The use of optical fibers in instrumentation requires a knowledge of their properties as ''photon carriers'' and ''sensors''. New instrumentation design implies a satisfactory evaluation of the entire measurement circuit, including the emitter, optical coupling, optical fiber with its physical, spectral and physico-chemical properties, the connector, receiver, signal amplifier and data processing system. An example, is provided of the development of a new technique in physico-chemical instrumentation: remote spectrophotometry. Three aspects are discussed: 1) industrial measurement in ''process control'' using the Telephot (R), 2) remote spectral measurement, 3) opical multiplexing. This is followed by a review of various optical fiber based instrumental techniques used in the fields of medicine (endoscopy, fluorothermy, laser surgery), solar energy industrial applications subject to electrical disturbances (position sensors, strain measurements), and in physico-chemical analysis (fluorescence, redox potentials) [fr

  18. Study of interface influence on bending performance of CFRP with embedded optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-mei; Liang, Da-kai

    2008-11-01

    Studies showed that the bending strength of composite would be affected by embedded optical fibers. Interface strength between the embedded optical fiber and the matrix was studied in this paper. Based on the single fiber pull out tests, the interfacial shear strength between the coating and the clad is the weakest. The shear strength of the optical fiber used in this study is near to 0.8MPa. In order to study the interfacial effect on bending property of generic smart structure, a quasi-isotropic composite laminates were produced from Toray T300C/ epoxy prepreg. Optical fibers were embedded within different orientation plies of the plates, with the optical fibers embedded in the same direction. Accordingly, five different types of plates were produced. Impact tests were carried out on the 5 different plate types. It is shown that when the fiber was embedded at the upper layer, the bending strength drops mostly. The bending normal stress on material arrives at the maximum. So does the normal stress applied on the optical fiber at the surface. Therefore, destructions could originate at the interface between the coating and the clad foremost. The ultimate strength of the smart structure will be affected furthest.

  19. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. eShiryaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  20. Radiation resistant characteristics of optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasuji, Masaaki; Tanaka, Gotaro; Watanabe, Minoru; Kyodo, Tomohisa; Mukunashi, Hiroaki

    1983-01-01

    It is required to develop the optical fibers with good radiation resistivity because the fibers cause the increase of transmission loss due to glass colouring when they are used under the presence of radiation such as γ-ray. Generally, it is known that SI (step index) fibers are more resistive to radiation than GI (graded index) fibers. However, since a wide band can not be obtained with SI fibers, the development of radiation resistive GI optical fibers is desirable. In this report, the production for trial of the GI fibers of fluorine-doped silica core, the examination of radiation effect on their optical transmission loss by exposing them to γ-ray, thermal and fast neutron beams and also of mechanical strength are described. The GI fibers of fluorine-doped silica core show better radiation resistivity than Ge-doped ones. The B- and F-doped GI fibers show small increase of loss due to γ-ray, but large increase of loss due to thermal neutron beam. This is supposed to be caused by the far greater neutron absorption cross-section of boron than that of other elements. Significant increase of loss was not recognized when 14 MeV fast neutrons (8.6 x 10 4 n/cm 2 .s) were applied by 1.8 x 10 9 n/cm 2 . It was found that ETFE-covered fiber cores generated fluorine-containing gas due to γ irradiation, and the strength was remarkably lowered, but the lowering of strength can be prevented by adding titanium-white to the covering material. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  2. Plasmonic Optical Fiber-Grating Immunosensing: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; González-Vila, Álvaro; Loyez, Médéric; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2017-11-26

    Plasmonic immunosensors are usually made of a noble metal (in the form of a film or nanoparticles) on which bioreceptors are grafted to sense analytes based on the antibody/antigen or other affinity mechanism. Optical fiber configurations are a miniaturized counterpart to the bulky Kretschmann prism and allow easy light injection and remote operation. To excite a surface plasmon (SP), the core-guided light is locally outcoupled. Unclad optical fibers were the first configurations reported to this end. Among the different architectures able to bring light in contact with the surrounding medium, a great quantity of research is today being conducted on metal-coated fiber gratings photo-imprinted in the fiber core, as they provide modal features that enable SP generation at any wavelength, especially in the telecommunication window. They are perfectly suited for use with cost-effective high-resolution interrogators, allowing both a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection to be reached in immunosensing. This paper will review recent progress made in this field with different kinds of gratings: uniform, tilted and eccentric short-period gratings as well as long-period fiber gratings. Practical cases will be reported, showing that such sensors can be used in very small volumes of analytes and even possibly applied to in vivo diagnosis.

  3. Plasmonic Optical Fiber-Grating Immunosensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic immunosensors are usually made of a noble metal (in the form of a film or nanoparticles on which bioreceptors are grafted to sense analytes based on the antibody/antigen or other affinity mechanism. Optical fiber configurations are a miniaturized counterpart to the bulky Kretschmann prism and allow easy light injection and remote operation. To excite a surface plasmon (SP, the core-guided light is locally outcoupled. Unclad optical fibers were the first configurations reported to this end. Among the different architectures able to bring light in contact with the surrounding medium, a great quantity of research is today being conducted on metal-coated fiber gratings photo-imprinted in the fiber core, as they provide modal features that enable SP generation at any wavelength, especially in the telecommunication window. They are perfectly suited for use with cost-effective high-resolution interrogators, allowing both a high sensitivity and a low limit of detection to be reached in immunosensing. This paper will review recent progress made in this field with different kinds of gratings: uniform, tilted and eccentric short-period gratings as well as long-period fiber gratings. Practical cases will be reported, showing that such sensors can be used in very small volumes of analytes and even possibly applied to in vivo diagnosis.

  4. Coated sphere scattering by geometric optics approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengran, Zhai; Qieni, Lü; Hongxia, Zhang; Yinxin, Zhang

    2014-10-01

    A new geometric optics model has been developed for the calculation of light scattering by a coated sphere, and the analytic expression for scattering is presented according to whether rays hit the core or not. The ray of various geometric optics approximation (GOA) terms is parameterized by the number of reflections in the coating/core interface, the coating/medium interface, and the number of chords in the core, with the degeneracy path and repeated path terms considered for the rays striking the core, which simplifies the calculation. For the ray missing the core, the various GOA terms are dealt with by a homogeneous sphere. The scattering intensity of coated particles are calculated and then compared with those of Debye series and Aden-Kerker theory. The consistency of the results proves the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  5. Recent Developments in Fiber Optics Humidity Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2017-04-19

    A wide range of applications such as health, human comfort, agriculture, food processing and storage, and electronic manufacturing, among others, require fast and accurate measurement of humidity. Sensors based on optical fibers present several advantages over electronic sensors and great research efforts have been made in recent years in this field. The present paper reports the current trends of optical fiber humidity sensors. The evolution of optical structures developed towards humidity sensing, as well as the novel materials used for this purpose, will be analyzed. Well-known optical structures, such as long-period fiber gratings or fiber Bragg gratings, are still being studied towards an enhancement of their sensitivity. Sensors based on lossy mode resonances constitute a platform that combines high sensitivity with low complexity, both in terms of their fabrication process and the equipment required. Novel structures, such as resonators, are being studied in order to improve the resolution of humidity sensors. Moreover, recent research on polymer optical fibers suggests that the sensitivity of this kind of sensor has not yet reached its limit. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  6. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  7. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating

  8. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  9. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  10. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  11. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  12. Thin aerogel layers coated on silica optical fibers and their interaction with gases and liquids as a functional basis for chemical sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Chomát, Miroslav; Hayer, Miloš

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (1999), s. 61-64 [Chinese-Czech Symposium Advanced Materials and Devices for Optoelectronics /2./. Beijing, 13.09.1999-14.09.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/98/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical sensors * optical fibres Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  14. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  15. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  16. Strain measurement using multiplexed fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Bum; Kim, Chi Yeop; Yoon, Dong Jin; Lee, Seung Seok

    2003-01-01

    FBG(Fiber Bragg grating) sensor, which is one of the fiber optic sensors for the application of smart structures, can not only measure one specific point but also multiple points by multiplexing techniques. We have proposed a novel multiplexing technique of FBG sensor by the intensity modulation of light source. This technique is applicable to WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technique and number of sensors in this system can be increased by using this technique with WDM technique.

  17. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  18. Optical fiber applied to radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Francisco A.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Vasconcelos, Danilo C., E-mail: fanbra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: danilochagas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the production of optical fibers cables has make possible the development of a range of spectroscopic probes for in situ analysis performing beyond nondestructive tests, environmental monitoring, security investigation, application in radiotherapy for dose monitoring, verification and validation. In this work, a system using an optical fiber cable to light signal transmission from a NaI(Tl) radiation detector is presented. The innovative device takes advantage mainly of the optical fibers small signal attenuation and immunity to electromagnetic interference to application for radiation detection systems. The main aim was to simplify the detection system making it to reach areas where the conventional device cannot access due to its lack of mobility and external dimensions. Some tests with this innovative system are presented and the results stimulate the continuity of the researches. (author)

  19. Optical fiber designs for beam shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Kevin; Conroy, Michael; Wang, Chih-Hao; Abramczyk, Jaroslaw; Campbell, Stuart; Oulundsen, George; Tankala, Kanishka

    2014-03-01

    A large number of power delivery applications for optical fibers require beams with very specific output intensity profiles; in particular applications that require a focused high intensity beam typically image the near field (NF) intensity distribution at the exit surface of an optical fiber. In this work we discuss optical fiber designs that shape the output beam profile to more closely correspond to what is required in many real world industrial applications. Specifically we present results demonstrating the ability to transform Gaussian beams to shapes required for industrial applications and how that relates to system parameters such as beam product parameter (BPP) values. We report on the how different waveguide structures perform in the NF and show results on how to achieve flat-top with circular outputs.

  20. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  1. Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless remotely controlled switching using passive optical splitters. The signal to be transmitted is digitally pre-distorted so that it is routed through the physical layer in order to arrive at only one receiver in an array. System...... performance in the presence of additive white gaussian noise, modal group delay, and timing error is investigated numerically for single-mode and 10-mode fiber. Focusing using a two-transmitter array and 44 km of single- mode fiber is demonstrated experimentally for 3 GBd QPSK signals with a bit error rate...

  2. Characterization of Scintillating X-ray Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Vâţă, Ion; McCarthy, Denis; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a set of tests carried out in order to evaluate the design characteristics and the operating performance of a set of six X-ray extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The extrinsic sensor we developed is intended to be used as a low energy X-ray detector for monitoring radiation levels in radiotherapy, industrial applications and for personnel dosimetry. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the characteristics of the sensors were assessed. The sensors dynamic range, linearity, sensitivity, and reproducibility are evaluated through radioluminescence measurements, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray imaging investigations. Their response to the operating conditions of the excitation source was estimated. The effect of the sensors design and implementation, on the collecting efficiency of the radioluminescence signal was measured. The study indicated that the sensors are efficient only in the first 5 mm of the tip, and that a reflective coating can improve their response. Additional tests were done to investigate the concentricity of the sensors tip against the core of the optical fiber guiding the optical signal. The influence of the active material concentration on the sensor response to X-ray was studied. The tests were carried out by measuring the radioluminescence signal with an optical fiber spectrometer and with a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. PMID:24556676

  3. Deeply-etched micromirror with vertical slit and metallic coating enabling transmission-type optical MEMS filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Sadek, Mohamed; Nassar, Ismail M.; Khalil, Diaa A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report a novel optical MEMS deeply-etched mirror with metallic coating and vertical slot, where the later allows reflection and transmission by the micromirror. The micromirror as well as fiber grooves are fabricated using deep reactive ion etching technology, where the optical axis is in-plane and the components are self-aligned. The etching depth is 150 μm chosen to improve the micromirror optical throughput. The vertical optical structure is Al metal coated using the shadow mask technique. A fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot filter is successfully realized using the fabricated structure. Experimental measurements were obtained based on a dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a fiber groove facing the slotted micromirror. A versatile performance in terms of the free spectral range and 3-dB bandwidth is achieved.

  4. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Katzir, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    The increasing use of fiber optics in the field of medicine has created a need for an interdisciplinary perspective of the technology and methods for physicians as well as engineers and biophysicists. This book presents a comprehensive examination of lasers and optical fibers in an hierarchical, three-tier system. Each chapter is divided into three basic sections: the Fundamentals section provides an overview of basic concepts and background; the Principles section offers an in-depth engineering approach; and the Advances section features specific information on systems an

  5. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  6. Towards biochips using microstructured optical fiber sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Hoiby, Poul Erik; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the first incorporation of a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) into biochip applications. A 16-mm-long piece of MOF is incorporated into an optic-fluidic coupler chip, which is fabricated in PMMA polymer using a CO2 laser. The developed chip configuration allows...... the continuous control of liquid flow through the MOF and simultaneous optical characterization. While integrated in the chip, the MOF is functionalized towards the capture of a specific single-stranded DNA string by immobilizing a sensing layer on the microstructured internal surfaces of the fiber. The sensing...... layer contains the DNA string complementary to the target DNA sequence and thus operates through the highly selective DNA hybridization process. Optical detection of the captured DNA was carried out using the evanescent-wave-sensing principle. Owing to the small size of the chip, the presented technique...

  7. Optical fiber sensors for medical applications: practical engineering considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, J.A.C.; Cheng, L.K.; Wieringa, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of optical fibers as medical sensors are recognized world wide nowadays. Insensitivity to electromagnetic disturbances and relative small dimensions are the most well known properties. The advantages of fiber optic sensors are especially valuable within environments with high

  8. Hybrid Coatings as Transducer in Optical Biosensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rose, K.; Dzyadevych, S.; Fernandez-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic, N.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Matějec, Vlastimil; Scully, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2008), s. 491-496 ISSN 1547-0091 Grant - others:GRD1(XE) 2001-C40477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical sensor * fluorescence * hybrid coating Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2008

  9. Strength measurement of optical fibers by bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srubshchik, Leonid S.

    1999-01-01

    A two-point bending technique has been used not only to measure the breaking stress of optical fiber but also to predict its static and dynamic fatigue. The present theory of this test is based on elastica theory of rod. However, within the limits of elastica theory the tensile and shear stresses cannot be determined. In this paper we study dynamic and static problems for optical fiber in the two- point bending test on the base of geometrically exact theory in which rod can suffer flexure, extension, and shear. We obtain the governing partial differential equations taking into account the fact that the lateral motion of the fiber is restrained by the presence of flat parallel plates. We develop the computational methods for solving the initial and equilibrium free-boundary nonlinear planar problems. We derive the formulas for predicting of the tensile strength from strength in the bending and calculate one example.

