WorldWideScience

Sample records for coated cutting tools

  1. New Tool Coatings for Light Metal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaveDoerwald; ThomasKrug; RoelTietema; Wei-MingSim; QuanshunLuo; PapkenHovsepian

    2004-01-01

    New carbon based coatings have been developed for cutting of light metals such as aluminum. These coatings can be used either directly on the tool or as topcoating combined with another hard base coating. Cutting tests show that the coating gives good performance for materials that tend to stick to the cutting tools, such as aluminium alloys, because of the substantial reduction of appearance of the so-called built-up edge (BUE). This results in a longer life time of the tool and smoother surface finish of the cut made in the work-piece material. Especially in dry machining and deep hole drilling this coating performed very well. An overview of the properties and initial cutting results of this coating will be presented. This paper will also present results from recent industrial field tests carried out by a leading European aerospace manufacturer. Cutting forces, BUE formation and surface roughness data will be presented to explain the cutting process during dry machining.

  2. New Tool Coatings for Light Metal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dave Doerwald; Thomas Krug; Roel Tietema; Wei-Ming Sim; Quanshun Luo; Papken Hovsepian

    2004-01-01

    New carbon based coatings have been developed for cutting of light metals such as aluminum. These coatings can be used either directly on the tool or as topcoating combined with another hard base coating. Cutting tests show that the coating gives good performance for materials that tend to stick to the cutting tools, such as aluminium alloys, because of the substantial reduction of appearance of the so-called built-up edge (BUE). This results in a longer life time of the tool and smoother surface finish of the cut made in the work-piece material. Especially in dry machining and deep hole drilling this coating performed very well. An overview of the properties and initial cutting results of this coating will be presented. This paper will also present results from recent industrial field tests carried out by a leading European aerospace manufacturer.Cutting forces, BUE formation and surface roughness data will be presented to explain the cutting process during dry machining.

  3. THE MACHINING OF HARDENED CARBON STEELS BY COATED CUTTING TOOLS

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    Yusuf ŞAHİN

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of machining AISI 1050 carbon steels hardened to the 60 HRC hardness was carried out to determine the tool life and wear behaviour of the various cutting tools under different conditions. These experiments were conducted at using coated ceramic cutting tools and carbide cutting tools. The experimental results showed that the coated ceramic tools exhibited better performance than those of the coated carbide tools when machining the hardened steels. Moreover, wear behaviour of cutting tools were investigated in a scanning electron microscope. Electron microscopic examination also indicated that flank wear, thermal cracks on the tool nose combined with the nose deformation on the tools were responsible for the wear behaviour of the ceramic tools. For the carbide tools, however, removal of coated material from the substrate tool and combined with the crater wear were effective for the machining the hardened steel.

  4. Thermal properties of cutting tool coatings at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martan, J., E-mail: jmartan@ntc.zcu.cz [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic); New Technologies Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic); Benes, P. [Department of Material Science and Technology, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal properties of coatings for cutting tools measured in range from 20 to 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings were based on nitrides of Ti, Al, Cr and Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal conductivity varies from 2.8 to 25 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} and grows with temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lowest thermal conductivity was observed for CrAlSiN coating. - Abstract: Cutting tools with coated inserts are widely used in high-speed cutting and in the cutting of hard-to-machine materials. The thermal properties of the coatings (or thin films) have a major impact on the cutting process and tool life. As there is a lack of data for high temperatures, we are presenting an experimental study of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of different coatings in the range from room temperature to 500 Degree-Sign C. The coatings under investigation were TiN, TiAlCN, TiAlN, AlTiN, TiAlSiN and CrAlSiN. The thermal properties were measured using the pulsed photothermal radiometry method. The thermal conductivity of the coatings under investigation varied from 2.8 to 25 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} and increased with the rise in temperature. The lowest thermal conductivity was observed for the CrAlSiN coating.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN MACHINING HARDENED STEEL

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    K.Subramanyam,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the performance of coated tools in machining hardening steel under dry conditions. This paper involves of machining AISI 4340 hardened steel using coated carbide tools is studied using full factorial experiments. Many parameters influence the quality of the products in hard turning process. The objective of this study is on the effect of the cutting conditions such as cutting velocity, feed, and depth of cut on the surface finish in machining AISI 4340 hardened steel. Machining of hardened steels has become an important manufacturing process, particularly in the automotive and bearing industries.

  6. Wear Characteristics of Multilayer-Coated Cutting Tools in Milling Wood and Wood-Based Composites

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    F. Fahrussiam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the characteristic of wear on the clearance face of newly multilayer-coated K10 cutting tools when cutting mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and glass reinforced concrete (GRC. The K10 cutting tools were coated with monolayer titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN, multilayer TiAlN/titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN, and TiAlN/titanium boron oxide nitride (TiBON. Cutting tests were performed on computer numeric control router at a high cutting speed of 17 m/s and a feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev to investigate the wear characteristics on the clearance face of these coated tools. Experimental results show that the coated tools experienced a smaller amount of clearance wear than the uncoated tool in cutting the mersawa wood, fiberboard, particleboard, and GRC. The GRC compared to the other work materials caused higher amount of clearance wear for both the uncoated and coated cutting tools. High content of silica and density were the reason for this phenomenon. The best coating among other coated cutting tools in this study was multilayer TiAlN/TiBON. The high hardness, low coefficient of friction, high resistance to oxidation, and high resistance to delamination wear of the multilayer-coated TiAlN/TiBON tool indicate a very promising applicability of this coating for high-speed cutting of abrasive woods and wood-based materials.

  7. STUDY ON COATING MECHANISM OF DIAMOND FILM ON CUTTING TOOL AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The deposition mechanism of diamond film on cutting tools and the state of the interface between film and substrate are studied theoretically and experimentally. Methods for controlling diamond crystalline state and improving adhesion of diamond films to substrates are proposed to improve the quality of diamond-coated tools.Experiments are performed by cutting Al-Sil8% alloy and SiCp/Al composite with diamond coated tool. The results indicate that the life of coated tools is 90 times higher than that of non-coated tools. Wear mechanism of diamond-coated tools is also studied.

  8. Residual Stress Distribution in PVD-Coated Carbide Cutting Tools-Origin of Cohesive Damage

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    B. Breidenstein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PVD-coatings for cutting tools mean a substantial progress for tool lifetime and cutting conditions. Such tools, however, hold the risk of cost intensive sudden process breaks as a result of cohesive damage. This damage mechanism does not consist of a coating adhesion problem, but it can be traced back to the residual stress distribution in coating and substrate. This paper shows how residual stresses develop during the process chain for the manufacturing of PVDcoated carbide cutting tools. By means of different methods for residual stress determination it is shown that the distribution of residual stresses within the tool finally is responsible for the risk of cohesive tool damage.

  9. Robot based deposition of WC-Co HVOF coatings on HSS cutting tools as a substitution for solid cemented carbide cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Schaak, C.; Biermann, D.; Aßmuth, R.; Goeke, S.

    2017-03-01

    Cemented carbide (hard metal) cutting tools are the first choice to machine hard materials or to conduct high performance cutting processes. Main advantages of cemented carbide cutting tools are their high wear resistance (hardness) and good high temperature strength. In contrast, cemented carbide cutting tools are characterized by a low toughness and generate higher production costs, especially due to limited resources. Usually, cemented carbide cutting tools are produced by means of powder metallurgical processes. Compared to conventional manufacturing routes, these processes are more expensive and only a limited number of geometries can be realized. Furthermore, post-processing and preparing the cutting edges in order to achieve high performance tools is often required. In the present paper, an alternative method to substitute solid cemented carbide cutting tools is presented. Cutting tools made of conventional high speed steels (HSS) were coated with thick WC-Co (88/12) layers by means of thermal spraying (HVOF). The challenge is to obtain a dense, homogenous, and near-net-shape coating on the flanks and the cutting edge. For this purpose, different coating strategies were realized using an industrial robot. The coating properties were subsequently investigated. After this initial step, the surfaces of the cutting tools were ground and selected cutting edges were prepared by means of wet abrasive jet machining to achieve a smooth and round micro shape. Machining tests were conducted with these coated, ground and prepared cutting tools. The occurring wear phenomena were analyzed and compared to conventional HSS cutting tools. Overall, the results of the experiments proved that the coating withstands mechanical stresses during machining. In the conducted experiments, the coated cutting tools showed less wear than conventional HSS cutting tools. With respect to the initial wear resistance, additional benefits can be obtained by preparing the cutting edge by means

  10. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

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    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  11. Design of AlCrSiN multilayers and nanocomposite coating for HSS cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weiwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Material Processing Research Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), 66 Sangnam-dong, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Wanglin; Yang, Shubao; Lin, Yue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Zhang, Shihong, E-mail: shzhang@ahut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China); Cho, Tong-Yul [Institute of Industrial Technology, Changwon National University, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G.H. [Material Processing Research Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), 66 Sangnam-dong, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sik-Chol [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma’anshan City, Anhui Province 243002 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Design of the AlCrSiN multilayer and composite coating. • Tribological/mechanical properties of the coatings. • AlCrSiN coating with the special structures presented lowest F.C. • AlCrSiN coating possessed best service life and cutting performance for the application of high-speed steel (HSS) tools. - Abstract: In the present work, AlCrN coating and AlCrSiN multilayer and nanocomposite coating were designed and deposited on the surface of high speed steel (HSS) cutters. The microstructures of these coatings were investigated systematically by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), in association with mechanical property measurement and corresponding cutting test. The results showed that the AlCrN coating mainly composed of nanocrystalline fcc-CrN, hcp-AlN and fcc-(Cr,Al)N solid-solution. In addition to these nanocrystalline phases, a few amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} phases were observed for the AlCrSiN multilayers and nanocomposite coating with a stronger {2 0 0} preferred orientation. The modulation period (6 nm) of the AlCrSiN coating was much smaller than that of the AlCrN coating (18 nm). The service life of the AlCrSiN coated tool increased approximately 40% longer in comparison with the AlCrN coated tool because of its more excellent mechanical properties (48 GPa hardness, 1123 MPa toughness, 52 N LC2 adhesion strength and 0.25 average friction coefficient). During the cutting process, the wear mechanisms of coated tools at the early stage and mid-stage were abrasion wear and adhesion wear, respectively. And the worn loss of AlCrSiN coated tool was less than that of AlCrN coated tool.

  12. Surface Roughness Prediction Model in Machining of Carbon Steel by PVD Coated Cutting Tools

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    Yusuf Sahin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface roughness model in the turning of AISI 1040 carbon steel was developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut using response surface methodology. Machining tests were carried out using PVD-coated tools under different cutting conditions. The surface roughness equations of cutting tools when machining the carbon steels were achieved by using the experimental data. The results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. The established equation shows that the feed rate was found to be a main influencing factor on the surface roughness. It increased with increasing the feed rate, but decreased with increasing the cutting speed and the depth of cut, respectively. The variance analysis for the second-order model shows that the interaction terms and the square terms were statically insignificant. However, it could be seen that the first-order effect of feed rate was significant while cutting speed and depth of cut was insignificant. The predicted surface roughness of the samples was found to lie close to that of the experimentally observed ones with 95% confident intervals.

  13. Cutting performance and wear mechanisms of PVD coated carbide tools during dry drilling of newly produced ADI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anil; El Mansori, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    The austempered ductile iron (ADI) material is widely used for automotive and structural applications. However, it is considered a difficult to machine material due to its strain hardening behavior and low thermal conductivity characteristics; thus delivering higher mechanical and thermal loads at the tool-chip interface, which significantly affects the tool wear and surface quality. The paper thus overviews the cutting performance and wear behavior of different cutting tools during dry drilling of newly produced ADI material. Cutting performance was evaluated in terms of specific cutting energy, workpiece surface integrity and tool wear behavior. Tool wear behavior shows crater wear mode and workpiece adhesion. The surface alteration at the machined subsurface was confirmed from the hardness variation. Multilayer (Ti,Al,Cr)N coated tool shows improved cutting performance and wear behavior due to its enhanced tribological adaptability as compared to another PVD coating leading to the reduction in specific cutting energy by 25%.

  14. Tribological and wear behavior of HfN/VN nanomultilayer coated cutting tools

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    Willian Aperador Chaparro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wear and tribological behavior of [HfN/VN]n multinanolayers deposited via magnetron sputtering has been exhaustively studied in this work. Enhancement of both hardness and elastic modulus up to 37 GPa and 351 GPa, respectively, was observed as bilayer periods in the coatings were decreased. The sample with a bilayer period (Λ of 15 nm and bilayer number n = 80, showed the lowest friction coefficient (∼0.15 and the highest critical load (72 N, corresponding to 2.2 and 1.38 times better than those values for the coating deposited with n = 1, respectively. Taking into account the latest results of tungsten carbide (WC inserts were used as substrates to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of [HfN/VN]n coatings as a function of increased interface number and to manage higher efficiency of these coatings in different industrial applications, like machining and extrusion. Their physical, mechanical, and tribological characteristics were investigated, including cutting tests with AISI 1020 steel (workpiece to assess wear as a function of the bilayer number and bilayer period. A comparison of the tribological properties revealed a decrease of flank wear (approximately 24% for WC inserts coated with [HfN/VN]80 (Λ =15 nm, when compared to uncoated tungsten carbide inserts. These results demonstrate the possibility of using [HfN/VN] multilayers as new coatings for tool machining with excellent industrial performance.

  15. Novel Pretreatment of Hard Metal Substrate for Better Performance of Diamond Coated Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fan-xiu; TANG Wei-zhong; MIAO Jin-qi; HE Li-fu; LI Cheng-ming; CHEN Guang-chao

    2004-01-01

    A surface engineering approach for a novel pre-treatment of hard metal tool substrate for optimum adhesion of diamond coatings is presented. Firstly, an alkaline solution was used to etch the WC grains to generate a rough surface for better mechanical interlocking. Subsequently, surface Co was removed by etching in acid solution. Then the hard metal substrate was boronized to form a compound interlayer which acted as an efficient diffusion barrier to prevent the outward diffusion of Co. Novel nano-microcrystalline composite diamond film coatings with a very smooth surface was deposited on the surface engineering pre-treated hard metal surface. Promising results of measurement in adhesion strength as well as field cutting tests have been obtained.

  16. The Investigation of Coated Tools Tribological Characteristics Influence on the Cutting Process and the Quality Parameters of the Parts Surface Layer

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    V.F. Bezjazychnyj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cutting tools nanostructured coatings on the parameters of machined parts surface layer has been researched. The interaction between friction characteristics of coated tools and shear plane angle during machining has been determined. The results of different materials cutting with coated carbide-tipped tools have been shown.

  17. Nanostructured Multilayer Composite Coatings on Ceramic Cutting Tools for Finishing Treatment of High-Hardness Quenched Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchaka, A. A.; Batako, A. D.; Sotova, E. S.; Vereshchaka, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of nanostructured multilayer composite coatings (NMCC) deposited on the operating surfaces of replaceable faceted cutting inserts (CI) from cutting ceramics based on aluminum oxides with additives of titanium carbides is studied. It is shown that the developed NMCC not only raise substantially the endurance of the ceramic tools under high-speed dry treatment of quenched steels but also improve the quality and accuracy of processing of the parts and the ecological parameters of the cutting process.

  18. EXAMINATION OF THE CUTTING FORCES OF AISI 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL IN THE TURNING PROCESS WITH TITANIUM CARBIDE COATED CUTTING TOOLS

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    Özgür TEKASLAN

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cutting forces occurring in the machining process of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel specimen using titanium coated cutting tools are investigated experimentally and the results are compared to theoretical calculations. In the experimental study, various cutting speeds, feed rates and cutting depths are considered. Cutting forces are measured by 3-dimensional Kistler dynamometer. In the theoretically study, cutting forces are determined by Kienzle formulation. Consequently, it is found that the calculation of cutting forces in the theoretical method doesn't yield the exact results because of various factors and there is a % 25 average differences in accordance with the experimental results. Hence it is evaluated that the experimental technique in the determination of cutting forces yields more accurate results.

  19. Study on Platinum Coating Depth in Focused Ion Beam Diamond Cutting Tool Milling and Methods for Removing Platinum Layer

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    Woong Kirl Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanomachining has attracted increasing attention in advanced manufacturing science and technologies as a value-added processes to control material structures, components, devices, and nanoscale systems. To make sub-micro patterns on these products, micro/nanoscale single-crystal diamond cutting tools are essential. Popular non-contact methods for the macro/micro processing of diamond composites are pulsed laser ablation (PLA and electric discharge machining (EDM. However, for manufacturing nanoscale diamond tools, these machining methods are not appropriate. Despite diamond’s extreme physical properties, diamond can be micro/nano machined relatively easily using a focused ion beam (FIB technique. In the FIB milling process, the surface properties of the diamond cutting tool is affected by the amorphous damage layer caused by the FIB gallium ion collision and implantation and these influence the diamond cutting tool edge sharpness and increase the processing procedures. To protect the diamond substrate, a protection layer—platinum (Pt coating is essential in diamond FIB milling. In this study, the depth of Pt coating layer which could decrease process-induced damage during FIB fabrication is investigated, along with methods for removing the Pt coating layer on diamond tools. The optimum Pt coating depth has been confirmed, which is very important for maintaining cutting tool edge sharpness and decreasing processing procedures. The ultra-precision grinding method and etching with aqua regia method have been investigated for removing the Pt coating layer. Experimental results show that when the diamond cutting tool width is bigger than 500 nm, ultra-precision grinding method is appropriate for removing Pt coating layer on diamond tool. However, the ultra-precision grinding method is not recommended for removing the Pt coating layer when the cutting tool width is smaller than 500 nm, because the possibility that the diamond

  20. PERFORMANCE STUDY ON AISI316 AND AISI410 USING DIFFERENT LAYERED COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN CNC TURNING

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    K. RAJA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is used for many commercial and industrial applications owing to its high resistance to corrosion. It is too hard to machine due to its high strength and high work hardening property. A surface property such as surface roughness (SR is critical to the function-ability of machined components. SS is generally regarded as more difficult to machine material and poor SR is obtained during machining. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the SR produced by CNC turning on austenitic stainless steel (AISI316 and martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 by different cases of coated cutting tool used at dry conditions. Multilayered coated with TiCN/Al2O3, multilayered coated with Ti(C, N, B and single layered coated with TiAlN coated cutting tools are used. Experiments were carried out by using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on SR is evaluated and optimum cutting conditions for minimizing the SR are determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the responses. Confirmation experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained from optimization.

  1. Development and characterization of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coated AlCrN ceramic cutting tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Martins, G.V.; Machado, J.P.B., E-mail: vitor@las.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, O.M.M. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espacao (CTA/IAE/AMR), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial; Pimenta, M. [Oerlikon Balzers R. Mealicos Ltda, Jundiai, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, silicon nitride based cutting tools are used to machine cast iron from the automotive industry and nickel superalloys from the aero industries. Advances in manufacturing technologies (increased cutting speeds, dry machining, etc.) induced the fast commercial growth of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings for cutting tools, in order to increase their life time. In this work, a new composition of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic cutting tool was developed, characterized and subsequently coated, using a PVD process, with aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN). The Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrate properties were analyzed by XRD, AFM, hardness and fracture toughness. The AlCrN coating was analyzed by AFM, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and hardness. The results showed that this PVD coating could be formed homogeneously, without cracks and promoted a higher surface hardness to the insert and consequently it can produce a better wear resistance during its application on high speed machining. (author)

  2. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  3. The wear of the carbide cutting tools coated with TiN during the milling of Inconel 738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebhi, A.; Douib, N.

    2017-02-01

    The machining of superalloy parts still an area not very clear in mechanical manufacturing. It is found to be used in particular areas such as gas turbine, rocket engine, space ships, nuclear reactors, and pumps. The machining of Inconel 738 superalloy has been studied in this context, with the aim to understand the wear behavior with carbide inserts coated with TiN and in order to optimize the cutting parameters before starting the production. The wear behavior of the inserts during the machining process of a very tough austenitic superalloy is unclear, and requires a series of well determined tests. The life of the insert under high stress such as pressure, cutting speed, high temperature, in a hostile zone and in contact with a very tough and harder material is determined. The generated process of wear is very complex, because it is followed by physico-chemical phenomenon appearing on the contact surfaces between the active part of the tool and workpiece.The lifetime of machine tools often depends on the tribological characteristics of the material couples (cutting tool / material to be machined). It has been shown that the most influential parameter is the coating, then comes the sliding speed. A relationship between the wear VB and the roughness Ra is proposed to collect information on the cutting edge and the quality of the tool by measuring the roughness. For wear measurement, an indirect method is used in coupling a Touptek photonics camera to capture and Ttoupview analysis software.

  4. Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool sintered with CeO2 and Al2O3 additives with AlCrN coating

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    José Vitor Candido Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si3N4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6.43 MPa.m½ and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed a decrease on workpiece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium nitride coatings for cemented carbide cutting tools by pulsed high energy density plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zhijian; MIAO Hezhuo; QI Longhao; GONG Jianghong; YANG Size; LIU Chizi

    2003-01-01

    Hard, wear-resistant and well-adhesive titanium nitride coatings on cemented carbide cutting tools were prepared by the pulsed high energy density plasma technique at ambient temperature. The results of Auger spectra analysis indicated that the interface between the coating and substrate was more than 250 nm.Under optimized deposition conditions, the highest critical load measured by nanoscratch tester was more than 90 mN, which meant that the TiN film was well adhesive to the substrate; the highest nanohardness and Young's modulus according to nanoindentation tests were near to 27 and 450 GPa. The results of cutting tests evaluated by turning hardened CrWMn steel in industrial conditions indicated that the wear resistance and edge life of the cemented carbide tools were enhanced dramatically because of the deposition of titanium nitride coatings. These improvements were attributed to the three combined effects: the deposition and ion implantation of the pulsed plasma and the becoming finer of the grain sizes.

  6. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

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    Pawel Twardowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was analysis of the wear of milling cutters made of sintered carbide and of boron nitride. The article presents the life period of the cutting edges and describes industrial conditions of the applicability of tools made of the materials under investigation. Tests have been performed on modern toroidal and ball-end mill cutters. The study has been performed within a production facility in the technology of high speed machining of 55NiCrMoV6 and X153CrMoV12 hardened steel. The analysed cutting speed is a parameter which significantly influences the intensity of heat generated in the cutting zone. Due to the wear characteristics, two areas of applicability of the analysed tools have been distinguished. For vc  ≤ 300 m/min, sintered carbide edges are recommended; for vc  > 500 m/min, boron nitride edges. For 300 ≤ vc  ≤ 500 m/min, a transition area has been observed. It has been proved that the application of sintered carbide edges is not economically justified above certain cutting speed.

  7. Effect of cutting speed and feed in turning hardened stainless steel using coated carbide cutting tool under minimum quantity lubrication using castor oil

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    Mohamed Handawi Saad Elmunafi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimum quantity lubrication is a technique to have the advantages that cutting fluids bring yet keeping their use at minimum. For the cutting fluids, inedible vegetable oils are potential for minimum quantity lubrication machining. Castor oil was selected in this study as the cutting fluid for turning of hardened stainless steel (hardness of 47–48 HRC. The hard turning was with minimum quantity lubrication (50 mL/h flow rate and 5 bar air pressure at various cutting speeds (100, 135, and 170 m/min and feeds (0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 mm/rev. The machining responses were tool life, surface roughness, and cutting forces. Design of experiments was applied to quantify the effects of cutting parameters to the machining responses. Empirical models for tool life, surface roughness, and cutting forces were developed within the range of cutting parameters selected. All machining responses are significantly influenced by the cutting speed and feed. Tool life is inversely proportional to cutting speed and feed. Surface roughness is inversely proportional to cutting speed yet is proportional to feed. Cutting forces are more influenced by feed than by cutting speed. A combination of low cutting speed and feed was the optimum cutting parameters to achieve long tool life, low surface roughness, and low cutting forces.

  8. Surface Layer States of Worn Uncoated and TiN-Coated WC/Co-Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools after Dry Plain Turning of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kümmel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing wear mechanisms and developments of surface layers in WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts is of great importance for metal-cutting manufacturing. By knowing relevant processes within the surface layers of cutting tools during machining the choice of machining parameters can be influenced to get less wear and high tool life of the cutting tool. Tool wear obviously influences tool life and surface integrity of the workpiece (residual stresses, surface quality, work hardening, etc., so the choice of optimised process parameters is of great relevance. Vapour-deposited coatings on WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts are known to improve machining performance and tool life, but the mechanisms behind these improvements are not fully understood. The interaction between commercial TiN-coated and uncoated WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts and a normalised SAE 1045 steel workpiece was investigated during a dry plain turning operation with constant material removal under varied machining parameters. Tool wear was assessed by light-optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and EDX analysis. The state of surface layer was investigated by metallographic sectioning. Microstructural changes and material transfer due to tribological processes in the cutting zone were examined by SEM and EDX analyses.

  9. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIWEARABILITY STUDIES OF MULTILAYER THIN COATINGS ON CUTTING TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The nanoindentation fracture of multilayer hard coatings, such as TiN, TiN/Ti(C,N)/TiC, TiN/Ti(C,N)/TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiC and TiN/Ti(C,N)/TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiC coatings, deposited on cemented carbide using a CVD technique are studied. It is found that these coatings have high hardness. Based on the analysis of the energy release in cracking, the fracture toughness of these coatings are calculated. The observations clearly establish a step occurs in the forcedisplacement curves at the onset of coating fracture and a straigh t line segment in the loadpenetration depth squared curves to identify the interfacial failure of coatings. The hardness, fracture toughness and antiwearability of these coatings are clearly compared. The results show that with the layes increasing, the fracture toughness and antiwearability are getting larger.

  10. Cross-sectional AEM preparation technique for ceramic-coated WC-Co cutting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostreicher, K; Sung, C

    1993-04-15

    The preparation of cross-sectional specimens for AEM studies of materials such as ceramic coated tungsten carbide presents some unique problems. Pieces joined by the use of epoxides often separate at the interface between the WC and ceramic coating during the initial mechanical grinding and subsequent thinning process as a result of the vibration and physical strain placed on the sample. These problems have been overcome through the use of a preparation process which essentially encapsulates the sample within the confines of an epoxy filled quartz tube. This preparation process has allowed for facile AEM cross-sectional analysis of TiN/TiCN coatings on WC-Co substrates, and has revealed two distinct grain morphologies within the TiCN coating.

  11. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  12. On the cutting tool of coated high speed steel%现代刀具材料系列讲座(三) 涂层高速钢刀具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于启勋

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the cutting performance of the cutting tool of coated high speed steel is introduced. Some cutting data of coated and uncoated high speed steel cutting tools are listed.%介绍了涂层高速钢刀具的切削性能,并列出了涂层与未涂层高速钢刀具的对比切削数据。

  13. Application of Taguchi Method for Analyzing Factors Affecting the Performance of Coated Carbide Tool When Turning FCD700 in Dry Cutting Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Jaharah A.; Mohd Rodzi, Mohd Nor Azmi; Zaki Nuawi, Mohd; Othman, Kamal; Rahman, Mohd. Nizam Ab.; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Deros, Baba Md

    2011-01-01

    Machining is one of the most important manufacturing processes in these modern industries especially for finishing an automotive component after the primary manufacturing processes such as casting and forging. In this study the turning parameters of dry cutting environment (without air, normal air and chilled air), various cutting speed, and feed rate are evaluated using a Taguchi optimization methodology. An orthogonal array L27 (313), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to analyze the effect of these turning parameters on the performance of a coated carbide tool. The results show that the tool life is affected by the cutting speed, feed rate and cutting environment with contribution of 38%, 32% and 27% respectively. Whereas for the surface roughness, the feed rate is significantly controlled the machined surface produced by 77%, followed by the cutting environment of 19%. The cutting speed is found insignificant in controlling the machined surface produced. The study shows that the dry cutting environment factor should be considered in order to produce longer tool life as well as for obtaining a good machined surface.

  14. Optimization of Wet or Dry Micro-blasting on PVD Films by Various Al2O3 Grain Sizes for Improving the Coated Tools' Cutting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. -D. Bouzakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro-blasting on PVD coated tools is an effective technology for improving their cutting performance. Through micro-blasting, compressive stresses are induced into the film, thus increasing the coating hardness, but its brittleness too. Simultaneously, abrasion phenomena are activated, which may lead to roughness augmentation, film thickness decrease and substrate revelation. In this way, for a successful process conduct, it is pivotal to adapt, among others, the applied micro-blasting pressure to the employed medium, air or water. The paper deals with the optimization of wet or dry micro-blasting pressure by various Al2O3 grain sizes for improving the coated tool’s wear resistance. The wear behaviour of coated and variously dry or wet micro-blasted tools was investigated in milling. Considering the grains’ penetration kinematics into the coated tool surface and the film deformation mechanisms during dry or wet microblasting by fine or coarse sharp–edged Al2O3 grains, optimum process pressures can be determined.

  15. Effect of machining conditions on MRR and surface roughness during CNC Turning of different Materials Using TiN Coated Cutting Tools – A Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Raval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents on experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of different grades of EN materials in CNC turning process using TiN coated cutting tools. In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many turned work pieces. Thus, the choice of optimized cutting parameters is very important for controlling the required surface quality. The purpose of this research paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get the lowest surface roughness and maximum material removal rate in CNC turning of different grades of EN materials by Taguchi method. Optimal cutting parameters for each performance measure were obtained employing Taguchi techniques. The orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in dry turning operation. ANOVA has shown that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing higher MRR and insert has significant role to play for producing lower surface roughness. Thus, it is possible to increase machine utilization and decrease production cost in an automated manufacturing environment.

  16. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  17. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  18. Study on Macro-morphology of Hard whirling Chips with PCBN Cutting Tools Coated with Chromium Aluminum Nitride%氮化铬铝涂层PCBN刀具旋风硬铣切屑宏观特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红雨; 李迎

    2011-01-01

    氮化铬铝具有比氮化钛铝更高的硬度和抗氧化性,能否作为PCBN刀具的涂层需要进行试验研究验证.通过对氮化铬铝涂层PCBN刀具在硬态旋风铣削淬硬钢GCr15平均硬度为63.5HRC)加工中,选用不同的切削参数、冷却方式和刀具个数的研究,从而得出氮化铬铝涂层PCBN刀具旋风硬铣加工的特点和应用范围,对涂层刀具的研究和切屑预报研究提供了依据.%Chromium Aluminum Nitride has much more hardness and oxidation resistance than Titanium Aluminum Nitride. This article studied on cutting tool wear, surface processing quality of work piece and macro-morphology of chips during the hard whirling machining on hardened steel GCrl5 with average hardness at 63. 5HRC through PCBN cutting tools coated with Chromium Aluminum Nitride. Through testing with different cutting parameters, different cooling mode and different cutting tool numbers, this article illustrated characters and application scope of hard whirling machining with PCBN cutting tools coated with Chromium Aluminum Nitride and provided a basis for research on cutting tool coating or research on machining forecasting through chips.

  19. 金刚石涂层硬质合金阶梯刀具的制备及钻削特性%Preparation and Drilling Characteristics of Diamond Coated Cemented Carbide Step Cutting Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向道辉; 张磊; 张玉龙; 马国峰; 周直昆; 秦强

    2016-01-01

    The diamond coating was prepared on the surface of the cemented carbide step cutting tool by using double-layered hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Then the drilling characteristics and wear properties of the uncoated and coated cutting tools during drilling the composite fiber brake pad,as well as the surface qualities of the machined hole,were compared and analyzed.The results show that under the high speed drilling condition,the axial force and torque of coated cutting tool were obviously lower than those of uncoated cutting tool,showing a better drilling performance.After drilling 10 holes at the same speed and feed rate,the flank wear height of the coated cutting tool was about 0.025 mm,which was much less than the wear standard (0.2 mm), while that (0.15 mm)of uncoated cutting tool was close to the wear standard,indicating that the wear resistant of the coated cutting tool was better than that of uncoated cutting tool.The hole boundary drilled by the coated cutting tool was smooth and had no burr and tearing.The surface quality was better than that drilled by uncoated cutting tool.%采用双层热丝化学气相沉积(CVD)法在硬质合金阶梯刀具表面制备了金刚石涂层,对比分析了无涂层和涂层刀具钻削复合纤维刹车片的钻削特性和磨损性能以及加工孔的表面质量.结果表明:在高速钻削条件下,涂层刀具的轴向力和扭矩明显小于无涂层刀具的,表现出更好的钻削性能;当以相同的转速和进给量钻削出10个孔后,涂层刀具的后刀面磨损高度约为0.025 mm,远小于磨损标准(0.2 mm),无涂层刀具的后刀面磨损高度(0.15 mm)则接近磨损标准,涂层刀具的耐磨性能优于无涂层刀具的;涂层刀具钻削孔的四周圆滑,没有毛刺及撕裂现象,其表面质量好于无涂层刀具钻削孔的.

  20. The investigations of (Ti,Al)N and (Al,Ti)N coatings obtained by PVD process onto sintered cutting tools

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Staszuk; M. Pawlyta; J. Konieczny

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this research was an investigation of both the coatings structure and mechanical properties deposited by the cathode arc evaporation physical vapor deposition (CAE-PVD) on sintered carbides and sialon tool ceramics substrates.Design/methodology/approach: The (Ti,Al)N and (Al,Ti)N coatings were investigated. Microstructure was characterized using the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Phases composition analysis was carried out by the XRD and GIXRD method. ...

  1. Novel powder-coating solutions to improved micro-structures of ZnO based varistors, WC-Co cutting tools, and Co/Ni nano-phase films and sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Åsa

    2002-01-01

    Solution chemistry is a versatile and powerful tool in the synthesis of designed, complex nano-level high-tech materials. Normally, the technique is considered too expensive for large-scale production of complex multi-component ceramic materials. This thesis describes the expansion of the useful area of solution processing to multi-component bulk materials such as ZnO-based high-field varistors and WC–Co cutting tools, by developing novel techniques for solution-based coating of conventionall...

  2. Ion implantation of superhard ceramic cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. Kevin; Liu, Jie

    2004-08-01

    Despite numerous reports of tool life increase by ion implantation in machining operations, ion implantation applications of cutting tools remain limited, especially for ceramic tools. Mechanisms of tool-life improvement by implantation are not clearly established due to complexity of both implantation and tool-wear processes. In an attempt to improve performance of cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools for hard machining by ion implantation, a literature survey of ion-implanted cutting tools was carried out with a focus on mechanisms of tool-wear reduction by ion implantation. Implantation and machining experiments were then conducted to investigate implantation effects on CBN tools in hard machining. A batch of CBN tools was implanted with nitrogen ions at 150 keV and 2.5×1017 ions/cm2 and further used to cut 61 HRc AISI 52100 steel at different conditions. Results show that ion implantation has strong effects on partsurface finish, moderate effect on cutting forces, but an insignificant impact on tool wear. Friction coefficients, estimated from measured cutting forces, are possibly reduced by ion implantation, which may improve surface finish. However, surprisingly, 2-D orthogonal cutting to evaluate tribological loading in hard machining showed no difference on contact stresses and friction coefficients between implanted and nonimplanted CBN tools.

  3. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Matuszak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Correct and stable machining process requires an appropriate cutting tool. In most cases the tool can be selected by using special tool catalogs often available in online version. But in some cases there is a need to design unusual tools, for special treatment, which are not available in tool manufacturers’ catalogs. Proper tool design requires strength and geometric calculations. Moreover, in many cases specific technical documentation is required. By using Computer Aided Design of cutting tools this task can be carried out quickly and with high accuracy. Cutting tool visualization in CAD programs gives a clear overview of the design process. Besides, these programs provide the ability to simulate real machining process. Nowadays, 3D modeling in CAD programs is a fundamental tool for engineers. Therefore, it is important to use them in the education process.

  4. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  5. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  6. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  7. Ceramic cutting tools materials, development and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, E Dow

    1994-01-01

    Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

  8. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Martawirya, Y. Y.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule.

  9. Heat Resistance of TiN Coated HSS Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰英; 周焕雷; 贾庆莲

    2003-01-01

    The cutting friction, cutting deformation, producing heat, conducting heat, temperature field of TiN coated HSS tools in the cutting process are discussed profoundly. In order to make clear the heat property of TiN coated tools, from the micromechanism angle, the relationship of the heat property and the crystal structure of TiN compound is analyzed, and the regularity of TiN compound crystal structure changing with temperature rising is sought. The difference of the wear resistance and heat resistance of TiN coated tools deposited by c1 and c2 depositing techniques is proved by tests. The conclusions will offer the theoretical basis for correct design of geometrical parameters of TiN coated tools, rational selection of cutting regimes and optimization of the depositing technique.

  10. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    ) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  11. Influence of the Magnetic High-speed Steel Cutting Tool on Cutting Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed steel cutting tool has advantaged i n modern cutting tool for its preferable synthetical performance, especially, in a pplication of complicated cutting tools. Therefore, the study of the high-speed steel cutting tools that occupied half of cutting tools has become an importa nt way of studying on modern cutting technology. The cutting performance of hi gh speed-steel cutting tools will be improved by magnetization treating method. Microstructure of high-speed steel will be changed as a ...

  12. Experimental investigation of cutting tool performance in high speed cutting of hardened X210 Cr12 cold-work tool steel (62 HRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, E

    2005-02-15

    This study explored the performance and wear behaviour of different cutting tools in end milling of X210 Cr12 cold-work tool steel hardened to 62 HRC. The purpose of the experiments reported in this paper is to investigate the wear of TiCN coated tungsten carbide, TiCN + TiAlN coated tungsten carbide, TiAlN coated cermet, mixed ceramic with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + TiCN and cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools. Tool performance evaluation was based on the surface finish and tool flank wear. Tool flank wear was studied carefully through JSM 5600 (30 kW) scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness values were measured by Mitutoyo Metusurf 310 equipment. CBN tool exhibited the best cutting performance in terms of both flank wear and surface finish. The highest volume of metal removal was obtained with CBN tool.

  13. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC-Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, A. A.; Pencea, I.; Branzei, M.; Trancă, D. E.; Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C. E.; Ciovica (Coman), E.; Gherghilescu, A. I.; Stanciu, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC-Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (Eoc), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (Eoc) and corrosion potential (Ecorr) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC-Co while on corrosion current density (icorr) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC-Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  14. Cutting force and wear evaluation in peripheral milling by CVD diamond dental tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polini, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: polini@uniroma2.it; Allegri, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Guarino, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Quadrini, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sein, H. [Department of Chemistry and Materials, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Ahmed, W. [Department of Chemistry and Materials, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-22

    Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools are currently employed in dental application for prosthesis fabrication. The deposition of a diamond coating onto WC-Co tools could allow both to increase the tool life and tool performance at higher speeds. However, at present it is very difficult to quantify the effective advantage of the application of a diamond coating onto dental tools compared to traditional uncoated tools. Therefore, in this work, we have deposited diamond coatings onto WC-Co dental tools having different geometries by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Prior to deposition, the WC-Co tools were pre-treated in order to roughen the surface and to modify the chemical surface composition. The use of the HFCVD process enabled the deposition of a uniform coating despite the complex geometries of the dental mills. For the first time, in accordance to the knowledge of the authors, we have studied and compared the cutting behaviour of both virgin and diamond-coated dental tools by measuring both wear and cutting force time evolution under milling a very hard Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy. To ensure constant cutting rate (20,000-r.p.m. cutting rate, 0.01-m/min feed rate and 0.5-mm depth of cut), a proper experimental apparatus was used. Three different mill geometries were considered in both coated and uncoated conditions. The results showed that, under the high-speed conditions employed, uncoated tools underwent to catastrophic failure within a few seconds of machining. Diamond-coated tools exhibited much longer tool lives. Lower forces were measured when the coated tool was employed due to the much lower material-mill friction. The best behaviour was observed for coated mills with the presence of a chip-breaker.

  15. EFFECT OF TOOL NOSE RADIUS AND CUTTING PARAMETERS ON TOOL LIFE, SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TURNING OF GREY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna P Kulkarni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting industries peoples are trying to reduce the cost of the production by proper selection of inserts, tool geometry, and cutting conditions to obtain economical benefits. Tool nose radius has significant influence on tool life and surface finish. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of tool nose radius under different cutting conditions and their effect on tool life, surface roughness. The measurement has been carried out by rough boring operation using grey cast iron cylinder liners at three cutting speed (Vc and feed rate (f. Depth of cut (doc is kept constant at 2.5mm.Cutting tool used in this work is multilayer coated tool of nose radius 0.8mm and 1.2mm nose radius. Tool coated with titanium nitride (TiN + titanium carbo nitride (TiCN +Aluminium oxide (Al2O3 coating. The insert is designated with SNMG 120408. Cutting conditions used is speed (Vc 100m/min, 125m/min and 150m/min. Feed rate (f 0.20mm/rev,0.23mm/rev,0.27mm/rev.Finally results of the present work determine the appropriate parameter for increasing the tool life and surface finish for two different nose radius tools.

  16. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  17. Cutting tool materials for high speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhanqiang; AI Xing

    2005-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) is one of the emerging cutting processes, which is machining at a speed significantlyhigher than the speed commonly in use on the shop floor. In the last twenty years, high speed machining has received great attentions as a technological solution for high productivity in manufacturing. This article reviews the developments of tool materials in high speed machining operations, and the properties, applications and prospective developments of tool materials in HSM are also presented.

  18. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  19. Improvement of Drill Performance in Metal Cutting Using MoST Solid Lubricant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R.Thomas; D.G.Teer; S.Yang; S,Hickman

    2004-01-01

    Coated tools are widely used in today's metal cutting industries and have significantly improved machining productivity through reducing operation costs and "time. This paper presents the results of a systematic study of the performance of HSS drills coated with CrTiAlN and drills with a top solid lubricant coating of MoSTTM. The tests were performed on a Haas vertical machining centre under wet and dry cutting conditions to machine through holes in medium carbon steel workpieces. The feed force and torque were recorded throughout some of the tests using a force dynamometer, while the tool wear was monitored and measured. It was found that MoSTTM coatings even under accelerated conditionsimprove the tool life significantly based on their unique properties and very low friction.

  20. Improvement of Drill Performance in Metal Cutting Using MoST Solid Lubricant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.R. Thomas; D.G. Teer; S. Yang; S. Hickman

    2004-01-01

    Coated tools are widely used in today's metal cutting industries and have significantly improved machining productivity through reducing operation costs and time. This paper presents the results of a systematic study of the performance of HSS drills coated with CrTiAlN and drills with a top solid lubricant coating of MoSTTM. The tests were performed on a Haas vertical machining centre under wet and dry cutting conditions to machine through holes in medium carbon steel workpieces. The feed force and torque were recorded throughout some of the tests using a force dynamometer,while the tool wear was monitored and measured. It was found that MoSTTM coatings even under accelerated conditions improve the tool life significantly based on their unique properties and very low friction.

  1. Chip-ejection interference in cutting processes of modern cutting tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师汉民

    1999-01-01

    Based on the “principle of minimum energy”, the basic characteristics of non-free cutting are studied; the phenomenon and the nature of chip-ejection interference commonly existing in the cutting process of modem cutting tools are explored. A "synthesis method of elementary cutting tools" is suggested for modeling the cutting process of modem complex cutting tools. The general equation governing the chip-ejection motion is deduced. Real examples of non-free cutting are analyzed and the theoretically predicted results are supported by the experimental data or facts. The sufficient and necessary conditions for eliminating chip-ejection interference and for realizing free cutting are given; the idea and the technical approach of "the principle of free cutting" are also discussed, and a feasible way for improving or optimizing the cutting performance of modem cutting tools is, therefore, found.

  2. A Forced Jet System for the Cooling of Cutting Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting tools , *Coolant pumps, *Machine tools, *Metals, Machine shop practice, High pressure, Force(Mechanics), Centrifugal pumps, Mist, Jet streams, Lubricants, Machining, Friction, Surface finishing, Safety

  3. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic cutting tool; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de ferramentas ceramicas de Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} revestidas com AlCrN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B., E-mail: vitor@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, O.M.M. [Centro Tecnico de Aeronautica (CTA-IAE/AMR), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Aeronautica e Espaco. Div. de Materiais; Pimenta, M. [Balzers, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Sa, F.C.L. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m{sup 1/2} and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  4. Modelling and Optimization of Technological Process for Magnetron Synthesis of Altin Nanocomposite Films on Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights the results of the research on developing the mechanism to model the technological process for magnetron synthesis of nanocomposite films on cutting tools, which provides their specified physical and mechanical characteristics by controlling pulsed plasma parameters. The paper presents optimal conditions for AlTiN coating deposition on cutting tools according to the ion energy of sputtered atoms in order to provide their specified physical and mechanical characteristics.

  5. Effects of cutting parameters on tool insert wear in end milling of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Jing; Wu, Baohai; Zhang, Dinghua

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloy is a kind of typical hard-to-cut material due to its low thermal conductivity and high strength at elevated temperatures, this contributes to the fast tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys. The influence of cutting conditions on tool wear has been focused on the turning process, and their influence on tool wear in milling process as well as the influence of tool wear on cutting force coefficients has not been investigated comprehensively. To fully understand the tool wear behavior in milling process with inserts, the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V by using indexable cutters is investigated. The tool wear rate and trends under different feed per tooth, cutting speed, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut are analyzed. The results show that the feed rate per tooth and the radial depth of cut have a large influence on tool wear in milling Ti6Al4V with coated insert. To reduce tool wear, cutting parameters for coated inserts under experimental cutting conditions are set as: feed rate per tooth less than 0.07 mm, radial depth of cut less than 1.0 mm, and cutting speed sets between 60 and 150 m/min. Investigation on the relationship between tool wear and cutting force coefficients shows that tangential edge constant increases with tool wear and cutter edge chipping can lead to a great variety of tangential cutting force coefficient. The proposed research provides the basic data for evaluating the machinability of milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated inserts, and the recommend cutting parameters can be immediately applied in practical production.

  6. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  7. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  8. A comparative machining study of diamond-coated tools made by plasma torch, microwave, and hot filament techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C E Bauer; A Inspektor; E J Oles

    2003-10-01

    An effective metal-cutting tool is usually a combination of a hard coating and a tough substrate. The successful deposition of diamond outside its thermodynamic stability range has stimulated the development of a new class of cutting tools: those with diamond-coated inserts of any desired style and edge geometry. The successful implementation of diamond coatings also expedited similar research in the deposition of cubic boron nitride. This paper presents superhard coating tools, with emphasis on diamond-coated WC–Co tools, the corresponding deposition of technologies and the foreseen metal-cutting applications.

  9. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  10. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in machining Al–11%Si alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sahoo; A K Chattopadhyay; A B Chattopadhyay

    2002-11-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit CVD diamond coating on conventional carbide tool using hot filament CVD process. ISO grade K10 turning inserts with SPGN 120308 geometry were used to deposit diamond coating. This diamond coating well covering the rake surface, cutting edges and flank surfaces could be successfully deposited. The coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy for coating quality, morphology etc. Performance of diamond coated tool relative to that of uncoated carbide tool was evaluated in turning Al–11%Si alloy under dry environment. The diamond coated tool outperformed the uncoated carbide tool which severely suffered from sizeable built-up edge formation leading not only to escalation of cutting forces but also poorer surface finish. In contrast, the diamond coated tool, owing to chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any trace of edge built-up even in dry environment and could maintain low level of cutting forces and remarkably improved surface finish. It has been further revealed that success of the diamond coated tool depends primarily on adhesion of the diamond coating with the carbide substrate and this is strongly influenced by the pre-treatment of the carbide substrate surface before coating.

  11. The Performance Evalution of Ceramic And Carbide Cutting Tools In Machining of Austemepered Ductile Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya IŞIK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to compare TiN (PVD coated Al2O3+Ti[C,N] mixed alumina-based (KY4400 ceramic and CVD coated carbide TiC+AI2O3+TiN (ISO P25 cutting tools in turning austempered ductile irons. Ductile cast iron samples were austenitized at 927°C and subsequently austempered for 1 hour at 400°C. The hardness of the workpiece material was measured and found to be 43.5 HRC. In the present work a series of tests were conducted in order to evaluate the tool performances by adopting tool life. In all experiments cutting forces, flank wear and surface roughness values were measured throughout the tool life. No cutting fluid was used during the turning operations. Study of the tool life and failure modes shows that tool life was determined by the flank wear and surface roughness generated on the workpiece. The main conclusion is that tool life of ceramic insert was longer than the coated carbide insert although much higher cutting speeds were used. 

  12. Gear cutting tools fundamentals of design and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Presents the DG/K-based method of surface generation, a novel and practical mathematical method for designing gear cutting tools with optimal parameters. This book proposes a scientific classification for the various kinds of the gear machining meshes, discussing optimal designs of gear cutting tools.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.354 - Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative... Welding and Cutting § 1926.354 Welding, cutting, and heating in way of preservative coatings. (a) Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative coating...

  14. Wear and Durability Variation Compared with Thickness of Cutting Inserts Coated with AlTiN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădănac, A.; Lupescu, O.; Manole, V.; Ungureanu, C.; Popa, M.

    2016-08-01

    During the use of cutting tools in the cutting process, they lose their exploitation indices after a certain range of working, due to the occurrence of wear phenomenon. Wear occurs due to the parameters variation of the working regimes, fact that involves in order to not overcoming the limits of the maximum allowable wear, application of methods, to increase their durability. In order to increase the cutting tools durability are known various methods of surface coating with materials with better properties than the material of the cutting tool. In the case of cutting inserts, are known many researches concerning their coating by vacuum deposition of thin layers of metal, methods as: physical vapour deposition and chemical vapour deposition. The coatings realized by vacuum deposition have gained special attention because of their unique physical and chemical properties for example excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. The main characteristics which are checked in the deposition process of thin layers are: thickness and the wear resistance. In this study the authors carried out researches regarding the coatings of AlTiN in thin layers, on surface of some cutting inserts. It was measured the variation of the wear and durability compared with the thickness of AlTiN thin layers deposited on the cutting inserts.

  15. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kulandaivelu; P Senthil Kumar; S Sundaram

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines the flank and crater wear characteristics of coated carbide tool inserts during dry turning of steel workpieces. A brief review of tool wear mechanisms is presented together with new evidence showing that wear of the TiC layer on both flank and rake faces is dominated by discrete plastic deformation, which causes the coating to be worn through to the underlying carbide substrate when machining at high cutting speeds and feed rates. Wear also occurs as a result of abrasion, as well as cracking and attrition, with the latter leading to the wearing through the coating on the rake face under low speed conditions. When moderate speeds and feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear mechanism maps linking the observed wear mechanisms to machining conditions are presented for the first time. These maps demonstrate clearly that transitions from one dominant wear mechanism to another may be related to variations in measured tool wear rates. Comparisons of the present wear maps with similar maps for uncoated carbide tools show that TiC coatings dramatically expand the range of machining conditions under which acceptable rates of tool wear might be experienced. However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the stability, applicability and relative sensitivity of AET in tool condition monitoring in turning.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF TOOL WEAR AND CUTTING TEMPERATURES IN MQL USING CUTTING FLUIDS WITH CNT INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NARAYANA RAO,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Machining often witnesses frequent interruption caused by friction and heat. Cutting fluids are being used in machining for centuries to counter the effects of friction and temperatures. However, because of many disadvantages, MQL has emerged. MQL demands fluids with high performance. This work tries to estimate tool wear and cutting temperatures while using cutting fluids, prepared with carbon nano tube (CNT inclusion.

  17. Cutting Temperature and Tool Wear of Hard Turning Hardened Bearing Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the performan ce of PCBN tool in the finish turning GCr15 bearing steel with different hardness between 30~64 HRC. The natural thermocouple was used to measure the cutting tem p erature, tool life and cutting temperature were investigated and compared. The m aterial can be heated by this instrument which using low voltage and high elec trical current, while PCBN can't be heated by electrifying directly, so the ke ntanium layer coating over the PCBN is heated, so th...

  18. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  19. Doctors' Decision-Making Tool Could Cut Unnecessary Antibiotic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Doctors' Decision-Making Tool Could Cut Unnecessary Antibiotic Use A drop of about 10 percent is ... for doctors may help reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics in children with respiratory tract infections and cough, ...

  20. CUTTING TEMPERATURE OF CBN TOOLS WHEN MACHINING STEEL OF MEDIUM HARDNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The cutting temperature of CBN tools when machining hardened steel was investigated at different cutting regime and cutting tool geometry. An unusual phenomenon that the depth of cut influenced the temperature more significantly than the feed rate was analysed via partial differentiation. A chamfered cutting edge generally raised the cutting temperature and the significance of the temperature increase was associated with the cutting speed.

  1. Materials Comparison of Cutting Tools Functional Parts for Cutting of Electrical Engineering Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ZLÁMALÍK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper concerns the comparison of functional materials parts of cutting tools used for the production of stator and rotor sheets in the electrical industry from point of view of their life. Alternatives and the properties of metal used for the production of stator and rotor components in electrical rotating machines are analysed. The main factors affecting the life of cutting tools of functional parts are analysed, one of the most important is the cutting tool functional parts material itself. Comparison of three variants of the cuttong tool funkcional parts material – 19 436 tool steel (chrome steel according to the Czech State Standard 41 9436, 19 830 high speed steel according to the Czech State Standard 41 9830 and a special powder metallurgy product – ledeburite tool steel Vanadis 10. Useful lifes of the functional components of individual cutting tools performances can be calculated from the theoretical lifes by their multiplying the coefficients of the tool design and the cutting edges shape complexity.

  2. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  3. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF CUTTING TOOL BREAKAGE ON DRIVE LIFE TIME OF CUTTING UNIT OF HEADING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Е. SHABAEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a necessity to develop means of technical diagnostics of cutter's performance without stopping heading machine was grounded. There was theoretically demonstrated the possibility of essential decrease in life time of transmission elements of cutting unit during prolonged work of heading machine with broken cutting tool. It was defined that influence of cutting tool breakage on life time of transmission elements depends on cutting tool position on cutting head according to the assembly drawing.

  5. Machining Duplex Stainless Steel: Comparative Study Regarding End Mill Coated Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny M. Gouveia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties in the machining of duplex stainless steel are well known. However, research on this matter is rather limited. Suppliers offer quite different cutting tools for the same raw material, with end mills of two, three or even four knives and a huge number of distinct coatings, some of them under commercial brands, making it difficult to assess the advantages they offer. Furthermore, there is a remarkable difference among the several types of duplex stainless steel available nowadays on the market. The present work intends to assess the machining performance of different tools, analyzing the behavior and wear mechanisms with two different cutting lengths, keeping constant the machining trajectory. Some other parameters were also kept constant, such as cutting speed, depth of cut and cutting width, as well as feed per tooth. The machining process was carried out under lubricated conditions, using an emulsion of 5% oil in water. Tools provided with a different number of teeth and surface coatings were tested, analyzing the wear behavior of each cutting length using scanning electron microscopy, trying to identify wear performance and how each coating contributes to increased tool life. The surfaces produced were also analyzed by means of profilometry measurements, correlating tool wear and part surface roughness. This comparative study allows determining the advantages of different tools relative to others, based on coatings and tool geometry.

  6. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  7. On the Physics of Machining Titanium Alloys: Interactions between Cutting Parameters, Microstructure and Tool Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nouari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work deals with the analysis of mechanisms involved during the machining process of titanium alloys. Two different materials were chosen for the study: Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-55531. The objective was to understand the effect of all cutting parameters on the tool wear behavior and stability of the cutting process. The investigations were focused on the mechanisms of the chip formation process and their interaction with tool wear. At the microstructure scale, the analysis confirms the intense deformation of the machined surface and shows a texture modification. As the cutting speed increases, cutting forces and temperature show different progressions depending on the considered microstructure (Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-55531 alloy. Results show for both materials that the wear process is facilitated by the high cutting temperature and the generation of high stresses. The analysis at the chip-tool interface of friction and contact nature (sliding or sticking contact shows that machining Ti55531 often exhibits an abrasion wear process on the tool surface, while the adhesion and diffusion modes followed by the coating delamination process are the main wear modes when machining the usual Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  8. IN TURNING ON-LINE DETERMINATION OF CUTTING TOOL WEAR RATE BY MEASURING CUTTING TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KIYAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvements of adaptive control and computer aided manufacturing need to be sensitively determined tool wear rate during machining. Reserarchers working on this topic have developed direct and indirect methods. To determine tool wear rate during machining by measuring of cutting temperature is an indirect method. In this study, two measuring techniques, work-tool thermocouple technique and a method that is realized by using a thermocouple assambed by embeding in the tool have been used. Both of them have been tested by obtaining tool wear using hard metal insert and turning mild steel and compared one with the other using different point of views.

  9. Deposition of hard and adherent TiBCN films for cutting tools applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Fabian [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Bejarano, Gilberto [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Universidad de Antioquia, Group for Corrosion and Protection-CIDEMAT, Calle 67 No. 53-108, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Metal cutting tools having wear resistant and chemically stable ceramic coatings are in many applications superior in performance to uncoated tools. Titanium boron carbon nitride (TiBCN) is a hard material particularly suitable as a protective coating for cutting tools due to its excellent properties, such as a high hardness and high wear and corrosion resistance, among other. TiBCN films were grown on Si (100) and high speed steel substrates by means of reactively pulsed DC magnetron sputtering technique. Two B{sub 4}C- and two Ti-targets, to which a pulsed DC voltage of middle frequency was applied, were used for the deposition of TiBCN. A chromium layer was first deposited to obtain a better adhesion of TiBCN to the substrates. The mechanical properties of these coatings deposited under different N{sub 2} contents were investigated. The substrates were biased through a medium frequency power supply. The bias voltage value was -90 V for all coatings. The total film thickness was maintained at approximately 2 {mu}m. The hardness of the coatings increased with reduced nitrogen content, while the adhesion decreased from 40.8 to 24.2 N, and the wear rate increased from 0.154 to 0.744 x 10{sup -16} m{sup 3}/N.m, the latter probably caused by the low content of the self-lubricating amorphous matrix of our coatings. However, the sample deposited by a nitrogen gas flow of 60 sccm presented a wear rate of four orders of magnitude smaller than the uncoated sample. The deposition method presented in this work seems very promising for the manufacture of TiBCN coatings. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrN-Coated AISI 1070 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Ahmet; Ozkaner, Vedat; Yildirim, Mustafa M.

    2008-01-01

    Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN) and chromium nitride (CrN) are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP) technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear properties of TiN- and CrN-coated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples. PMID:27873912

  11. 3D cutting tool-wear monitoring in the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerce, Luka; Pusavec, Franci; Kopac Janez [University of Ljubljana, Askerceva (Slovenia)

    2015-09-15

    The tool-wear of cutting tools has a very strong impact on the product quality as well as efficiency of the machining processes. Therefore, it in-the process characterization is crucial. This paper presents an innovative and reliable direct measuring procedure for measuring spatial cutting tool-wear with usage of laser profile sensor. The technique provides possibility for determination of 3D wear profiles, as advantage to currently used 2D techniques. The influence of the orientation of measurement head on the accuracy and the amount of captured reliable data was examined and the optimal setup of the measuring system was defined. Further, a special clamping system was designed to mount the measurement device on the machine tool turret. To test the measurement system, tool-life experiment was performed. Additionally, a new tool-life criterion was developed, including spatial characteristics of the tool-wear. The results showed that novel tool-wear and tool-life diagnostic represent objective and robust estimator of the machining process. Additionally, such automation of tool-wear diagnostics on machine tool provides higher productivity and quality of the machining process.

  12. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...... measurements were associated to an estimation of their uncertainty, and it was found that by taking three repetitions the uncertainty calculated with a coverage factor of two was on average three times bigger than the experimental standard deviation....

  13. Cutting Tools. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in teaching students to compare the performance of two different types of engineering cutting tools and to determine their cost-effectiveness and efficiency. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination…

  14. Selection and Implementation of a Replacement Cutting Tool Selection Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    A new commercial cutting tool software package replaced an internally created legacy system. This report describes the issues that surfaced during the migration and installation of the commercial package and the solutions employed. The primary issues discussed are restructuring the data between two drastically different database schemas and the creation of individual component graphics.