  10. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrippolito, R.

    1990-01-01

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled ( 32 P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm 2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I [fr

  11. Fiber optical asssembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Gray, Perry Clayton; Rubenstein, Richard

    2015-08-18

    System is provided for detecting the presence of an analyte of interest in a sample, said system comprising an elongated, transparent container for a sample; an excitation source in optical communication with the sample, wherein radiation from the excitation source is directed along the length of the sample, and wherein the radiation induces a signal which is emitted from the sample; and, at least two linear arrays disposed about the sample holder, each linear array comprising a plurality of optical fibers having a first end and a second end, wherein the first ends of the fibers are disposed along the length of the container and in proximity thereto; the second ends of the fibers of each array are bundled together to form a single end port.

  12. Fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, C.R.; Wingate, F.P.; Ballard, E.O.

    1979-01-01

    A fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer was developed for measurement of pressure transients produced by fast electrical discharges in laser cavities. A detailed description of the design and performance will be given. Shock tube performance and measurements in direct electrical discharge regions will be presented

  13. Microstructured optical fiber refractive index sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, Graham E.; McCosker, Ravi; Yuan, Scott Wu

    2010-01-01

    We describe a dual-core microstructured optical fiber designed for refractive index sensing of fluids. We show that by using the exponential dependence of intercore coupling on analyte refractive index, both large range and high sensitivity can be achieved in the one device. We also show...

  14. FIBER OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DNA DAMAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a fiber optic biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of radiation-induced or chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage. The assay is based on the hybridization and temperature-induced dissociation (melting curves) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The...

  15. Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.

  16. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  17. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšilová, Marie; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, Josef

    2015-09-30

    This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS). Fiber optic sensor (FOS) systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF) to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV) (180 nm) up to middle infrared (IR) (10 μm) and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors.

  18. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšilová, Marie; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS) and biosensors (FOBS). Fiber optic sensor (FOS) systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF) to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV) (180 nm) up to middle infrared (IR) (10 µm) and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors. PMID:26437407

  19. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pospíšilová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS and biosensors (FOBS. Fiber optic sensor (FOS systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV (180 nm up to middle infrared (IR (10 μm and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors.

  20. Portable fiber-optic taper coupled optical microscopy platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Yu, Yan; Huang, Hui; Ou, Jinping

    2017-04-01

    The optical fiber taper coupled with CMOS has advantages of high sensitivity, compact structure and low distortion in the imaging platform. So it is widely used in low light, high speed and X-ray imaging systems. In the meanwhile, the peculiarity of the coupled structure can meet the needs of the demand in microscopy imaging. Toward this end, we developed a microscopic imaging platform based on the coupling of cellphone camera module and fiber optic taper for the measurement of the human blood samples and ascaris lumbricoides. The platform, weighing 70 grams, is based on the existing camera module of the smartphone and a fiber-optic array which providing a magnification factor of 6x.The top facet of the taper, on which samples are placed, serves as an irregular sampling grid for contact imaging. The magnified images of the sample, located on the bottom facet of the fiber, are then projected onto the CMOS sensor. This paper introduces the portable medical imaging system based on the optical fiber coupling with CMOS, and theoretically analyzes the feasibility of the system. The image data and process results either can be stored on the memory or transmitted to the remote medical institutions for the telemedicine. We validate the performance of this cell-phone based microscopy platform using human blood samples and test target, achieving comparable results to a standard bench-top microscope.

  1. 21 CFR 872.4620 - Fiber optic dental light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiber optic dental light. 872.4620 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4620 Fiber optic dental light. (a) Identification. A fiber optic dental light is a device that is a light, usually AC-powered, that consists of glass or...

  2. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a) Be...

  3. Femtosecond Laser Structuring in Optical Fiber and Transparent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Peter R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is optimized for writing optical circuits, optical resonators, and microfluidic devices inside the cladding of single-mode optical fiber that couple efficiently with the fiber core waveguide. The laser processes open new directions towards Labon-a-Fiber.

  4. Melt Drawing/Coating of Oxide Fibers for Composite Materials Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, J

    1996-01-01

    .... Fiber coatings were formed by pulsed excimer laser ablation. Push-out tests on coated fibers imbedded in a ceramic matrix gave small values of the debonding shear strength, tau d 25 MPa, for fibers coated with 2 MgO-SiO2 (enstatite...

  5. From space qualified fiber optic gyroscope to generic fiber optic solutions available for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, Thomas; Ramecourt, David; Napolitano, Fabien

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the qualification of the Fiber Optic Gyroscope technology from IXSEA has been achieved through the qualification of a large range of optical devices and related manufacturing processes. These qualified optical devices and processes, that are now fully mastered by IXSEA through vertical integration of the technology, can be used for other space optical sensors. The example of the SWARM project will be discussed.

  6. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  7. Fiber optic configurations for local area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassehi, M. M.; Tobagi, F. A.; Marhic, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of fiber optic configurations for a new class of demand assignment multiple-access local area networks requiring a physical ordering among stations are proposed. In such networks, the data transmission and linear-ordering functions may be distinguished and be provided by separate data and control subnetworks. The configurations proposed for the data subnetwork are based on the linear, star, and tree topologies. To provide the linear-ordering function, the control subnetwork must always have a linear unidirectional bus structure. Due to the reciprocity and excess loss of optical couplers, the number of stations that can be accommodated on a linear fiber optic bus is severely limited. Two techniques are proposed to overcome this limitation. For each of the data and control subnetwork configurations, the maximum number of stations as a function of the power margin, for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal couplers, is computed.

  8. Broadband optically controlled switching effect in a microfluid-filled photonic bandgap fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Junqi; Liu, Yan-ge; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Mingming; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoqi; Han, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Broadband optically controlled switching in a microfluid-filled photonic bandgap fiber (MF-PBGF) was observed and investigated. The MF-PBGF was formed by infusing a temperature-sensitive high-index fluid into all of the cladding holes of a microstructured optical fiber (MOF). The fiber was then side pumped with a 532 nm continuous wave laser. An extinction ratio of greater than 20 dB at most of the bandgap wavelengths (more than 200 nm) was obtained with a switching power of ∼147 mW. Theoretical and experimental investigations revealed that the effect originated from changes in the temperature gradient induced by heat absorption of the fiber coating with laser illumination. These investigations offer a new and simple approach to achieve wideband and flexible all-optical fiber switching devices without using any photosensitive materials. (paper)

  9. Application of carbon nanotubes to topographical resolution enhancement of tapered fiber scanning near field optical microscopy probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, S. T.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2003-05-01

    Scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM) probes are typically tapered optical fibers with metallic coatings. The tip diameters are generally in excess of 300 nm and thus provide poor topographical resolution. Here we report on the attachment multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the probes in order to substantially enhance the topographical resolution, without adversely affecting the optical resolution.

  10. Highly phosphorescent hollow fibers inner-coated with tungstate nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pui Fai; Bai, Gongxun; Si, Liping; Lee, Ka I.; Hao, Jianhua; Xin, John H.; Fei, Bin

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop luminescent microtubes from natural fibers, a facile biomimetic mineralization method was designed to introduce the CaWO4-based nanocrystals into kapok lumens. The structure, composition, and luminescence properties of resultant fibers were investigated with microscopes, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and fluorescence spectrometry. The yield of tungstate crystals inside kapok was significantly promoted with a process at high temperature and pressure—the hydrothermal treatment. The tungstate crystals grown on the inner wall of kapok fibers showed the same crystal structure with those naked powders, but smaller in crystal size. The resultant fiber assemblies demonstrated reduced phosphorescence intensity in comparison to the naked tungstate powders. However, the fibers gave more stable luminescence than the naked powders in wet condition. This approach explored the possibility of decorating natural fibers with high load of nanocrystals, hinting potential applications in anti-counterfeit labels, security textiles, and even flexible and soft optical devices.

  11. Optical-domain Compensation for Coupling between Optical Fiber Conjugate Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation.......We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation....

  12. Sensitivity to contamination of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple theory is presented of the sensitivity to contamination of optical coatings, which permits prediction of performance degradation in the presence of small deposit s of absorbing material. Although a major objective is the ability to compare the sensitivities of different coating types, absolute values can be made possible by adopting a standard contamination layer consisting of a 1 Angstrom thickness of carbon. Results are quoted for a number of common thin-film coatings and filters and are sometimes surprising. The common high-reflectance coating is the quarterwave stack and, at its reference wavelength, it has very low sensitivity to contamination. Although minor constructional errors have little effect on the reflectance, they can seriously affect the contamination sensitivity. Further, the level of contamination determines the maximum reflectance it is possible to achieve, regardless of the number of layers in the coating. The admittance diagram helps in understanding the reasons for the very large variations in sensitivity between coatings with quite similar reflectance

  13. New Methods of Enhancing the Thermal Durability of Silica Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wysokiński

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Microstructured optical fibers can be precisely tailored for many different applications, out of which sensing has been found to be particularly interesting. However, placing silica optical fiber sensors in harsh environments results in their quick destruction as a result of the hydrolysis process. In this paper, the degradation mechanism of bare and metal-coated optical fibers at high temperatures under longitudinal strain has been determined by detailed analysis of the thermal behavior of silica and metals, like copper and nickel. We furthermore propose a novel method of enhancing the lifetime of optical fibers by the deposition of electroless nickel-phosphorous alloy in a low-temperature chemical process. The best results were obtained for a coating comprising an inner layer of copper and outer layer of low phosphorous nickel. Lifetime values obtained during the annealing experiments were extrapolated to other temperatures by a dedicated model elaborated by the authors. The estimated copper-coated optical fiber lifetime under cycled longitudinal strain reached 31 h at 450 °C.

  14. New Methods of Enhancing the Thermal Durability of Silica Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Karol; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Gibała, Katarzyna; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Ziołowicz, Anna; Słowikowski, Mateusz; Broczkowska, Małgorzata; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2014-10-13

    Microstructured optical fibers can be precisely tailored for many different applications, out of which sensing has been found to be particularly interesting. However, placing silica optical fiber sensors in harsh environments results in their quick destruction as a result of the hydrolysis process. In this paper, the degradation mechanism of bare and metal-coated optical fibers at high temperatures under longitudinal strain has been determined by detailed analysis of the thermal behavior of silica and metals, like copper and nickel. We furthermore propose a novel method of enhancing the lifetime of optical fibers by the deposition of electroless nickel-phosphorous alloy in a low-temperature chemical process. The best results were obtained for a coating comprising an inner layer of copper and outer layer of low phosphorous nickel. Lifetime values obtained during the annealing experiments were extrapolated to other temperatures by a dedicated model elaborated by the authors. The estimated copper-coated optical fiber lifetime under cycled longitudinal strain reached 31 h at 450 °C.

  15. Effects of Fiber Coating Composition on Mechanical Behavior of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Elderidge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Celsian matrix composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon fibers, precoated with a dual layer of BN/SiC by chemical vapor deposition in two separate batches, were fabricated. Mechanical properties of the composites were measured in three-point flexure. Despite supposedly identical processing, the composite panels fabricated with fibers coated in two batches exhibited substantially different mechanical behavior. The first matrix cracking stresses (sigma(sub mc)) of the composites reinforced with fibers coated in batch 1 and batch 2 were 436 and 122 MPa, respectively. This large difference in sigma(sub mc) was attributed to differences in fiber sliding stresses(tau(sub friction)), 121.2+/-48.7 and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively, for the two composites as determined by the fiber push-in method. Such a large difference in values of tau(sub friction) for the two composites was found to be due to the difference in the compositions of the interface coatings. Scanning Auger microprobe analysis revealed the presence of carbon layers between the fiber and BN, and also between the BN and SiC coatings in the composite showing lower tau(sub friction). This resulted in lower sigma(sub mc) in agreement with the ACK theory. The ultimate strengths of the two composites, 904 and 759 MPa, depended mainly on the fiber volume fraction and were not significantly effected by tau(sub friction) values, as expected. The poor reproducibility of the fiber coating composition between the two batches was judged to be the primary source of the large differences in performance of the two composites.

  16. Optic Fibers as a Broadcasting Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf QARKAXHIJA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast brodcasting of an information is always a challange from our daily activities. Through fast broadcasting of the information always created pre-eminence in military activities, business, researching, etc. From ancient times we know that information was orally and hand in hand broadcasted which in most of the times casused in loss of information and due to this also in loss of activities which are mentioned above. Due to information technology notably computer networks and internet overtime information started broadcasting faster. Information started broadcasting through copper wires and through wireless. Big applications started to develop with the increased use of Internet, high quality broadcasting (HD, video on demand broadcasting (VoD, triple pay broadcasting (three services on a medium, etc., then these two mediums couldn’t complete all these requests. Therfore after these problems, optic fiber began to be used as a broadcasting medium which eleminated all the defects of other mediums. Importance of this paper work is telling developing stages of optic fiber, it’s characteristics and it’s losses. Then it is shown that which devises enforce the signal of fibers and in the end all three mediums that we mentioned are compared on the basis of attributes. Findings form the paper will only enforce that knowledge we had before about optic fiber, the best broadcasting medium.

  17. Ionizing radiation detector using multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.J.; Poret, J.C.; Rosen, M.; Rifkind, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    An optical ionizing radiation detector, based on the attenuation of 850-nm light in 50/125-μm multimode fibers, is described. The detector is especially well suited for application on spacecraft because of its small design. The detection element consists of a section of coiled fibers that has been designed to strip higher-order optical modes. Cylindrical radiation shields with atomic numbers ranging from Z = 13 (aluminum too) Z = 82 (lead) were placed around the ionizing radiation detector so that the effectiveness of the detector could be measured. By exposing the shields and the detector to 1.25-MeV cobalt 60 radiation, the mass attenuation coefficients of the shields were measured. The detector is based on the phenomenon that radiation creates optical color centers in glass fibers. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy performed on the 50/125-μm fibers showed the presence of germanium oxide and phosphorus-based color centers. The intensity of these centers is directly related to the accumulated gamma radiation

  18. Optical fiber strain sensor using fiber resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ping; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel (to our best knowledge) optical fiber strain sensor using a fiber ring resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. A passively mode-locked optical fiber laser is employed to generate a phased-locked frequency comb. Strain applied to the optical fib...