  15. Quenching Simulation of PM Coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AxelHoftert; WernerTheisen; ChristophBroeckmann

    2004-01-01

    HIP cladding is a powder metallurgical coating technique used in the production of wear parts and tools. In many cases the composite components consist of carbide-free hot-work steel as base material and wear resistant carbide-rich PM cold-work steel as coating material. To ensure operativeness a heat tleatment matched to the substrate and coating material is required. Dissimilar phase tlansformation behaviour and different thermal expansion coefficients of layer and substrate entail inner stresses affecting the tlansformation kinetics in tam. In order to get a deeper insight into these effects Finite Element simulation tools are used. On the one hand, the tlansient heat conduction problem of the quenching process has to be solved. Non-linear boundary conditions and phase transformation of both, substrate and layer are considered. On the other hand, the mechanical response is calculated. The overall aim of the investigation is an improvement of common heat treatment techniques used for HIP cladded wear parts.

  16. Quenching Simulation of PM Coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Axel H(o)fter; Werner Theisen; Christoph Broeckmann

    2004-01-01

    HIP cladding is a powder metallurgical coating technique used in the production of wear parts and tools. In many cases the composite components consist of carbide-free hot-work steel as base material and wear resistant carbide-rich PM cold-work steel as coating material. To ensure operativeness a heat treatment matched to the substrate and coating material is required. Dissimilar phase transformation behaviour and different thermal expansion coefficients of layer and substrate entail inner stresses affecting the transformation kinetics in turn. In order to get a deeper insight into these effects Finite Element simulation tools are used. On the one hand, the transient heat conduction problem of the quenching process has to be solved. Non-linear boundary conditions and phase transformation of both, substrate and layer are considered. On the other hand, the mechanical response is calculated. The overall aim of the investigation is an improvement of common heat treatment techniques used for HIP cladded wear parts.

  17. Analysis of load variations on drums with three to four rows of cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Maszyn Gorniczych Przerobczych i Automatyki)

    1989-11-01

    Comparatively evaluates types of shearer loaders used for longwall mining of black coal in Poland. The following data are discussed: type, web size, rated power of motors, cutter motors, haulage speed, diameter of the cutting drums, revolution rate, cutting rate. Eleven types of shearer loaders with one or two cutting drums are reviewed. Factors that influence load variations on the cutting drums are analyzed: number and arrangement of rows of cutting tools, number of cutting tools in one row, angle of cutting tool attack, cutting tool design and geometry. Curves that describe load variations and factors that influence them are plotted. 1 ref.

  18. Regression Modeling Of Cutting Parameters' Effect To Cutting Forces And Hole Surface Qualities In Drilling Of Dievar Hot Work Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İskender Özkul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cutting moments, surface roughness, dimensional accuracy and circularity deviation values were investigated during drilling on Dievar degree of hot work tool steels with various drill bits. The experiments, was completed with Ø16 mm diameter uncoated carbide drill bits and TiAlN coated self-reamed carbide drill bits using coolant fluid on vertical machining center. In experiments, feed rate 0,16 mm/rev and the cutting speed 36, 40, 44, 48 m/min rates were used. The results were modeled by the method of linear regression and polynomial regression curve. Then they were compared with values equal significance. At the same time by analysis of variance, the cutting speed and drill type were investigated on the results of axial feed force, cutting torque, surface roughness, dimensional accuracy and circularity the deviation.

  19. The Stress Distribution and Thermal Behavior of TiBN and TiBN/TiN Coatings in Milling AISI H13 Work Tool Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong; HUA Jiang; SHIVPURI Raja

    2005-01-01

    The FEM model of TiBN and TiBN/TiN coated cutting tool in milling of H13 steel was developed. Process variables such as temperature and stress in the coating layer as well as in the substrate were analyzed. The efficacy of the present FEM analysis was verified by conducting controlled milling experiments on AISI H13 to collect the relevant tool life and force data.The results show that the stress in a coated tool can significantly be reduced compared to an uncoated cutting tool,possibly due to surface coatings improving the tribological properties of cutting tools.Coatings with good thermal properties also help to improve the thermal behavior of cutting tool.

  20. Joint Performance for Laser Cutting-welding of Zinc-coated Tailored Blanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunming; HU Lunji; LIU Jianhua; HU Xiyuan; DU Hanbin

    2005-01-01

    The process of laser butt welding of zinc-coated steel ( SGCD3 and WLZn ) blanks was presented, whose edges were prepared by laser cutting. The properties of the butt joints, such as tensile strength, bending, stamping, weld shape, and corrosion- resistant were tested. The experiments of laser cutting and welding were carried out on a custom-made system designed, which is a set of equipment for wide sheet butt welding based on a laser cutting-welding combination process. The experiments proved the technological feasibility of laser butt welding for thin zinc coated steel sheets whose edges were prepared by laser cutting on the same equipment.

  1. Influence of the cutting parameters on flank wear of coated inserts during turning of AISI 316L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Zamora Hernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/20 - Accepted: 2015/03/25The continuous improvement of manufacturing processes is critical to achieve optimum levels of productivity, quality and cut production of components and products. This research aims to determine the cutting tool flank wearing progression, during a high speed dry turning, for AISI 316L steel parts. Experimental data were acquired using two cutting feed levels, two material levels, three cutting speeds, and four principal cutting times. A scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to measure and analyze the wear of the cutting tools. Results were compared using analysis of variance and multiple regression for describing the relation between the variables used in the study. The analysis showed that the three layers coating insert did not exceed the end of life wearing criterion, while the one layer insert suffered a catastrophic wearing at the highest cutting speed. It was found that a relation exists between the experimental data and the predicted values for flank wear with a general average error of 4.1182%.

  2. Research on the Cutting Performance of Cubic Boron Nitride Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There were only two kinds of superhard tool material at the past, i.e. diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN). Manmade diamond and CBN are manufactured by the middle of 20th century. Various manufacturing methods and manmade superhard materials were developed later. They were widely used in different industry and science areas. Recently, a new kind of superhard tool material, C 3N 4 coating film, had been developed. American physical scientists, A. M. Liu and M. L. Cohen, designed a new kind of inorganic c...

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE TMPERATURES ON UNCOATED CEMENTIDE CARBIDE CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım HABALI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the temperature as the result of the heat developed during machining at the tool-chip interface has an influence on the tool life and workpiece surface guality and the methods for measuring this temperature are constantly under investigation. In this study, the measurement of tool-chip interface temperature using toolworkpiece termocouple method was investigated. The test were carried out on a AISI 1040 steel and the toolchip interface temperature variation was examined depending on the cutting speed and feed rate. The obtained groups show that cutting speed has more influence on the temperature than feedrate has.

  4. MECHANISMS OF CUTTING BLADE WEAR AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CUTTING ABILITY OF THE TOOL DURING MACHINING OF SPECIAL ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased requirements for quality and shelf life of machined parts there is also a higher share of the use of material with specific properties that are identified by the term “superalloys”. These materials differ from common steels by mechanical and physical properties that cause their worse machinability. During machining of “superalloys” worse machinability has negative influence primarily on the amount of cutting edge wear, which shortens durability of the cutting tool. The goal of experimental activity shown in this contribution is to determine individual mechanisms of the cutting edge wear and their effects on the cutting ability during high speed machining of nickel superalloy. A specific exchangeable cutting insert made from cubic boric nitride was used for machining of the 625 material according to ASM 5666F. The criteria to evaluate cutting ability and durability of the cutting tool became selected parameters of surface integrity and quality of the machined surface.

  5. Influence of Cutting Parameters on Chatter and Tool Wear During End Milling of Stainless Steel Conducted on VMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M.N. AMIN, M. IMRAN AND M. ARIF

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels are a group of difficult to machine work materials. The difficulty in machining stainless steels is manifested in high contact length and stresses, formation of serrated chips and development of chatter resulting in high tool wear rates and poor machined surface finish. The paper focuses on the performance of TiN coated-carbide inserts in machining stainless steel specimens in end milling operation performed on vertical machining centre (VMC. The performance of the tool is evaluated from the point of view of its wear intensity, mechanism of failure and generation and effect of chatter on tool wear and vice versa. The investigations were aimed at determining the effect of cutting parameters, specifically cutting speed, feed and depth of cut, on chatter amplitude, tool wear rate, mechanism of tool wear and using these data and machined surface roughness values from previous work to come up with recommended values of cutting parameters for semi-finish and finish end milling operation of stainless steel work materials. For recording vibration signals a dual channel portable signal analyzers was used and the signals were analyzed using Pulse Multi-analyzer version 4.2 software. Tool wear was measured using an optical microscope with digital readout capabilities along 3 axes. The tool wear mechanisms were studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results of the investigation show that acceleration amplitudes generally increase with cutting speed and the magnitude of tool flank wears. It has been also found that an increase in feed and depth of cut leads to higher acceleration amplitudes. The most common wear mechanisms observed during machining of stainless steel are attrition, micro and macro chipping of the tool at lower cutting speeds, and diffusion and mechanical failures due to intensive chatter at higher speeds. It has been also established that stable cutting speeds with relatively low tool wear intensity and

  6. The role of PECVD hard coatings on the performance of industrial tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Zarchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the application of hard coatings, which are well knownfor cutting tools, are to a much lesser extent explored for casting, extrusion, molding and forming tools. Increasing the lifetime of these tools is an important task in surface engineering because of complex loading conditionsand often complicated tool geometry. The plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique is well suited to deposit hard coatings onto large dies and moulds. The aim of this study was to discuss deposition processes suitable for coating of the often large three-dimensional molds and dies used in metal forming. Furthermore, results obtained using different hard coatings in industrial applications for several case studies like aluminum pressure die-casting; plastics injection molding and sheet metal forming are presented and discussed. For best coating performance, a careful optimization of both substrate pretreatment and coating deposition is necessary. The plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique shows advantages for these applications because of the high flexibility in pre-treatment using chemical etching and plasma-nitriding, because of its ability to coat large complexly shaped tools and because of the possibility of deposition of low-chlorine containing low-friction coatings.

  7. Alginate- and gellan-based edible films for probiotic coatings on fresh-cut fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, M S; Rojas-Graü, M A; Rodríguez, F J; Ramírez, J; Carmona, A; Martin-Belloso, O

    2007-05-01

    Alginate- (2% w/v) or gellan-based (0.5%) edible films, containing glycerol (0.6% to 2.0%), N-acetylcysteine (1%), and/or ascorbic acid (1%) and citric acid (1%), were formulated and used to coat fresh-cut apple and papaya cylinders. Water vapor permeability (WVP) was significantly higher (P fresh-cut fruits. Fresh-cut apple and papaya cylinders were successfully coated with 2% (w/v) alginate or gellan film-forming solutions containing viable bifidobacteria. WVP in alginate (6.31 and 5.52 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) or gellan (3.65 and 4.89 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) probiotic coatings of papaya and apple, respectively, were higher than in the corresponding cast films. The gellan coatings and films exhibited better water vapor properties in comparison with the alginate coatings. Values > 10(6) CFU/g B. lactis Bb-12 were maintained for 10 d during refrigerated storage of fresh-cut fruits, demonstrating the feasibility of alginate- and gellan-based edible coatings to carry and support viable probiotics on fresh-cut fruit.

  8. Using internally cooled cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials based on Waspaloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Isik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys such as Waspaloy are used for engine components and in the nuclear industry, where considerable strength and corrosion resistance at high operating temperatures are called for. These characteristics of such alloys cause increases in cutting temperature and resultant tool damage, even at low cutting speeds and low feed rates. Thus, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials. This article presents a cooling method to be used in metal cutting based on a tool holder with a closed internal cooling system with cooling fluid circulating inside. Hence, a green cooling method that does not harm the environment and is efficient in removing heat from the cutting zone was developed. A series of cutting experiments were conducted to investigate the practicality and effectiveness of the internally cooled tool model. The developed system achieved up to 13% better surface quality than with dry machining, and tool life was extended by 12%. The results clearly showed that with the reduced cutting temperature of the internal cooling, it was possible to control the temperature and thus prevent reaching the critical cutting temperature during the turning process, which is vitally important in extending tool life during the processing of Waspaloy.

  9. Development of (Ti, Al)N coated cBN tool for ADI machining; ADI zai kakoyo (Ti, Al) N coated cBN kogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Kato, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Goto, M. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-06-25

    Concerning cBN tools used for machining austempered ductile cast iron (ADI), the effects of difference in the strength of cBN particles themselves on tool life and the tool life extending effects of a (Ti, Al)N coating formed on the tool surface are discussed. In the experiment, three kinds of tool materials, which are C60-F, C60-M, and C60-T, are prepared, which contain 60vol% cBN particles different in strength. The flank abrasion inhibiting effect of the coating is also studied. In this study, C60c and C20c tools are tested, built of parent materials containing 20% 1{mu}m T particles and 60% 3{mu}m T particles and coated by (Ti, Al)N. Some of the conclusions reached are outlined below. The strength of cBN particles present in the specimens exerts virtually no influence on the improvement of flank abrasion characteristics. In a tool provided with a (Ti, Al)N coating, some of the (Ti, Al)N coating is retained between the cutting face near the cutting edge and the flank lower edge, and this suppresses the progress of flank abrasion. A tool provided with a (Ti, Al)N coating has a life which is more than three times the life of uncoated cBN tools. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  11. Effects of tool flank wear on orthogonal cutting process of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Ping; KE Ying-lin

    2006-01-01

    The tool flank begins to wear out as soon as cutting process proceeds. Cutting parameters such as cutting forces and cutting temperature will vary with increasing degree of flank wear. In order to reveal the relationship between them, the theoretical situations of cutting process were analyzed considering the tool flank wear effect. The variation rules of cutting force, residual stress and temperature distributions along with the tool flank wear were analyzed comparing with the sharp tool tip. Through FEM simulation method, affections of the tool flank wear value VB on cutting forces, residual stress and temperature distributions were analyzed. A special result in this simulation is that the thrust force is more sensitive to tool flank wear, which can be used as a recognition method of tool condition monitoring. The FEM simulation analysis result agrees well with the experimental measuring data in public literatures and some experiments made also by the authors.

  12. Explanation of the Wear Behaviour of NCD Coated Carbide Tools Facilitated by Appropriate Methods for Assessing the Coating Adhesion Deterioration at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-D. Bouzakis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the temperature dependent interface fatigue strength of Nano-Crystalline Diamond (NCD coatings facilitates a thorough understanding of the NCD coated cutting tools wear mechanisms. In the present paper, the fatigue strength of the interface region between a NCD film and its hardmetal substrate was investigated by inclined impact tests at various temperatures. Depending upon the impact load and the applied temperature, after a certain number of impacts, damages in the film-substrate interface develop, resulting in coating detachment and lifting. These effects were attributed among others to the release of highly compressive residual stresses in the NCD coating structure. The attained inclined impact test’s results contributed to the explanation of the wear-evolution of NCD-coated tools with diverse film-substrate adhesion qualities. The related milling experiments using as work material AA 7075 T6 verified the dominant effect of the film adhesion on the NCD coated tool life.

  13. Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.

    2016-07-01

    The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

  14. Finite Element Simulations of Micro Turning of Ti-6Al-4V using PCD and Coated Carbide tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadesh, Thangavel; Samuel, G. L.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for manufacturing axi-symmetric Ti-6Al-4V implants is increasing in biomedical applications and it involves micro turning process. To understand the micro turning process, in this work, a 3D finite element model has been developed for predicting the tool chip interface temperature, cutting, thrust and axial forces. Strain gradient effect has been included in the Johnson-Cook material model to represent the flow stress of the work material. To verify the simulation results, experiments have been conducted at four different feed rates and at three different cutting speeds. Since titanium alloy has low Young's modulus, spring back effect is predominant for higher edge radius coated carbide tool which leads to the increase in the forces. Whereas, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool has smaller edge radius that leads to lesser forces and decrease in tool chip interface temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Tool chip interface temperature increases by increasing the cutting speed, however the increase is less for PCD tool as compared to the coated carbide tool. When uncut chip thickness decreases, there is an increase in specific cutting energy due to material strengthening effects. Surface roughness is higher for coated carbide tool due to ploughing effect when compared with PCD tool. The average prediction error of finite element model for cutting and thrust forces are 11.45 and 14.87 % respectively.

  15. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  16. 刀具仿生技术的研究进展%Development of cutting tool bionic technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      仿生学可以为提高刀具的耐磨性和工作效率提供良好的借鉴思路。从形态仿生、构形仿生和材料仿生3个方面总结仿生技术在各类刀具设计中的应用,介绍各种仿生刀具的生物体原型、仿生特征以及仿生刀具的应用领域和效果。刀具的仿生设计涉及刀具的几何形状、涂层以及刀具的表面结构,刀具的应用领域包括机械加工、地质与空间勘探以及与人们生活相关的轻工机械等领域。讨论仿生刀具的特征,分析存在的问题,并展望了刀具仿生技术的研究方向。%Bionics can provide better design thoughts to improve wear resistance and cutting efficiency of cutting tool. The applications of bionic technology in the design of various types of cutting tool are summarized from three aspects of structure, form and material. The biological prototype,bionic characteristics,application area and effect of bionic cutting tools are introduced. The bionic designs of cutting tools involve tool geometry,coating and surface structure. The application fields of bionic tools concern with machining,geology,space exploration and light industry machinery associated with daily life. Finally, the characteristics of bionic tools are discussed. The existing problems and development trend of cutting tool bionic technology are also given.

  17. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition.

  18. THE IMPACT OF AREA AND SHAPE OF TOOL CUT ON CHAIN SAW PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Korman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cutting design of the chain saw is defined by the number, the arrangement and the geometry of the cutting tools. When using chisel cutting tools, the cross sectional area of the cut and the shape of the groove are determined by the width and depth of the cut. The laboratory tests analyzed the impact of the cross sectional area and the shape of the cut on the forces and the specific energy. The testing was performed on a linear cutting machine with tool holders and cutting tools in real-scale size. According to the processed statistical data, increasing the cross sectional area of the cut reduces the specific energy, whereby the width of the cut has a considerably larger impact. The tests have shown that besides the cross sectional area of cut, the shape of the surface also affects the forces and specific energy. Through increasing the width to depth ratio upon a constant cross sectional area of the cut, the value of the specific energy and the cutting forces are reduced. Above the width to depth ratio of 2.5 the cutting forces and the specific energy appear to be constant.

  19. Performance of PVD-Coated Carbide Tools When Turning Inconel 718 in Dry Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusri Akhyar Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 has found its niche in many industries, owing to its unique properties such as high oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance even at very high temperatures. Coated carbide tool with hard layer of PVD TiAlN is used to turn Inconel 718. Taguchi method with the orthogonal array L9 is applied in this experiment with the parameter cutting speed of 60–80 m/min, feed rate of 0.2–0.3 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3–0.5 mm. The results show that depth of cut is a significant influence to the tool life. Cutting speed of 60 m/min, feed rate of 0.2 mm/rev, and depth of cut of 0.3 mm are the optimum parameters. The flank wear, crater wear, notch wear, and nose wear are the wear mechanisms on the carbide tool. Through the SEM, abrasion, attrition, and adhesion are the wear mechanisms which can be seen on the cutting tool.

  20. Development of remote pipe cutting tool for divertor cassettes in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takao, E-mail: hayashi.takao@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, Shinji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Sakasai, Akira

    2014-10-15

    Remote pipe cutting tool accessing from inside pipe has been newly developed for JT-60SA. The tool head equips a disk-shaped cutter blade and four rollers which are subjected to the reaction force. The tool pushes out the cutter blade by decreasing the distance between two cams. The tool cuts a cooling pipe by both pushing out the cutter blade and rotating the tool head itself. The roller holder is not pushed out anymore after touching the inner wall of the pipe. In other words, only cutter blade is pushed out after bringing the tool axis into the pipe axis. Outer diameter of the cutting tool head is 44 mm. The cutting tool is able to push out the cutter blade up to 32.5 mm in radius, i.e. 65 mm in diameter, which is enough to cut the pipe having an outer diameter of 59.8 mm. The thickness and material of the cooling pipe are 2.8 mm and SUS316L, respectively. The length of the cutting tool head is about 1 m. The tool is able to cut a pipe locates about 480 mm in depth from the mounting surface on the divertor cassette. The pipe cutting system equips two cutting heads and they are able to cut two pipes at the same time in order to remove the inner target plate. Reproducibility of the cross-sectional shape of the cut pipe is required for re-welding. The degree of reproducibility is inside 0.1 mm except for burr at outside of the pipe, which is enough to re-weld the cut pipe. Some swarf is generated during cutting the double-layered pipe assuming a plug located on the top of the pipe. The swarf is deposited on the bottom of the plug and collected by pulling out the plug in the actual equipment.

  1. Effect of Boron-Doped Diamond Interlayer on Cutting Performance of Diamond Coated Micro Drills for Graphite Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin boron doped diamond (BDD film is deposited from trimethyl borate/acetone/hydrogen mixture on Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co micro drills by using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. The boron peak on Raman spectrum confirms the boron incorporation in diamond film. This film is used as an interlayer for subsequent CVD of micro-crystalline diamond (MCD film. The Rockwell indentation test shows that boron doping could effectively improve the adhesive strength on substrate of as deposited thin diamond films. Dry drilling of graphite is chosen to check the multilayer (BDD + MCD film performance. For the sake of comparison, machining tests are also carried out under identical conditions using BDD and MCD coated micro drills with no interlayer. The wear mechanism of the tools has been identified and correlated with the criterion used to evaluate the tool life. The results show that the multilayer (BDD + MCD coated micro drill exhibits the longest tool life. Therefore, thin BDD interlayer is proved to be a new viable alternative and a suitable option for adherent diamond coatings on micro cutting tools.

  2. Influence of Hard Tool Coatings on Process of Stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajec, Bostjan; Podgornik, Bojan; Bay, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    materials and possible hard coatings as alternative tool materials. For this purpose the blanking/punching process was first analyzed by a numerical model and based on the results four different tool materials and three hard coatings were included in the investigation and tested in a model test rig as well......Blanking/punching is a process which enables mass production of very demanding products, such as lamellas for electrical engines, generators and similar devices. Tool wear in the blanking/punching process has large influence on the product surface quality as well as on tool life. Improvement...... of tool life can be achieved by proper selection of tool materials and possible coatings. In mass production the tools are usually made of WC, which however, results in expensive tools and long time of delivery. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of different tool...

  3. Antimicrobial and aromatic edible coating on fresh-cut pineapple preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Gabri Bitencourt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to develop an edible coating incorporated with mint essential oil, evaluate its effectiveness in inhibiting in vitro microbial development, and improve both quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut pineapple. Mint essential oil-containing edible coatings showed in vitro antimicrobial efficiency against Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis. Titratable acidity, pH, and texture were not affected (P>0.05 by coating or storage time. Mass loss was not higher than 1.0% after the 6th day of storage. No effect of storage time and coating on total soluble solids was observed. Mint essential oil-containing coatings inhibited the growth of yeasts and molds in fresh-cut pineapple. Compared to uncoated and control-coated samples, mint essential oil-containing coatings lessened psychrotrophic bacteria counts throughout storage. Counts of thermotolerant coliforms were not higher than 3.0MPN·g-1 in all treatments, whereas no Salmonella sp. was detected during the 6-day storage. Mint essential oil provided a strong flavor to the fruit, as shown by sensory evaluations.

  4. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh cut mango quality in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings prevent moisture loss and may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor of fresh-cut fruit. Previous experiments showed that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with added maltodextrin maintained visual quality of stored mango slices also treated with calcium ascorbate an...

  5. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh-cut mango quality in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotto, Anne; Narciso, Jan A; Rattanapanone, Nithiya; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Edible coatings may extend fresh-cut fruit storage by preventing moisture loss and decreasing gas exchange. This study evaluated the effect of an antibrowning dip (calcium ascorbate, citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine), followed or not with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or carrageenan coatings on quality of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 °C for up to 20 days. A fourth treatment, only used in one of four experiments, consisted of chitosan. Treatments were applied on 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent' and 'Keitt' mangoes harvested from Homestead (FL), and on imported store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning dips maintained the best visual quality during storage for all cultivars, as indicated by higher b*, hue and L*. The CMC coating maintained similar visual quality, but carrageenan or chitosan decreased L* and b*. The antibrowning dip containing calcium ascorbate reduced firmness loss on cut pieces of 'Keitt', 'Kent' and store-bought mangoes. The antibrowning treatment maintained higher titratable acidity for 'Kent' and 'Keitt', resulting in lower sensory sweetness. This study with repeated experiments showed that calcium ascorbate with citric acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine maintained cut mango slices attractiveness in storage by keeping light color in both varieties. The addition of a polysaccharide coating did not consistently improve quality.

  6. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  7. Effects of Different Cutting Patterns and Experimental Conditions on the Performance of a Conical Drag Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Hanifi; Bilgin, Nuh; Balci, Cemal; Tumac, Deniz; Avunduk, Emre

    2017-06-01

    This study aims at determining the effects of single-, double-, and triple-spiral cutting patterns; the effects of tool cutting speeds on the experimental scale; and the effects of the method of yield estimation on cutting performance by performing a set of full-scale linear cutting tests with a conical cutting tool. The average and maximum normal, cutting and side forces; specific energy; yield; and coarseness index are measured and compared in each cutting pattern at a 25-mm line spacing, at varying depths of cut per revolution, and using two cutting speeds on five different rock samples. The results indicate that the optimum specific energy decreases by approximately 25% with an increasing number of spirals from the single- to the double-spiral cutting pattern for the hard rocks, whereas generally little effect was observed for the soft- and medium-strength rocks. The double-spiral cutting pattern appeared to be more effective than the single- or triple-spiral cutting pattern and had an advantage of lower side forces. The tool cutting speed had no apparent effect on the cutting performance. The estimation of the specific energy by the yield based on the theoretical swept area was not significantly different from that estimated by the yield based on the muck weighing, especially for the double- and triple-spiral cutting patterns and with the optimum ratio of line spacing to depth of cut per revolution. This study also demonstrated that the cutterhead and mechanical miner designs, semi-theoretical deterministic computer simulations and empirical performance predictions and optimization models should be based on realistic experimental simulations. Studies should be continued to obtain more reliable results by creating a larger database of laboratory tests and field performance records for mechanical miners using drag tools.

  8. The effect of micro/nano particle size on the thermal, tribological properties and the performances of coated composite tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkiew, Wasawat

    In metal cutting, selecting an appropriate cutting tool is a critical factor for obtaining a good surface integrity on the machined surface and achieving high efficiency of the process. Tribological and thermal properties such as coefficient of friction and thermal conductivity of the cutting tool are important in determining mechanical and thermal fields which contribute to both the surface integrity of the machined part and the efficiency of the process. In the case of coated composite tools, size of dispersed particulates is considered as an important factor in determining both tribological and thermal properties of the cutting tool. However, very few studies provide fundamental understanding of the relationships between the particulate size and other properties in composite tools. The main objective of this research is to develop a new scientific methodology of determining and analyzing important fundamental variables for high performance cutting tool design and optimization. The first part of this research investigates the effect of dispersed particulate sizes on thermal conductivity of coated composite tools. Then, a statistical model is used for determining a relationship of coefficient of friction as a function of thermal conductivity and surface roughness and hardness of the workpiece. Then, a fully coupled thermalstress finite element model of orthogonal cutting is constructed for doing sensitivity analysis of the effects of thermal conductivity and coefficient of friction on mechanical and thermal fields. Results show stress and temperature distributions as affected by different values of thermal conductivities and coefficients of frictions. The results also show residual stress at different depths on the machined surface, generated from cutting tools with different thermal conductivities and coefficients of frictions. Since tool life is a criterion for evaluating a cutting tool's performance, a statistical model is developed for determining the

  9. Quantification of properties modification and cutting performance of (Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x})N coatings at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzakis, K.-D.; Vidakis, N.; Michailidis, N. [Aristoteles Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. for Machine Tools and Manuf. Eng.; Leyendecker, T.; Erkens, G.; Fuss, G. [CemeCon GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Thin, hard, titanium- and aluminium-derived nitride coatings are usually operated at elevated temperatures. Typical examples are coated tools, applied in manufacturing especially at high cutting speeds. The operation of coatings in high-temperature environments may modify their composition and their structure, and may negatively affect, among others, their bulk mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, hardness, fatigue strength, etc. This paper presents a quantitative study of such phenomena, based on experimental data, derived by the application of the indentation and impact tests, as well as cutting experiments with as-deposited and artificially oxidized coatings. To carry out these tasks, special experimental test rigs have been developed and SEM and EDX investigations have been conducted. Moreover, FEM models were established to support the evaluation of the experimental investigations. By means of the aforementioned procedures, a comprehensive study of the influence of hard metal (HM) insert coating specifications on the deterioration of their cutting performance was incorporated. Thereby, the effects of the film properties, of their oxidation mechanisms as well as of the mechanical stresses occurring during the cutting processes on the entire film wear behaviour in milling operations were investigated. (orig.)

  10. EVALUATION OF THE ROCKWELL ’C’ 70 HIGH SPEED STEEL CUTTING TOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOOL STEEL, CUTTING TOOLS , HARDNESS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS, VANADIUM ALLOYS, HOT WORKING, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), MACHINING, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), WEAR RESISTANCE, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS.

  11. Inexpensive, removable coating for plaster tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimino, J. M.; Martin, R. R.

    1970-01-01

    Procedure for thinning and spaying a vinyl material provides strippable film for plaster surfaces. Coating is low-cost, effective seal against moisture and other sources of damage. Coating consists of a mixture of hot-spray vinyl material and 30 to 50 percent by volume of methyl ethyl ketone.

  12. Thick tool steel coatings with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2007-01-01

    This paper concentrates on thick and crack-free laser clad coatings (up to 3 mm). The coating material is a chromium-molybdenum-tungsten-vanadium alloyed high-speed steel that shows high wear resistance, high compressive strength, good toughness, very good dimensional stability on heat treatment and

  13. Thick tool steel coatings with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2007-01-01

    This paper concentrates on thick and crack-free laser clad coatings (up to 3 mm). The coating material is a chromium-molybdenum-tungsten-vanadium alloyed high-speed steel that shows high wear resistance, high compressive strength, good toughness, very good dimensional stability on heat treatment and

  14. Application of hard coatings for blanking and piercing tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the possibility of reducing lubrication and replacing expensive tungsten carbide material in blanking/piercing through introduction of hard tool coatings. Results show that hard PVD coatings can be successfully used in blanking/piercing...... critical value under dry friction conditions and leads to tool failure. Therefore, at present oxidation and temperature resistant hard coatings can give improved wear resistance of stamping tools, but elimination of lubricants in blanking and piercing processes is still not feasible....