  19. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  20. Scalable Optical-Fiber Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Peterson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Scalable arbitrary fiber extension network (SAFEnet) is conceptual fiber-optic communication network passing digital signals among variety of computers and input/output devices at rates from 200 Mb/s to more than 100 Gb/s. Intended for use with very-high-speed computers and other data-processing and communication systems in which message-passing delays must be kept short. Inherent flexibility makes it possible to match performance of network to computers by optimizing configuration of interconnections. In addition, interconnections made redundant to provide tolerance to faults.

  1. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  2. Applications of fiber optic sensors in concrete structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingyun; Zhang, Wentao; Sun, Baochen; Du, Yanliang

    2007-11-01

    The research of fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) sensors and their applications in concrete structural health monitoring are presented in this paper. Different types of fiber optic EFPI sensors are designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the sensors. The results show that the sensors have good linearity and stability. The applications of the fiber optic EFPI sensors in concrete structural health monitoring are also introduced. Ten fiber optic sensors are embedded into one section of the Liaohe Bridge in Qinghuangdao-Shenyang Railway. Field test demonstrates that the results of fiber optic sensors agree well with conventional strain gauges.

  3. Monitoring techniques for the manufacture of tapered optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Kevin; Correia, Ricardo; Staines, Stephen E; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2015-10-01

    The use of a range of optical techniques to monitor the process of fabricating optical fiber tapers is investigated. Thermal imaging was used to optimize the alignment of the optical system; the transmission spectrum of the fiber was monitored to confirm that the tapers had the required optical properties and the strain induced in the fiber during tapering was monitored using in-line optical fiber Bragg gratings. Tapers were fabricated with diameters down to 5 μm and with waist lengths of 20 mm using single-mode SMF-28 fiber.

  4. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    A prime focus spectrometer (PFS), along with corrective optics, will mount in place of the secondary mirror of the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This will allow simultaneous observations of cosmologic targets. It will enable large-scale galactic archeology and dark energy surveys to help unlock the secrets of the universe. To perform these cosmologic surveys, an array of 2,400 optical fibers needs to be independently positioned within the 498-mm-diameter focal plane of the PFS instrument to collect light from galaxies and stars for spectrographic analyses. To allow for independent re-positioning of the fibers, a very small positioner (7.7 mm in diameter) is required. One hundred percent coverage of the focal plane is also required, so these small actuators need to cover a patrol region of 9.5 mm in diameter. To optimize the amount of light that can be collected, the fibers need to be placed within 5 micrometers of their intended target (either a star or galaxy). The Cobra Fiber Positioner was designed to meet the size and accuracy requirements stated above. Cobra is a two-degrees-of-freedom mechanism that can position an optical fiber in the focal plane of the PFS instrument to a precision of 5 micrometers. It is a theta-phi style positioner containing two rotary piezo tube motors with one offset from the other, which enables the optic fibers to be placed anywhere in a small circular patrol region. The patrol region of the actuator is such that the array of 2,400 positioners allows for full coverage of the instrument focal plane by overlapping the patrol areas. A second-generation Cobra positioner was designed based on lessons learned from the original prototype built in 2009. Improvements were made to the precision of the ceramic motor parts, and hard stops were redesigned to minimize friction and prevent jamming. These changes resulted in reducing the number of move iterations required to position the optical fiber within 5 micrometers of its target. At

  5. Collapsed optical fiber: A novel method for improving thermoluminescence response of optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdiraji, G. Amouzad, E-mail: ghafour@um.edu.my [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Adikan, F.R. Mahamd [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A new technique is shown to provide improved thermoluminescence (TL) response from optical fibers, based on collapsing down hollow capillary optical fibers (COF) into flat fibers (FF), producing fused inner walls and consequent defects generation. Four different fused silica preform tubes are used to fabricate in-house COFs and FFs, i.e., ultra-pure (F300), relatively pure silica (PS), germanium-doped (Ge), and Ge–Boron-doped (GeB). The optical fibers are then subjected to 6 MeV electron irradiation. While the results show similar TL response from F300-COF and -FF, the TL response of PS-COF is improved by a factor of 6 by collapsing it down to a FF. By doping Ge into the F300 tube, the TL response of the resultant Ge-COF shows an improvement of 3 times over that of F300-COF, while an improvement of a factor of 12 is obtained by producing a Ge-FF. In GeB preform, by collapsing the capillary fiber into a FF, an improvement in TL response of 31 times that of GeB-COF is obtained. TL glow curve analysis shows an additional peak to be generated in the FFs compared to that observed in the COFs. The TL intensity value of the new peak is significantly increased in the doped FFs compared to the undoped FFs. The results suggest that defects generation occurs as a result of the fusing/collapsing technique, providing a TL response from the optical fibers that can substantially improve upon that of existing TL system sensitivities. - Highlights: • A new method for increasing TL response of optical fiber is presented. • By collapsing capillary fiber wall surface, TL response of the fiber increased. • By adding impurity in the collapsing area, TL response significantly improved.

  6. Processing of optical combs with fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Radan; Kakande, J.; Richardson, D.J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2012), s. 10059-10070 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber -optic parametric amplifier * Phase sensitive * Spectral coverage Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2012

  7. Fiber-optic dosimeters for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enbang; Archer, James

    2017-10-01

    According to the figures provided by the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Radiation therapy, which uses x-rays to destroy or injure cancer cells, has become one of the most important modalities to treat the primary cancer or advanced cancer. The newly developed microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of x-ray microbeams (typically 50 μm wide and separated by 400 μm) produced by synchrotron sources, represents a new paradigm in radiotherapy and has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies on different animal models. Measurements of the absorbed dose distribution of microbeams are vitally important for clinical acceptance of MRT and for developing quality assurance systems for MRT, hence are a challenging and important task for radiation dosimetry. On the other hand, during the traditional LINAC based radiotherapy and breast cancer brachytherapy, skin dose measurements and treatment planning also require a high spatial resolution, tissue equivalent, on-line dosimeter that is both economical and highly reliable. Such a dosimeter currently does not exist and remains a challenge in the development of radiation dosimetry. High resolution, water equivalent, optical and passive x-ray dosimeters have been developed and constructed by using plastic scintillators and optical fibers. The dosimeters have peak edge-on spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 500 microns in one dimension, with a 10 micron resolution dosimeter under development. The developed fiber-optic dosimeters have been test with both LINAC and synchrotron x-ray beams. This work demonstrates that water-equivalent and high spatial resolution radiation detection can be achieved with scintillators and optical fiber systems. Among other advantages, the developed fiber-optic probes are also passive, energy independent, and radiation hard.

  8. Graphene Oxide in Lossy Mode Resonance-Based Optical Fiber Sensors for Ethanol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernaez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of graphene oxide (GO over the features of an optical fiber ethanol sensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMR has been studied in this work. Four different sensors were built with this aim, each comprising a multimode optical fiber core fragment coated with a SnO2 thin film. Layer by layer (LbL coatings made of 1, 2 and 4 bilayers of polyethyleneimine (PEI and graphene oxide were deposited onto three of these devices and their behavior as aqueous ethanol sensors was characterized and compared with the sensor without GO. The sensors with GO showed much better performance with a maximum sensitivity enhancement of 176% with respect to the sensor without GO. To our knowledge, this is the first time that GO has been used to make an optical fiber sensor based on LMR.

  9. Graphene Oxide in Lossy Mode Resonance-Based Optical Fiber Sensors for Ethanol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaez, Miguel; Mayes, Andrew G; Melendi-Espina, Sonia

    2017-12-27

    The influence of graphene oxide (GO) over the features of an optical fiber ethanol sensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMR) has been studied in this work. Four different sensors were built with this aim, each comprising a multimode optical fiber core fragment coated with a SnO₂ thin film. Layer by layer (LbL) coatings made of 1, 2 and 4 bilayers of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and graphene oxide were deposited onto three of these devices and their behavior as aqueous ethanol sensors was characterized and compared with the sensor without GO. The sensors with GO showed much better performance with a maximum sensitivity enhancement of 176% with respect to the sensor without GO. To our knowledge, this is the first time that GO has been used to make an optical fiber sensor based on LMR.

  10. Irradiation of fiber optics in the SSC tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-03-01

    The salient question is not whether optical fiber will survive in the Super Conducting Supercollider (SSC) tunnel, but rather how long will it survive. Current estimates indicate that single mode fiber under ideal conditions will have an expected lifetime of at least 25 years. Future development of optical fiber will lead to longer service lifetimes and increased radiation hardness. But conservatively speaking, current production optical fibers can probably not be depended upon for more than 25 years of service even under ideal conditions

  11. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  12. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  13. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration. Keywords: Tapered optical fibers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Random lasers

  14. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Jensen, C. P.; Christensen, F. E.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Marggraf, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Shortt, B.

    2010-07-01

    The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

  15. Fiber-optic-coupled dosemeter for remote optical sensing of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation exposure are of current interest for applications such as patient dose verification during radiotherapy and the monitoring of environmental contaminants. Fiberoptic-based sensing is attractive due to the advantages of small size, low cost, long life and freedom from electromagnetic interference. Several fiberoptic-based radiation sensing systems have been described that utilize radiation induced changes in the optical characteristics of the fiber such as reduced transmission as a result of darkening of the glass, optical phase shifts due to heating, or changes in the birefringence of a polarization-maintaining fiber. The measurement of radiation induced darkening is limited in both sensitivity and dynamic range and requires long fiber lengths. Phase shift measurements require the use of single-mode lasers, phase sensitive interferometric detection, long fiber lengths and complex signal processing techniques. Alternatively, thermoluminescent (TL) phosphor powders have been coated onto fiberoptic cables and remote dosimetry measurements performed using traditional laser heating techniques. The sensitivity is limited by the requirement for a very thin layer of phosphor material, due to problems associated with light scattering and efficient heating by thermal diffusion. In this paper we report the development of an all-optical, fiber-optic-coupled, thermoluminescence dosemeter for remote radiation sensing that offers significant advantages compared to previous technologies. We recently reported the development of an optically transparent, TL glass material having exceptionally good characteristics for traditional dosimetry applications. We also reported a modified TL glass incorporating a rare earth ion dopant in order to absorb light from a semiconductor laser and utilize the absorbed light energy to internally heat the glass and release the trapped electrons. (author)

  16. Optical Fibers in Nuclear Reactor Radiation Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    1992-01-01

    A performance evaluation of fiber optics under radiation conditions similar to those encountered in nuclear power plants is reported. The evaluation was accomplished by the creation of an analytical model for atomic scale radiation damage in silica glass and by the execution of an extensive fiber performance measurement program. The analytic model calculates displacement and electronic damage rates for silica glass subjected to a specified nuclear reactor radiation environment. It accomplishes this by first generating the primary charged particle spectrum produced in silica irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The resultant spectra are then applied to the integral equations describing radiation damage in polyatomic solids. The experimental measurements were selected to span the range of fiber types, radiation environments, temperatures, and light powers expected to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic experimental protocol was to expose the optical fibers to either a nuclear reactor or a ^{60}Co radiation environment while simultaneously monitoring fiber light transmission. Experimental temperatures were either ~23 ^circC or ~100 ^circC and light powers were either -30 dBm or -60 dBm. Measurements were made at each of the three standard communications wavelengths (850 nm, 1300 nm, and 1550 nm). Several conclusions are made based on these performance measurements. First, even near the core of a nuclear reactor the vast majority of the dose to silica glass is due to gamma rays. Even with the much lower doses (factor of roughly 40) neutrons cause much more displacement damage than gamma rays (35 times the oxygen displacement rate and 500 times the silicon displacement rate). Even with neutrons having many times the displacement rate as compared with gamma rays, little if any difference is observed in the transmission losses for gamma only as compared to mixed neutron/gamma transmission losses. Therefore, atomic displacement is not a significant damage mechanism for

  17. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M. L., E-mail: reinkeml@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Han, M.; Liu, G. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M. [Technobis, Pyrietstraat 2, 1812 SC Alkmaar (Netherlands); Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry–Pérot cavity when broadband light, λ{sub o} ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m{sup 2} when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m{sup 2} in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m{sup 2} or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  18. Precision Cleaning and Protection of Coated Optical Components for NIF Small Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The purpose of this procedure shall be to define the precision cleaning of finished, coated, small optical components for NIF at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The term “small optical components” includes coated optics that are set into simple mounts, as well as coated, un-mounted optics.

  19. Direct writing of fiber optic components in photonic crystal fibers and other specialty fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis Andre; Sezerman, Omur; Best, Garland; Ng, Mi Li; Kane, Saidou

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond direct laser writing has recently shown great potential for the fabrication of complex integrated devices in the cladding of optical fibers. Such devices have the advantage of requiring no bulk optical components and no breaks in the fiber path, thus reducing the need for complicated alignment, eliminating contamination, and increasing stability. This technology has already found applications using combinations of Bragg gratings, interferometers, and couplers for the fabrication of optical filters, sensors, and power monitors. The femtosecond laser writing method produces a local modification of refractive index through non-linear absorption of the ultrafast laser pulses inside the dielectric material of both the core and cladding of the fiber. However, fiber geometries that incorporate air or hollow structures, such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), still present a challenge since the index modification regions created by the writing process cannot be generated in the hollow regions of the fiber. In this work, the femtosecond laser method is used together with a pre-modification method that consists of partially collapsing the hollow holes using an electrical arc discharge. The partial collapse of the photonic band gap structure provides a path for femtosecond laser written waveguides to couple light from the core to the edge of the fiber for in-line power monitoring. This novel approach is expected to have applications in other specialty fibers such as suspended core fibers and can open the way for the integration of complex devices and facilitate miniaturization of optical circuits to take advantage of the particular characteristics of the PCFs.

  20. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  1. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  2. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particularly susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  3. Active Star Architectures For Fiber Optics Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Yoseph L.

    1988-12-01

    Ethernet, and the closely related IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection), is probably the widest used method for high speed Local Area Networks (LANs). The original Ethernet medium was baseband coax but the wide acceptance of the system necessitated the ability to use Ethernet on a variety of media. So far the use of Ethernet on Thin Coax (CheaperNet), Twisted Pair (StarLan) and Broadband Coax has been standardized. Recently, an increased interest in Fiber Optic based LANs resulted in a formation of an IEEE group whose charter is to recommend approaches for Active and Passive Fiber Optic Ethernet systems. The various approaches which are being considered are described in this paper with an emphasis on Active Star based systems.