  15. Communication research between working capacity of hard- alloy cutting tools and fractal dimension of their wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, K.; Nesterenko, V.; Daneykina, N.

    2016-06-01

    The results of communication research between the wear resistance of the K applicability hard-alloy cutting tools and the fractal dimension of the wear surface, which is formed on a back side of the cutting edge when processing the materials showing high adhesive activity are presented in the paper. It has been established that the wear resistance of tested cutting tools samples increases according to a fractal dimension increase of their wear surface.

  16. Development of Software for Analyzing Breakage Cutting ToolsBased on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦玲; 刘献礼; 王鹏; 王波; 王红运

    2004-01-01

    As the present day digital microsystems do not provide specialized microscopes that can detect cutting-tool, analysis software has been developed using VC++. A module for verge test and image segmentation is designed specifically for cutting-tools. Known calibration relations and given postulates are used in scale measurements. Practical operations show that the software can perform accurate detection.

  17. Mechanism Study on the Wear of CrAlTiN Coated High-Speed Steel Twist Drills Under Dry Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ji-ming; LI Yan; WU Yu-sheng; BAI Li-jing; LI Ze-rong

    2004-01-01

    As demands about environment protection are growing up, dry cutting technology is getting more and more concerns from all over the world. Main works performed here are study on dry cutting performances and wear mechanisms of M2high-speed steel (HSS) twist drills with CrAlTiN multicomponent coatings, which was deposited using magnetron sputter ion plating system, in drilling 45 and 30CrMnSiA steel, and their comparisons to those in drilling the same steel but using monolayer CrN and commercial TiN coated drills. Drilling performances of drills are evaluated mainly through the measurements of width on outer corner flank land and the cutting forces. Results show that performances of CrAlTiN coated drills are better than those of monolayer CrN and TiN coated drills. In drilling 45 and 30CrMnSiA steel, the average tool life of the CrAlTiN coated drills are 17.2 and 11.8 times higher than those of the uncoated drills. Observing wear of the drill with scanning electronic microscope, results show that there is no crack or spallation of the CrAlTiN coatings in wear zones. Main mechanism of the wear here is adhesion.

  18. Self-lubricious tool coatings for ecological metal cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeswinkel, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal oxide Magneli phases are traditionally described as crystallographic shear structures. Some of these phases feature a layered crystal structure based on deformed metal-oxygen octahedra. Here, the correlation between structure, decohesion energies and elastic properties of several transition metal oxides is described using ab initio calculations. First, seven different vanadium oxides VO{sub x} (1 {<=} x {<=} 2.5) have been investigated. The C{sub 44} values for V{sub 6}O{sub 13}, V{sub 4}O{sub 9}, V{sub 3}O{sub 7} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} are significantly lower than those for V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and VO{sub 2}. This is consistent with calculated decohesion energies for cleavage in VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. When cleaving V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, decohesion energies are considerably lower than those of VO{sub 2}. This behaviour may be understood based on V valency induced changes in the crystal and electronic structure as well as in the chemical bonding. As the V valency is increased, the bond strength decreases. The phases with a V valency >4 exhibit low C{sub 44} values, large anisotropy and possess weak ionic bonding between the layers. The formation of easily plastically deformable structures is enabled by the screened Coulomb potential. The largest distance and therefore weakest bond strength is observed for V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the (002) plane. Studies have then been extended to WO{sub 3}, ReO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 2}, VO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2}, showing that the decohesion energies and elastic constants C{sub 44} are inversely proportional to the original distance between the cleaved layers and correspond to the screened Coulomb potential. This can be understood based on the electronic structure. The bond strength decreases rapidly as the distance is increased, resulting in weak coupling between the layers which in turn causes the formation of easily plastically deformable structures, for instance WO{sub 3} or V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The fact that structures such as WO{sub 3} can also be described by the above-presented correlations provides the basis for quantum mechanical guided design of Magneli phase structured solid lubricants, based on tailoring the layer distance by varying the chemical composition. A combinatorial method was employed to grow TiAlN-WN{sub x} films by DC sputtering as well as by High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS) where the W concentration was varied between 10 to 52 at.% and 7 to 54 at.%, respectively. Experiments were paired with ab initio calculations to investigate the correlation between composition, structure and mechanical properties. As the W concentration was increased, the lattice parameter of cubic TiAlN-WN{sub x} films first increased and then decreased for W concentrations above {approx}29 at.% (DCMS) and {approx}27 at.% (HPPMS) as the N concentration decreased. Calculations helped to attribute the increase to the substitution of Ti and Al by W and the decrease to the presence of N vacancies. Young's modulus and hardness were around 385 to 400 GPa and 29 to 31 GPa for DCMS and 430 to 480 GPa and 34 to 38 GPa for HPPMS, respectively, showing no significant trend as the W concentration was increased, whereas calculations showed a continuous decrease in Young's modulus from 440 to 325 GPa as the W concentration was increased from 0 to 37.5 at.%. The presence of N vacancies was shown to increase the calculated Young's modulus. Hence, the relatively constant values measured may be understood based on N vacancy formation as the W concentration was increased. HPPMS-deposited films exceeded DCMS films in Young's modulus and hardness, which may be a consequence of the larger degree of ionisation in the HPPMS plasma. It is reasonable to assume that especially the ionised film forming species may contribute towards film densification and N vacancy formation.

  19. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, Jiri [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345E, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Taboryski, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.taboryski@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345E, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present novel and highly useful results on FDTS monolayer coating of aluminum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating is particularly applicable for coating of prototyping injection molding tools, which often are made of Al. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have demonstrated that the coating prevails in injection molding conditions and that the coating will prevent wear of the tools. - Abstract: We have characterized perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) molecular coating of aluminum molds for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energies and roughness data have been collected. Samples have been characterized immediately after coating, after more than 500 IM cycles to test durability, and after 7 months to test temporal stability. The coating was deposited in an affordable process, involving near room temperature gas phase reactions. XPS shows detectable fluorine presence on both freshly coated samples as well as on post-IM samples with estimated 30 at.% on freshly coated and 28 at.% on post-IM samples with more than 500 IM cycles with polystyrene (PS) and ABS polymer.

  20. Decrease of FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool used in nano cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Zongwei, E-mail: zongweixu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fang, Fengzhou, E-mail: fzfang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Bing; Xiao, Yinjing; Chen, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Xibin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Hongzhong [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We mainly aim to characterize and decrease the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • Raman and XPS methods were used to characterize the nanoscale FIB-induced damage. • Lower energy FIB can effectively lessen the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • The diamond tools’ performance was greatly improved after FIB process optimization. • 6 nm chip thickness of copper was achieved by diamond tool with 22 nm edge radius. - Abstract: Diamond cutting tools with nanometric edge radius used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) technology. However, due to the nanoscale effects, the diamond tools performance and the cutting edge lifetime in nano cutting would be degraded because of the FIB-induced nanoscale lateral damage. In this study, the methods of how to effectively characterize and decrease the FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool are intensively studied. Based on the performance optimization diamond machining tools, the controllable chip thickness of less than 10 nm was achieved on a single-crystal copper in nano cutting. In addition, the ratio of minimum thickness of chip (MTC) to tool edge radius of around 0.3–0.4 in nano cutting is achieved. Methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools and adding coolant during the nano cutting are very beneficial in improving the research of nano cutting and MTC. The nano cutting experiments based on the sharp and high performance of diamond tools would validate the nano cutting mechanisms that many molecular dynamic simulation studies have put forward and provide new findings for nano cutting.

  1. Parametric optimization during machining of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel using CVD coated DURATOMIC cutting insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaladhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Taguchi method is applied to determine the optimum process parameters for turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel on CNC lathe. A Chemical vapour deposition (CVD coated cemented carbide cutting insert is used which is produced by DuratomicTM technology of 0.4 and 0.8 mm nose radii. The tests are conducted at four levels of Cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. The influence of these parameters are investigated on the surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR. The Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA is also used to analyze the influence of cutting parameters during machining. The results revealed that cutting speed significantly (46.05% affected the machined surface roughness values followed by nose radius (23.7%. The influence of the depth of cut (61.31% in affecting material removal rate (MRR is significantly large. The cutting speed (20.40% is the next significant factor. Optimal range and optimal level of parameters are also predicted for responses.

  2. SOFTWARE TOOL FOR LASER CUTTING PROCESS CONTROL – SOLVING REAL INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting is one of the leading non-conventional machining technologies with a wide spectrum of application in modern industry. It order to exploit a number of advantages that this technology offers for contour cutting of materials, it is necessary to carefully select laser cutting conditions for each given workpiece material, thickness and desired cut qualities. In other words, there is a need for process control of laser cutting. After a comprehensive analysis of the main laser cutting parameters and process performance characteristics, the application of the developed software tool “BRUTOMIZER” for off-line control of CO2 laser cutting process of three different workpiece materials (mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum is illustrated. Advantages and abilities of the developed software tool are also illustrated.

  3. Forces in Hard Turning of 51CrV4 with Wiper Cutting Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xinfeng; WU Su; Hubert Kratz

    2006-01-01

    For precision machining, the hard turning process is becoming an important alternative to some of the existing grinding processes. This paper presents an analytical model for predicting cutting forces in hard turning of 51CrV4 with hardness of 68 HRC. The cutting tool used is made from cubic boron nitride (CBN) with a wiper cutting edge. Formulas for differential chip loads are derived for three different situations, depending on the radial depth of cut. The cutting forces are determined by integrating the differential cutting forces over the tool-workpiece engagement domain. For validation, cutting forces predicted by the model were compared with experimental measurements, and most of the results agree quite well.

  4. Producing Fe-W-Co-Cr-C Alloy Cutting Tool Material Through Powder Metallurgy Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Bibhas; Dutta, Debasish; Ray, Siddhartha

    2016-06-01

    High speed steel tools can withstand high impact forces as they are tough in nature. But they cannot retain their hardness at elevated temperature i.e. their hot hardness is low. Therefore permissible cutting speed is low and tools wear out easily. Use of lubricants is essential for HSS cutting tools. On the other hand cemented carbide tools can withstand greater compressive force, but due to lower toughness the tool can break easily. Moreover the cost of the tool is comparatively high. To achieve a better machining economy, Fe-W-Co-Cr-C alloys are being used nowadays. Their toughness is as good as HSS tools and hardness is very near to carbide tools. Even, at moderate cutting speeds they can be safely used in old machines having vibration. Moreover it is much cheaper than carbide tools. This paper highlights the Manufacturing Technology of the alloy and studies the comparative tribological properties of the alloy and tungsten mono carbide.

  5. Development of Cutting Tool Through Superplastic Boronizing of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Iswadi; Harun, Sunita; Jamlus, Siti Aida; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a cutting tool is developed from duplex stainless steel (DSS) using the superplastic boronizing technique. The feasibility of the development process is studied, and the cutting performances of the cutting tool are evaluated and compared with commercially available carbide and high-speed steel (HSS) tools. The superplastically boronized (SPB) cutting tool yielded a dense boronized layer of 50.5 µm with a surface hardness of 3956 HV. A coefficient of friction value of 0.62 is obtained, which is lower than 1.02 and 0.8 of the carbide and HSS tools. When tested on an aluminum 6061 surface under dry condition, the SPB cutting tool is also able to produce turning finishing below 0.4 µm, beyond the travel distance of 3000 m, which is comparable to the carbide tool, but produces much better results than HSS tool. Through superplastic boronizing of DSS, it is possible to produce a high-quality metal-based cutting tool that is comparable to the conventional carbide tool.

  6. Development of Cutting Tool Through Superplastic Boronizing of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Iswadi; Harun, Sunita; Jamlus, Siti Aida; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a cutting tool is developed from duplex stainless steel (DSS) using the superplastic boronizing technique. The feasibility of the development process is studied, and the cutting performances of the cutting tool are evaluated and compared with commercially available carbide and high-speed steel (HSS) tools. The superplastically boronized (SPB) cutting tool yielded a dense boronized layer of 50.5 µm with a surface hardness of 3956 HV. A coefficient of friction value of 0.62 is obtained, which is lower than 1.02 and 0.8 of the carbide and HSS tools. When tested on an aluminum 6061 surface under dry condition, the SPB cutting tool is also able to produce turning finishing below 0.4 µm, beyond the travel distance of 3000 m, which is comparable to the carbide tool, but produces much better results than HSS tool. Through superplastic boronizing of DSS, it is possible to produce a high-quality metal-based cutting tool that is comparable to the conventional carbide tool.

  7. Biodegradable packaging and edible coating for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Galgano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on biodegradable packaging and edible coatings applied to fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and their effects on the product quality. Practical applications are mainly limited to the use of biodegradable materials that, however, do not allow full control of the product moisture loss. Better results can be achieved by the combined use of biodegradable packagings with edible coatings and recent research has shown that enrichment with silver montmorillonite nanoparticles may be a promising technique. However, the actual utilization of these materials is still limited, due to the high costs of the raw materials and the limited production.

  8. NC flame pipe cutting machine tool based on open architecture CNC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogen NIE; Yanbing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the principle and flame movement of a pipe cutting machine tool, a retrofit NC flame pipe cutting machine tool (NFPCM) that can meet the demands of cutting various pipes is proposed. The paper deals with the design and implementation of an open architecture CNC system for the NFPCM, many of whose aspects are similar to milling machines; however, different from their machining processes and control strategies. The paper emphasizes on the NC system structure and the method for directly creating the NC file according to the cutting type and parameters. Further, the paper develops the program and sets up the open and module NC system.

  9. Edible coatings enriched with essential oils and their compounds for fresh and fresh-cut fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Maria D; Gago, Custodia M; Cavaco, Ana M; Miguel, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables consumption has increased in the past few years due to the enhanced awareness of consumers for healthy food. However, these products are highly perishable, and losses can be of great significance if postharvest correct management is not provided. Fresh-cut products are of increasing importance, since they are presented to the consumer in a state that allows for direct and immediate consumption. However, those products are even more perishable since cutting can induce a series of senescence associated responses to wounding, and are more susceptible to microbial spoilage. Edible coatings, which intend to reduce ripening processes and protect the fruit from water loss and spoilage may be a good way to enhance the shelf life of these products. More recently, the inclusion of additives into these edible coatings to increase their effectiveness, such as essential oils and their constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, has been reported and patented.

  10. Ultrasonic excitation affects friction interactions between food materials and cutting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Schindler, Claudia; Rohm, Harald

    2009-06-01

    In the food industry, ultrasonic cutting is used to improve separation by a reduction of the cutting force. This reduction can be attributed to the modification of tool-workpiece interactions at the cutting edge and along the tool flanks because of the superposition of the cutting movement with ultrasonic vibration of the cutting tool. In this study, model experiments were used to analyze friction between the flanks of a cutting tool and the material to be cut. Friction force at a commercial cutting sonotrode was quantified using combined cutting-friction experiments, and sliding friction tests were carried out by adapting a standard draw-off assembly and using an ultrasonic welding sonotrode as sliding surface. The impact of material parameters, ultrasonic amplitude, and the texture of the contacting food surface on friction force was investigated. The results show that ultrasonic vibration significantly reduces the sliding friction force. While the amplitude showed no influence within the tested range, the texture of the contact surface of the food affects the intensity of ultrasonic transportation effects. These effects are a result of mechanical interactions and of changes in material properties of the contact layer, which are induced by the deformation of contact points, friction heating and absorption heating because of the dissipation of mechanical vibration energy.

  11. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  12. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one......The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...

  13. The generalized mathematical model of the failure of the cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, N. I.; Antsev, A. V.; Antseva, N. V.; Fyodorov, V. P.

    2017-02-01

    We offer a mathematical model which takes into account the following factors: the spread of the cutting properties of the tool, parameters spread of gear blanks and consideration of the factor of a possible fracture of the cutting wedge tool. The reliability function, taking into account the above-mentioned factors, has five parameters for which assessment we propose a method according to our experience. A numerical illustration of the method is shown in the article. We suggest using the model in the optimization mode of the cutting tool preventive measures.

  14. LASER CUTTING AS AN INNOVATIVE CREATIVITY TOOL IN TEXTILE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Hatice Gurcum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have become the most widespread rapid and flexible technique of cutting, welding, printing and coloring in fashion and textile sectors in a very short time. Laser systems as the most common used innovative technology engrave, cut, form, print, shade appropriated formatted drawings and sketches as well as they provide reliable placements for the lay out plans and precision cutting and the production sector rapid and qualified. The practical applications and conveniences that innovative Technologies employ, influence design process, designers can design in a more creative, rapid, precise and effective manner. Although design is a context where technology is effective, the style, mood and the background of the designer is still important. Designers while making innovative studies should take the advantage of the developing technologies in experimental processes and should combine technological opportunities with aesthetics. Textile designer as in all other domains of design, should harmonise with the change and should define his/her style with the innovative Technologies in an innovative manner and renew him/herself all the time. This study aims to classify laser cutting technology applications available in textile and fashion sector as well as to present the laser technology as a means of process, product, material innovation and explains the contributions of laser systems to creativity.

  15. Influence of machining parameters on cutting tool life while machining aluminum alloy fly ash composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C. R. Prakash; chandra, Poorna; Kiran, R.; Asha, P. B.

    2016-09-01

    Metal matrix composites containing fly ash as reinforcement are primarily preferred because these materials possess lower density and higher strength to weight ratio. The metal matrix composites possess hetrogeneous microstructure which is due to the presence of hard ceramic particles. While turning composites, the catastrophic failure of cutting tools is attributed to the presence of hard particles. Selection of optimal cutting conditions for a given machining process and grade of cutting tools are of utmost importance to enhance the tool life during turning operation. Thus the research work was aimed at the experimental investigation of the cutting tool life while machining aluminum alloy composite containing 0-15% fly-ash. The experiments carried out following ISO3685 standards. The carbide inserts of grade K10 and style CGGN120304 were the turning tools. The cutting speed selected was between 200m/min to 500m/min in step of 100m/min, feed of 0.08 & 0.16 mm/revolution and constant depth of cut of 1.0 mm. The experimental results revealed that the performance of K10 grade carbide insert found better while machining composite containing 5% filler, at all cutting speeds and 0.08mm/revolution feed. The failures of carbide tools are mainly due to notch wear followed by built up edge and edge chipping.

  16. Effects of machining parameters on tool life and its optimization in turning mild steel with brazed carbide cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    One of the most significant factors in metal cutting is tool life. In this research work, the effects of machining parameters on tool under wet machining environment were studied. Tool life characteristics of brazed carbide cutting tool machined against mild steel and optimization of machining parameters based on Taguchi design of experiments were examined. The experiments were conducted using three factors, spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut each having three levels. Nine experiments were performed on a high speed semi-automatic precision central lathe. ANOVA was used to determine the level of importance of the machining parameters on tool life. The optimum machining parameter combination was obtained by the analysis of S/N ratio. A mathematical model based on multiple regression analysis was developed to predict the tool life. Taguchi's orthogonal array analysis revealed the optimal combination of parameters at lower levels of spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut which are 550 rpm, 0.2 mm/rev and 0.5mm respectively. The Main Effects plot reiterated the same. The variation of tool life with different process parameters has been plotted. Feed rate has the most significant effect on tool life followed by spindle speed and depth of cut.

  17. Hardening Effect on Machined Surface for Precise Hard Cutting Process with Consideration of Tool Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    During hard cutting process there is severe thermodynamic coupling effect between cutting tool and workpiece, which causes quenching effect on finished surfaces under certain conditions. However, material phase transformation mechanism of heat treatment in cutting process is different from the one in traditional process, which leads to changes of the formation mechanism of damaged layer on machined workpiece surface. This paper researches on the generation mechanism of damaged layer on machined surface in the process of PCBN tool hard cutting hardened steel Cr12MoV. Rules of temperature change on machined surface and subsurface are got by means of finite element simulation. In phase transformation temperature experiments rapid transformation instrument is employed, and the effect of quenching under cutting conditions on generation of damaged layer is revealed. Based on that, the phase transformation points of temperature under cutting conditions are determined. By experiment, the effects of cutting speed and tool wear on white layer thickness in damaged layer are revealed. The temperature distribution law of third deformation zone is got by establishing the numerical prediction model, and thickness of white layer in damaged layer is predicted, taking the tool wear effect into consideration. The experimental results show that the model prediction is accurate, and the establishment of prediction model provides a reference for wise selection of parameters in precise hard cutting process. For the machining process with high demanding on surface integrity, the generation of damaged layer on machined surface can be controlled precisely by using the prediction model.

  18. Effect of Cutting Parameters on Microhardness in 2 mm Slot Milling Hardened Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dependency of surface integrity on cutting parameters in slot milling of hardened tool steel. A series of 2 mm slot milling tests have been performed with different cutting parameters. Microhardness was chosen for evaluation of subsurface integrity...

  19. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a traumatic experience, such as living through abuse , violence, or a disaster. Self-injury may feel like ... embarrassed." Sometimes self-injury affects a person's body image. Jen says, "I actually liked how the cuts ...

  20. Increasing of tool resistance to high-speed machining by cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ One of the most popular task of modern science of materials is searching of the such structural states that provide a high level of design strength, including wear resistance, thermal resistance and impact elasticity for cutting tool.

  1. Increasing of tool resistance to high-speed machining by cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chernobay; Sergey; P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most popular task of modern science of materials is searching of the such structural states that provide a high level of design strength, including wear resistance, thermal resistance and impact elasticity for cutting tool.……

  2. Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2009-01-01

    . In this work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction......For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth...... of the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...

  3. [Present-day metal-cutting tools and working conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, V P

    1990-01-01

    Polyfunctional machine-tools of a processing centre type are characterized by a set of hygienic advantages as compared to universal machine-tools. But low degree of mechanization and automation of some auxiliary processes, and constructional defects which decrease the ergonomic characteristics of the tools, involve labour intensity in multi-machine processing. The article specifies techniques of allowable noise level assessment, and proposes hygienic recommendations, some of which have been introduced into practice.

  4. Coating-substrate-simulations applied to HFQ® forming tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis of coating-substrate simulations applied to HFQTM forming tools is presented. When using the solution heat treatment cold die forming and quenching process, known as HFQTM, for forming of hardened aluminium alloy of automotive panel parts, coating-substrate-systems have to satisfy unique requirements. Numerical experiments, based on the Advanced Adaptive FE method, will finally present.

  5. Cutting-tool Engineering and Localization%刀具技术与国产化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扶民; 孙韶辉; 胡长锁; 洪冰

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the structure features of advanced cutting-tools in foreign, and investigates development direction and focus of domestic-made cutting-tool.%分析国外先进刀具结构特点,结合国内刀具现状,探讨刀具国产化发展方向及发展重点。

  6. About a Routing Problem of the Tool Motion on Sheet Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Petunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the routing problem of tool permutations under the thermal cutting of parts from sheet material realized on CNC machines, questions connected with constructing precise (optimal and heuristic algorithms used on the stage of mathematical simulation of route elements under sequential megalopolises circuit are investigated. Cutting points and points of tool cut-off are items (cities of the above-mentioned megalopolises. In each megalopolis, interior works are provided. These works are connected with motion to the equidistant curve of the cut contour of a part from the cutting point and (with cutting completed with motion from the equidistant curve to the tool cut-off (we keep in mind a working run. The problem about the time-optimal process of cutting which is a special variant of the generalized courier problem is investigated (the problem of the routing on the megalopolises with precedence conditions. An optimal procedure based on the dynamic programming and an effective heuristic algorithm realized on a multicore computer are proposed. A dynamic programming based procedure uses a special extension of the main problem. This extension provides the replacement of admissibility by precedence with the admissibility by deletion (from the list of tasks. Precedence conditions are used for decreasing computational complexity: it excludes the building of the whole array of the Bellman function values (this function is replaced by the layers system.

  7. Worms with additional cutting tools on the side of the coal body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K.; Hankus, R. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Maszyn Gorniczych)

    1988-10-01

    Evaluates operation of the KWB-3RDU shearer loader with 2 shearer drums each with a diameter of 1,600 mm and a cutting depth of 630 mm in the Niwka-Modrzejow coal mine. Actual cutting depth, about 455 mm, was less than the designed depth. This was caused by forces perpendicular to the longwall face. Increasing the number of radial cutting tools on the shearer drums and modifying their arrangement improved shearer loader operation. Actual cutting depth increased to 580-630 mm. Increasing cutting depth from 0 to 630 mm at a face end before modifications was achieved after 30 m. After modifications the full cutting depth was achieved after 15-20 m. Power consumption of the shearer loader did not increase; coal output per face increased. 1 ref.

  8. Chemical and mechanical properties of silica hybrid films from NaOH catalyzed sols for micromachining with diamond cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, T., E-mail: tprenzel@uni-bremen.de [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Mehner, A. [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Lucca, D.A.; Qi, Y.; Harriman, T.A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Mutlugünes, Y. [Labor für Mikrozerspanung — LFM, Badgasteiner Str. 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Shojaee, S.A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Wang, Y.Q.; Williams, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska, 230 Whittier Research Center, 2200 Vine Street Lincoln, NE 68583-0857 (United States); Zoch, H.-W. [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Swiderek, P. [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Manufacturing of microstructured mold surfaces was realized by the micromachining of thick sol–gel silica hybrid coatings. The films were deposited onto pre-machined steel molds by spin coating using NaOH-catalyzed sols from organosilicate precursors. The effect of the sol synthesis and the heat treatment on the mechanical and chemical properties of these films was studied in order to develop thick and crack-free films with appropriate properties for micromachining with diamond cutting tools. The hardness was measured by nanoindentation as a function of the heat treatment temperature. The transition from soft organic gel films to hard glass-like films due to the thermal treatment was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The films from NaOH catalyzed sols showed a complex transition from aliphatic carbon originating from hydrocarbon groups to carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon clusters. - Highlights: ► Thick silica hybrid films were micromachined with diamond cutting tools. ► The nanoindentation hardness increased with the heat treatment temperature. ► The role of sodium hydroxide in base catalyzed silica sols was studied. ► Formation of carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon was observed.

  9. Development and testing of an integrated smart tool holder for four-component cutting force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengyou; Lu, Yong; Li, Jianguang

    2017-09-01

    Cutting force measurement is a significant requirement for monitoring and controlling the machining processes. Hence, various methods of measuring the cutting force have been proposed by many researchers. In this study, an innovative integrated smart tool holder system based on capacitive sensors is designed, constructed and tested, which is capable of measuring triaxial cutting force and a torque simultaneously in a wireless environment system. A standard commercial tool holder is modified to make itself be the force sensing element that has advantages of simple structure and easy machining. Deformable beams are created in the tool holder, and the tiny deformations of which used to calculate the four-component cutting force are detected by six high precision capacitive sensors. All the sensors and other electronics, like data acquisition and transmitting unit, and wireless power unit, are incorporated into the tool holder as a whole system. The device is intended to be used in a rotating spindle such as in milling and drilling processes. Eventually, the static and dynamic characteristics of the smart tool holder have been determined by a series of tests. Cutting tests have also been carried out and the results show it is stable and practical to measure the cutting force in milling and drilling processes.

  10. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    The injection molding industry often employs prototype molds and mold inserts from melt spun (rapid solidification processing [1,2]) aluminum, especially for applications in optics [3,4], photonics [5] and microfludics. Prototypes are also used for verification of mold filling. The use of aluminum...... tools has reduced lead time (days instead of weeks) and manufacturing cost (30% of conventional mold). Moreover, for aluminum, a surface roughness (RMS) below 5 nm can be obtained with diamond machining [3,4,6]. Conventional mold coatings add cost and complexity, and coatings with thicknesses of a few...... trichloro-silane based coating deposited on aluminum or its alloys by molecular vapor deposition. We have tested the stability of this coating in challenging conditions of injection molding, an environment with high shear stress from the molten polymer, pressures up to 200 MPa, temperatures up to 250 ◦C...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND TOOL FLANK WEAR IN TURNING OF AISI 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WITH CVD COATED TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KALADHAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel is a popularly used grade in the various fields of manufacturing because of its high ductility, high durability and excellent corrosion resistance. High work hardening, low heat conductivity and high built up edge (BUE formation made this as difficult-to- machine material. Poor surface quality and rapid tool wear are the common problems encountered while machining it. In the present work, an attempt has been made to explore the influence of machining parameters on the performance measures, surface roughness and flank wear in turning of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with a two layer Chemical vapour deposition(CVD coated tool. In order to achieve this, Taguchi approach has been employed. The results revealed that the cutting speed most significantly, influences both surface roughness and flank wear. In addition to this the optimal setting of process parameters and optimal ranges of performance measures are predicted.

  12. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  13. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  14. Effect of milling strategy and tool geometry on machining cost when cutting titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conradie, Pieter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing demands on aerospace manufacturers to cut more difficult-to-machine materials at increasing material removal rates require that manufacturers enhance their machining capability. This requires a better understanding of the effects of milling strategies and tool geometries on cutting performance. Ti6Al4V is the most widely-used titanium alloy in the aerospace industry, due to its unique combination of properties. These properties also make the alloy very challenging to machine. Complex aerospace geometries necessitate large material removal, and are therefore generally associated with high manufacturing costs. To investigate the effect of milling strategy and tool geometry on cutting performance, the new constant engagement milling strategy was firstly compared with a conventional approach. Thereafter, a component was milled with different cutting tool geometries. Cost savings of more than 40% were realised by using a constant engagement angle milling strategy. A reduction of 38% in machining time was achieved by using tools with a land on the rake side of the cutting edge. These incremental improvements made it possible to enhance the overall performance of the cutting process.

  15. Tribofilm Formation As a Result of Complex Interaction at the Tool/Chip Interface during Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German S. Fox-Rabinovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tribofilms are dynamic structures that form at the interface during frictional sliding. These films play a significant role in friction control, particularly under heavy loaded/high temperature conditions, such as those found at the cutting tool/chip interface. The thermodynamic aspects of tribofilm formation are discussed here. Thermodynamic analysis of entropy production during friction shows that there are two types of tribofilms that affect the wear behavior of a cutting tool: (1 tribofilms forming as a result of the surface modification of the cutting tools with further tribo-oxidation; and (2 tribofilms that form as a result of material transfer from the contacting frictional body (the workpiece during the tool/chip interaction. Experimental examples are presented, outlining the beneficial role of both types of tribofilms.

  16. RESISTANCE OF COATED ELECTRODES SUITABLE FOR RENOVATION OF TILLAGE TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the abrasive wear resistance of additional materials. The resistance of individual materials was figured out by determining a proportional wear resistance on a grinding fabric. Results of the experiment confirmed an increase in welds abrasive wear resistance. Chosen coated electrodes are suitable for the renovation of tillage tools of agricultural machines.

  17. Information Technology: A Tool to Cut Health Care Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Maly, K. J.; Overstreet, C. M.; Foudriat, E. C.

    1996-01-01

    Old Dominion University embarked on a project to see how current computer technology could be applied to reduce the cost and or to improve the efficiency of health care services. We designed and built a prototype for an integrated medical record system (MRS). The MRS is written in Tool control language/Tool kit (Tcl/Tk). While the initial version of the prototype had patient information hard coded into the system, later versions used an INGRES database for storing patient information. Currently, we have proposed an object-oriented model for implementing MRS. These projects involve developing information systems for physicians and medical researchers to enhance their ability for improved treatment at reduced costs. The move to computerized patient records is well underway, several standards exist for laboratory records, and several groups are working on standards for other portions of the patient record.

  18. How to Train a Cell–Cutting-Edge Molecular Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiński, Jakub; Kiełbus, Michał; Kałafut, Joanna; Kos, Michał; Stepulak, Andrzej; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    In biological systems, the formation of molecular complexes is the currency for all cellular processes. Traditionally, functional experimentation was targeted to single molecular players in order to understand its effects in a cell or animal phenotype. In the last few years, we have been experiencing rapid progress in the development of ground-breaking molecular biology tools that affect the metabolic, structural, morphological, and (epi)genetic instructions of cells by chemical, optical (optogenetic) and mechanical inputs. Such precise dissection of cellular processes is not only essential for a better understanding of biological systems, but will also allow us to better diagnose and fix common dysfunctions. Here, we present several of these emerging and innovative techniques by providing the reader with elegant examples on how these tools have been implemented in cells, and, in some cases, organisms, to unravel molecular processes in minute detail. We also discuss their advantages and disadvantages with particular focus on their translation to multicellular organisms for in vivo spatiotemporal regulation. We envision that further developments of these tools will not only help solve the processes of life, but will give rise to novel clinical and industrial applications. PMID:28344971

  19. How to Train a Cell - Cutting-Edge Molecular Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiński, Jakub; Kiełbus, Michał; Kałafut, Joanna; Kos, Michał; Stepulak, Andrzej; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2017-03-01

    In biological systems, the formation of molecular complexes is the currency for all cellular processes. Traditionally, functional experimentation was targeted to single molecular players in order to understand its effects in a cell or animal phenotype. In the last few years, we have been experiencing rapid progress in the development of ground-breaking molecular biology tools that affect the metabolic, structural, morphological, and (epi)genetic instructions of cells by chemical, optical (optogenetic) and mechanical inputs. Such precise dissection of cellular processes is not only essential for a better understanding of biological systems, but will also allow us to better diagnose and fix common dysfunctions. Here, we present several of these emerging and innovative techniques by providing the reader with elegant examples on how these tools have been implemented in cells, and, in some cases, organisms, to unravel molecular processes in minute detail. We also discuss their advantages and disadvantages with particular focus on their translation to multicellular organisms for in vivo spatiotemporal regulation. We envision that further developments of these tools will not only help solve the processes of life, but will give rise to novel clinical and industrial applications.

  20. Thermal modelling of cooling tool cutting when milling by electrical analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmoussa H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement temperatures by (some devises are applied immediately after shut-down and may be corrected for the temperature drop that occurs in the interval between shut-down and measurement. This paper presents a new procedure for thermal modelling of the tool cutting used just after machining; when the tool is out off the chip in order to extrapolate the cutting temperature from the temperature measured when the tool is at stand still. A fin approximation is made in enhancing heat loss (by conduction and convection to air stream is used. In the modelling we introduce an equivalent thermal network to estimate the cutting temperature as a function of specific energy. In another hand, a local modified element lumped conduction equation is used to predict the temperature gradient with time when the tool is being cooled, with initial and boundary conditions. These predictions provide a detailed view of the global heat transfer coefficient as a function of cutting speed because the heat loss for the tool in air stream is an order of magnitude larger than in normal environment. Finally we deduct the cutting temperature by inverse method.

  1. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-25

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools.

  2. Thermal modelling of cooling tool cutting when milling by electrical analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabid, F.; Arrouf, M.; Assas, M.; Benmoussa, H.

    2010-06-01

    Measurement temperatures by (some devises) are applied immediately after shut-down and may be corrected for the temperature drop that occurs in the interval between shut-down and measurement. This paper presents a new procedure for thermal modelling of the tool cutting used just after machining; when the tool is out off the chip in order to extrapolate the cutting temperature from the temperature measured when the tool is at stand still. A fin approximation is made in enhancing heat loss (by conduction and convection) to air stream is used. In the modelling we introduce an equivalent thermal network to estimate the cutting temperature as a function of specific energy. In another hand, a local modified element lumped conduction equation is used to predict the temperature gradient with time when the tool is being cooled, with initial and boundary conditions. These predictions provide a detailed view of the global heat transfer coefficient as a function of cutting speed because the heat loss for the tool in air stream is an order of magnitude larger than in normal environment. Finally we deduct the cutting temperature by inverse method.

  3. SIMULATION SYSTEM FOR FIVE-AXIS NC MACHINING USING GENERAL CUTTING TOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation system for five-axis NC machining using general cutting tools is presented. This system differs from other simulation system in that it not only focuses on the geometric simulation but also focuses on the collision detection which is usually not included in NC machining simulation. Besides all of these, estimating cutting forces is also discussed. In order to obtain high efficiency, all algorithms use swept volume modeling technique, so the simulation system is compact and can be performed efficiently.

  4. Cutting precision in a novel aortic valve resection tool. Research in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Daniel; Stühle, Sebastian; Wendt, Hermann; Thielmann, Matthias; Kipfmüller, Brigitte; Hauck, Florian; Vogel, Bernd; Jakob, Heinz

    2009-10-01

    We recently demonstrated the first in-vitro cutting results of a minimal-invasive aortic valve resection tool. The current study was designed to assess the cutting accuracy of this new device improved by the implementation of a linear motor-based propulsion unit. Native aortic valves of isolated swine hearts (valve diameter 17.8+/-0.9 mm, mean+/-S.D.) were artificially stenosed and calcified (n=7). Subsequently, valves were resected by the use of a new aortic valve resection tool. The cutting process was performed by fitting the instrument with foldable Nitinol cutting blades (diameter 15 mm) and two software-operated linear motors combined with separated manual rotation. Aortic valve area was measured pre- and postprocedure by software-guided binary area calculation. Aortic valve residue has been determined and the grade of accuracy has been assessed via calculating the average midpoint of the neoannulus. Furthermore, radial deviation of concentricity was calculated and cutting time was measured. Aortic valve resection was successful in all cases and nearly all leaflets (2.5+/-0.4) with a weight of 0.22+/-0.12 g were cut. Aortic valve area increased significantly (0.3+/-0.1 cm(2) vs. 1.1+/-0.2 cm(2), Pvalve by the aortic valve resection tool. Nearly all leaflets were cut and a small rim was left within the annulus, hence providing an ideal 'landing zone' for the new prosthesis. Nevertheless, the aortic valve resection tool should be enhanced by adding a centering mechanism, thus achieving a more precise cutting process in order to avoid secondary damage.

  5. Cutting force and its frequency spectrum characteristics in high speed milling of titanium alloy with a polycrystalline diamond tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LIU; Jiu-hua XU; Yu-can FU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments were performed by high speed milling of Ti-6.5Al-2Zr-1Mo-1V(TA15)by use of polycrystalline diamond(PCD)tools. The characteristics of high speed machining(HSM)dynamic milling forces were investigated. The effects of the parameters of the process, I.e., cutting speed, feed per tooth, and depth of axial cut, on cutting forces were studied. The cutting force signals under different cutting speed conditions and different cutting tool wear stages were analyzed by frequency spectrum analysis. The trend and frequency domain aspects of the dynamic forces were evaluated and discussed. The results indicate that a characteristic frequency in cutting force power spectrum does in fact exist. The amplitudes increase with the increase of cutting speed and tool wear level, which could be applied to the monitoring of the cutting process.

  6. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  7. Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supapvanich, S; Mitrsang, P; Srinorkham, P; Boonyaritthongchai, P; Wongs-Aree, C

    2016-06-01

    The effect of natural coating by using fresh Aloe vera (A. vera) gel alleviating browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits cv. Taaptimjaan was investigated. The fresh-cut fruits were dipped in fresh A. vera gel at various concentrations of 0, 25, 75 or 100 % (v/v) for 2 min at 4 ± 1 °C for 6 days. Lightness (L*), whiteness index (WI), browning index (BI), total color difference (ΔE*), sensorial quality attributes, total phenolic (TP) content, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined. During storage, L* and WI of the fresh-cut fruits surface decreased whilst their BI and ΔE* increased. A. vera coating maintained the L* and WI and delayed the increase in BI and ΔE*, especially at 75 % A. vera dip. The fresh-cut fruits dipped in 75 % A. vera had the lowest browning score, the highest acceptance score and delayed the increase in TP content and PPO activity. However POD activity was induced by A. vera coating. Antioxidant activity had no effect on browning incidence of the fresh-cut fruits. Consequently, A. vera gel coating could maintain quality and retarded browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits during storage.

  8. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  9. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  10. Study on the Predicting System of Breaking Chip When PCD Tool Cutting Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the field of automobile manufacture, during the aluminum alloy cutting, chip forming and breaking process are very complicated. It is affected by many facto rs. Automatic machining process can not be carried through if the chip enlaces t he workpiece or the tool. So the chip control and breaking are key technology. P CD tool has many traits, such as high cutting efficiency, machining precision an d wearability. It is desired that it be used for machining coloured metals.The p aper present the study of p...

  11. Parameter estimation of cutting tool temperature nonlinear model using PSO algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In cutting tool temperature experiment, a large number of related data could be available. In order to define the relationship among the experiment data, the nonlinear regressive curve of cutting tool temperature must be constructed based on the data. This paper proposes the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for estimating the parameters such a curve. The PSO algorithm is an evolutional method based on a very simple concept. Comparison of PSO results with those of GA and LS methods showed that the PSO algorithm is more effective for estimating the parameters of the above curve.

  12. An Approach to the Classification of Cutting Vibration on Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fung Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is commenced and may affect the precision of the machined work piece. This raises the need to have an effective model that can be used to predict cutting vibrations. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN model to forecast and classify the cutting vibration of the intelligent machine tool is presented. The factors that may cause cutting vibrations is firstly identified and a dataset for the research purpose is constructed. Then, the applicability of the model is illustrated. Based on the results in the comparative analysis, the artificial neural network approach performed better than the others. Because the vibration can be forecasted and classified, the product quality can be managed. This work may help new workers to avoid operating machine tools incorrectly, and hence can decrease manufacturing costs. It is expected that this study can enhance the performance of machine tools in metalworking sectors.

  13. Motion and Virtual Cutting Simulation System for a Five-Axis Virtual Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Shean Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since five-axis machine tools are very costly and their use requires a high level of knowledge and expertise, a virtual machine tool must be used to simulate five-axis machine tool operation. Configuration code or a mechanism topology matrix must be used to describe a machine tool, and can be used as the framework for design of a virtual machine tool system. The first step is to isolate the basic motions of each element of a virtual machine tool and then establish their coordinate systems. The establishment of a node tree allows coordinate transformation matrices for virtual motion components to be derived, which are then used to simulate movements. The simulation of virtual cutting must take into consideration both accuracy and efficiency. While either a GPU or CPU can be used to perform calculations, there are currently restrictions on GPU memory use which results in relatively lower accuracy. In contrast, a CPU can perform calculations using an adaptive octree with voxels and multithreading to yield sufficient accuracy and efficiency. A five-axis virtual machine tool motion and virtual cutting simulation system was written in C/C++ with OpenGL and OpenMP, and can perform real-time cutting simulations.

  14. Tool Wear Monitoring in Drilling Using Multiple Feature Fusion of the Cutting Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a tool wear monitoring method in drilling process using cutting force signal. The kurtosis coefficient and the energy of a special frequency band of cutting force signals were taken as the signal features of tool wear as well as the mean value and the standard deviation from the time and frequency domain. The relationships between the signal feature andtool wear were discussed, then the vectors constituted of the signal features were input to the artificial neural network for fusion in order to realize intelligent identification of tool wear. The experimental results show that the artificial neural network can realize fusion of multiple features effectively, but the identification precision and the extending ability are not ideal owing to the relationship between the features and the tool wear being fuzzy and not certain. ``

  15. Physical Modeling of Contact Processes on the Cutting Tools Surfaces of STM When Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, V. A.; Uteshev, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes how to create an optimization model of the process of fine turning of superalloys and steel tools from STM on CNC machines, flexible manufacturing units (GPM), machining centers. Creation of the optimization model allows you to link (unite) contact processes simultaneously on the front and back surfaces of the tool from STM to manage contact processes and the dynamic strength of the cutting tool at the top of the STM. Established optimization model of management of the dynamic strength of the incisors of the STM in the process of fine turning is based on a previously developed thermomechanical (physical, heat) model, which allows the system thermomechanical approach to choosing brands STM (domestic and foreign) for cutting tools from STM designed for fine turning of heat resistant alloys and steels.

  16. Fabrication and Application of High Quality Diamond-coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diamond-coated tools were fabricated using Co-cemented carbide inserts as substrates by the electronically aided hot filament chemical vapor deposition (EACVD). An amount of additive in an acid solution was used to promote the Co etching of the substrate surface. The surface of the WC-Co substrate was decarburized by microwave plasma with Ar-H 2 gas. Effect of the new substrate pretreatment on the adhesion of diamond films was investigated. A boron-doped solution was brushed on the tool surface to diffuse ...

  17. Method of Monitoring Wearing and Breakage States of Cutting Tools Based on Mahalanobis Distance Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Mahalanobis distance features proposed by P.C.Mahalanobis, an Indian statistician, can be used in an automatic on-line cutting tool condition monitoring process based on digital image processing. In this paper, a new method of obtaining Mahalanobis distance features from a tool image is proposed. The key of calculating Mahalanobis distance is appropriately dividing the object into several component sets. Firstly, a technique is proposed that can automatically divide the component groups for calculati...

  18. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.

    2010-01-01

    The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua...

  19. The importance of extractives and abrasives in wood materials on the wearing of cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Darmawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For many wood cutting processes, the interest of high-speed tool steels and tungsten carbides remains very important because of their good tool edge accuracy and easy grinding. The wear of high-speed steel and tungsten carbide is an important economic parameter. Wood extractives and silica have a potential adverse effect on tool wear. Rapid chemical wearing due to corrosion and mechanical wearing has been attributed to the presence of extractives and silica in wood and wood composites. This paper presents the wear characteristics of SKH51 high-speed steel and K10 tungsten carbide caused by extractive and abrasive materials present in the lesser-known Tapi-Tapi wood and wood composites of wood cement board, particleboard, MDF, and oriented strand board (OSB. Experimental results showed that wearing of the cutting tools tested was determined by extractives and silica contained in the wood and wood composites. Wood cement board, which is high in silica content, caused severe damage to the cutting edge of the high-speed steel. A corrosion/oxidation mechanism was found to contribute to the wear of SKH51 and K10 when cutting the Tapi-Tapi wood, MDF, particleboard, wood cement board, and OSB. The silica and extractives determined the abrasion and corrosion wear mechanism to a varying degree.

  20. Cutting Tools, Files and Abrasives. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on cutting tools, files, and abrasives is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify and explain the proper use and care of various knives, saws, snips, chisels, and abrasives. The module may contain some or all of the…

  1. Deflection Reduction of GaN Wafer Bowing by Coating or Cutting Grooves in the Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tao; WANG Ming-Qing; SUN Yong-Jian; WANG Bo-Ping; ZHANG Guo-Yi; TONG Yu-Zhen; DUAN Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    @@ GaN films on sapphire substrates are obtained using the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth technique.We present two methods to reduce the GaN wafer bowing caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients(TECs)between the film and the substrate.The first method is to use coating materials on the back side of the substrate whose TECs are smaller than that of the GaN films.The second is to cut grooves on the back side of the sapphire substrate and filling the grooves with appropriate materials(e.g., tungsten, silicon nitride).For each method, we minimize wafer bowing and even reduce it to zero.Moreover, the two methods can reduce stress concentration and suppress the propagation of cracks in the GaN/sapphire structure.%GaN films on sapphire substrates are obtained using the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth technique. We present two methods to reduce the GaN wafer bowing caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) between the film and the substrate. The first method is to use coating materials on the back side of the substrate whose TECs are smaller than that of the GaN films. The second is to cut grooves on the back side of the sapphire substrate and filling the grooves with appropriate materials (e.g., tungsten, silicon nitride).For each method, we minimize wafer bowing and even reduce it to zero. Moreover, the two methods can reduce stress concentration and suppress the propagation of cracks in the GaN/sapphire structure.

  2. On the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tool for the effective machining of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Rao, Balkrishna C.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tungsten carbide tool for machining titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to synthesize diamond films on tungsten carbide tools. A boron-doped diamond interlayer was added to a microcrystalline diamond layer in an attempt to improve the interface adhesion strength. The dual-layered diamond-coated tool was employed in machining at cutting speeds in the range of 70 to 150 m min-1 with a lower feed and a lower depth of cut of 0.5 mm rev-1 and 0.5 mm, respectively, to operate in the transition from adhesion- to diffusion-tool-wear and thereby arrive at suitable conditions for enhancing tool life. The proposed tool was then compared, on the basis of performance under real-time cutting conditions, with commercially available microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, titanium nitride and uncoated tungsten carbide tools. The life and surface finish of the proposed dual-layered tool and uncoated tungsten carbide were also investigated in interrupted cutting such as milling. The results of this study show a significant improvement in tool life and finish of Ti-6Al-4V parts machined with the dual-layered diamond-coated tool when compared with its uncoated counterpart. These results pave the way for the use of a low-cost tool, with respect to, polycrystalline diamond for enhancing both tool life and machining productivity in critical sectors fabricating parts out of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The application of this coating technology can also be extended to the machining of non-ferrous alloys owing to its better adhesion strength.

  3. Influence of minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL on tool life of carbide cutting tools during milling process of steel AISI 1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Núñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high productivity of machining is an important issue to obtain economic benefits in the industry. This purpose could be reached with high cutting velocity and feed rate. However, the inherently behavior produce high temperatures in the interface of couple cutting tool/workpiece. Many cutting fluids have been developed to control temperature in process and increase tool life. The objective of this paper is to compare the carbide milling tool wear using different systems cutting fluids: flood and minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL. The values of carbide milling cutting tool wear was evaluate according with the standard ISO 8688-1 1989. The experimental results showed that using MQL reduces significantly (about 40% tool wear in milling AISI 1018 steel at industrial cutting conditions.

  4. Tool life of the edges coated with the c-BN+h-BN coatings with different structures during hard machinable steel machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupczyk, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality (durability during steel machining of thin, superhard coatings produced on the cutting edges are described. Differences among mentioned properties of coatings mainly result from a coating structure. But the structure of coatings results from deposition parameters Superhard boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made of cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method applying different values of the discharge voltage. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during hard machinable material machining (nitriding steel hardened in oil. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coatings adhesion to substrates an interfacial layers were applied.

    En este trabajo se describen los resultados experimentales referentes a la calidad funcional (durabilidad durante el mecanizado del acero de recubrimientos delgados, de elevada dureza del filo de corte. Las diferencias en las propiedades de los recubrimientos se deben, principalmente, a la estructura del recubrimiento. No obstante, la estructura del recubrimiento está relacionada con los parámetros de la deposición. Recubrimientos de nitruro de boro de elevada dureza se depositaron sobre filos de corte insertados, fabricados con carburos cementados mediante el método de pulsos de plasma aplicando diferentes valores de voltaje de descarga. Las investigaciones comparativas de los mencionados recubrimientos han relacionado la vida del filo de la herramienta durante el mecanizado del material (acero nitrurado endurecido en aceite. En estas investigaciones se aplicaron capas interfaciales para aumentar la adherencia del recubrimiento.

  5. Development of pipe welding, cutting and inspection tools for the ITER blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Taguchi, Kou; Takiguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, internal access pipe welding/cutting/inspection tools for manifolds and branch pipes are being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T329). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In the same way, a design concept of inspection head with a non-destructive inspection probe (including a leak-testing probe) has been developed and the basic characteristic tests are performed using welded stainless steel pipes. In this report, the details of welding/cutting/inspection heads for manifolds and branch pipes are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and inspection. In addition, details of a composite type optical fiber, which can transmit both the high-power YAG laser and visible rays, is described. (author)

  6. Modelling of tunnelling processes and rock cutting tool wear with the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Josep Maria; Oñate, Eugenio; Suárez, Benjamín

    2013-09-01

    Underground construction involves all sort of challenges in analysis, design, project and execution phases. The dimension of tunnels and their structural requirements are growing, and so safety and security demands do. New engineering tools are needed to perform a safer planning and design. This work presents the advances in the particle finite element method (PFEM) for the modelling and the analysis of tunneling processes including the wear of the cutting tools. The PFEM has its foundation on the Lagrangian description of the motion of a continuum built from a set of particles with known physical properties. The method uses a remeshing process combined with the alpha-shape technique to detect the contacting surfaces and a finite element method for the mechanical computations. A contact procedure has been developed for the PFEM which is combined with a constitutive model for predicting the excavation front and the wear of cutting tools. The material parameters govern the coupling of frictional contact and wear between the interacting domains at the excavation front. The PFEM allows predicting several parameters which are relevant for estimating the performance of a tunnelling boring machine such as wear in the cutting tools, the pressure distribution on the face of the boring machine and the vibrations produced in the machinery and the adjacent soil/rock. The final aim is to help in the design of the excavating tools and in the planning of the tunnelling operations. The applications presented show that the PFEM is a promising technique for the analysis of tunnelling problems.

  7. Application of CBR method for adding the process of cutting tools and parameters selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    Modem enterprises must face with the dynamically changing market demand what influences the designing process. It is possible by linking computer tools with information gathered by experienced designers teams. The article describes the method basing on engineering knowledge and experience to adding the process of tools selection and cutting parameters determination for a turning operation. The method, proposed by the authors, is based on the CBR (Case Based Reasoning) method. CBR is a method of problem solving that involves searching for an analogy (similarity) between the current task to be solved, and the earlier cases that properly described, are stored in a computer memory. This article presents an algorithm and a formalized description of the developed method. It was discussed the range of its utilization, as well as it was illustrated the method of its functioning on the example of the tools and cutting parameters selection with respect to the turning process.

  8. Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.

  9. Development and Application of Ceramic Cutting Tools%陶瓷刀具的发展与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝友; 崔丽华; 黄传真; 艾兴

    2001-01-01

    综述了氧化铝系和氮化硅系两类陶瓷刀具的发展现状,阐述了这两类陶瓷刀具的力学性能与切削性能,讨论了它们的特点、加工范围以及适合的切削加工用量,提出了刀具选择及使用要点。%The current development situation of Al2O3 and Si3N4 matrix ceramic cutting tools is summarized. The mechanical property and cutting performance of the two kinds of cutting tools are represented. The characteristics,cutting ranges and suitable machining values of Al2O3 and Si3N4 matrix ceramic cutting tools are discussed emphatically. Some gists of selecting and using ceramic cutting tools are also presented.

  10. Relationship Between Thermal Shock Behavior and Cutting Performance of a Functionally Gradient Ceramic Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the deep understanding of the requirements of cutting conditions on ceramic tools, a design model for functionally gradient ceramic tool materials with symmetrical composition distribution was presented in this paper, according to which an Al 2O 3-TiC functionally gradient ceramic tool material FG-1 was synthesized by powder-laminating and uniaxially hot-pressing technique. The thermal shock resistance of the Al 2O 3-TiC functionally gradient ceramics FG-1 was evaluated by water quenching and s...

  11. Calculation of the Intensity of Adhesive-Fatigue Wear of Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibik, V.; Ivushkina, N.; Arhipova, D.

    2016-08-01

    On the base of kinetic equation of strength the authors suggest the method carbide tools wear intensity calculation allowing comparing wear resistance basing on tool material thermal diffusivity coefficient. The authors obtain equations of tool wear resistance dependences upon its thermal diffusivity which show close correlation between these parameters. The results of wear intensity calculations correspond well to the experimental results under the cutting rates corresponding to the region of adhesive-fatigue wear. The inserts with low thermal diffusivity coefficient are characterized by lower wear rate at the inial and normal stages of wear.

  12. BACK CHIP TEMPERATURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS TURNING WITH CONVENTIONAL AND INTERNALLY COOLED CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Anwar Che Ghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to machining processes is the interaction between the tool insert and the chip of material removed from the blank. Chip-insert interaction occurs when the chip slides on the rake face of the insert. Heat is generated by the friction inherent to this sliding process. The temperature in the cutting zone of both the insert and the chip rises, usually facilitating adhesion, diffusion, and more complex chemical and physical phenomena between the insert and the chip. These effects accelerate the insert wear, ultimately undermining the tool life. Thus, a number of methods have been developed to control heat generation. Most typically, metal working fluids are conveyed onto the rake face in the cutting zone. However, this solution may be not ideal from the point of view of cost, the environment, and contamination of the part, which may be unacceptable, for example, in healthcare and optical applications. In this study, microfluidic structures internal to the insert are examined as a means of controlling the heat generation.Conventional and internallycooled tools were compared in dry turning of AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy in two 3  3 factorial experiments of different machining conditions. Statistical analyses support the conclusion that chip temperature depends only on the depth of cut,and not on the feed rate or cutting speed. They also show that the benefit of cooling the insert internally increases as the depth of cut increases. Therefore, internallycooled tools can be particularly advantageous in roughing operations.

  13. Measurement of surface roughness and flank wear on hard martensitic stainless steel by CBN and PCBN cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thamizhmanii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experiments with different operating parameters using CBN and PCBN tools on hard AISI 440 C material were investigated in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: In this research AISI 440 C stainless was used under hard condition. The cutting tools are having three cutting edges and each edge repeated for 5 times. The test conducted by each cutting edge was termed as trail 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5. The length of cutting was 150 mm and each trail. The surface roughness and flank wear, crater wear and BUE were measured by SEM.Findings: The surface roughness was low by CBN at high turning cutting speed and the flank wear was high. The surface roughness was high by PCBN tool than CBN tool and flank wear recorded was low for PCBN tool than CBN tool. The chips produced were saw tooth in all operating parameters. The CBN tool was unable to withstand heat at cutting zone and hence more flank wear occurred. The PCBN tool sustained the temperature and less tool wear occurred. More crater wear formed on PCBN tools where as CBN tool produced less crater wear. The formation of crater wear on the rake face was due to rough surface of the saw tooth chips.Practical implications: The investigation results will provide useful information to applying CBN and PCBN cutting tools in hard turning stainless steels.Originality/value: Hard turning is a latest technology and possible to turn all hard materials. The hard turning produce net shaped products and reduces machining time, low cost per products, etc. The difficult to cut materials like stainless steels was turned by super hard cutting tools like CBN and PCBN to achieve good surface roughness, dimensional control and reduced tool wear.

  14. Development of Al2O3/TiN Ceramic Cutting Tool Materials by Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning FAN; Xiangbo ZE; Zihui GAO

    2004-01-01

    The artificial neural networks (ANN) which have broad application were proposed to develop multiphase ceramic cutting tool materials. Based on the back propagation algorithm of the forward multilayer perceptron, the models to predict volume content of composition in particle reinforced ceramics are established. The Al2O3/TiNl ceramic cutting tool material was developed by ANN, whose mechanical properties fully satisfy the cutting requirements.

  15. Influence of Cutting Parameters and Tool Wear on the Surface Integrity of Cobalt-Based Stellite 6 Alloy When Machined Under a Dry Cutting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingfei, Ge; de Escalona, Patricia Muñoz; Galloway, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of a machining process can be measured by evaluating the quality of the machined surface and the tool wear rate. The research reported herein is mainly focused on the effect of cutting parameters and tool wear on the machined surface defects, surface roughness, deformation layer and residual stresses when dry milling Stellite 6, deposited by overlay on a carbon steel surface. The results showed that under the selected cutting conditions, abrasion, diffusion, peeling, chipping and breakage were the main tool wear mechanisms presented. Also the feed rate was the primary factor affecting the tool wear with an influence of 83%. With regard to the influence of cutting parameters on the surface roughness, the primary factors were feed rate and cutting speed with 57 and 38%, respectively. In addition, in general, as tool wear increased, the surface roughness increased and the deformation layer was found to be influenced more by the cutting parameters rather than the tool wear. Compressive residual stresses were observed in the un-machined surface, and when machining longer than 5 min, residual stress changed 100% from compression to tension. Finally, results showed that micro-crack initiation was the main mechanism for chip formation.

  16. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  17. MULTI-SCALE AND MULTI-PHASE NANOCOMPOSITE CERAMIC TOOLS AND CUTTING PERFORMANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chuanzhen; LIU Hanlian; WANG Jun; WANG Hui

    2007-01-01

    An advanced ceramic cutting tool material Al2O3/TiC/TiN (LTN) is developed by incorporation and dispersion of micro-scale TiC particle and nano-scale TiN particle in alumina matrix. With the optimal dispersing and fabricating technology, this multi-scale and multi-phase nanocomposite ceramic tool material can get both higher flexural strength and fracture toughness than that of Al2O3/TiC (LT) ceramic tool material without nano-scale TiN particle, especially the fracture toughness can reach to 7.8 MPa·m0.5. The nano-scale TiN can lead to the grain fining effect and promote the sintering process to get a higher density. The coexisting transgranular and intergranular fracture mode induced by micro-scale TiC and nano-scale TiN, and the homogeneous and densified microstructure can result in a remarkable strengthening and toughening effect. The cutting performance and wear mechanisms of the advanced multi-scale and multi-phase nanocomposite ceramic cutting tool are researched.