  4. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Moore, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in composite materials by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of composites with subsurface defects. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Methods and limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  5. Fiber Optic Thermal Detection of Composite Delaminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of delaminations in composites by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. A single optical fiber with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors was bonded to the surface of a composite with subsurface defects. The investigated structure was a 10-ply composite specimen with prefabricated delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared and found to be consistent with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Also discussed are methods including various heating sources and patterns, and their limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring.

  6. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  7. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  8. A fiber optic synchronization system for LUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Staples, J.W.; Doolittle, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    The LUX femtosecond light source concept would support pump-probe experiments that need to synchronize laser light pulses with electron-beam-generated X-ray pulses to less than 50 fs at the experimenter endstations. To synchronize multiple endstation lasers with the X-ray pulse, we are developing a fiber-distributed optical timing network. A high frequency clock signal is distributed via fiber to RF cavities (controlling X-ray probe pulse timing) and mode-locked lasers at endstations (controlling pump pulse timing). The superconducting cavities are actively locked to the optical clock phase. Most of the RF timing error is contained within a 10 kHz bandwidth, so these errors and any others affecting X-ray pulse timing (such as RF gun phase) can be detected and transmitted digitally to correct laser timing at the endstations. Time delay through the fibers will be stabilized by comparing a retro-reflected pulse from the experimenter endstation end with a reference pulse from the sending en d, and actively controlling the fiber length

  9. Chemical tapering of polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Affa Rozana Abdul; Afiqah Nasution, Amna; Hanim Suranin, Aisyah; Athirah Taib, Nur; Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Dasuki, Karsono Ahmad; Annuar Ehsan, Abang

    2017-11-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) have significant advantages over numerous sensing applications. The key element in developing sensor is by removing the cladding of the fiber. The use of organic solvent is one of the methods to create tapered POF in order to expose the core region. In this study, the etching chemicals involved is acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed in 100%, 80%, and 50% of acetone and MIBK dilution. In addition, the mixture of acetone and methanol is also used for POF etching by the ratio 2:1 of the volume. Acetone has shown to be the most reactive solvent towards POF due to its fastest etching rate compared to MIBK and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed and lifted from the solution for a specific time, depending on the power loss properties for the purpose of producing unclad POF. In comparison to silica fiber optic, the advantages of POF in terms of its simple technique and easy handling enable it to produce unclad POF without damaging the core region. The surface roughness of the POF is investigated under the microscope after being immersed into different solvent. This method of chemical tapering of POF can be used as the fundamental technique for sensor development. Next, the unclad fiber is immersed into ethanol solutions in order to determine the reaction of unclad POF towards its surrounding. The findings show that this particular sensor is sensitive towards concentration changes ranging between 10 wt% to 50 wt%.

  10. Refractive index retrieving of polarization maintaining optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W. A.; Wahba, H. H.; Shams El-Din, M. A.; Abd El-Sadek, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the cross-section images, of two different types of polarization maintaining (PM) optical fibers, are employed to estimate the optical phase variation due to transverse optical rays passing through these optical fibers. An adaptive algorithm is proposed to recognize the different areas constituting the PM optical fibers cross-sections. These areas are scanned by a transverse beam to calculate the optical paths for given values of refractive indices. Consequently, the optical phases across the PM optical fibers could be recovered. PM optical fiber is immersed in a matching fluid and set in the object arm of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The produced interferograms are analyzed to extract the optical phases caused by the PM optical fibers. The estimated optical phases could be optimized to be in good coincidence with experimentally extracted ones. This has been achieved through changing of the PM optical fibers refractive indices to retrieve the correct values. The correct refractive indices values are confirmed by getting the best fit between the estimated and the extracted optical phases. The presented approach is a promising one because it provides a quite direct and accurate information about refractive index, birefringence and beat length of PM optical fibers comparing with different techniques handle the same task.

  11. Fiber optical assembly for fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, II, Robert W.; Rubenstein, Richard; Piltch, Martin; Gray, Perry

    2010-12-07

    A system for analyzing a sample for the presence of an analyte in a sample. The system includes a sample holder for containing the sample; an excitation source, such as a laser, and at least one linear array radially disposed about the sample holder. Radiation from the excitation source is directed to the sample, and the radiation induces fluorescent light in the sample. Each linear array includes a plurality of fused silica optical fibers that receive the fluorescent light and transmits a fluorescent light signal from the first end to an optical end port of the linear array. An end port assembly having a photo-detector is optically coupled to the optical end port. The photo-detector detects the fluorescent light signal and converts the fluorescent light signal into an electrical signal.

  12. Fiber optic gyroscopes for vehicle navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Soekawa, Hirokazu; Yuhara, Toshiya; Kajioka, Hiroshi; Oho, Shigeru; Sonobe, Hisao

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) have been developed for vehicle navigation systems and are used in Toyota Motor Corporation models Mark II, Chaser and Cresta in Japan. Use of FOGs in these systems requires high reliability under a wide range of conditions, especially in a temperature range between -40 and 85 degree(s)C. In addition, a high cost-performance ratio is needed. We have developed optical and electrical systems that are inexpensive and can perform well. They are ready to be mass-produced. FOGs have already been installed in luxury automobiles, and will soon be included in more basic vehicles. We have developed more inexpensive FOGs for this purpose.

  13. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  14. Optical fiber telecommunications components and subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  15. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheem, Sang K.

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  16. Fiber optics in high dose radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of state-of-the-art optical fiber waveguides in high dose (greater than or equal to 10 5 rad), steady state radiation fields is presented. The influence on radiation-induced transmission loss due to experimental parameters such as dose rate, total dose, irradiation history, temperature, wavelength, and light intensity, for future work in high dose environments are given

  17. Microbending losses in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mudassar, A.A.; Hamza, M.Y.; Ikram, M.

    2003-01-01

    Microbending losses of optical fiber have been studied for different amplitude and shape of the deformer. Experimental results show that grooves of angel 60 degree cause more losses as compared to the grooves 90 degree. Intensity modulation induced by micro bends is considered as transudation mechanism for detecting environmental changes such as pressure, temperature, acceleration and magnetic and electric fields. An accelerometer has been designed on this principle and tested up to the acceleration of 65g. (author)

  18. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  19. Evaluation of fiber-optic connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Two fiber optic connectors for field use in high efficiency, long distance systems are described and evaluated in this report. The transmission testing arrangement and other considerations are included with the test results. Techniques for optimizing the transmission through these connectors are also described and the results are reported. Many desirable characteristics of connectors for field use are considered and compared to the ITT and Amphenol connectors tested here

  20. Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stanton L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scintillating optical fiber is presented using a composite micro-structured quartz optical fiber. Scintillating materials are introduced into the multiple inclusions of the fiber. This creates a composite optical fiber having quartz as a cladding with an organic scintillating material core. X-ray detection using these fibers is compared to a collimated cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. Results show a good correlation between the fiber count rate trend and that of the CdTe detector.

  1. Fiber optic chemical sensors: The evolution of high- density fiber-optic DNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane A.

    2001-06-01

    Sensors were developed for multianalyte monitoring, fermentation monitoring, lactate analysis, remote oxygen detection for use in bioremediation monitoring and in a fuel spill clean-up project, heavy metal analysis, and high density DNA microarrays. The major focus of this thesis involved creating and improving high-density DNA gene arrays. Fiber optic sensors are created using fluorescent indicators, polymeric supports, and optical fiber substrates. The fluorescent indicator is entrapped in a polymer layer and attached to the tip of the optical fiber. The tip of the fiber bearing the sensing layer (the distal end) is placed in the sample of interest while the other end of the fiber (the proximal end) is connected to an analysis system. Any length of fiber can be used without compromising the integrity or sensitivity of the system. A fiber optic oxygen sensor was designed incorporating an oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye and a gas permeable polymer attached to an optical fiber. The construction simplicity and ruggedness of the sensor enabled its deployment for in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation studies. Optical fibers were also used as the substrate to detect biomolecules in solution. To monitor bioprocesses, the production of the analyte of interest must be coupled with a species that is optically measurable. For example, oxygen is consumed in many metabolic functions. The fiber optic oxygen sensor is equipped with an additional sensing layer. Upon contact with a specific biochemical in the sample, a reaction occurs in the additional sensing layer that either consumes or produces oxygen. This dual layer system was used to monitor the presence of lactate, an important metabolite for clinical and bioprocess analysis. In many biological and environmental systems, the generation of one species occurs coincidentally with the generation or consumption of another species. A multianalyte sensor was prepared that can monitor the simultaneous activity of pH, CO2

  2. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  3. Demonstration of theoretical and experimental simulations in fiber optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tianfu; Wang, Xiaolin; Shi, Jianhua; Lei, Bing; Liu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Hu, Haojun

    2017-08-01

    "Fiber optics" course plays a supporting effect in the curriculum frame of optics and photonics at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Moreover, the course can be treated as compulsory for students specialized in the fiber-related field, such as fiber communication, fiber sensing and fiber light source. The corresponding content in fiber optics requires the knowledge of geometrical and physical optics as background, including basic optical theory and fiber components in practice. Thus, to help the students comprehend the relatively abundant and complex content, it is necessary to investigate novel teaching method assistant the classic lectures. In this paper, we introduce the multidimensional pattern in fiber-optics teaching involving theoretical and laboratory simulations. First, the theoretical simulations is demonstrated based on the self-developed software named "FB tool" which can be installed in both smart phone with Android operating system and personal computer. FB tool covers the fundamental calculations relating to transverse modes, fiber lasers and nonlinearities and so on. By comparing the calculation results with other commercial software like COMSOL, SFTool shows high accuracy with high speed. Then the laboratory simulations are designed including fiber coupling, Erbium doped fiber amplifiers, fiber components and so on. The simulations not only supports students understand basic knowledge in the course, but also provides opportunities to develop creative projects in fiber optics.

  4. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  5. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Bakis, Charles; Williams, Tiffany S.; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight savings in many aerospace applications. The toughness of the interface of fibers crossing at different angles often determines failure of composite components. A method for toughening the interface in fabric and filament wound components using directly electrospun thermoplastic nanofiber on carbon fiber tow is presented. The method was first demonstrated with limited trials, and then was scaled up to a continuous lab scale process. Filament wound tubes were fabricated and tested using unmodified baseline towpreg material and nanofiber coated towpreg.

  6. Power Budget Analysis of Fiber Optics Communication Links Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the development of optical fiber communication system most telecommunication companies now prefer to use optical fiber transmission medium for higher information bandwidth. The design of such a system involves many aspects such as the type of source to be used, the kind of fiber to be employed and detector.

  7. A microbent fiber optic pH sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas Lee, S.; Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors developed for measuring pH values usually employ an unclad and unstrained section of the fiber. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of a microbent fiber optic sensor that can be used for pH sensing. In order to obtain the desired performance, a permanently

  8. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  9. Hollow-core optical fiber incorporating a metamaterial cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An optical fiber (100, 200, 300) for guidance of electromagnetic radiation with an operational wavelength l, the fiber (100, 200, 300) having a longitudinal direction along a longitudinal axis and a transverse direction in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, the fiber (100, 200, 300...... further relates to a method relating to and the use of the inventive fiber....

  10. Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martelli, C.; Olivero, P.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.; Gibson, B.; Huntington, S.

    2007-01-01

    A focused ion beam is used to mill side holes in air-silica structured fibers. By way of example, side holes are introduced in two types of air-structured fiber, (1) a photonic crystal four-ring fiber and (2) a six-hole single-ring step-index structured fiber. © 2007 Optical Society of America.

  11. Optical coatings material aspects in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Optical coatings, i.e. multilayer stacks composed from a certain number of thin individual layers, are an essential part of any optical system necessary to tailor the properties of the optical surfaces. Hereby, the performance of any optical coating is defined by a well-balanced interplay between the properties of the individual coating materials and the geometrical parameters (such as film thickness) which define their arrangement. In all scientific books dealing with the performance of optical coatings, the main focus is on optimizing the geometrical coating parameters, particularly the number of individual layers and their thickness. At the same time, much less attention is paid to another degree of freedom in coating design, namely the possibility to tailor optical material properties to an optimum relevant for the required specification. This book, on the contrary, concentrates on the material aside of the problem. After a comprehensive review of the basics of thin film theory, traditional optical coatin...

  12. Interference lithography for optical devices and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Abigail Therese

    Interference lithography can create large-area, defect-free nanostructures with unique optical properties. In this thesis, interference lithography will be utilized to create photonic crystals for functional devices or coatings. For instance, typical lithographic processing techniques were used to create 1, 2 and 3 dimensional photonic crystals in SU8 photoresist. These structures were in-filled with birefringent liquid crystal to make active devices, and the orientation of the liquid crystal directors within the SU8 matrix was studied. Most of this thesis will be focused on utilizing polymerization induced phase separation as a single-step method for fabrication by interference lithography. For example, layered polymer/nanoparticle composites have been created through the one-step two-beam interference lithographic exposure of a dispersion of 25 and 50 nm silica particles within a photopolymerizable mixture at a wavelength of 532 nm. In the areas of constructive interference, the monomer begins to polymerize via a free-radical process and concurrently the nanoparticles move into the regions of destructive interference. The holographic exposure of the particles within the monomer resin offers a single-step method to anisotropically structure the nanoconstituents within a composite. A one-step holographic exposure was also used to fabricate self-healing coatings that use water from the environment to catalyze polymerization. Polymerization induced phase separation was used to sequester an isocyanate monomer within an acrylate matrix. Due to the periodic modulation of the index of refraction between the monomer and polymer, the coating can reflect a desired wavelength, allowing for tunable coloration. When the coating is scratched, polymerization of the liquid isocyanate is catalyzed by moisture in air; if the indices of the two polymers are matched, the coatings turn transparent after healing. Interference lithography offers a method of creating multifunctional self

  13. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  14. A simple gold-coated microstructure fiber polarization filter in two communication windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxing; Li, Shuguang; Du, Huijing; Zhang, Yinan; Liu, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    A polarization filter is designed at two communication windows of 1310 and 1550 nm based on microstructured optical fiber. The model has four large diameter air holes and two gold-coated air holes. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the photonic crystal fiber on the performance of the polarization filter is analyzed by the finite element method. The numerical simulation shows that when the fiber length is 300 μm, the corresponding extinction ratio is 209.7 dB and 179.8 dB, the bandwidth of extinction ratio (ER) better than 20 dB is 150 nm and 350 nm at the communication wavelength of 1310 nm and 1550 nm.