  18. Application of response surface methodology for determining cutting force model in turning hardened AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Fnides; M A Yallese; T Mabrouki; J-F Rigal

    2011-02-01

    This experimental study is conducted to determine statistical models of cutting forces in hard turning of AISI H11 hot work tool steel (∼ 50 HRC). This steel is free from tungsten on Cr–Mo–V basis, insensitive to temperature changes and having a high wear resistance. It is employed for the manufacture of highly stressed diecasting moulds and inserts with high tool life expectancy, plastic moulds subject to high stress, helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. The workpiece is machined by a mixed ceramic tool (insert CC650 of chemical composition 70%Al23+30%TiC) under dry conditions. Based on 33 full factorial design, a total of 27 tests were carried out. The range of each parameter is set at three different levels, namely low, medium and high. Mathematical models were deduced by software Minitab (multiple linear regression and response surface methodology) in order to express the influence degree of the main cutting variables such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on cutting force components. These models would be helpful in selecting cutting variables for optimization of hard cutting process. The results indicate that the depth of cut is the dominant factor affecting cutting force components. The feed rate influences tangential cutting force more than radial and axial forces. The cutting speed affects radial force more than tangential and axial forces.

  19. On the performances and wear of WC-diamond like carbon coated tools in drilling of CFRP/Titanium stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccarusso, L.; Durante, M.; Impero, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece; Scherillo, F.; Squillace, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of hybrid structures made of CFRP and titanium alloys is growing more and more in the last years in the aerospace industry due to the high strength to weight ratio. Because of their very different characteristics, the mechanical fastening represent the most effective joining technique for these materials. As a consequence, drilling process plays a key role in the assembly. The one shot drilling, i.e. the contemporary drilling of the stack of the two materials, seems to be the best option both in terms of time saving and assembly accuracy. Nevertheless, due to the considerable different machinability of fiber reinforced plastics and metallic materials, the one shot drilling is a critical process both for the holes quality and for the tools wear. This research was carried out to study the effectiveness of new generation tools in the drilling of CFRP/Titanium stacks. The tools are made of sintered grains of tungsten carbide (WC) in a binder of cobalt and coated with Diamond like carbon (DLC), and are characterized by a patented geometry; they mainly differ in parent WC grain size and binder percentage. Both the cutting forces and the wear phenomena were accurately investigated and the results were analyzed as a function of number of holes and their quality. The results show a clear increase of the cutting forces with the number of holes for all the used drilling tools. Moreover, abrasive wear phenomena that affect initially the tools coating layer were observed.

  20. 29 CFR 1915.53 - Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting and heating in way of preservative... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Welding, Cutting and Heating § 1915.53 Welding, cutting and heating in way of... and shipbulding and shall not apply to shipbreaking. (b) Before welding, cutting or heating...

  1. Surface and cut-edge corrosion behavior of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets as a function of the alloy coating microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Suk; Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Jong-Sang; Lee, Jae-Won; Shon, Je-Ha; Jin, Young-Sool

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Mg and Al content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of hot-dip Zn-Mg-Al alloycoated steel sheets were investigated. Pure Zn and Zn-based alloy coatings containing Mg (0-5 wt%) and Al (0.2-55 wt%) were produced by a hot-dip galvanizing method. Mg and Al addition induced formation of intermetallic microstructures, like primary Zn, Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic, dendric Zn/Al eutectoid, and Zn/Al/MgZn2/ternary eutectic structures in the coating layer. MgZn2-related structures (Zn/MgZn2, Zn/Al/MgZn2, MgZn2) played an important role in increasing the corrosion resistance of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets. Zn-3%Mg-2.5%Al coating layer containing a large volume of lamellar-shaped Zn/MgZn2 binary eutectic structures showed the best cut-edge corrosion resistance. The analysis indicated that Mg dissolved from MgZn2 in the early stage of corrosion and migrated to the cathodic region of steel-exposed cut-edge area to form dense and ordered protective corrosion products, leading to prolonged cathodic protection of Zn-Mg-Al alloy-coated steel sheets.

  2. Research concerning optimum cutting parameters according with tool path strategy for finishing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, A. E.; Anania, F. D.; Zapciu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of cutting parameters in NC milling needs to be studied because of its influence on machining time and cost. Today, any CAM software offers many tool path strategies to milling free form geometries. However, the users must have the know-how to choose the strategies according to geometry complexity, cutting tool geometry and its contact on the machined surface. Choosing the right strategy with the right cutting parameter is a rather difficult task to do on the machine tool. In this paper we try to take into account the influence of the toolpath over the surface quality for finishing operation. The main goal is to establish a direct link between machining parameters and toolpath in order to obtain the same surface quality for different trajectories. The first step consist in making a series of experiments for standards toolpaths (which can be found in any CAM software) like one-way, zig-zag, spiral from outside to inside, zig-zag at 45 dgr on a milling center. Based on the results, a correction coefficient for the feed rate was established.

  3. Modeling and multi-objective optimization of surface roughness and productivity in dry turning of AISI 52100 steel using (TiCN-TiN coating cermet tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahid Keblouti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns an experimental study of turning with coated cermet tools with TiCN-TiN coating layer of AISI 52100 bearing steel. The main objectives are firstly focused on the effect of cutting parameters and coating material on the performances of cutting tools. Secondly, to perform a Multi-objective optimization for minimizing surface roughness (Ra and maximizing material removal rate by desirability approach. A mathematical model was developed based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANOVA method was used to quantify the cutting parameters effects on the machining surface quality and the material removal rate. The results analysis shows that the feed rate has the most effect on the surface quality. The effect of coating layers on the surface quality is also studied. It is observed that a lower surface roughness is obtained when using PVD (TiCN-TiN coated insert when compared with uncoated tool. The values of root mean square deviation and coefficient of correlation between the theoretical and experimental data are also given in this work where the maximum calculated error is 2.65 %.

  4. An optimal inventory policy under certainty distributed demand for cutting tools with stochastically distributed lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun Rong Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional inventory policy was deeply investigated for various kinds of demand in different industrial sectors. More extensive explorations on inventory policy, including the combination with manufacturing process, detailed attributes of the purchased products, etc. was conducted by many researchers. During manufacturing process, lifespan of cutting tools have significant impact on both the quantity of inventory and production cost. In this paper, the impact of maximum allowable stopping time for cutting tools on production-inventory policy under general production demands was investigated. An optimal inventory policy with general demand (OIPGD was developed with which the allowable stopping time for tools, order-up-to-level inventory, and order cycle can be optimally determined by an exhaustive searching algorithm. Examples with different distributions on tool lifespan and production demand is presented to show the implementation of the OIPGD model. The results and the sensitivity analysis about the parameters show that optimized combination of selection for tool allowable stopping time, order-up-to-level, and order cycle time can dramatically minimize the total cost of the whole inventory activity.

  5. WEAR ANALYSIS OF CERAMIC CUTTING TOOLS IN FINISH TURNING OF INCONEL 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ARUNA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for heat resistant Nickel based super alloys are increasing because of their excellent mechanical properties. Nickel based alloy, Inconel 718 is useful in aerospace applications. In this work, finish turning of Inconel 718 using ceramic tools is carried out under high pressure coolant supply. The approach is based on Taguchi’s method and the analysis of variance (ANOVA. A series of experiments are conducted by varying the process parameters and their effects on surface finish and tool wear are measured. It is found that the surface roughness is well below the rejection criteria. The experimental results indicate that the cutting speed is the most significant factor to the overall performance. The correlation etween cutting speed and feed with the tool wear and surface roughness are obtained by multi-variable linear regression and is compared with the experimental results. In addition, SEM analysis is carried out to study the wear of ceramic tools under varying processparameters. The results of the work provide recommendations to give the best quality surface combined with less tool wear.

  6. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  7. Study on the influence of fluid application parameters on tool vibration and cutting performance during turning of hardened steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sam Paul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently the concept of hard turning has gained much attention in the metal cutting industry. In hard turning, multiple operations can be performed in single step, thereby it replaces the traditional process cycle. But it involves very large quantities of cutting fluid. Procurement, storage and disposal of cutting fluid involve expenses and environmental problem. Pure dry turning is a solution to this problem as it does not require any cutting fluid at all. But pure dry turning requires ultra hard cutting tools and extremely rigid machine tools, and also it is difficult to implement in the existing shop floor as the machine tool may not be rigid enough to support hard turning. In this context, turning with minimal fluid application is a viable alternative wherein, extremely small quantities of cutting fluid are introduced at critical contact zones as high velocity pulsing slugs, so that for all practical purposes it resembles pure dry turning and at the same time free from all the problems related to large scale use of cutting fluid as in conventional wet turning. In this study, fluid application parameters that characterize the minimal fluid application scheme were optimized and its effect on cutting performance and tool vibration was studied. From the results, it was observed that minimal fluid application in the optimized mode brought forth low vibration levels and better cutting performance.

  8. Nano K2Ti4O9 Whisker Enhanced Solid Lubrication Coating for Cutting Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIChang-sheng; ZHUCheng-shun; LIUYu; SONGChang-cai; LIUWan-zhang; YANKe-hong; FANZhen; DINGJian-ning; YANGJi-chang

    2004-01-01

    In order to decrease catting fluid and improve envirorunent, the catting fluid was replaced by solid lubricant. Four kinds of solid lubricants were tested on a high temperature friction tester, from which nano K2Ti4O9 whisker enhanced solid lubrication film was chosen. It was coated on the surface of catters and tested on a CA6140 lathe. At the rate of4OOr/min, the wear of the tool flank with solid lubrication,film is 1/6 of that without the film and it is even lower than that using catting fluid. With the increase of catting speed, the wear of the tool flank with solid lubrication,film is still lower than that without ,film, bat it is higher than that using catting fluid. Surface analyses by AFM , SEM and EDX reveal that the solid lubrication ,film can prevent Fe element of chips from diffusing the cutter surface ; adhesion of the cutter and chips is abated and the wear of the tool flank is obviously decreased.

  9. Morphology of TiAlN Thin Film onto HSS as Cutting Tools by Using Mosaic-Styled Target RF Sputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Tri Wicaksono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High Speed Steel (HSS has been widely used in manufacturing industry as cutting tools. Several methods have been used to improve the cutting performance of HSS in dry cutting. One of them was by growing a thin layer of hard coating on the contact surface of the cutting tool material. In this research, Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN layer were deposited on AISI M41 HSS substrate by using Radio Frequency (RF sputtering method with mosaic styled of target materials. The aluminum surface area ratios on the Titanium target are 10, 20, 30, and 40 % respectively. The deposition time are 15, 30, and 45 minutes respectively. The formation of TiAlN and AlN crystalline compounds were observed by X-Ray Diffraction method. The morphology of thin film layer with a thickness range from 1.4 to 5.2 µm was observed by using a Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was known that the deposition time affect to the thickness and also the roughness of the layer. The topography images by Atomic Force Microscopy showed that the deposition time of 45 minutes produce the finest layer with the surface roughness of 10.8 nm.

  10. Investigation of the cut-edge corrosion of organically-coated galvanized steel after accelerated atmospheric corrosion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Yıldız

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cut edge corrosion of organically coated (epoxy, polyurethane and polyester galvanized steel was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Measurements were performed on specimens that had been tested in an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test. The samples were subjected to 10 s fogging and 1 h awaiting cycles in an exposure cabinet (120 and 180 days with artificial acid rain solution. According to the investigation, the coatings were damaged from the cut edge into the sheet, this distance was about 0.8 cm. These defects were more pronounced at after 180 days in proportion to after 120 days.

  11. An Experiment to Explain Depth of Cut Notch Wear of Ceramic Tools in Ni- based Super-alloy Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inconel 718, a high temperature alloy, is extensive ly used in aircraft, gas engines and nuclear-power plants. It is generally known that the life of ceramic cutting tools in machining Inconel 718 is often restric ted by depth-of-cut (DOC) notch wear. In view of the number of various factors involved and the variety of tool materi als and cutting conditions available, the analysis of the DOC notch wear is very difficult. According to previous work concerning the DOC notch wear of ceramics tools, some A...

  12. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Peter P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  13. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-07-28

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O2 and high CO2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and non-conventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  14. Cassava starch coating and citric acid to preserve quality parameters of fresh-cut "Tommy Atkins" mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pereira, Leila M; Ferrari, Cristhiane C; Sarantópoulos, Claire I G L; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2010-06-01

    Combination of citric acid dipping (5 g/L) and cassava starch coating (10 g/L), with and without glycerol (10 g/L), was studied to verify the effectiveness of these treatments to inhibit enzymatic browning, to reduce respiration rate, and to preserve quality parameters of "Tommy Atkins" fresh-cut mangoes during storage at 5 degrees C. Color characteristics (L and C), mechanical properties (stress at failure), weight loss, beta-carotene content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated during 15 d. The respiration rate of fruit subjected to the treatments was also analyzed. Nontreated fresh-cut mango was used as a control sample. Cassava starch edible coatings and citric acid dipping promoted a decrease in respiration rate of mango slices, with values up to 41% lower than the control fruit. This treatment also promoted better preservation of texture and color characteristics of mangoes and delayed carotenoid formation and browning reactions during storage. Moreover, the treated fruit showed great sensory acceptance by consumers throughout the whole storage period. However, the use of glycerol in the coating formulation was not efficient in the maintenance of quality parameters of fresh-cut mangoes, promoting a higher weight loss of samples, impairing fruit texture characteristics, increasing carotenogenesis, and favoring microbial growth during storage.

  15. Effect of Rake Angle on Stress, Strain and Temperature on the Edge of Carbide Cutting Tool in Orthogonal Cutting Using FEM Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Yanda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Demand for higher productivity and good quality for machining parts has encourage many researchers to study the effects of machining parameters using FEM simulation using either two or three dimensions version. These are due to advantages such as software package and computational times are required. Experimental work is very costly, time consuming and labor intensive. The present work aims to simulate a three-dimensional orthogonal cutting operations using FEM software (Deform-3D to study the effects of rake angle on the cutting force, effective stress, strain and temperature on the edge of carbide cutting tool. There were seven runs of simulations. All simulations were performed for various rake angles of -15 deg, -10 deg, -5 deg, 0 deg, +5 deg, +10 deg, and +15 deg. The cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut (DOC were kept constant at 100 m/min, 0.35 mm/rev and 0.3 mm respectively. The work piece used was ductile cast iron FCD500 grade and the cutting tool was DNMA432 series (tungsten, uncoated carbide tool, SCEA = 0; and radius angle 55 deg. The analysis of results show that, the increase in the rake angle from negative to positive angle, causing the decrease in cutting force, effective stress and total Von Misses strain. The minimum of the cutting force, effective stress and total Von Misses strain were obtained at rake angle of +15 deg. Increasing the rake caused higher temperature generated on the edge of carbide cutting tool and resulted in bigger contact area between the clearance face and the workpiece, consequently caused more friction and wear. The biggest deformation was occurred in the primary deformation zone, followed by the secondary deformation zone. The highest stress was also occurred in the primary deformation zone. But the highest temperature on the chip usually occurs in secondary deformation zone, especially in the sliding region, because the heat that was generated in the sticking region increased as the workpiece was

  16. Studies of the frictional heating of polycrystalline diamond compact drag tools during rock cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, A.; Glowka, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    A numerical-analytical model is developed to analyze temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag tools subject to localized frictional heating at a worn flat area and convective cooling at exposed lateral surfaces. Experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficients of PDC cutters in a uniform crossflow are presented and used in the model to predict temperatures under typical drilling conditions with fluid flow. The analysis compares favorably with measurements of frictional temperatures in controlled cutting tests on Tennessee marble. It is found that average temperatures at the wearflat contact zone vary directly with frictional force per unit area and are proportional to the one-half power of the cutting speed at the velocities investigated. Temperatures are found to be much more sensitive to decreases in the dynamic friction by lubrication than to increases in convective cooling rates beyond currently achievable levels with water or drilling fluids. It is shown that use of weighted drilling fluids may actually decrease cooling rates compared to those achieved with pure water. It is doubtful that tool temperatures can be kept below critical levels (750/sup 0/C) if air is employed as the drilling fluid. The degree of tool wear is found to have a major influence on the thermal response of the friction contact zone, so that for equal heating per contact area, a worn tool will run much hotter than a sharp tool. It is concluded that tool temperatures may be kept below critical levels with conventional water or mud cooling as long as the fluid provides good cutter-rock lubrication.

  17. Research Progress and Application of Superhard Nano-Micron PVD Coating Technology in the Cutting Manufacturing Area%超硬纳微米PVD涂层技术在刀具领域的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张而耕; 朱州; 张体波

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The paper introduced the principle, characteristics, and advantages and disadvantages of three methods of vacuum evaporation, sputtering and ion plating in physical vapor deposition ( PVD) technology, and introduced the PVD coating technology that is widely used in cutting tools by four categories of binary, multiple coatings, multilayer coatings and nano multilayer composite coating. Based on a large amount of literature, combined with the author's experience in the research and application of PVD tech-nology for many years, the paper reviewed the research progress of superhard nano-micron PVD coating technology in the field of application of cutting tool from the most important perspective of improving the cutting tool life, and further discussed the multiple coating, multilayer coating and nanometer coating in details. Cutting tool surface with application of physical vapor deposition coa-ting technology enabled the tool to obtain excellent overall performance, which significantly improved the life of cutting tools, re-duced production costs, and increased the machining efficiency substantially. Finally, the paper forecasted the wide application of physical vapor deposition coating technology in composite superhard cutting ( including milling of mold steel, hardened steel whose hardness over HRC55 ) , cutting hard processing materials ( including high-temperature alloys, titanium alloy, stainless steel, etc. ) , machining and processing composite materials of graphite and carbon fiber, etc. and high-speedily machining non-ferrous metals ( including aluminum, copper alloys, nickel, etc. ) in the future.%介绍了物理气相沉积( PVD)技术的原理、特点和真空蒸镀、溅射镀和离子镀之间的优缺点,从二元涂层、多元涂层、多层涂层和纳米多层复合涂层等4种类别上介绍了PVD涂层技术在切削刀具上的广泛应用。在查阅和整理大量文献资料的基础上,也结合笔者多年从事PVD技术的

  18. The Properties and Applications of MoS2/Ti Composite Coatings in Dry Cutting and Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Zhang; Hailin Sun; D. Becker; S. Wagner; D.G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    MoS2/Ti composite coatings (MoSTM), have been deposited by a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion-plating system. The high ion-current densities at low substrate bias voltage of the system ensures that the MoSTTM coatings are characteristic of dense coherent structures, with high adhesion (critical scratch load above 120 N), high load bearing capacity up to 5 GPa., low friction (0.02-0.1), high wear resistance (less than 4xl0-17 m3/N m) even at a relative humidity of 40%, and high temperature resistance up to 350 ℃. The successful applications of MoSTTM coatings in largescale productions for dry cutting and forming, with increasing lifetime and productivity are presented.

  19. Wear Behaviour of Hard Cr Coatings for Cold Forming Tools Under Dry Sliding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitrović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cr hard coatings are largely used in industry in metal cutting and cold forming processes; This work on quantitative way represents improvement, in terms of wear resistance, which is obtained by depositing Cr hard coating on foundation material. Wear testing is done on tribometer with block –on –disc contact geometry at sliding contact of Cr hard coated sample with steel disc. Testing was performed in conditions without lubrication at variable value of contact parameters (normal load, sliding speed. Cr hard coatings in all contact conditions show smaller values of wear rate.

  20. A measurement method of cutting tool position for relay fabrication of microstructured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So

    2014-06-01

    By using the secondary function of a force sensor integrated fast tool servo (FTS) for surface profile measurement, the three-dimensional tip position of a micro-cutting tool in the FTS with respect to the fabricated microstructures was measured without using any additional instrument for realizing the concept of relay fabrication of microstructured surface. It was verified from the experiments for testing the basic performances of tool tip position measurement that the delay of the force feedback control loop of the FTS was a big factor influencing the position measurement accuracy. A bidirectional scanning strategy was then employed to reduce the position measurement error due to the delay of the feedback control loop. Tool tip position measurement experiments by using micro-tools with a nose radius of 100 µm for relay fabrications with sub-micrometer accuracies, including stitching fabrication of a micro-groove line array and filling fabrication of a microlens lattice pattern, were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the tool position measurement method.

  1. Knowledge base technology for CT-DIMS: Report 1. [CT-DIMS (Cutting Tool - Database and Information Management System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses progress on the Cutting Tool-Database and Information Management System (CT-DIMS) project being conducted by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) under contract to the Department of Energy. This project was initiated in October 1991 by UIUC. The Knowledge-Based Engineering Systems Research Laboratory (KBESRL) at UIUC is developing knowledge base technology and prototype software for the presentation and manipulation of the cutting tool databases at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The graphical tool selection capability being developed for CT-DIMS in the Intelligent Design Environment for Engineering Automation (IDEEA) will provide a concurrent environment for simultaneous access to tool databases, tool standard libraries, and cutting tool knowledge.

  2. INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL RISK ON THE METAL CUTTING MACHINE TOOL STAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes occupational risk at selected metal cutting machine tool stands (turning, milling, drilling and grinding stands and presents a set of recommendations formulated to minimize hazards at the above mentioned stands. The assessment is based on the analysis that allowed for selecting the best method of occupational risk assessment, measurements, observations, interviews and conclusions drawn from the obtained results. Occupational risk assessment forms were devised, what allowed for selecting appropriate action to increase the safety of selected machinery operators. The guidelines were assessed in terms of their practical implementation and expected utilitarian results.

  3. Ropossum: An Authoring Tool for Designing, Optimizing and Solving Cut the Rope Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We present a demonstration of Ropossum, an authoring tool for the generation and testing of levels of the physics-based game, Cut the Rope. Ropossum integrates many features: (1) automatic design of complete solvable content, (2) incorporation of designer’s input through the creation of complete...... or partial designs, (3) automatic check for playability and (4) optimization of a given design based on playability. The system includes a physics engine to simulate the game and an evolutionary framework to evolve content as well as an AI reasoning agent to check for playability. The system is optimised...

  4. On the application of response surface methodology for predicting and optimizing surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning by PVD coated insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessainia Zahia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the exploitation of the response surface methodology (RSM to determine optimum cutting conditions leading to minimum surface roughness and cutting force components. The technique of RSM helps to create an efficient statistical model for studying the evolution of surface roughness and cutting forces according to cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. For this purpose, turning tests of hardened steel alloy (AISI 4140 (56 HRC were carried out using PVD – coated ceramic insert under different cutting conditions. The equations of surface roughness and cutting forces were achieved by using the experimental data and the technique of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The obtained results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. It is shown that feed rate and depth of cut are the most influential factors on surface roughness and cutting forces, respectively. In addition, it is underlined that the surface roughness is mainly related to the cutting speed, whereas depth of cut has the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting forces. The optimal machining parameters obtained in this study represent reductions about 6.88%, 3.65%, 19.05% in cutting force components (Fa, Fr, Ft, respectively. The latters are compared with the results of initial cutting parameters for machining AISI 4140 steel in the hard turning process.

  5. Study of Development and Application of High-Speed Cutting Tool Materials%高速切削刀具材料的发展应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝溪明

    2012-01-01

    The development of high-speed cutting is an important trend of the modern machining technology, and high-speed cutting tool materials we important factors affect the development of the manu-facturing.The characteristics of high-speed cutting tool materials,and performance characteristics and application of the high-speed tool materials are described,such as hard alloy,ceramies ,diamond and CBN. And the future high-speed cutting tool material development trend is the outlook of future.Fine grain size and surface of coated hard alloy, alumina ceramic materials series as well as cubic boron nitride (CBN )are the future direction of the development of high-speed cutting tool material.According to the characteristics of high-speed cutting tool materials, applications and their development status,some suggestions for its future development are put forward.%发展高速切削是现代切削加工技术的重要趋势,高速切削刀具材料也是影响制造业发展的重要因素.介绍了高速切削刀具材料的特点,具体分析了高速切削加工常见刀具材料硬质合金、陶瓷、金刚石类材料的特性、发展及其应用,并对未来高速切削刀具材料的发展趋势进行了展望.细晶和表面涂层硬质合金材料、氧化铝各系列陶瓷材料以及立方氮化硼(CBN)金刚石类材料是未来高速切削刀具材料发展的方向.根据高速切削刀具材料的特点,应用场合及其发展状态,对其未来的发展提出一些建议.

  6. Machinability of Hastelloy C-276 Using Hot-pressed Sintered Ti(C7N3)-based Cermet Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kaitao; ZOU Bin; HUANG Chuanzhen; YAO Yang; ZHOU Huijun; LIU Zhanqiang

    2015-01-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent fallure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59mm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  8. Experimental Investigation on Increasing Milling Tool Life by Variable Cutting Depth Manufacturing%利用变切深法提高铣刀耐用度的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁野; 杨后川; 崔季

    2013-01-01

    采用涂层硬质合金刀具对Aer Metl00超高强度钢和TB6钛合金分别进行固定切深和变切深铣削实验,对比分析了固定切深和变切深两种铣削方式对刀具耐用度的影响.结果表明:固定切深产生边界磨损,而变切深产生均匀磨损,采用变切深方法加工Aer Met100钢和TB6钛合金,提高刀具的耐用度可提高50%以上.%Two different milling experiments (fixed cutting depth and variable cutting depth) on Aer Met 100 super high strength steel and TB6 titanium alloy are carried out by using coated cemented carbide tools. The effects on tool life by fixed depth cutting and variable depth cutting are analyzed. The results show that the boundary wear appears when the fixed cutting depth is used, while the u-niform wear appears when the variable cutting depth is used. The variable cutting depth is applied to milling Aer Met 100 steel and TB6 titanium alloy, the tool life can be improved more than 50%.

  9. Investigation on SS316, SS440C, and Titanium Alloy Grade-5 used as Single Point Cutting Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Kothakota Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to find alternative materials for the cutting tools used in turning operations. The conventional materials like tungsten carbide(WC, titanium carbide(TiC, cubic boron nitride (CBN and diamond used as cutting tools for turning operations on lathe are expensive. Titanium grade 5 (Ti-6Al-4V, SS440C/AISI440C and SS316 are some of the materials which satisfy the necessary requirements for turning metals and polymer materials. These materials are machined as per the standard tool signature of high-speed steel tool (HSS and are subjected to necessary heat treatment for hardening and then finish ground. The machined tools thus prepared were used to turn mild steel and aluminium workpieces. The cutting forces at play are determined using lathe tool dynamometer and plotted on a MCD (Merchant’s Circle Diagram. The cutting tools are also subjected to tests to determine tool life, wear and work hardening. It is found that the performance and tool life of SS440C is better and cost effective compared to existing tools. Even though Ti-6Al-4V is comparatively costly it could be used for obtaining good surface finish.

  10. Application of Hard Coatings for Improved Tribological Performance of Blanking and Piercing Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    /piercing applications, even on softer tool steels, thus leading to reduced friction and wear as well as to lower costs of the tool. However, preparation of the substrate material and good coating to substrate adhesion are crucial. On the other hand, even with the use of low friction coating (DLC) stamping force exceeds...

  11. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 with CBN tool

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Aouici; M A Yallese; A Belbah; M F Ameur; M Elbah

    2013-06-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, on the six performance outputs-surface roughness parameters and cutting force components, are explored by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model. Results show how much surface roughness is mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting speed. The depth of cut exhibits maximum influence on cutting force components as compared to the feed rate and cutting speed.

  12. Investigation of surface finishing of carbon based coated tools for dry deep drawing of aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J.; Andreas, K.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    Global trends like growing environmental awareness and demand for resource efficiency motivate an abandonment of lubricants in metal forming. However, dry forming evokes increased friction and wear. Especially, dry deep drawing of aluminum alloys leads to intensive interaction between tool and workpiece due to its high adhesion tendency. One approach to improve the tribological behavior is the application of carbon based coatings. These coatings are characterized by high wear resistance. In order to investigate the potential of carbon based coatings for dry deep drawing, friction and wear behavior of different coating compositions are evaluated in strip drawing tests. This setup is used to model the tribological conditions in the flange area of deep drawing operations. The tribological behavior of tetrahedral amorphous (ta-C) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with and without tungsten modification (a-C:H:W, a-C:H) is investigated. The influence of tool topography is analyzed by applying different surface finishing. The results show reduced friction with decreased roughness for coated tools. Besides tool topography the coating type determines the tribological conditions. Smooth tools with ta-C and a-C:H coatings reveal low friction and prevent adhesive wear. In contrast, smooth a-C:H:W coated tools only lead to slight improvement compared to rough, uncoated specimen.

  13. Cut It Up and Put It Back Together: Cut-up and Collage as Tools to Overcome Academic Deadlock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager-Elsborg, Anna; Loads, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    This ‘On the Horizon’ paper concerns creativity in the research process as a way to overcome unhelpful pre-understandings and ‘false clarity’. This paper gives an idea of how we can allow research to be as complex and messy as reality. Cut-up and collage are introduced and suggested as a way of l...

  14. Combined effects of sodium chlorite dip treatment and chitosan coatings on the quality of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chlorite (SC) alone and its sequential treatment with edible coatings on browning inhibition and quality maintenance of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears. Edible coatings were prepared from chitosan (CH) and its water soluble derivative: carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH...

  15. Analysis of methods for determining cutting resistance of tools on the shearer drum of a shearer loader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Maszyn Gorniczych, Przerobczych i Automatyki)

    1989-01-01

    Comparatively evaluates methods for determining resistance of coal cut by a single radial or tangential tool on the shearer of a shearer loader. Methods developed by Bieron, Ewans, Nishimatsu and Merchants as well as empirical methods used in Poland are analyzed. Evaluations show that none of the methods is a universal method. The method of empirical formulae should be used for optimization of shearer loader drive systems. Ewans' method should be used for determining cutting resistance of brittle rocks when tangential tools are used. Bieron's and Nishimatsu's methods are used for radial tools and firm coal with plastic properties. Merchants' and Bieron's methods for determining coal resistance to cutting by tangential tools produce inaccurate results. 14 refs.

  16. IMPACT OF DEPTH OF CUT ON CHIP FORMATION IN AZ91HP MAGNESIUM ALLOY MILLING WITH TOOLS OF VARYING CUTTING EDGE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gziut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety of Mg milling processes can be expressed by means of the form and the number of fractions of chips formed during milling. This paper presents the state of the art of magnesium alloys milling technology in the aspect of chip fragmentation. Furthermore, the impact of the depth of cut ap and the rake angle γ on the number of chip fractions was analysed in the study. These were conducted on AZ91HP magnesium cast alloy and milling was performed with carbide tools of varying rake angle values (γ = 5º and γ = 30º. It was observed that less intense chip fragmentation occurs with decreasing depth of cut ap. The number of chip fractions was lower at the tool rake angle of γ = 30º. The test results were formulated as technological recommendations according to the number of generated chip fractions.

  17. Analysis of Roughness and Flank Wear in Turning Gray Cast Iron Using Cryogenically Treated Cutting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Ramji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the flank wear and surface roughness in turning gray cast iron using cryogenically treated carbide inserts. Turning experiments were conducted with cutting velocities: 53, 85, 99, 149 m/sec, feeds: 0.12, 0.16, 0.2, 0.24 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut: 1.5 mm. The specimens were turned using cryogenically treated and non-treated carbide inserts. The cryogenic treatment cycle consisted of cooling the test samples from room temperature to cryogenic temperature of -178.9 C in 3 h, soaking at cryogenic tem perature around 24 h and warming to room temperature in about 5 h. The surface roughness (Ra, R z, Rq and Rt :m of the turned specimens was measured using talysurf and flank wear of the tool was measured using toolm akers microscope. The experimental layout was designed based on the Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array technique and ANOVA was performed to identify the effect of the parameters on the response variables. Cryogenically treated inserts proved superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser flank wear of the inserts and reduced surface roughness of the specimens. The after turned inserts w ere examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy for studying the flank wear mechanism.

  18. A study of the influence of cutting parameters on micromilling of steel with cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Quito, Fernando; Arntz, Kristian; Souza, Alexandre

    2009-02-01

    It has been concluded in previous studies that Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) tools have greater wear resistance and superior tool life than other tool materials used in conventional milling, due to chemically stability at high temperatures, high abrasive wear resistance and high degree of hardness; however no research has been conducted about its performance on micro milling. Burr formation has a direct negative effect on product quality and assembly automation in micro milling, therefore adoption of machining strategies and influencing factors were investigated intending to reduce burr formation. This paper also aims at analyzing the interference of cutting parameters on micro milling with CBN tools, such as the influence of cutting speed and feed per tooth on the surface quality and tool life. These outcomes enable us to know which parameters and strategies must be used to achieve better results when micro milling steel with CBN tools.

  19. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  20. The Cutting Front Side Geometry in The Applications of D3 Cold Work Tool Steel Material Via Abrasive Water Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan AKKURT

    2013-01-01

    Abrasive water jet cutting that is used as cold cutting technology in industrial applications is preferred as most productive method when especially metallurgic and mechanic specialties of materials are taken into consideration. When the surface quality, speed of processing period and part cost are taken into consideration, which are targeted in D3 cold work tool steel materials used frequently in especially metal industry, it appears that the most appropriate method is ab...

  1. Cracking caused by cutting of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings and its relation to the structural features of coatings deposited at different initial substrate temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Bojan R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the cracking phenomenon in as-plasma-sprayed hydroxylapatite coatings (HACs after they were being subjected to the severe cutting conditions in the direction perpendicular to the coating/substrate interface. In order to evaluate the effects of substrate preheating on the occurrence of micro-cracks, the HACs were deposited at different initial substrate temperatures (TS = 20, 100 and 200°C. The changes in phase composition and HA splat morphology with TS were observed and were correlated with the cracking occurrence. The results showed that severe cutting conditions introduced a localized cracking in the regions of HACs dominantly attributed to the brittle hydroxyl-deficient amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP phase. This effect was particularly observable in the HACs deposited without preheating of substrate. On the other hand, the preheating of substrate reduced the presence of micro-cracks and caused insignificant changes in the average local phase composition. In HACs deposited with preheating of substrate, the HA splats (of which HACs are composed were thinner and recrystallized HA regions seemed smaller in size and more evenly distributed. These results implied potentially important roles of the HA splat formation mechanism on the distribution of ACP and recrystallized HA regions in the as-plasma-sprayed HACs and the cracking resistance of HACs. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 34022

  2. Using 3D Microscopy to Analyze Experimental Cut Marks on Animal Bones Produced with Different Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Moretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate  bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experimental tools. The first series involved one single stroke; the second, two strokes in the same direction; and the third, multiple strokes using a to-and-fro movement. We analyzed the striations using a Hirox 3D digital microscope (KH-7700 and collected metric and profile data on the morphology of the cut marks. In order to describe the shape of each cross section, we calculated the ratio between the breadth at the top and the breadth at the floor of cut marks. Preliminary results show that both the tool type and the method of creating the cut mark influence the shape of the resulting groove. In our experiment, morphological parameters can be used to differentiate between marks produced using un-retouched flint flakes and those produced using burins. However, neither morphological nor morphometric analysis allows us to identify the mechanical motion used to produce the cuts, nor the state of the bone (fresh, boiled, or dry at the moment of marking. 

  3. Application of Hard Coatings for Improved Tribological Performance of Blanking and Piercing Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podgornik, B.; Zajec, B.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the possibility of reducing lubrication and replacing expensive tungsten carbide material in blanking/piercing through introduction of hard tool coatings. Results show that hard PVD coatings can be successfully used in blanking/piercing...... critical value under dry friction conditions and leads to tool failure. Therefore, at present oxidation and temperature resistant hard coatings can give improved wear resistance of stamping tools, but elimination of lubricants in blanking and piercing processes is still not feasible....

  4. Effect of tool geometry and cutting parameters on delamination and thrust forces in drilling CFRP/Al-Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouami, Souhail; Habak, Malek; Franz, Gérald; Velasco, Raphaël; Vantomme, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used for structural parts in the aeronautic industries. Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) are often used in combination with metallic materials, mostly aluminium alloys. This raises new problems in aircraft assembly. Delamination is one of these problems. In this study, CFRP/Al-Li stacks is used as experimental material for investigation effect of interaction of cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) and tool geometry on delamination and thrust forces in drilling operation. A plan of experiments, based on Taguchi design method, was employed to investigate the influence of tool geometry and in particular the point angle and cutting parameters on delamination and axial effort. The experimental results demonstrate that the feed rate is the major parameter and the importance of tool point angle in delamination and thrust forces in the stacks were shown.

  5. Structure of TiBN coatings deposited onto cemented carbides and sialon tool ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Staszuk; J. Konieczny; W. Kwaśny; M. Pawlyta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was investigated structure of sintered carbides WC-Co type and sialon tool ceramics with wear resistance ternary coatings TiBN type deposited by cathodes arc evaporation process (CAE-PVD).Design/methodology/approach: Observation of fracture and topography studied coatings were done by scanning electron microscope. Chemical composition was determine by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) method. Thin foils of substrates and coatings by transmission electron micr...

  6. On the Problem of Wear Resistant Coatings Separation From Tools and Machine Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gubaidulina, R. H.; Gruby, S. V.; Likholat, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article considers separation of wear resistant coatings of tool and engineering materials which arises both during coating fabrication and use of the product. The cause of this phenomenon is assumed to be related to thermal residual stresses generating on the coating- substrate border. These stresses have been analyzed and methods are provided to calculate it after produced composite material is cooled down from the temperature of coating synthesis to the ambient temperature. A no-fracture condition has been stated in relation to coating- substrate thicknesses, temperature differences and physical and mechanical properties of combined materials. The issue of intermediate layer incorporation with pre-set parameters has been discussed. A co-effect of thermal residual and functional stresses on the strength of the boundary layer has been considered when heating, tension and compression of a product with wear resistant coating. Conclusions have been made, as well as recommendations to improve fracture strength of products with thin wear resistant coatings.

  7. Wear of soft tool materials in sliding contact with zinc coated steel sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Burlat, M.; Bolt, P.J.; Schipper, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce costs of tooling for press operations, efforts are made to use alternative tool materials like wood or plastic. Friction and wear characteristics in sliding contact with zinc-coated steel sheet could, however, limit the applicability of these tool materials for automotive applicat

  8. 切削淬硬合金钢42CrMo的PCBN刀具磨损机理研究%Research on Cutting Speed and Cutting Temperature of Cutting Hardened Steel 42CrMo with PCBN Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振国; 李旗号

    2011-01-01

    进行了PCBN刀具切削淬硬合金钢42CrMo的实验.通过JSM649OLV型扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察PCBN刀具的磨损,利用INCA能量分散光谱仪(EDS)分析了刀具磨损面的金属元素成分,对刀具磨损的机理进行分析和探讨.通过对比几种切削速度下刀具的磨损量,获得切削速度的最佳值.%This paper deals with the experiment of hardened steel 42CrMo with PCBN cutting tool, using JSM6490LV type scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe PCBN tool wear and using scattered INCA energy spectrometer (EDS) to analyze the metal elements in tool wear, and tool wear mechanism was analysised and discussed. Through comparing with tool wear quantity under several cutting speeds, the optimal cutting speed was obtained.

  9. Effects of pulsed light treatments and pectin edible coatings on the quality of fresh-cut apples: a hurdle technology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, María R; Álvarez, María V; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed light (PL) treatments stand as an alternative for the shelf-life extension of fresh-cut products. The antimicrobial effects of PL are well known; however, its influence on quality attributes needs to be assessed. This study was aimed at evaluating the application of PL treatments in combination with pectin-based edible coatings enriched with dietary fiber for the preservation of fresh-cut apples. Dipping of fresh-cut apples in ascorbic acid/calcium chloride solution prior to pectin coating and PL treatments was effective to minimize browning and softening of apple surfaces. Incorporation of fiber in the pectin coating did not cause any change in microbial loads and sensory acceptability of apple cubes. Pectin-coated PL-treated apple pieces exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity values than fresh and PL control samples. At the end of storage, the combination of both treatments resulted in an almost 2 log CFU g(-1) reduction of microbial counts. Sensory attribute scores did not fall below the rejection limit throughout 14 days, although the presence of off-odors limited the acceptability of the pectin-coated samples. The results demonstrate that PL treatments applied to pectin-coated fresh-cut apples may be used to maintain quality attributes, thus conferring prebiotic potential and extending the shelf-life of the product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Performance evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication by vegetable oil in terms of cutting force, cutting zone temperature,tool wear, job dimension and surface finish in turning AISI-1060 steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAN M.M.A.; DHAR N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In all machining processes, tool wear is a natural phenomenon and it leads to tool failure. The growing demands for high productivity of machining need use of high cutting velocity and feed rate. Such machining inherently produces high cutting temperature, which not only reduces tool life but also impairs the product quality. Metal cutting fluid changes the performance of machining operations because of their lubrication, cooling and chip flushing functions, but the use of cutting fluid has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. The minimization of cutting fluid also leads to economical benefits by way of saving lubricant costs and workpiece/tool/machine cleaning cycle time. The concept of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) has been suggested since a decade ago as a means of addressing the issues of environmental intrusiveness and occupational hazards associated with the airborne cutting fluid particles on factory shop floors. This paper deals with experimental investigation on the role of MQL by vegetable oil on cutting temperature, tool wear, surface roughness and dimensional deviation in turning AISI-1060 steel at industrial speed-feed combinations by uncoated carbide insert. The encouraging results include significant reduction in tool wear rate, dimensional inaccuracy and surface roughness by MQL mainly through reduction in the cutting zone temperature and favorable change in the chip-tool and work-tool interaction.

  11. Diamond and cBN hybrid and nanomodified cutting tools with enhanced performance: Development, testing and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The potential of enhancement of superhard steel and cast iron cutting tool performance on the basis of microstuctural modifications of the tool materials is studied. Hybrid machining tools with mixed diamond and cBN grains, as well as machining tool with composite nanomodified metallic binder...... are developed, and tested experimentally and numerically. It is demonstrated that both combination of diamond and cBN (hybrid structure) and nanomodification of metallic binder (with hexagonal boron nitride/hBN platelets) lead to sufficient improvement of the cast iron machining performance. The superhard tools...... compared to the tool with the original binder. Computational model of hybrid superhard tools is developed, and applied to the analysis of structure-performance relationships of the tools....

  12. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  13. Electrospark deposition coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, W. F.

    1986-11-01

    Hard surfacing for wear resistant and low-friction coatings has been improved by means of advances in the computer controls in electronic circuitry of the electrospark deposition (ESD) process. coatings of nearly any electrically conductive metal alloy or cermet can be deposited on conductive materials. Thickness is usually two mils or less, but can be as high as 10 mils. ESD coatings can quadrupole cutting tool life.

  14. High Speed Cutting Inconel 718 with Coated Carbide and Ceramic Inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    High speed machining (HSM) technology is one of important aspects of advanced manufacturing technology. Nickel-based superalloys have been widely used in the aircraft and nuclear industry due to their exceptional thermal resistance and the ability to retain mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of service environment over 700 ℃. However, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials due to their high shear strength, work hardening tendency, highly abrasive carbide particles in the microstructur...

  15. A Study on Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Cutting of Inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Haidong; Zou Ping; Ma Wenbin; Zhou Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a kind of nickel-based alloys that are widely used in the aerospace and nuclear industry owing to their high temperature mechanical properties. Cutting of Inconel 718 in conventional cutting (CC) is a big challenge in modern industry. Few researches have been studied on cutting of Inconel 718 using single point diamond tool applying the UEVC method. This paper shows an experimental study on UEVC of Inconel 718 by using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) coated tools. Firstly, cuttin...

  16. Research on the Performance of Solid Lubricating Coating Tool Based on DEFORM-3 D%基于 DEFORM-3 D的固体润滑涂层刀具性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯锁霞; 高辉; 贾晓鸣

    2013-01-01

    基于固体润滑技术、刀具热传导理论以及网格重划技术,建立了刀具-工件的DEFORM-3D有限元模型,对MoS2、WS2、Sb2 O3固体润滑涂层的高速钢刀具切削加工过程进行仿真。通过与切削试验的对比,验证了不同进给量、切削深度下的切削力、切削温度变化规律的仿真结果的准确性。结果表明:该固体润滑涂层应用于中低速干切削中,可有效降低切削热和切削力、延长刀具使用寿命。%Basing on solid lubrication technology,tool thermal conduction theory and remeshing technique,DEFORM-3D finite element model of tool-part was established,and the cutting processes of new coated high-speed steel tools with MoS2 ,WS2 and Sb2 O3 were simulated. By contrast with the cutting test,the accuracies of the variations of cutting force and cutting temperature in different feed rate or back cutting depth were verified. Simulation results show that the new type of coating can reduce the cutting heat and cut-ting force of tools and extend tool life in dry cutting at middle-low speed effectively.

  17. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  18. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  19. An Approach to the Classification of Cutting Vibration on Machine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng-Fung Chen; Shih-Kuei Lo; Quang Hung Do

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of cutting vibrations are necessary for improving the operational efficiency, product quality, and safety in the machining process, since the vibration is the main factor for resulting in machine faults. “Cutting vibration” may be caused by setting incorrect parameters before machining is commenced and may affect the precision of the machined work piece. This raises the need to have an effective model that can be used to predict cutting vibrations. In this study, an artificial neu...

  20. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers: A Versatile Tool for Preparing Antimicrobial Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séon, Lydie; Lavalle, Philippe; Schaaf, Pierre; Boulmedais, Fouzia

    2015-12-01

    The prevention of pathogen colonization of medical implants represents a major medical and financial issue. The development of antimicrobial coatings aimed at protecting against such infections has thus become a major field of scientific and technological research. Three main strategies are developed to design such coatings: (i) the prevention of microorganisms adhesion and the killing of microorganisms (ii) by contact and (iii) by the release of active compounds in the vicinity of the implant. Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) technology alone covers the entire widespread spectrum of functionalization possibilities. PEMs are obtained through the alternating deposition of polyanions and polycations on a substrate, and the great advantages of PEMs are that (i) they can be applied to almost any type of substrate whatever its shape and composition; (ii) various chemical, physicochemical, and mechanical properties of the coatings can be obtained; and (iii) active compounds can be embedded and released in a controlled manner. In this article we will give an overview of the field of PEMs applied to the design of antimicrobial coatings, illustrating the large versatility of the PEM technology.

  1. Evaluation of stability for monolayer injection molding tools coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    We tested and characterized molecular coating of Aluminium and Nickel prototype molds and mold inserts for polymer replication via injection molding (IM). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, sessile drop contact angles with multiple fluids, surface energy and roughness data have been...... and especially suitable for rapid prototyping and mold geometry testing....

  2. Wear Behavior of Uncoated and Coated Tools under Complex Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry crash relevant structures of the body in white are manufactured using the direct hot stamping process. Due to the high temperature difference between the hot blank and the cold tool surfaces and the relative movement between the blank and the tool surfaces during the forming operation, high thermal and mechanical loads are applied on the tool leading to excessive wear in terms of adhesion on the tool surfaces. One possibility to reduce wear of hot stamping tools is the application of tool coating systems. In the scope of this work uncoated and coated tools are characterized under complex loading conditions with respect to adhesive layer build-up.

  3. Precision-cut tissue slices as a tool to predict metabolism of novel drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Precision-cut tissue slices have been applied by many researchers because they represent an organ mini-model that closely resembles the organ from which it is prepared, with all cell types present in their original tissue-matrix configuration. Preparation and incubation methods of precision-cut tiss

  4. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  5. Thermally Sprayed Coatings as Effective Tool Surfaces in Sheet Metal Forming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, V.; Witulski, J.; Brosius, A.; Trompeter, M.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2011-06-01

    Two approaches to produce wear-resistant effective surfaces for deep drawing tools by thermal arc wire spraying of hard materials are presented. Arc wire spraying is a very economic coating technique due to a high deposition rate. The coated surface is very rough compared to that of conventional sheet metal forming tools. In the first approach, the coated surface is smoothed in a subsequent CNC-based incremental roller burnishing process. In this process, the surface asperities on the surface are flattened, and the roughness is significantly reduced. In the second approach, the hard material coatings are not sprayed directly on the tool but on a negative mould. Afterward, the rough "as-sprayed" side of the coating is backfilled with a polymer. The bonded hard metal shell is removed from the negative mould and acts as the surface of the hybrid sheet metal forming tool. Sheet metal forming experiments using tools based on these two approaches demonstrate that they are suitable to form high-strength steels. Owing to a conventional body of steel or cast iron, the first approach is suitable for large batch sizes. The application of the second approach lies within the range of small up to medium batch size productions.

  6. Adhesion strength of sputtered TiAlN-coated WC insert tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budi, Esmar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No. 10, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md. [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka Karung Berkunci No 1752 Pejabat Pos Durian Tunggal 76109 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2013-09-09

    The adhesion strength of TiAlN coating that deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering on WC insert tool are studied. TiAlN coating are deposited on Tungsten Carbide (WC) insert tool by varying negatively substrate bias from 79 to 221 volt and nitrogen flow rate from 30 to 72 sccm. The adhesion strength are obtained by using Rockwell indentation test method with a Brale diamond at applied load of 60,100 and 150 kgf. The lateral diameter of indentation is plotted on three different applied loads and the adhesion strength of TiAlN coating was obtained from the curved slopes at 100 and 150 kgf. The lower curve slop indicated better adhesion strength. The results shows that the adhesion strength of sputterred TiAlN coating tend to increase as the negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate are increased.

  7. The Pollen Coat Proteome: At the Cutting Edge of Plant Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tapetum is a single layer of secretory cells which encloses the anther locule and sustains pollen development and maturation. Upon apoptosis, the remnants of the tapetal cells, consisting mostly of lipids and proteins, fill the pits of the sculpted exine to form the bulk of the pollen coat. This extracellular matrix forms an impermeable barrier that protects the male gametophyte from water loss and UV light. It also aids pollen adhesion and hydration and retains small signaling compounds involved in pollen–stigma communication. In this study, we have updated the list of the pollen coat’s protein components and also discussed their functions in the context of sexual reproduction

  8. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  9. Development of an artificial vision system for the automatic evaluation of the cutting angles of worn tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Campatelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new method to evaluate the geometry of dull cutting tools in order to verify the necessity of tool re-sharpening and to decrease the tool grinding machine setup time, based on a laser scanning approach. The developed method consists of the definition of a system architecture and the programming of all the algorithms needed to analyze the data and provide, as output, the cutting angles of the worn tool. These angles are usually difficult to be measured and are needed to set up the grinding machine. The main challenges that have been dealt with in this application are related to the treatment of data acquired by the system’s cameras, which must be specific for the milling tools, usually characterized by the presence of undercuts and sharp edges. Starting from the architecture of the system, an industrial product has been designed, with the support of a grinding machine manufacturer. The basic idea has been to develop a low-cost system that could be integrated on a tool sharpening machine and interfaced with its numeric control. The article reports the developed algorithms and an example of application.

  10. Observation of Built-up Edge Formation on a Carbide Cutting Tool with Machining Aluminium Alloy under Dry and Wet Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan U.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the morphology of built-up edge (BUE formation under wet and dry conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected for this work were aluminium alloy and canela carbide inserts graded PM25. The cutting tools underwent turning operation machining tests and their performance was evaluated by the flank wear and observation of the tool wear area. The machining tests were conducted at different spindle speeds and feed rates while the cut depth was kept constant. The analysis showed that formation of the BUE was dominant at low cutting speeds in dry conditions, but in wet conditions at high cutting speeds, a better performance was exhibited in terms of wear analysis.

  11. Thermo-radiative and optical properties of a cutting tool based on polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Arrieta, I.; Echániz, T.; Pérez-Sáez, R. B.; Tello, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of a cutting tool based on polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) between 400 °C and 1000 °C has been measured. Its shape shows significant differences with respect to that of pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN). Therefore, while the reflectance spectrum of pure c-BN can be fitted to a Lorentz model for linear dielectrics, the reflectance spectrum of the cutting tool (calculated from the emissivity using Kirchhoff’s laws) requires a combination of a four-parameter Kurosawa model with a double-damping Drude one. A detailed study of the dependence of the emissivity spectrum with temperature is also performed. The experimental data of this paper is required for accurate temperature measurements with radiation thermometers in machining processes.

  12. 先进CNC复合加工刀具和复合切削技术%Summarization of Advanced CNC Composite Cutting Tools and Composite Cutting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平亮

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and application area of advanced CNC composite machining tools in Germany, Japan, Italy and other countries were introduced. The essential hardware, software and expected result of CNC composite cutting technology were expounded. Development of the new CNC composite processing technology in future was proposed.%介绍了德国、日本、意大利等国生产的先进的CNC复合加工刀具的特点与应用范围,阐明了CNC复合切削技术必要的硬软件及期望达到的效果,并提出今后CNC复合加工技术发展方向.

  13. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oezek, Cebeli [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  14. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2017-05-19

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  15. 硬质合金孔加工刀具的技术进展%Technical Development of Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools for Hole Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王弢; 柯亚仕; 周一丹

    2011-01-01

    The types of cutting tools for hole machining commonly used in modem manufacturing techniques, carbide cutting tool materials and preparations were introduced briefly. Taking drill as an example, the influences of tool parameters design, edge grinding and cutting edge preparation technology on cutting performance were analyzed. The developing trends of cemented carbide cutting tools for hole machining were summarized.%简要介绍了现代制造技术中常用孔加工刀具的种类、硬质合金刀具的材料与制备.以钻头为例,分析了刀具参数、刃磨、刃口钝化技术对切削性能的影响,综述了硬质合金孔加工刀具技术的发展趋势.

  16. Removal Tools are Faster and Produce Less Force and Torque on the Helmet Than Cutting Tools During Face-Mask Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Heather L; Valovich, Tamara C; Arnold, Brent L; Gansneder, Bruce M

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the retraction time, forces, and torques applied to the football helmet during removal of the face mask with different face-mask removal tools. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects retracted the face mask of a football helmet mounted to a force platform in a laboratory setting. They removed a standard face mask by cutting or removing (or both) the lateral plastic loop straps using 4 different tools: the Trainer's Angel (TA), FM Extractor (FM), power screwdriver (SD), and Quick Release System (QR) in a counterbalanced fashion. SUBJECTS: Eighteen certified athletic trainers participated in this study. MEASUREMENTS: We started measuring time when the subject picked up the tool and ended when the face mask was in a fully retracted position. Maximum forces and torques were measured from the force platform during the retraction process. RESULTS: The SD and QR retracted the face mask significantly faster than the TA and FM. Forces producing superior-inferior translation were least with the SD. The SD and QR produced less lateral translation and rotation and lateral flexion moment than the TA and FM. The FM produced less torque in the lateral flexion moment than the TA. CONCLUSIONS: Tools that removed the loop straps (SD, QR) were faster and produced less force and torque on the helmet than the tools that cut through the loop straps (TA, FM).

  17. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  18. A comparative investigation of bone surface after cutting with mechanical tools and Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Won; Deibel, Waldemar; Marinov, Dilyan; Griessen, Mathias; Dard, Michel; Bruno, Alfredo; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Cattin, Philippe; Juergens, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Despite of the long history of medical application, laser ablation of bone tissue became successful only recently. Laser bone cutting is proven to have higher accuracy and to increase bone healing compared to conventional mechanical bone cutting. But the reason of subsequent better healing is not biologically explained yet. In this study we present our experience with an integrated miniaturized laser system mounted on a surgical lightweight robotic arm. An Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome were used for comparison. In six grown up female Göttingen minipigs, comparative surgical interventions were done on the edentulous mandibular ridge. Our laser system was used to create different shapes of bone defects on the left side of the mandible. On the contralateral side, similar bone defects were created by PZE osteotome. Small bone samples were harvested to compare the immediate post-operative cut surface. The analysis of the cut surface of the laser osteotomy and conventional mechanical osteotomy revealed an essential difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed biologically open cut surfaces from the laser osteotomy. The samples from PZE osteotomy showed a flattened tissue structure over the cut surface, resembling the "smear layer" from tooth preparation. We concluded that our new finding with the mechanical osteotomy suggests a biological explanation to the expected difference in subsequent bone healing. Our hypothesis is that the difference of surface characteristic yields to different bleeding pattern and subsequently results in different bone healing. The analyses of bone healing will support our hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  20. 硬质合金刀具钎焊后性能变化的研究%Changes in properties of carbide cutting tools after being brazed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽杰; 王贵成; 王冬

    2001-01-01

    对硬质合金刀具钎焊前后的硬度、裂纹形成及变化、焊缝质量和切削性能等进行了大量的试验研究.结果表明:硬质合金刀具钎焊后硬度下降范围在HRA1以内;采用延长钎焊后保温时间和增加补偿垫片均可以减少或避免刀具表面裂纹的产生;对18CrMnTi渗碳淬火齿轮(HRC55~58)单齿侧刃铣削中钎焊刀具的切削性能同机夹刀具相比无明显差异.它为硬质合金钎焊刀具在精密切削FMS和其他自动化加工中的广泛应用提供了实验和理论依据.%Presents the experimental tests run on hardness of carbide cutting tools before and after being brazed, initiation and propagation of cracks in them, quality of weld and cutting performance of these cutting tools, and the experimental test results which show that the reduction in hardness of carbide cutting tools after being brazed is within HRA1, the initiation of cracks in the surface of cutting tools can be reduced or eliminated by prolonging the holding time for the cutting tools after being brazed and adding shims, and the cutting performance of brazed cutting tools with single cutting edge made of 18CrMnTi is similar to that of fixed machining cutting tool.

  1. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  2. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.T. de

    1998-01-01

    Titanium-nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  3. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test techniqu

  4. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.T. de

    1998-01-01

    Titanium-nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test techniqu

  5. VACUUM BRAZING OF ULTRASONIC CUTTING TOOL%超声切割刀具的真空钎焊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会杰; 顾世鹏; 李广

    2000-01-01

    Vacuum brazing technology of a type of ultrasonic cutting tool is introduced in this paper. The main contents are composed of brazing riller metal, brazing method and brazing procedure. The cutting tool is made of high - speed tool - steel blade and titanium ahoy tool carrier. The brazing filler metal is Ag - Cu eutectic alloy. The brazing parameters are vacuum 7.5 ×Pa,brazing temperature 830 ℃ ,temperature holding time 10 min。%介绍了超声切割刀具的真空钎焊技术,主要内容包括钎焊材料、钎焊方法和钎焊工艺。刀具由高速钢刀片和钛合金刀杆组成,所用钎料为Ag-Cu共晶钎料。钎焊工艺参数为:真空度7.5 xPa,钎焊温度830℃,保温时间10 min。

  6. Development of a Metal Cutting Tool Fase in Order to Create the Conditions of Ringed Chips Wrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Chernysheva, T.; Ivanov, G.; Korchuganov, M.

    2016-08-01

    When processing ductile metals with high cutting speed, there is a need to take additional measures for a comfortable and safe formation and removal of chips. In the conditions of large-scale manufacture, it is recommended to produce flow chips in the form of short fragments, while in the conditions of small-lot and single-piece manufacture, it is reasonable to wrap the chips spirally with a rather small turn radius. Such way of chips formation reduces the time of its removal from the working area as well as facilitates its transportation and processing. In order to solve the problem of chip wrapping and breakage, almost all modern manufacturers of tools with replaceable many-sided plates (RMSP) followed the way of complication of tool faces and determination of the areas of effective chip breaking. On the one hand, the suggested solution turns out to be effective; however, as showed the analysis of recommended cutting modes for complex forms of RMSP made by leading manufacturers, they all correspond to the definite cross section of the cut-layer S/t=0.1.