  15. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  16. Continuous fiber reinforced mesh bond coat for environmental barrier coating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, James; Das, Rupak; Roberts III, Herbert Chidsey; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2017-09-26

    A gas turbine blade may have a bond coat applied to its surface. A porous substrate may be applied to the bond layer and one or more protective layers may be applied to the bond layer such that the fiber mesh is embedded between the bond layer and the protective layer to prevent creep.

  17. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy

    2006-12-15

    of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.

  18. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  19. Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Oleg V; Nikitov, Sergei A; Gulyaev, Yurii V

    2006-01-01

    One of the new methods of fiber optics uses cladding modes for controlling propagation of radiation in optical fibers. This paper reviews the results of studies on the propagation, excitation, and interaction of cladding modes in optical fibers. The resonance between core and cladding modes excited by means of fiber Bragg gratings, including tilted ones, is analyzed. Propagation of cladding modes in microstructured fibers is considered. The most frequently used method of exciting cladding modes is described, based on the application of long-period fiber gratings. Examples are presented of long-period gratings used as sensors and gain equalizers for fiber amplifiers, as well as devices for coupling light into and out of optical fibers. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  20. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic detection of chlorine utilizing polyvinylpyrolidone supported zinc oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-03-21

    A highly sensitive chlorine sensor for an aqueous medium is fabricated using an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (OFSPR) system. An OFSPR-based chlorine sensor is designed with a multilayer-type platform by zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) film morphology manipulations. Among all the methodologies of transduction reported in the field of solid state chemical and biochemical sensing, our attention is focused on the Kretschmann configuration optical fiber sensing technique using the mechanism of surface plasmon resonance. The optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chlorine sensor is developed using a multimode optical fiber with the PVP-supported ZnO film deposited over a silver-coated unclad core of the fiber. A spectral interrogation mode of operation is used to characterize the sensor. In an Ag/ZnO/PVP multilayer system, the absorption of chlorine in the vicinity of the sensing region is performed by the PVP layer and the zinc oxide layer enhances the shift in resonance wavelength. It is, experimentally, demonstrated that the SPR wavelength shifts nonlinearly towards the red side of the visible region with an increase in the chlorine concentration in an aqueous medium while the sensitivity of the sensor decreases linearly with an increase in the chlorine concentration. As the proposed sensor utilizes an optical fiber, it possesses the additional advantages of fiber such as less signal degradation, less susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, possibility of remote sensing, probe miniaturization, probe re-usability, online monitoring, small size, light weight and low cost.

  1. Optical-fiber interferometer for velocity measurements with picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Jidong; Tan Hua; Wang Xiang; Ma Yun; Hu Shaolou; Wang Xiaosong

    2006-01-01

    The conventional Doppler laser-interference velocimeters are made up of traditional optical elements such as lenses and mirrors and will generally restrict its applications in multipoint velocity measurements. By transfering the light from multimode optical fiber to single-mode optical fiber and using the currently available conventional telecommunications elements, the authors have constructed a velocimeter called all-fiber displacement interferometer system for any reflector. The unique interferometer system is only made up of fibers or fiber-coupled components. The viability of this technique is demonstrated by measuring the velocity of an interface moving at velocity of 2133 m/s with 50 ps time resolution. In addition, the concept of optical-fiber mode conversion would provide a way to develop various optical-fiber sensors

  2. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  3. Teaching stellar interferometry with polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarramendi, M. A.; Arregui, L.; Zubia, J.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this manuscript we show the design of a simple experiment that reproduces the operation of the Michelson stellar interferometer by using step-index polymer optical fibers. The emission of stellar sources, single or binary stars, has been simulated by the laser light emerging from the output surface of the 2 meter-long polymer optical fiber. This light has an emission pattern that is similar to the emission pattern of stellar sources - circular, uniform, spatially incoherent, and quasi-monochromatic. Light coming from the fiber end faces passes through two identical pinholes located on a lid covering the objective of a small telescope, thus producing interference. Interference fringes have been acquired using a camera that is coupled to a telescope. The experiments have been carried out both outdoors in the daytime and indoors. By measuring the fringe visibilities, we have determined the size of our artificial stellar sources and the distance between them, when placing them at distances of 54 m from the telescope in the indoor measurements and of 75 m in the outdoor ones.

  4. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Basurto-Pensado, M A; LiKamWa, P; May-Arrioja, D A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 μV/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  5. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M A [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); LiKamWa, P [CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: iruiz@inaoep.mx, E-mail: mbasurto@uaem.mx, E-mail: delta_dirac@hotmail.com, E-mail: daniel_may_arrioja@hotmail.com [UAT Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 {mu}V/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  6. Recent Progress in Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Bao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scatterings in fibers result from the interaction of photons with local material characteristic features like density, temperature and strain. For example an acoustic/mechanical wave generates a dynamic density variation; such a variation may be affected by local temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence. By detecting changes in the amplitude, frequency and phase of light scattered along a fiber, one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for measuring localized temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence over lengths ranging from meters to one hundred kilometers. Such a measurement can be made in the time domain or frequency domain to resolve location information. With coherent detection of the scattered light one can observe changes in birefringence and beat length for fibers and devices. The progress on state of the art technology for sensing performance, in terms of spatial resolution and limitations on sensing length is reviewed. These distributed sensors can be used for disaster prevention in the civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams and railroads. A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.

  7. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  8. The Influence of Motion and Stress on Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Jeremy D.; Hill, Gary J.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Taylor, Trey; Soukup, Ian; Moreira, Walter; Cornell, Mark E.; Good, John; Anderson, Seth; Fuller, Lindsay; Lee, Hanshin; Kelz, Andreas; Rafal, Marc; Rafferty, Tom; Tuttle, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    We report on extensive testing carried out on the optical fibers for the VIRUS instrument. The primary result of this work explores how 10+ years of simulated wear on a VIRUS fiber bundle affects both transmission and focal ratio degradation (FRD) of the optical fibers. During the accelerated lifetime tests we continuously monitored the fibers for signs of FRD. We find that transient FRD events were common during the portions of the tests when motion was at telescope slew rates, but dropped t...

  9. High-temperature polyimide coating for optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semjonov, S L; Dianov, E M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sapozhnikov, D A; Erin, D Yu; Zabegaeva, O N; Kushtavkina, I A; Vygodskii, Ya S [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nishchev, K N [N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University, Saransk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    We present our first results on the fabrication of new, high-performance polyimide coatings. The key components of the coatings are polyimides containing various cardo and/or fluoroalkylene groups, which allows the coatings to retain their high-temperature stability and facilitates the storage of the starting polymer and the optical fibre coating process owing to the good solubility of such copolymers in many organic solvents. Annealing for 30 s, 1 h and 24 h at temperatures of 430, 350 and 300 °C, respectively, reduces the strength of optical fibres having such coating by no more than 10%. (optical fibres)

  10. Monitoring of railway embankment settlement with fiber-optic pulsed time-of-flight radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpelä, Ari; Lyöri, Veijo; Duan, Guoyong

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with a fiber-optic pulsed time-of-flight (PTOF) laser radar used for monitoring the settlement of a railway embankment. The operating principle is based on evaluating the changes in the lengths of the fiber-optic cables embedded in the embankment by measuring the time separation of the optical pulses reflected from both ends of the sensor fiber. The advantage of this method is that it integrates the elongation of the whole sensor, and many sensor fibers can be connected in series. In a field test, seven polyurethane-coated optical cables were installed in a railway embankment and used as 20-m long sensors. The optical timing pulses were created using specially polished optical connectors. The measured precision was 0.28 ps, which corresponds 1.8 μstrain elongation using a 20 m long sensor fiber, using an averaged value of 10,000 pulses for a single measurement value. The averaged elongation value of all sensors was used for cancelling out the effect of temperature variation on the elongation value of each individual sensor. The functionality of the method was tested by digging away a 7.5 m long and approximately 18 mm high section of sand below one sensor. It was measured as a +3 mm change in the length of the sensor fiber, which matched well with the theoretically calculated elongation value, 2.9 mm. The sensor type proved to be strong but flexible enough for this type of use.

  11. Application technology for optical fiber in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Chul Jung; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Woong Ki; Yoon, Tae Seob; Sohn, Surg Won; Kim, Chang Hoi; Hwang, Suk Yong; Baik, Sung Hum; Kwon, Seong Ouk

    1987-12-01

    Lately, the optical fiber increasingly used in such adverse environments as nuclear power plant, radiation facilities because of their endurant properties against heat, radiation, corrosion, etc. Moreover, the transmission of signal through optical fiber does not induce interference from the electromagnetic wave. Basic theory about the optical fiber technology was studied and the developed techniques for nuclear facilities were reviewed. Since the radiations change the characteristics of the optical fiber, the effects of γ-ray irradiation on single mode and multimode optical fiber were examined. The image transmission system through optical fiber bundle was designed, constructed, and tested. Its software system was also updated. It can be used for remote internal inspection in adverse environment. (Author)

  12. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-07-31

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure.

  13. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure. PMID:28788148

  14. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Soto, Veronica; Leandro, Daniel; Lopez-Aldaba, Aitor; Beato-López, Juan Jesus; Pérez-Landazábal, José Ignacio; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2017-11-30

    In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  15. Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber

  16. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Miguel-Soto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  17. Chemical tapering of polymer optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Affa Rozana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer optical fibers (POFs have significant advantages over numerous sensing applications. The key element in developing sensor is by removing the cladding of the fiber. The use of organic solvent is one of the methods to create tapered POF in order to expose the core region. In this study, the etching chemicals involved is acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed in 100%, 80%, and 50% of acetone and MIBK dilution. In addition, the mixture of acetone and methanol is also used for POF etching by the ratio 2:1 of the volume. Acetone has shown to be the most reactive solvent towards POF due to its fastest etching rate compared to MIBK and acetone-methanol mixture. The POF is immersed and lifted from the solution for a specific time, depending on the power loss properties for the purpose of producing unclad POF. In comparison to silica fiber optic, the advantages of POF in terms of its simple technique and easy handling enable it to produce unclad POF without damaging the core region. The surface roughness of the POF is investigated under the microscope after being immersed into different solvent. This method of chemical tapering of POF can be used as the fundamental technique for sensor development. Next, the unclad fiber is immersed into ethanol solutions in order to determine the reaction of unclad POF towards its surrounding. The findings show that this particular sensor is sensitive towards concentration changes ranging between 10 wt% to 50 wt%.

  18. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  19. Flat Optical Fiber Daylighting System with Lateral Displacement Sun-Tracking Mechanism for Indoor Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An essential impact which can improve the indoor environment and save on power consumption for artificial lighting is utilization of daylight. Optical fiber daylighting technology offers a way to use direct daylight for remote spaces in a building. However, the existing paradigm based on the precise orientation of sunlight concentrator toward the Sun is very costly and difficult to install on the roof of buildings. Here, we explore an alternative approach using mirror-coated lens array and planar waveguide to develop a flat optical fiber daylighting system (optical fiber daylighting panel with lateral displacement Sun-tracking mechanism. Sunlight collected and reflected by each mirror-coated lens in a rectangular lens array is coupled into a planar waveguide using cone prisms placed at each lens focus. This geometry yields a thin, flat profile for Sunlight concentrator. Our proposed concentrating panel can be achieved with 35 mm thickness while the concentrator’s width and length are 500 mm × 500 mm. The commercial optical simulation tool (LightToolsTM was used to develop the simulation models and analyze the system performance. Simulation results based on the designed system demonstrated an optical efficiency of 51.4% at a concentration ratio of 125. The system can support utilizing a lateral displacement Sun-tracking system, which allows for replacing bulky and robust conventional rotational Sun-tracking systems. This study shows a feasibility of a compact and inexpensive optical fiber daylighting system to be installed on the roof of buildings.

  20. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Han, Xiaole; Xia, Dong; Liu, Taolin; Lang, Hao

    2018-01-13

    Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  1. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  2. Design of fiber optic probes for laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Chu, Benjamin

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented of the role of optical fibers in laser light scattering. Design of a general fiber optic/microlens probe by means of ray tracing is described. Several different geometries employing an optical fiber of the type used in lightwave communications and a graded index microlens are considered. Experimental results using a nonimaging fiber optic detector probe show that due to geometrical limitations of single mode fibers, a probe using a multimode optical fiber has better performance, for both static and dynamic measurements of the scattered light intensity, compared with a probe using a single mode fiber. Fiber optic detector probes are shown to be more efficient at data collection when compared with conventional approaches to measurements of the scattered laser light. Integration of fiber optic detector probes into a fiber optic spectrometer offers considerable miniaturization of conventional light scattering spectrometers, which can be made arbitrarily small. In addition static and dynamic measurements of scattered light can be made within the scattering cell and consequently very close to the scattering center.

  3. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to provide localized, real-time monitoring of material regression rates in various applications has the potential to provide a new stream of data for development testing of various components and systems, as well as serving as a monitoring tool in flight applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the regression of a combusting solid fuel surface, the ablation of the throat in a chemical rocket or the heat shield of an aeroshell, and the monitoring of erosion in long-life plasma thrusters. The rate of regression in the first application is very fast, while the second and third are increasingly slower. A recent fundamental sensor development effort has led to a novel regression, erosion, and ablation sensor technology (REAST). The REAST sensor allows for measurement of real-time surface erosion rates at a discrete surface location. The sensor is optical, using two different, co-located fiber-optics to perform the regression measurement. The disparate optical transmission properties of the two fiber-optics makes it possible to measure the regression rate by monitoring the relative light attenuation through the fibers. As the fibers regress along with the parent material in which they are embedded, the relative light intensities through the two fibers changes, providing a measure of the regression rate. The optical nature of the system makes it relatively easy to use in a variety of harsh, high temperature environments, and it is also unaffected by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. In addition, the sensor could be used to perform optical spectroscopy on the light emitted by a process and collected by fibers, giving localized measurements of various properties. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of material regression rates is useful in addressing a variety of physical issues in various applications. An in-situ measurement allows for real-time data regarding the erosion rates, providing a quick method for

  4. Effect of coating thickness on interfacial shear behavior of zirconia-coated sapphire fibers in a polycrystalline alumina matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, J.R.; Chou, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of zirconia (ZrO 2 ) interfacial coatings on the interfacial shear behavior in sapphire reinforced alumina was examined in this study. Zirconia coatings of thicknesses ranging from 0.15 to 1.45 μm were applied to single crystal sapphire (Saphikon) fibers using a particulate loaded sol dipping technique. After calcining at 1,100 C in air, the coated fibers were incorporated into a polycrystalline alumina matrix via hot pressing. Interfacial shear strength and sliding behavior of the coated fibers was examined using thin-slice indentation fiber pushout and pushback techniques. In all cases, debonding and sliding occurred at the interface between the fibers and the coating. The coatings exhibited a dense microstructure and led to a higher interfacial shear strength (> 240 MPa) and interfacial sliding stress (> 75 MPa) relative to previous studies on the effect of a porous interphase on interfacial properties. The interfacial shear strength decreased with increasing fiber coating thickness (from 389 ± 59 to 241 ± 43 MPa for 0.15 to 1.45 microm thick coatings, respectively). Sliding behavior exhibited load modulation with increasing displacement during fiber sliding which is characteristic of fiber roughness-induced stick-slip. The high interfacial shear strengths and sliding stresses measured in this study, as well as the potentially strength degrading surface reconstruction observed on the coated fibers after hot pressing and heat treatment, indicate that dense zirconia coatings are not suitable candidates for optimizing composite toughness and strength in the sapphire fiber reinforced alumina system

  5. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor on an Optical Fiber Probe Fabricated with a Femtosecond Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaodong; Huo, Haibin; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Guthy, Charles; Shen, Mengyan; Wang, Xingwei

    2010-01-01

    A novel fabrication method for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors that used a fast femtosecond (fs) laser scanning process to etch uniform patterns and structures on the endface of a fused silica optical fiber, which is then coated with a thin layer of silver through thermal evaporation is presented. A high quality SERS signal was detected on the patterned surface using a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) solution. The uniform SERS sensor built on the tip of the optical fiber tip was small, l...

  6. Applications Of Measurement Techniques To Develop Small-Diameter, Undersea Fiber Optic Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Neil T.; Nakagawa, Arthur T.

    1984-12-01

    Attenuation, strain, and optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) measurement techniques were applied successfully in the development of a minimum-diameter, electro-optic sea floor cable. Temperature and pressure models for excess attenuation in polymer coated, graded-index fibers were investigated analytically and experimentally using these techniques in the laboratory. The results were used to select a suitable fiber for the cable. Measurements also were performed on these cables during predeployment and sea-trial testing to verify laboratory results. Application of the measurement techniques and results are summarized in this paper.

  7. Conference Proceedings for Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (8th) held in Monterey, California on January 29 - 31 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    quartz optical fibre which has had a low reflectivity (-10%) aluminium coating applied to each end. Alternatively, we have used TiO2 coatings to...Mencaglia, A. G. Mignani, "Fiber-Optic Thermometric Probe Utilizing GRIN Lenses", App. Opt., 28, 3, pp 577-80 (1989). 100 P7 Strain and Temperature...experimental system when the external mirror is vertically displaced by a piezoelectric transducer. The mirror was a glass substrate covered by an aluminium

  8. Eliminating Crystals in Non-Oxide Optical Fiber Preforms and Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; LaPointe, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Non ]oxide fiber optics such as heavy metal fluoride and chalcogenide glasses are extensively used in infrared transmitting applications such as communication systems, chemical sensors, and laser fiber guides for cutting, welding and medical surgery. The addition of rare earths such as erbium, enable these materials to be used as fiber laser and amplifiers. Some of these glasses however are very susceptible to crystallization. Even small crystals can lead to light scatter and a high attenuation coefficient, limiting their usefulness. Previously two research teams found that microgravity suppressed crystallization in heavy metal fluoride glasses. Looking for a less expensive method to suppress crystallization, ground based research was performed utilizing an axial magnetic field. The experiments revealed identical results to those obtained via microgravity processing. This research then led to a patented process for eliminating crystals in optical fiber preforms and the resulting optical fibers. In this paper, the microgravity results will be reviewed as well as patents and papers relating to the use of magnetic fields in various material and glass processing applications. Finally our patent to eliminate crystals in non ]oxide glasses utilizing a magnetic field will be detailed.

  9. Radiotherapy fiber dosimeter probes based on silver-only coated hollow glass waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Harrington, James A.; Kassaee, Alireza; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2018-01-01

    Manifestation of Čerenkov radiation as a contaminating signal is a significant issue in radiation therapy dose measurement by fiber-coupled scintillator dosimeters. To enhance the scintillation signal transmission while minimizing Čerenkov radiation contamination, we designed a fiber probe using a silver-only coated hollow waveguide (HWG). The HWG with scintillator inserted in its tip, embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms, was irradiated with clinical electron and photon beams generated by a medical linear accelerator. Optical spectra of the irradiated tip were taken using a fiber spectrometer, and the signal was deconvolved with a linear fitting algorithm. The resultant decomposed spectra of the scintillator with and without Čerenkov correction were in agreement with measurements performed by a standard electron diode and ion chamber for electron and photon beam dosimetry, respectively, indicating the minimal effect of Čerenkov contamination in the HWG-based dosimeter. Furthermore, compared with a silver/dielectric-coated HWG fiber dosimeter design, we observed higher signal transmission in the design based on the use of silver-only HWG.

  10. Development of an optical fiber flow velocity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Toshio; Kamoto, Kenji; Abe, Kyutaro; Izumo, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    A new optical fiber flow velocity sensor was developed by using an optical fiber information network system in sewer drainage pipes. The optical fiber flow velocity sensor operates without electric power, and the signals from the sensor can be transmitted over a long distance through the telecommunication system in the optical fiber network. Field tests were conducted to check the performance of the sensor in conduits in the pumping station and sewage pond managed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Test results confirmed that the velocity sensor can be used for more than six months without any trouble even in sewer drainage pipes.

  11. Compact Fiber Optic Strain Sensors (cFOSS) Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are reducing the Fiber Optic Sensing Sysme (FOSS) technology’s size, power requirement, weight, and cost to effectively extend...

  12. Fast modal decomposition for optical fibers using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Meng; Lin, Zhiquan; Li, Guowei; Situ, Guohai

    2017-07-26

    Eigenmode decomposition of the light field at the output end of optical fibers can provide fundamental insights into the nature of electromagnetic-wave propagation through the fibers. Here we present a fast and complete modal decomposition technique for step-index optical fibers. The proposed technique employs digital holography to measure the light field at the output end of the multimode optical fiber, and utilizes the modal orthonormal property of the basis modes to calculate the modal coefficients of each mode. Optical experiments were carried out to demonstrate the proposed decomposition technique, showing that this approach is fast, accurate and cost-effective.

  13. Experimental refractive index determination of the optic fiber's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezelsoy, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the Fresnel's fundamental Law was used to be able to obtain the refractive index of the fiber optic's core. The intensity of light reflected from the boundary between two mediums was measured by the optical powermeter (Melles Griot, Universal optical powermeter). In recent technology, the light that is illuminated from the light source can be transported to the boundary region and measured with minimum loss by using the optic fibers which make the measurement more sensitively. The liquid and the optic fiber's core whose refractive indices will be measured are the two mediums and the surface of the optic fiber's core is the boundary region. By dipping the fiber optic probe to the liquids, the reflected light intensities were measured with powermeter via Silicon Detector for single mode fiber and multimode fiber respectively to obtain the refractive index of the optic fiber's core. At this work, because of the using the diode laser with 661,4 nm (FWHM) and He-Ne laser with 632,8 nm (FWHM) the refractive indices were measured at this wavelengthes with the Refractometer (Abbe 60-70, Bellingham+Stanley). If the refractive indices of two mediums are equal, the light doesn't reflect from the boundary. The graphic is drawn depend upon the refractive index of the liquids versus the back reflected light energy and from the minimum point of the curve the effective refractive index of the fiber optic's core is calculated for 661,4 nm and 780 nm

  14. Escherichia coli Fiber Sensors Using Concentrated Dielectrophoretic Force with Optical Defocusing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Wei; Chang, Dao-Ming; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Ding-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2018-05-25

    A sensitive tapered optical fiber tip combined with dielectrophoretic (DEP) trapping was used for rapid and label-free detection of bacteria in water. The angular spectrum of the optical field at the fiber tip was changed with the surrounding refractive index (RI). By measuring far-field intensity change at the defocus plane, the intensity sensitivity was up to 95 200%/RIU (RI unit), and the detection limit was 5.2 × 10 -6 RIU at 0.5% intensity stability. By applying an AC voltage to a Ti/Al coated fiber tip and an indium-tin-oxide glass, the DEP force effectively trapped the Escherichia coli ( E. coli) near the fiber tip. Those bacteria can be directly measured from optical intensity change due to the increase of surrounding RI. By immobilizing the antibody on the Ti/Al fiber tip, the tests for specific K12 bacteria and nonspecific BL21 bacteria verified the specificity. The antibody-immobilized Ti/Al coated fiber tip with DEP trapping can detect bacteria at a concentration about 100 CFU/mL.

  15. Recovering Signals from Optical Fiber Interferometric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    electronic functions to be combined onto a single -integrated circuit on- a silicon (or other) substrate. These custom -designed circuits are known by...largely unknown to the ordinary :itizen and seldom mentioned in the- popular press. Yet optical fiber sensors have attracted considerable- interest...write the-power in output leg I by performing the same interchange on Equation (95). a3(L) 12 {2B 2B1 -cos(3KL)I + B3B;[5+4cos(3KL)] 2 18 - B2B ;e(4-"?1 +e

  16. Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia

    2015-04-01

    The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem

  17. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, M.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2015), s. 25208-25259 ISSN 1424-8220 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fiber-optic sensor * chemical sensors * enzymatic sensor Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015

  18. Hydrogel-Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Coatings for Neural Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eHan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving stable, long-term performance of implanted neural prosthetic devices has been challenging because of implantation related neuron loss and a foreign body response that results in encapsulating glial scar formation. To improve neuron-prosthesis integration and form chronic, stable interfaces, we investigated the potential of neurotrophin-eluting hydrogel-electrospun fiber mat (EFM composite coatings. In particular, poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PEGPCL hydrogel- poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL EFM composites were applied as coatings for multielectrode arrays (MEAs. Coatings were stable and persisted on electrode surfaces for over 1 month under an agarose gel tissue phantom and over 9 months in a PBS immersion bath. To demonstrate drug release, a neurotrophin, nerve growth factor (NGF, was loaded in the PEGPCL hydrogel layer, and coating cytotoxicity and sustained NGF release were evaluated using a PC12 cell culture model. Quantitative MTT assays showed that these coatings had no significant toxicity toward PC12 cells, and neurite extension at day 7 and 14 confirmed sustained release of NGF at biologically significant concentrations for at least 2 weeks. Our results demonstrate that hydrogel-EFM composite materials can be applied to neural prostheses as a means to improve neuron-electrode proximity and enhance long-term device performance and function.

  19. Optimization and Application of Reflective LSPR Optical Fiber Biosensors Based on Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a reflective localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR optical fiber sensor, based on silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. To enhance the sensitivity of the LSPR optical sensor, two key parameters were optimized, the length of the sensing area and the coating time of the Ag NPs. A sensing length of 1.5 cm and a 1-h coating time proved to be suitable conditions to produce highly sensitive sensors for biosensing. The optimized sensor has a high refractive index sensitivity of 387 nm/RIU, which is much higher than that of other reported individual silver nanoparticles in solutions. Moreover, the sensor was further modified with antigen to act as a biosensor. Distinctive wavelength shifts were found after each surface modification step. In addition, the reflective LSPR optical fiber sensor has high reproducibility and stability.

  20. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  1. Optical fiber pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongcao

    In oil field, it is important to measure the high pressure and temperature for down-hole oil exploration and well-logging, the available traditional electronic sensor is challenged due to the harsh, flammable environment. Recently, applications based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor in the oil industry have become a popular research because of its distinguishing advantages such as electrically passive operation, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high resolution, insensitivity to optical power fluctuation etc. This thesis is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the design of high pressure sensor based on FBG is described. Several sensing elements based on FBG for high pressure measurements have been proposed, for example bulk-modulus or free elastic modulus. But the structure of bulk-modulus and free elastic modulus is relatively complex and not easy to fabricate. In addition, the pressure sensitivity is not high and the repeatability of the structure has not been investigated. In this thesis, a novel host material of carbon fiber laminated composite (CFLC) for high pressure sensing is proposed. The mechanical characteristics including principal moduli in three directions and the shape repeatability are investigated. Because of it's Young's modulus in one direction and anisotropic characteristics, the pressure sensor made by CFLC has excellent sensitivity. This said structure can be used in very high pressure measurement due to carbon fiber composite's excellent shape repetition even under high pressure. The experimental results show high pressure sensitivity of 0.101nm/MPa and high pressure measurement up to 70MPa. A pressure sensor based on CFLC and FBG with temperature compensation has been designed. In the second section, the design of low pressure sensor based on FBG is demonstrated. Due to the trade off between measurement range and sensitivity, a sensor for lower pressure range needs more sensitivity. A novel material of carbon

  2. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  3. Theory of Fiber Optical Bragg Grating: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, H.

    2003-01-01

    The reflected signature of an optical fiber Bragg grating is analyzed using the transfer function method. This approach is capable to cast all relevant quantities into proper places and provides a better physical understanding. The relationship between reflected signal, number of periods, index of refraction, and reflected wave phase is elucidated. The condition for which the maximum reflectivity is achieved is fully examined. We also have derived an expression to predict the reflectivity minima accurately when the reflected wave is detuned. Furthermore, using the segmented potential approach, this model can handle arbitrary index of refraction profiles and compare the strength of optical reflectivity of different profiles. The condition of a non-uniform grating is also addressed.

  4. No-core fiber-based highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of an optical fiber pH sensor using a sol–gel technique. The sensing head configuration is incorporated using a short section of no-core fiber, coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate and spliced at the end of a single mode fiber with a bulge. Different types of indicators (bromophenol blue, cresol red, and chlorophenol red) were used to achieve a wide pH range from 2 to 13. High sensitivities of the fabricated device were found to be 1.02 and ? 0.93 ?? nm / pH for acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. From the characterization results, it was noted that there is an impact of ionic strength and an effect of the temperature of liquid on the response characteristic, which is an advantage of the existing device over the other pH sensors. The fabricated sensor exhibited good reflection spectrum, indicating a blueshift in resonance wavelength for alkaline solutions and a redshift for acidic solutions.

  5. Radiation Hard Multi-Layer Optical Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation space telescopes require advanced optical coatings to provide low loss transmission of light in a variety of spectral ranges and protect optical...

  6. Compact fiber optic gyroscopes for platform stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, William C.; Yee, Ting K.; Coward, James F.; McClaren, Andrew; Pechner, David A.

    2013-09-01

    SA Photonics has developed a family of compact Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs) for platform stabilization applications. The use of short fiber coils enables the high update rates required for stabilization applications but presents challenges to maintain high performance. We are able to match the performance of much larger FOGs by utilizing several innovative technologies. These technologies include source noise reduction to minimize Angular Random Walk (ARW), advanced digital signal processing that minimizes bias drift at high update rates, and advanced passive thermal packaging that minimizes temperature induced bias drift while not significantly affecting size, weight, or power. In addition, SA Photonics has developed unique distributed FOG packaging technologies allowing the FOG electronics and photonics to be packaged remotely from the sensor head or independent axis heads to minimize size, weight, and power at the sensing location(s). The use of these technologies has resulted in high performance, including ARW less than 0.001 deg/rt-hr and bias drift less than 0.004 deg/hr at an update rate of 10 kHz, and total packaged volume less than 30 cu. in. for a 6 degree of freedom FOG-based IMU. Specific applications include optical beam stabilization for LIDAR and LADAR, beam stabilization for long-range free-space optical communication, Optical Inertial Reference Units for HEL stabilization, and Ka band antenna pedestal pointing and stabilization. The high performance of our FOGs also enables their use in traditional navigation and positioning applications. This paper will review the technologies enabling our high-performance compact FOGs, and will provide performance test results.

  7. Partially reduced graphene oxide based FRET on fiber-optic interferometer for biochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B C; Wu, Y; Yu, C B; He, J R; Rao, Y J; Gong, Y; Fu, F; Chen, Y F; Li, Y R

    2016-03-24

    Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) with naturally exceptional selectivity is a powerful technique and widely used in chemical and biomedical analysis. However, it is still challenging for conventional FRET to perform as a high sensitivity compact sensor. Here we propose a novel 'FRET on Fiber' concept, in which a partially reduced graphene oxide (prGO) film is deposited on a fiber-optic modal interferometer, acting as both the fluorescent quencher for the FRET and the sensitive cladding for optical phase measurement due to refractive index changes in biochemical detection. The target analytes induced fluorescence recovery with good selectivity and optical phase shift with high sensitivity are measured simultaneously. The functionalized prGO film coated on the fiber-optic interferometer shows high sensitivities for the detections of metal ion, dopamine and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), with detection limits of 1.2 nM, 1.3 μM and 1 pM, respectively. Such a prGO based 'FRET on fiber' configuration, bridging the FRET and the fiber-optic sensing technology, may serve as a platform for the realization of series of integrated 'FRET on Fiber' sensors for on-line environmental, chemical, and biomedical detection, with excellent compactness, high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response.

  8. Fiber Optic Detection of Action Potentials in Axons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smela, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    In prior exploratory research, we had designed a fiber optic sensor utilizing a long period Bragg grating for the purpose of detecting action potentials in axons optically, through a change in index...

  9. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  10. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination... United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... Fiber IP (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. of Singapore (``Avago Fiber IP''); Avago General IP and Avago...

  11. Fiber optic sensor applications in field testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors (F.O.S.) are defined, and the application of this technology to measuring various phenomonon in diverse and hostile environments are discussed. F.O.S. advantages and disavantages both technically and operationally are summarized. Three sensor techniques - intensity, interferometric, and polarization - are then discussed in some detail. General environmental instrumentation and controls that support the Nuclear Weapons Test Program at the Nevada Test Site are discussed next to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the programmatic task. This will aid in recognizing the various difficulties of the traditional measurement techniques at the NTS and the potential advantages that fiber optic measurement systems can provide. An F.O.S. development program is then outlined, depicting a plan to design and fabricate a prototype sensor to be available for field testing by the end of FY84. We conclude with future plans for further development of F.O.S. to measure more of the desired physical parameters for the Test Program, and to eventually become an integral part of an overall measurement and control system

  12. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  13. Strength behaviour of kerosene coated coir fiber-reinforced expansive soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasubbarao Godavarthi Venkata

    2014-01-01

    Coir fibers are extracted from the husks surrounding the coconut. Coir fibers can be effectively used as reinforcing material but it has less durability and hence coir fiber coated with kerosene is used as reinforcement in the present study. The objective of the present investigation is to study the strength behavior of expansive soil reinforced with 5mm long randomly distributed kerosene coated coir fibers in 0% (unreinforced), 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by dry wei...

  14. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo

    2014-07-30

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  15. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Bragheri, Francesca; Minzioni, Paolo; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cristiani, Ilaria; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  16. Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating Coating with TiO2 Nanostructured Metal Oxide for Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the sensitivity of biosensor a new approach using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG coated with a suitable nanostructured metal oxide (NMO is proposed which is costly effective compared to other biosensors. Bragg grating was written on a D-shaped optical fiber by phase mask method using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser for a 5 min exposure time producing a grating with a period of 528 nm. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructured metal oxide was coated over the fiber for the purpose of increasing its sensing area. The etched D-shaped FBG was then coated with 312 nm thick TiO2 nanostructured layer to ensure propagating the radiation modes within the core. The final structure was used to sense deionized water and saline. The etched D-shaped FBG original sensitivity before coating to air-deionized water and to air-saline was 0.314 nm/riu and 0.142 nm/riu, respectively. After coating the sensitivity became 1.257 nm/riu for air-deionized water and 0.857 nm/riu for air-saline.

  17. Optical Characterization of Doped Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymer-Optical-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ayesta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emission properties of a graded-index thermoplastic polymer optical fiber and a step-index thermosetting one, both doped with rhodamine 6G, have been studied. The work includes a detailed analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission together with a study of the optical gains and losses of the fibers. The photostability of the emission of both types of fibers has also been investigated. Comparisons between the results of both doped polymer optical fibers are presented and discussed.

  18. Fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are ideal for applications as the sensing element in fiber-optical microphones and accelerometers based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) due to their reduced Young’s Modulus of 3.2GPa, compared to 72GPa of Silica. To maximize the sensitivity and the dynamic range...... of the device the outer diameter and the length of the sensing fiber segment should be as small as possible. To this end we have fabricated 3mm FBGs in single-mode step-index POFs of diameter 115 micron, using 325nm UV writing and a phase-mask technique. 6mm POF sections with FBGs in the center have been glued...... to standard Silica SMF28 fibers. These POF FBGs have been characterized in terms of temperature and strain to find operating regimes with no hysteresis. Commercial fast wavelength interrogators (KHz) are shown to be able to track the thin POF FBGs and they are finally applied in a prototype accelerometer...

  19. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  20. Sensing characteristics of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczurowski, Marcin K.; Frazao, Orlando; Baptista, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied several sensing characteristics of a birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber. The fiber exhibits a birefringence of the order 2×10-5 at 1.3 μm because of two small holes adjacent to the core. In this fiber, we measured spectral dependence of phase and group mo...

  1. Heat suppression of the fiber coating on a cladding light stripper in high-power fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jian; Wang, Zheng; Meng, Ling-Qiang; Yin, Lu; Han, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Hua; Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2018-01-20

    We present a theoretical model for the thermal effect of the fiber coating on a high-power cladding light stripper, which is fabricated by chemical etching. For the input and output of the fiber coating, a novel segmented corrosion method and increasing attenuation method are proposed for heat suppression, respectively. The relationship between the attenuation and temperature rise of the fiber coating at the output is experimentally demonstrated. The temperature distribution of the fiber coating at the input as well as the return light power caused by scattering are measured for the etched fiber with different surface roughness values. The results suggest that the rise in temperature is primarily caused by the scattering light propagating into the coating. Finally, an attenuation of 27 dB is achieved. At a room temperature of 23°C and input pump power of 438 W, the highest temperature of the input fiber coating decreases from 39.5°C to 27.9°C by segmented corrosion, and the temperature rise of the output fiber coating is close to 0.

  2. Sol gel based fiber optic sensor for blook pH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S. A.; Glass, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a fiber-optic pH sensor based upon sol-gel encapsulation of a self-referencing dye, seminaphthorhodamine-1 carboxylate (SNARF-1C). The simple sol-gel fabrication procedure and low coating leachability are ideal for encapsulation and immobilization of dye molecules onto the end of an optical fiber. A miniature bench-top fluorimeter system was developed for use with the optical fiber to obtain pH measurements. Linear and reproducible responses were obtained in human blood in the pH range 6.8 to 8.0, which encompasses the clinically-relevant range. Therefore, this sensor can be considered for in vivo use

  3. Utilization of Infrared Fiber Optic in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optics are finding a place in the automotive industry. Illumination is the primary application today. Soon, however, fiber optics will be used for data communications and sensing applications. Silica fiber optics and plastic fibers are sufficient for illumination and communication applications however, sensing applications involving high temperature measurement and remote gas analysis would benefit from the use of infrared fiber optics. Chalcogonide and heavy metal fluoride glass optical fibers are two good candidates for these applications. Heavy metal fluoride optical fibers are being investigated by NASA for applications requiring transmission in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Zirconium-Barium-Lanthanum-Aluminum-Sodium-Fluoride (ZBLAN) is one such material which has been investigated. This material has a theoretical attenuation coefficient 100 times lower than that of silica and transmits into the mid-IR. However, the measured attenuation coefficient is higher than silica due to impurities and crystallization. Impurities can be taken care of by utilizing cleaner experimental protocol. It has been found that crystallization can be suppressed by processing in reduced gravity. Fibers processed in reduced gravity on the KC135 reduced gravity aircraft were found to be free of crystals while those processed on the ground were found to have crystals. These results will be presented along with plans for producing continuous lengths of ZBLAN optical fiber on board the International Space Station.

  4. Simple method for measuring reflectance of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Gui Wang; Yi Sheng Chen

    1995-01-01

    The quality of optical coatings has an important effect on the performance of optical instrument. The last few years, the requirements for super low loss dielectric mirror coatings used in low gain laser systems such as free electron laser and the ring laser etc., have given an impetus to the development of the technology of precise reflectance measurement of optical coatings. A reliable and workable technique is to measure the light intensity decay time of optical resonant cavity. This paper describes a measuring method which is dependent on direct measurement of the light intensity decay time of a resonant cavity comprised of low loss optical components. According to the evolution of a luminous flux stored inside the cavity, this method guarantees not only a quick and precise reflectance measurements of low loss highly reflecting mirror coatings but also transmittance measurements of low loss antireflection coatings and is especially effective with super los loss highly reflecting mirror. From the round-trip path length of the cavity and the speed of light, the light intensity exponential decay time of an optical cavity is easy to obtain and the cavity losses can be deduced. An optical reflectance of low loss highly mirror coatings and antireflection coatings is precisely measured as well. This is highly significant for the discrimination of the coating surface characteristics, the improvement of the performance of optical instrument and the development of high technology

  5. Antibody Immobilization on Conductive Polymer Coated Nonwoven Fibers for Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K. MCGRAW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is being performed to develop rapid and novel electrochemical biosensors for foodborne pathogen detection. This research focuses on electrotextile platforms to perform both capture and sensing functions in a single component. The biosensor uses nonwoven fiber membranes coated with conductive polymer and functionalized with antibodies for biological capture. This study examines three methods for antibody immobilization: passive adsorption, glutaraldehyde cross-linking, and EDC/Sulfo-NHS cross-linking. Antibodies are immobilized onto the conductive fiber surfaces for the specific capture of a target pathogen. The immobilization and capture capabilities of each method are analyzed through the use of two different fluorescent reporters: FITC and PicoGreen DNA stain. Fluorescence is measured using a fluorescent plate reader and then imaged using a fluorescent microscope. The effect of a blocking agent on specificity is also evaluated. It is found that glutaraldehyde with blocking is the best immobilization method with PicoGreen being the best fluorescent reporter.

  6. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  7. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Institution... certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing... optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same that...

  8. Spectrophotometry with optical fibers applied to nuclear product processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, G.; Perez, J.J.; Velluet, M.T.; Jeunhomme, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    Absorption spectrophotometry is widely used in laboratories for composition analysis and quality control of chemical processes. Using optical fibers for transmitting the light between the instrument and the process line allows to improve the safety and productivity of chemical processes, thanks to real time measurements. Such applications have been developed since 1975 in CEA for the monitoring of nuclear products. This has led to the development of fibers, measurement cells, and optical feedthrough sustaining high radiation doses, of fiber/spectrophotometer couplers, and finally of a photodiode array spectrophotometer optimized for being used together with optical fibers [fr

  9. Switch configuration for migration to optical fiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the migration of an Ethernet LAN segment to fiber optics. At the present time it is proposed to support a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) backbone and to upgrade the VAX cluster to fiber optic interface. Possibly some workstations will have an FDDI interface. The remaining stations on the Ethernet LAN will be segmented. The rationale for migrating from the present Ethernet configuration to a fiber optic backbone is due to the increase in the number of workstations and the movement of applications to a windowing environment, extensive document transfers, and compute intensive applications.

  10. Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.

    1998-01-01

    Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.

  11. Fiber optic interferometry for industrial process monitoring and control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Michael A.

    2002-02-01

    Over the past few years we have been developing applications for a high-resolution (sub-micron accuracy) fiber optic coupled dual Michelson interferometer-based instrument. It is being utilized in a variety of applications including monitoring liquid layer thickness uniformity on coating hoppers, film base thickness uniformity measurement, digital camera focus assessment, optical cell path length assessment and imager and wafer surface profile mapping. The instrument includes both coherent and non-coherent light sources, custom application dependent optical probes and sample interfaces, a Michelson interferometer, custom electronics, a Pentium-based PC with data acquisition cards and LabWindows CVI or LabView based application specific software. This paper describes the development evolution of this instrument platform and applications highlighting robust instrument design, hardware, software, and user interfaces development. The talk concludes with a discussion of a new high-speed instrument configuration, which can be utilized for high speed surface profiling and as an on-line web thickness gauge.

  12. Fiber optic modification of a diode array spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Fiber optics were adapted to a Hewlett-Packard diode array spectrophotometer to permit the analysis of radioactive samples without risking contamination of the instrument. Instrument performance was not compromised by the fiber optics. The instrument is in routine use at the Savannah River Plant control laboratories

  13. Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Herschel K.

    A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

  14. Fiber Optics Deliver Real-Time Structural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To alter the shape of aircraft wings during flight, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center worked on a fiber optic sensor system with Austin-based 4DSP LLC. The company has since commercialized a new fiber optic system for monitoring applications in health and medicine, oil and gas, and transportation, increasing company revenues by 60 percent.

  15. Fiber-optic Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) integration with PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  16. Modulational instability of short pulses in long optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed......The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed...

  17. Device for verification of seals by optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuilly, M.; Guitaud, M.H.; Dufour, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The seal is built around an optical fiber with a verification device. This device is made of a lighting source and photographic means supported by a rotating assembly which allow to take an image of each optical fiber end. These images are compared with reference images taken just after the sealing. (A.B.). 5 refs., 6 figs

  18. Distributed fiber?optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selker, J.S.; Thévenaz, L.; Huwald, H.; Mallet, A.; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Stejskal, M.; Zeman, J.; Westhoff, M.; Parlange, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Instruments for distributed fiber-optic measurement of temperature are now available with temperature resolution of 0.01°C and spatial resolution of 1 m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used for communication with lengths of up to 30,000 m. We

  19. Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selker, John S.; Thévenaz, Luc; Huwald, Hendrik; Mallet, Alfred; Luxemburg, Wim; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Stejskal, Martin; Zeman, Josef; Westhoff, Martijn; Parlange, Marc B.

    2006-01-01

    Instruments for distributed fiber-optic measurement of temperature are now available with temperature resolution of 0.01°C and spatial resolution of 1 m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used for communication with lengths of up to 30,000 m. We

  20. Modelling of Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sagnac Ultrasound Interferometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonic waves are used extensively in nondestructive testing both for characterization of material properties, in this paper, we describe a fiber optic sensor suitable for detection of ultrasonic waves. This sensor is based on an extrinsic fiber optic sagnac interferometer. The proposed sensor model can act as a conventional ...

  1. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  2. Feasibility of soil moisture monitoring with heated fiber optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayde, C.; Gregory, C.; Gil-Rodriguez, M.; Tufillaro, N.; Tyler, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; English, M.; Cuenca, R.; Selker, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate methods are needed to measure changing soil water content from meter to kilometer scales. Laboratory results demonstrate the feasibility of the heat pulse method implemented with fiber optic temperature sensing to obtain accurate distributed measurements of soil water content. A fiber optic

  3. Applications of plastic optical fiber in communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayahi, Moncef Ben

    In this thesis, we report the results of our theoretical and experimental studies of large core polymer fibers. This relatively low loss and high bandwidth plastic optical fiber (POF) potentially have important applications in LAN. We measured the power penalty due to modal noise. We also developed a model to calculate the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the bit error rate (BER) floor just by knowing the coupling coefficient in the mode selective loss being considered. The calculated bandwidth using the WKB approximation was found to be 0.44 GHz per 100 m, which is much lower than the measured bandwidth of 3 GHz per 100 m. This discrepancy was explained by the presence of strong mode coupling in POFs. We studied distortions products in CATV systems. Composite second order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) for different channels were measured using a spectrum analyzer and adjustable band pass filter. Since the CSO and the CTB did not meet the CATV standard, a predistortion circuit was used to minimize CSO and CTB products produced by the laser. The predistortion circuit provides a signal comprising multiple subcarrier signals substantially equal in magnitude and opposite in phase to those associated with the nonlinear transfer function of the laser being deployed. The RF signal is split into a primary branch that has a time delayed portion (80% of the RF signal), the secondary branch (10% of the RF signal) is where the second order products are generated with a 180 °phase shift from the fundamental, and the last remaining 10% of the RF signal is where the third order distortion products are generated with a 180 °phase shift from the fundamental. The output signal is taken as the summation of three signals processed by the branch circuits and coupled to the directly to the laser to be linearized. Finally, using cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP), a perfluorinated graded index fiber, different transmission characteristics were investigated. CYTOP fiber

  4. Optical fibers have come to the Nobel price for physics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, Pavel; Matějec, Vlastimil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2010), s. 1-11 ISSN 0032-2423 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical fiber * optics communications * optical materials Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers

  5. Self-optimized metal coatings for fiber plasmonics by electroless deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialiayeu, A; Caucheteur, C; Ahamad, N; Ianoul, A; Albert, J

    2011-09-26

    We present a novel method to prepare optimized metal coatings for infrared Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors by electroless plating. We show that Tilted Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be used to monitor in real-time the growth of gold nano-films up to 70 nm in thickness and to stop the deposition of the gold at a thickness that maximizes the SPR (near 55 nm for sensors operating in the near infrared at wavelengths around 1550 nm). The deposited films are highly uniform around the fiber circumference and in spite of some nanoscale roughness (RMS surface roughness of 5.17 nm) the underlying gratings show high quality SPR responses in water. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  7. Optic Fiber Sensing IOT Technology and Application Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Internet of Things (IOT industry has become a new mark of the communication domain. As the development of the technology of the IOT and the fiber-optical sensor, the combination of the both is a big question to be discussed, and the fiber-optical IOT also has a good development prospect. This article first introduces IOT’s current status, the key technology, the theoretical frame and the applications. Then, it discusses the classification of the optical fiber sensor as well as the development and its application’s situation. Lastly, it puts the optical fiber sensing technology into the IOT, and introduces a specific application which is used in the mine safety based on the fiber-optical IOT.

  8. Optical fiber Cherenkov detector for beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishchulin, I.V.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Romashkin, O.B.

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained in calculation of an optical fiber Cherenkov detector for accelerated beam current monitoring are presented. The technique of beam parameters monitoring is based on Cherenkov radiation excitation by accelerated electrons in the optical fiber. The formulas for calculations of optical power and time dependence of Cherenkov radiation pulse are given. The detector sensitivity and time resolution dependence on the fiber material characteristics are investigated. Parameters of a 10μm one-mode quartz optical fiber detector for the free electron laser photoinjector are calculated. The structure of a monitoring system with the optical fiber Cherenkov detector is considered. Possible applications of this technique are discussed and some recommendations are given

  9. Experimental study of optical fibers influence on composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Mei; Liang, Da-Kai

    2010-03-01

    Bending strength and elasticity modulus of composite, with and without embedded optical fibers, were experimentally studied. Two kinds of laminates, which were denoted as group 1 and group 2, were fabricated from an orthogonal woven glass/epoxy prepreg. Since the normal stress value becomes the biggest at the surface of a beam, the optical fibers were embedded at the outmost layer and were all along the loading direction. Four types of materials, using each kind of laminated prepreg respectively, were manufactured. The embedded optical fibers for the 4 material types were 0, 10, 30 and 50 respectively. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the produced specimens to study the influence of embedded optical fiber on host composite. The experimental results indicated that the materials in group 2 were more sensitive to the embedded optical fibers.

  10. Optical fiber sensors fabricated by the focused ion beam technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wang, Fei; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    crystal fiber (PCF). Using this technique we fabricate a highly compact fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot (FP) refractive index sensor near the tip of fiber taper, and a highly sensitive in-line temperature sensor in PCF. We also demonstrate the potential of using FIB to selectively fill functional fluid......Focused ion beam (FIB) is a highly versatile technique which helps to enable next generation of lab-on-fiber sensor technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate the use application of FIB to precisely mill the fiber taper and end facet of both conventional single mode fiber (SMF) and photonic...

  11. Simulations and experiments on polarization squeezing in optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, J.F.; Heersink, J.; Dong, R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate polarization squeezing of ultrashort pulses in optical fiber, over a wide range of input energies and fiber lengths. Comparisons are made between experimental data and quantum dynamical simulations to find good quantitative agreement. The numerical calculations, performed using both...... effects cause a marked deterioration of squeezing at higher energies and longer fiber lengths. We also calculate the optimum fiber length for maximum squeezing....

  12. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products

  13. Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Rui; Marques, Carlos; Bang, Ole

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple way to fabricate phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in polymer optical fibers as a narrowband transmission filter for a variety of applications at telecom wavelengths. The filters have been fabricated by overlapping two uniform fiber Bragg gratings with slightly different...

  14. Fiber break location technique utilizing stimulated Brillouin scattering effects in optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, A A A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Mahdi, M A; Mohd Azau, M A; Zainal Abidin, M S

    2009-01-01

    A new technique of fiber break detection system in optical communication networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. This technique is based-on continuous wave light source rather than pulsed source that is commonly deployed in existing techniques. The nonlinear effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering is manipulated to locate the fiber-break position in optical communication networks. This technique enables the utilization of a less-sensitive photodetector to detect the Brillouin Stokes line since its intensity increases with the fiber length in the detectable region. The fiber break location can be determined with accuracy of more than 98% for fiber length less than 50 km using this technique

  15. Fiber optic pressure sensors for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    In the last few years, the nuclear industry has experienced some problems with the performance of pressure transmitters and has been interested in new sensors based on new technologies. Fiber optic pressure sensors offer the potential to improve on or overcome some of the limitations of existing pressure sensors. Up to now, research has been motivated towards development and refinement of fiber optic sensing technology. In most applications, reliability studies and failure mode analyses remain to be exhaustively conducted. Fiber optic sensors have currently penetrated certain cutting edge markets where they possess necessary inherent advantages over other existing technologies. In these markets (e.g. biomedical, aerospace, automotive, and petrochemical), fiber optic sensors are able to perform measurements for which no alternate sensor previously existed. Fiber optic sensing technology has not yet been fully adopted into the mainstream sensing market. This may be due to not only the current premium price of fiber optic sensors, but also the lack of characterization of their possible performance disadvantages. In other words, in conservative industries, the known disadvantages of conventional sensors are sometimes preferable to unknown or not fully characterized (but potentially fewer and less critical) disadvantages of fiber optic sensors. A six-month feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the performance and reliability of existing fiber optic pressure sensors for use in nuclear power plants. This assessment will include establishment of the state of the art in fiber optic pressure sensing, characterization of the reliability of fiber optic pressure sensors, and determination of the strengths and limitations of these sensors for nuclear safety-related services.

  16. Fiber optic pressure sensors for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years, the nuclear industry has experienced some problems with the performance of pressure transmitters and has been interested in new sensors based on new technologies. Fiber optic pressure sensors offer the potential to improve on or overcome some of the limitations of existing pressure sensors. Up to now, research has been motivated towards development and refinement of fiber optic sensing technology. In most applications, reliability studies and failure mode analyses remain to be exhaustively conducted. Fiber optic sensors have currently penetrated certain cutting edge markets where they possess necessary inherent advantages over other existing technologies. In these markets (e.g. biomedical, aerospace, automotive, and petrochemical), fiber optic sensors are able to perform measurements for which no alternate sensor previously existed. Fiber optic sensing technology has not yet been fully adopted into the mainstream sensing market. This may be due to not only the current premium price of fiber optic sensors, but also the lack of characterization of their possible performance disadvantages. In other words, in conservative industries, the known disadvantages of conventional sensors are sometimes preferable to unknown or not fully characterized (but potentially fewer and less critical) disadvantages of fiber optic sensors. A six-month feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the performance and reliability of existing fiber optic pressure sensors for use in nuclear power plants. This assessment will include establishment of the state of the art in fiber optic pressure sensing, characterization of the reliability of fiber optic pressure sensors, and determination of the strengths and limitations of these sensors for nuclear safety-related services

  17. Security System Responsive to Optical Fiber Having Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Charles K. (Inventor); Ozcan, Meric (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optically responsive electronic lock is disclosed comprising an optical fiber serving as a key and having Bragg gratings placed therein. Further, an identification system is disclosed which has the optical fiber serving as means for tagging and identifying an object. The key or tagged object is inserted into a respective receptacle and the Bragg gratings cause the optical fiber to reflect a predetermined frequency spectra pattern of incident light which is detected by a decoder and compared against a predetermined spectrum to determine if an electrical signal is generated to either operate the lock or light a display of an authentication panel.

  18. A plastic optical fiber sensor for the dual sensing of temperature and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Lung; Chu, Chen-Shane

    2008-04-01

    This study presents a low-cost plastic optical fiber sensor for the dual sensing of temperature and oxygen. The sensor features a commercially available epoxy glue coated on the side-polished fiber surface for temperature sensing and a fluorinated xerogel doped with platinum tetrakis pentrafluoropheny porphine (PtTFPP) coated on the fiber end for oxygen sensing. The temperature and oxygen indicators are both excited using a UV LED light source with a wavelength of 380 nm. The luminescence emission spectra of the two indicators are well resolved and exhibit no cross-talk effects. Overall, the results indicate that the dual sensor presented in this study provides an ideal solution for the non-contact, simultaneous sensing of temperature and oxygen in general biological and medical applications.

  19. Small biomolecule immunosensing with plasmonic optical fiber grating sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaut, Clotilde; Voisin, Valérie; Malachovská, Viera; Dubois, Valentin; Mégret, Patrice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-03-15

    This study reports on the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating technology for direct detection of small biomarkers of interest for lung cancer diagnosis. Since SPR principle relies on the refractive index modifications to sensitively detect mass changes at the gold coated surface, we have proposed here a comparative study in relation to the target size. Two cytokeratin 7 (CK7) samples with a molecular weight ranging from 78 kDa to 2.6 kDa, respectively CK7 full protein and CK7 peptide, have been used for label-free monitoring. This work has first consisted in the elaboration and the characterization of a robust and reproducible bioreceptor, based on antibody/antigen cross-linking. Immobilized antibodies were then utilized as binding agents to investigate the sensitivity of the biosensor towards the two CK7 antigens. Results have highlighted a very good sensitivity of the biosensor response for both samples diluted in phosphate buffer with a higher limit of detection for the larger CK7 full protein. The most groundbreaking nature of this study relies on the detection of small biomolecule CK7 peptides in buffer and in the presence of complex media such as serum, achieving a limit of detection of 0.4 nM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Program description of FIBRAM (Fiber Optic Radiation Attenuation Model): a radiation attenuation model for optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    The report describes a fiber-optics system model and its computer implementation. This implementation can calculate the bit error ratio (BER) versus time for optical fibers that have been exposed to gamma radiation. The program is designed so that the user may arbitrarily change any or all of the system input variables and produce separate outputs. The primary output of the program is a table of the BER as a function of time. This table may be stored on magnetic media and later incorporated into computer graphic programs. The program was written in FORTRAN 77 for the IBM PC/AT/XT computers. Flow charts and program listings are included in the report