  7. A Hard Sell: Factors Influencing the Interwar Adoption of Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools in Germany, Britain, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Hermione

    2015-10-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools-virtually unknown to historians-came on the market in the late 1920s. Although existing literature alleges that their adoption was rapid and universal, contemporary data indicate that the rate of adoption in fact took many decades and varied greatly between the world's three leading industrialized economies of the time: Germany, England, and the United States. This article suggests that the explanation lies in differing national environments for innovation in the interwar period. It looks at many features that influence adoption by users and argues that the feature emphasized in the literature, increased cutting speed, was not the primary consideration behind adoption, but rather metal shortages. It thereby casts doubt on what measures of national productivity show. The case raises important questions about the use of production efficiency to make international comparisons and about the role of patent monopolies in introducing production innovations.

  8. Crystalline gamma-Al2O3 physical vapour deposition-coating for steel thixoforging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K; Hirt, G; Bagcivan, N; Khizhnyakova, L; Ewering, M

    2011-10-01

    The process of thixoforming, which has been part of many researches during the last decades, combines the advantages of forging and casting for the shaping of metallic components. But due to the high temperatures of semi-solid steel alloys high demands on the tools are requested. To resists the thermal and mechanical loads (wear, friction, thermal and thermomechanical fatigue) protecting thin films are necessary. In this regard crystalline gamma-Al2O3 deposited via Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is a promising candidate: It exhibits high thermal stability, high oxidation resistance and high hot hardness. In the present work the application of a (Ti, Al)N/gamma-Al2O3 coating deposited by means of Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating in an industrial coating unit is presented. The coating was analysed by means of Rockwell test, nanoindentation, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coated tool was tested in thixoforging experiments with steel grade X210CrW12 (AlSI D6). The surface of the coated dies was examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) after 22, 42, 90 and 170 forging cycles.

  9. Error compensation for tool-tip trace during cutting of laminated paper for rapid prototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucheng DING; Changhe LI; Dichen LI; Guoxin YU

    2009-01-01

    Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is one of the commercialized rapid prototyping (RP) processes,where a focused laser is usually used to cut the crosssection contours of a 3 D part and the grid hatchings of the partexterior region on a sheet paper stackwise. Using a laser beam as a cutter can be costly, and the thermal burning of a sheet paper along a laser scanning path can also cause an environment-polluting smoke. This paper presents a paper laminating RP system using a knife as the paper cutter instead of a laser beam. The knife holder is mounted through a radial bearing on the X-Y positioning mechanism in such a way that the knife tip is eccentric to the bearing axis by a small distance (so-called offset). Therefore, the knife tip, which engages into the sheet paper during cutting, tends to follow the path of the XY-driven bearing axis by the error that depends on the path tangential and the eccentricity of the knife tip. A tractrix model is applied to describe the kinetic motion of the knife tip and a method is formulated to compensate for the tracing error of the eccentric knife tip by modifying the original cross-section contours of the part for each layer based on the tractrix equation. A study has also been performed regarding the effect of the knife tip geometry on the cutting notch of the sheet paper and on the roughness of the finished part.

  10. 绿色刀具设计的概念及关键技术%Concept & Key Technologies of Green Cutting Tool Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃进

    2001-01-01

    介绍了绿色刀具设计的概念及绿色材料选择技术、面向可拆卸设计技术、面向可回收设计技术、绿色刀具评价方法等关键技术,指出绿色刀具设计与制造技术的应用将引起刀具产业的深刻变革。%The concept of green cutting tool design and its key technologies, including selection technology for green mate- rials, design technology for disassembly, design technology for recovering and evaluation methods for green cutting tools are introduced. It is pointed out that a profound change will be created in the cutting tool industry with increasing applications of the green cutting tool design and manufacturing technologies.

  11. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, N. J. M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test technique (modified pin-on-ring test) to obtain some clarifications of the mechanism of interfacial failure. Tests were run using PVD-coated rings finished by polishing or grinding to produce different sur...

  12. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test technique (modified pin-on-ring test) to obtain some clarifications of the mechanism of interfacial failure. Tests were run using PVD-coated rings finished by polishing or grinding to produce different sur...

  13. Microstructure, mechanical properties and cutting performance of superhard (Ti,Si,Al)N nanocomposite films grown by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S; Ribeiro, E; Rebouta, L; Tavares, CJ; Mendonca, JP; Monteiro, AC; Carvalho, NJM; De Hosson, JTM; Cavaleiro, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the optimization of coating properties to improve the performance of tools in severe cutting conditions. Tungsten carbide tools coated with (Ti,Si,AI)N films deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering have been investigated. The structure and the hardness of the coated sam

  14. Influence of the Discharge Voltage during Pulse-Plasma Process on the Durability of Edges coated with Superhard Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maciej Kupczyk

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality of thin, superhard coatings produced on cutting edges is described. Boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during steel machining. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coated edge durability an interfacial layers were applied. Presented investigations particularly pointed out to essential influence of the values of discharge voltage on the coating structure and durability of edges coated with boron nitride.

  15. Influence of the Discharge Voltage during Pulse-Plasma Process on the Durability of Edges coated with Superhard Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaciejKupczyk

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the experimental results concerning the functional quality of thin, superhard coatings produced on cutting edges is described. Boron nitride coatings were deposited on insert cutting edges made cemented carbides by the pulse-plasma method. The comparative investigations of mentioned coatings have been concerned of tool life of edges during steel machining. In these investigations for the purpose of additional increase of coated edge durability an interfacial layers were applied. Presented investigations particularly pointed out to essential influence of the values of discharge voltage on the coating structure and durability of edges coated with boron nitfide.

  16. Effect of texture and blasting pressure on residual stress and surface modifications in wet sand blasted α-Al2O3 coating

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wet sand blasting on coated cutting tool inserts has drawn interest to the tooling industry due to its positive effects on cutting performance and tool life. This performance boost has partly been attributed to the buildup of compressive residual stresses in the coating during the blasting process. However, the mechanism of forming residual stresses in ceramic coatings during sand blasting is not fully understood. This work utilize x-ray diffraction as the main tool to study the for...

  17. Numerical Simulation and Research for Ceramic Cutting Tools High Speed Dry Cutting Processing%陶瓷刀具高速干切削加工数值仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华希俊; 戚洪强; 符永宏; 杜志华; 廖茜

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools at high temperature can produce self-lubricating phenomenon, which can play a friction and anti-wear effect role. In this paper, take the A1,O3ceramic cutting tool for an example. In the high temperature situation, the surface of tool can produce the self-lubricating film. With the help of finite element analysis DEFORM-3D,building a HSM cutting AISI-1045 model,for seeking for the speed of the lubrication phenomenon which can produce the self-lubricating phenomenon and researching for cutting the principal cutting force、 stress distribution, the temperature distribution on the rake face and tool wear state, etc. Research shows that; when cutting speed is 270 m/min, the temperature of cutting tool surface is as high as 842 ℃, which can produce self-lubricating phenomenon.%陶瓷刀具在高温作用下会产生自润滑现象,可起到减摩、抗磨作用.论文以Al2O3陶瓷刀具为例,在高温下刀具表面产生自润滑薄膜,利用有限元分析软件DEFORM-3D,建立高速切削AlSI——1045模型,分析Al2O3陶瓷刀具在高速切削加工时,产生自润滑现象所需切削速度,以及在高速切削时,刀具表面的主切削力、应力分布、温度分布和刀具的磨损状态等.研究表明:当切削速度为270m/min,时,刀具表面温度高达842℃,能够产生自润滑现象.

  18. [Use of individual protection equipment among nursing workers injured by puncture-cutting tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, L M; Felli, V E

    2000-01-01

    The present study analyzed work related accidents involving nursing personnel from a public hospital in the state of São Paulo. The study population comprised the entire nursing staff. The results obtained showed a high incidence of accidents with puncture-cutting instruments, particularly among the auxilliary nursing staff, which indicates that these workers don't often use individual protection equipment, even when it is made available at the work place. Due to the manipulation of sharp instruments, nursing personnel are especially vulnerable to suffer biological risks and serious diseases. These results indicate the need to prevent the occurrence of such accidents.

  19. Friction and Adhesion in Dry Warm Forging of Magnesium Alloy with Coated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Osakada, Kozo

    In order to develop forging process of magnesium alloys without lubrication, frictional behavior of magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-3%Al-1%Zn) is evaluated by a tapered plug penetration test under dry condition. The cemented tungsten carbide (WC) plugs polished to be a mirror-like surface are coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and TiAlN by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The cylindrical hollow billets of AZ31B are penetrated by the tapered plugs at a temperature of 200°C. The surface roughness of the hole of the billet, the adhesion length of AZ31B on the plug surface and the penetration load are measured. Compared with WC and TiAlN coating, it is found that DLC coating is effective in preventing AZ31B from adhering to the tool surface and reducing the penetration load.

  20. Mechanical response under contact loads of AlCrN-coated tool materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Botero, C. A.; Cornu, N.; Ramírez, G.; Mestra, A.; Llanes, L.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanical behavior under contact loading of systems consisting of PVD AlCrN film deposited onto two distinct hard substrates - cemented carbides and tool steel is studied by means of indentation testing techniques, under monotonic and cyclic condition. Experimental work includes assessment of critical applied loads for emergence of circular cracks at the coating surface, as well as evaluation of both surface and subsurface damage evolution. Results indicate that both coated systems are susceptible to mechanical degradation associated with repetitive contact load. Furthermore, significant differences on contact fatigue behavior between the two studied coated systems are evidenced under consideration of cracking evolution at top surface and penetration towards the substrate. In this regard, the intrinsic mechanical properties of the substrate are pointed out as key feature for rationalizing the experimental findings.

  1. Tool life and cutting speed for the maximum productivity at the drilling of the stainless steel X22CrMoV12-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, A.; Blăjină, O.; Iacob, M.; Darie, V.

    2015-11-01

    Two addressed issues in the research regarding the cutting machinability, establishing of the optimum cutting processing conditions and the optimum cutting regime, do not yet have sufficient data for solving. For this reason, in the paper it is proposed the optimization of the tool life and the cutting speed at the drilling of a certain stainless steel in terms of the maximum productivity. For this purpose, a nonlinear programming mathematical model to maximize the productivity at the drilling of the steel is developed in the paper. The optimum cutting tool life and the associated cutting tool speed are obtained by solving the numerical mathematical model. Using this proposed model allows increasing the accuracy in the prediction of the productivity for the drilling of a certain stainless steel and getting the optimum tool life and the optimum cutting speed for the maximum productivity. The results presented in this paper can be used in the production activity, in order to increase the productivity of the stainless steels machining. Also new research directions for the specialists in this interested field may come off from this paper.

  2. An optimal inventory policy under certainty distributed demand for cutting tools with stochastically distributed lifespan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Cun Rong; Cheng, Jiadong

    2015-01-01

    .... An optimal inventory policy with general demand (OIPGD) was developed with which the allowable stopping time for tools, order-up-to-level inventory, and order cycle can be optimally determined by an exhaustive...

  3. A Study on Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Cutting of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a kind of nickel-based alloys that are widely used in the aerospace and nuclear industry owing to their high temperature mechanical properties. Cutting of Inconel 718 in conventional cutting (CC is a big challenge in modern industry. Few researches have been studied on cutting of Inconel 718 using single point diamond tool applying the UEVC method. This paper shows an experimental study on UEVC of Inconel 718 by using polycrystalline diamond (PCD coated tools. Firstly, cutting tests have been carried out to study the effect of machining parameters in the UEVC in terms of surface finish and flank wear during machining of Inconel 718. The tests have clearly shown that the PCD coated tools in cutting of Inconel 718 by the UEVC have better performance at 0.1 mm depth of cut as compared to the lower 0.05 mm depth of cut and the higher 0.12 or 0.15 mm depth of cut. Secondly, like CC method, the cutting performance in UEVC increases with the decrease of the feed rate and cutting speed. The CC tests have also been carried out to compare performance of CC with UEVC method.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF DUPLEX-COATINGS ON Cr-V COLD WORK TOOL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specimens made of Vanadis 6 steel were heat treated, plasma nitrided and coated with Cr2N. The microstructure, phase constitution and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided areas and duplex-coatings have been investigated using the light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements. The adhesion of the coatings and the wear performance were studied using the scratch test and ring-on-plate tribological testing. Worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Nitrided areas formed at lower temperature were free of compound “white” layer while hose developed at higher temperatures contained as the white layer so the nitrided network. Significant increase in substrate hardness was detected due to the nitriding. Beneficial effect of the nitriding on the adhesion of Cr2N coatings was clearly determined whereas the extent in improvement of the adhesion depends on the presence/no presence of “white” layer on the surface. The extent of beneficial effect of plasma nitriding on the wear performance follows the impact of the constitution of nitrided areas on the adhesion. The amelioration of wear performance of Cr2N coatings can be attributed to the supporting effect of hard nitrided intermediate region, which provides excellent resistance of the substrate against plastic deformation, under heavy loading in particular. Practical testing demonstrated many times prolonged service-time of duplex-treated tools for sheet metal working.

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE OPTIMUM CUTTING TOOL PATH IN PROCESSING FREE-FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CHIFAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach on tool paths optimization in CAM-type software for milling free forms, with the goal to improve efficiency in processing using CNC machine tools. The methodology proposed in this paper, tackles the problem of mechanical processing in 3 axes using ball nose milling cutters of small diameters, which follows a free form profile. I will consider two cases: the first one considers the ball nose end mill route on a free form with an angle of less than 30°, the second one with a tool path greater than 30°. The main objective of this paper is to determine the optimum angle in order to obtain a better surface roughness, a shorter time of processing and also a higher tool-life, all these by considering all other factors that occurs in the manufacturing process. This will be done by indicating and editing the tool path so that the tools will the minimum entries and exits on the surface of the piece. This will lead to a 10% decrease of the working time.

  6. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  7. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging: A cutting-edge tool for fundamental and clinical histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuespée, Rémi; Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Mark; Pottier, Charles; Picard de Muller, Gaël; Delvenne, Philippe; Kriegsmann, Jörg; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological diagnoses have been done in the last century based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. These methods were complemented by histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular techniques. Mass spectrometry (MS) methods allow the thorough examination of various biocompounds in extracts and tissue sections. Today, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), and especially matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging links classical histology and molecular analyses. Direct mapping is a major advantage of the combination of molecular profiling and imaging. MSI can be considered as a cutting edge approach for molecular detection of proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, lipids, and small molecules in tissues. This review covers the detection of various biomolecules in histopathological sections by MSI. Proteomic methods will be introduced into clinical histopathology within the next few years.

  8. Laser modulated scattering as a nondestructive evaluation tool for optical surfaces and thin film coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feit, M D; Kozlowski, M R; Rubenchik, A M; Sheehan, L; Wu, Z L

    1999-12-22

    Laser modulated scattering (LMS) is introduced as a non-destructive evaluation tool for defect inspection and characterization of optical surfaces and thin film coatings. This technique is a scatter sensitive version of the well-known photothermal microscopy (PTM) technique. It allows simultaneous measurement of the DC and AC scattering signals of a probe laser beam from an optical surface. By comparison between the DC and AC scattering signals, one can differentiate absorptive defects from non-absorptive ones. This paper describes the principle of the LMS technique and the experimental setup, and illustrates examples on using LMS as a tool for nondestructive evaluation of high quality optics.

  9. The Influence of Tool Geometry towards Cutting Performance in Machining Aluminium 7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafik Jumali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace industries often use Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining in manufacturing aerospace parts. Aluminium 7075 is the most common material used as aircraft components. This research aims to produce end mill with optimum geometry in terms of the helix angle, primary radial relief angle and secondary relief angle. End mills with different geometry parameters are tested on Aluminium 7075 and data on surface roughness and tool wear were collected. The results were then analysed to determine which parameters brought the optimum result with regards to surface roughness and tool wear.

  10. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION DURING THE CUTTING OF FROZEN MEAT BLOCKS USING MULTIPLE EDGE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, frozen meat blocks are widely used in meat processing for production of sausages and other meat products. Efficient grinding of frozen raw meat is an urgent task for meat industry professionals. The V.M.  Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute has developed energy- and resource-saving process for grinding of frozen meat blocks by milling. Determination of energy consumption for grinding of raw materials by multiple edge tools (milling tools is the most important step in the creating of new type mincing machine.

  11. Prediction of Cutting Tool Life Based on Support Vector Regression%基于支持向量回归机的刀具寿命预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍红岩; 吴晓强; 张春友

    2015-01-01

    刀具寿命是制定刀具需求计划、衡量刀具性能和核算成本等的重要依据。针对现有神经网络方法在预测刀具寿命方面存在的不足,提出了一种新的基于支持向量回归机的刀具寿命预测方法。在分析了影响刀具寿命预测主要因素的基础上,建立了基于支持向量回归机的刀具寿命预测模型。应用实例的仿真结果表明,所建立的预测模型具有较强的推广能力和较高的预测精度。%Cutting tool life is an important foundation for setting down cutting tool demand plan,weighing cutting tool capability and accounting cost.Aiming at the deficiencies of existing methods of neural network in prediction of cutting tool life,a new prediction method for cutting tool life was proposed based on support vector regression.Analyzing the major fac-tors which affecting prediction of cutting tool life,based on which the prediction model of cutting tool life based on support vector regression was proposed.The simulation results of application instance show that the prediction model has strong generalization ability and high prediction precision.

  12. Characteristics of machined surface controlled by cutting tools and conditions in machining of brittle material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Woo KIM; Soo-Chang CHOI; Jeung-Woo PARK; Deug-Woo LEE

    2009-01-01

    One of the ultra-precision machining methods was adapted for brittle material as well as soft material by using multi-arrayed diamond tips and high speed spindle. Conventional machining method is too hard to control surface roughness and surface texture against brittle material because the particles of grinding tools are irregular size and material can be fragile. Therefore, we were able to design tool paths and machine controlled pattern on surface by multi-arrayed diamond tips with uniform size made in MEMS fabrication and high speed spindle, and the maximum speed was about 3×105 r/min. We defined several parameters that can affect the machining surface. Those were multi-array of diamond tips (n×n), speed of air spindle and feeding rate. The surface roughness and surface texture can be controlled by those parameters for micro machining.

  13. Composite ion-plasma coatings with nanodisperse reinforced phase: scientific and practical aspects of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzhozovskii, B.; Martynov, V.; Zinina, E.; Brovkova, M.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the main aspects of the synthesis of composite coatings in the surface layer of figurine-shaped product using low-temperature plasma of combined discharge. The example of cutting tools shows the benefits of using the coatings in extreme conditions that occur in machining of materials by cutting.

  14. Aplicaciones extraorales del bisturí piezoeléctrico Extraoral uses of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos nuestra experiencia con el empleo de un bisturí piezoeleéctrico con el fin de efectuar diferentes osteotomias extraorales, Estas indicaciones no se han presentado previamente en la literatura. En los últimos 6 meses hemos utilizado este intrumento para efectuar osteotomías en el cóndilo y en la eminencia articular, para tomar injerto de calota craneal y para realizar las osteotomias de la rinoplastia. Este instrumento permite una inea de osteotomia precisa sin el riesgo de lesionar los tejidos blandos vecinos. Se discuten las ventajas e inconvenientes del instrumento según el procedimiento realizado.We report our experience with the use of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool in performing extraoral osteotomies. These indications have not been reported previously in the literature. In the last 6 months we have used this instrument to perform osteotomy on the temporomandibular condyle and articular eminence, to obtain grafts from the skull, and to perform osteotomy for rhinoplasty. This instrument can be used to makes an osteotomy cut without risk of injuring adjacent soft tissues. Its advantages and disadvantages are discussed in accordance with the procedure performed.

  15. Micro Cutting Tools and Micro Drilling Technology%微细刀具与微钻削关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玥; 贾晓鸣; 张好强

    2014-01-01

    微小孔加工在小型化、集成化的制造领域得到越来越广泛的应用,人们对微小孔加工尤其是微钻削加工技术的研究逐步深入。对微钻削加工技术及微细刀具进行了综合的介绍,分别从微细钻削刀具、微钻削理论、切屑分析、刀具磨损等方面进行了论述,提出微钻削与常规尺度钻削的差异,并对微钻削技术的发展前景进行展望。%The machining of micro holes is widely used in miniature and integrated manufacturing fields. The machi-ning technology of micro holes especially micro drilling was studied deeply. The technology of micro drilling and mi-cro cutting tools is introduced. The micro drilling tool,micro drilling theory,chip analysis and tool wear,etc is dis-cussed respectively. The difference between micro drilling and conventional drilling is put forward. The development of micro drilling technology is prospected.

  16. Fracture toughness of advanced alumina ceramics and alumina matrix composites used for cutting tool edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szutkowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Specific characteristics in fracture toughness measurements of advanced alumina ceramics and alumina matrix composites with particular reference to α-Al2O3, Al2O3-ZrO2, Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC and Al2O3-Ti(C,N has been presented.Design/methodology/approach: The present study reports fracture toughness obtained by means of the conventional method and direct measurements of the Vickers crack length (DCM method of selected tool ceramics based on alumina: pure alumina, alumina-zirconia composite with unstabilized and stabilized zirconia, alumina–zirconia composite with addition of TiC and alumina–nitride-carbide titanium composite with 2wt% of zirconia. Specimens were prepared from submicro-scale trade powders. Vicker’s hardness (HV1, fracture toughness (KIC at room temperature, the indentation fracture toughness, Young’s modulus and apparent density were also evaluated. The microstructure was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Findings: The lowest value of KIC is revealed by pure alumina ceramics. The addition of (10 wt% unstabilized zirconia to alumina or a small amount (5 wt% of TiC to alumina–zirconia composite improve fracture toughness of these ceramics in comparison to alumina ceramics. Alumina ceramics and alumina-zirconia ceramics reveal the pronounced character of R-curve because of an increasing dependence on crack growth resistance with crack extension as opposed to the titanium carbide-nitride reinforced composite based on alumina. R-curve has not been observed for this composite.Practical implications: The results show the method of fracture toughness improvement of alumina tool ceramics.Originality/value: Taking into account the values of fracture toughness a rational use of existing ceramic tools should be expected.

  17. Study on Cutting Performance with Mocro-texturing Self-lubricated Tools%微织构自润滑刀具的切削性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽; 邓建新; 亓停; 连云崧; 赵军

    2011-01-01

    Micro-textures were made using laser on the rake face of the cemented carbide tools. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) solid lubricants were embedded into the micro-grooves to form micro-texturing self-lubricated cutting tools(MTR-1 and MTR-2). Dry cutting tests on 45 hardened steel were ean-ied out with these self-lubricated cutting tools and conventional cemented carbide tools MTO. As the results, the cutting forces and the rake wear with the micro-texturing self-lubricated cutting tools were greatly reduced compared with that of conventional cemented carbide tools. Meanwhile, the machinability with the self-lubricated cutting tools was effected by the structure of the textures, and it can be improved by the reduction in bonding of the chip with better micro-texturing design.%采用激光加工方法在硬质合金车刀前刀面月牙洼易磨损区域加工微织构并填充固体润滑剂MoS2,制备了微织构自润滑刀具(MTR-1和MTR-2),并与传统硬质合金刀具MTO进行了干切削淬火45钢的对比试验.试验结果发现,与传统硬质合金刀具MTO相比,微织构自润滑刀具能够显著降低切削力、减小刀具前刀面磨损.同时,微织构自润滑刀具的切削性能受微织构结构影响,合理的微织构结构能够减少切屑的粘结,从而提高微织构自润滑刀具的切削性能.

  18. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Ivo HLAVATÝ; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  19. CutLHCO: A Consumer-Level Tool for Implementing Generic Collider Data Selection Cuts in the Search for New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Joel W

    2012-01-01

    A new computer program named CutLHCO is introduced, whose function is the implementation of generic data selection cuts on collider event specification files in the standardized .lhco format. This software is intended to fill an open market niche for a lightweight yet flexible "consumer-level" alternative to the ROOT data analysis framework. The primary envisioned application is as a filter on output produced by the PGS4 and DELPHES detector simulations, which are themselves lightweight alternatives to the GEANT4 based solutions favored by the large LHC experiments. All process control instructions are provided via a compact and powerful card file input syntax that efficiently facilitates the reasonable approximation of most event selection strategies and specialized discovery statistics commonly employed by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations. The structure, function, invocation and usage of the most recent CutLHCO 2.0 program version are documented thoroughly, including a detailed deconstruction of several exa...

  20. Application of heat treatment, edible coating and chemical dip as barriers to the conservation of fresh-cut vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    The fresh-cut vegetables consumption is increasing in the worldwide since its foray in the early 90s. The international association of fresh cut products, reported sales in 2000 of 12 billion dollars. The interest in feed quickly and healthy, has stimulated the development of vegetable fourth range, however their high metabolic activity reduces its stability and shelf life. It has promoted the adoption of technologies for minimally processed products that give them longer life and ensure the ...

  1. Application of the CBR method for adding the process of cutting tools and parameters selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbuś, K.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a method, basing on engineering knowledge and experience, designated to aid the selection of tools and machining parameters for the processes of turning. In this method, the informatics system is built basing on a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) method. This is a method of problems solving based on experience. It consists in finding analogies between the currently being solved task, and earlier realized tasks that have been stored in the database of the CBR system. The article presents the structure of the developed software, as well as the functioning of the CBR method. It also presents the possibility of integrating the developed method with the CAM module of the SIEMENS PLM NX program.

  2. The Investigation of Tool Selection in High-speed Cutting Technology%高速切削技术中刀具选用问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳杰

    2012-01-01

    高速切削技术是20世纪90年代迅速走向实际应用的先进加工技术,高速切削刀具的选用是实现高速切削加工的关键技术之一。生产实践证明,高速切削刀具必须具备可靠的安全性和高的耐用度。文章从刀具材料、刀具结构、刀杆结构、刀具动平衡几个方面介绍了高速切削技术中刀具的选用。%High-speed cutting is a advanced processing technique that sprang into application during tile 1990s, and high-speed cutting tool technique is one of the key techniques to guarantee it. As is proved in practice, high-speed cutting tool must possess reliable security and durabihty. This paper deals with selection of cutting tool in respect of the material and structure of cutting tool, structure of handle, and dynamic equilibrium.

  3. Effect of cutting edge radius on surface roughness in diamond tool turning of transparent MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong

    2017-09-01

    Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic is one of an important optical materials. However, due to its pronounced hardness and brittleness, the optical machining of this material is very difficult. Diamond turning has advantages over the grinding process in flexibility and material removal rate. However, there is a lack of research that could support the use of diamond turning technology in the machining of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. Using brittle-ductile transition theory of brittle material machining, this work provides critical information that may help to realize ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. A characterization method of determination the cutting edge radius is introduced here. Suitable diamond tools were measured for sharpness and then chosen from a large number of candidate tools. The influence of rounded cutting edges on surface roughness of the MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic is also investigated. These results indicate that surface quality of MgAl2O4 spinel is relate to the radius of diamond tool's cutting edge, cutting speed, and feed rate. Sharp diamond tools (small radius of cutting edge) facilitated ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel and shows great potential to reduce surface roughness and produce smoother final surface.

  4. Optimization of Cutting Parameters during Dry Turning of Austenitic Stainless Steel Using nc-AlTiN/Si3N4, TiAlN, and TiN Coated Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Vijaya Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nc-AlTiN/Si3N4, TiAlN, and TiN coating were deposited using lateral rotating cathodes (LARC technology on TNMG 160404 cemented carbide turning inserts. Ultrafine grain treated cemented carbide substrates were used in case of TiAlN and TiN inserts. The coated inserts were tested for their hardness and compositions were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The grain structures of coatings were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dry cutting tests were performed on AISI 304 stainless steel to compare the performances of these coatings in terms of wear and surface finish imparted to workpiece. 3D confocal laser microscope was used to determine the flank wear. Grey relation analysis was carried out to optimize the machining parameters. Studies reveal that nc-AlTiN/Si3N4 coating showed the highest hardness of 28 GPa. The coating also shows a dense grain structure. Furthermore, in cutting tests even under severe dry cutting conditions, the wear observed was less than the other two coatings and surface finish imparted to work parts was less than 2 μm by this coating.

  5. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwema, Carrie L; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  6. MGDS: Free, on-line, cutting-edge tools to enable the democratisation of geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W. B.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Coplan, J.; Chan, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Bonczkowski, J.; Morton, J. J.; Weissel, R.; Leung, A.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of user-friendly, effective cyber-information resources for accessing and manipulating geoscience data has grown rapidly in recent years. Based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory the MGDS group has developed a number of free tools that have wide application across the geosciences for both educators and researchers. A simple web page (http://www.marine-geo.org/) allows users to search for and download many types of data by key word, geographical region, or published citation. The popular Create Maps and Grids function and the downloadable Google Earth-compatible KML files appeal to a wide user base. MGDS MediaBank galleries (http://media.marine-geo.org/) enable users to view and download compelling images that are purposefully selected for their educational value from NSF-funded field programs. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free map-based interactive tool that works on any machine, is increasingly being adopted across a broad suite of users from middle school students to university researchers. GeoMapApp allows users to plot, manipulate and present data in an intuitive geographical reference frame. GeoMapApp offers a convenient way to explore the wide range of built-in data sets, to quickly generate maps and images that aid visualisation and, when importing their own gridded and tabular data sets, to access the same rich built-in functionality. A user guide, short multi-media tutorials, and webinar are available on-line. The regularly-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis is used as the default GeoMapApp base map and is an increasingly popular means to rapidly create location maps. Additionally, the layer manager offers a fast way to overlay and compare multiple data sets and is augmented by the ability to alter layer transparency so that underlying layers become visible. Examples of GeoMapApp built-in data sets include high-resolution land topography and ocean floor bathymetry derived from satellite and multi

  7. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navdaev, Alexey; Subramanian, Hariharan; Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  9. Recombinant yeast technology at the cutting edge: robust tools for both designed catalysts and new biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karin; Looser, Verena; Hyka, Petr; Merseburger, Tobias; Meier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Health and safety concerns, enhanced quality criteria, and environmental sustainability, have prompted investigations into production using recombinant yeasts as a feasible alternative for isolation of proteins from natural animal or plant sources, as well as for processes utilising either mammalian cell cultures or bacterial systems. An overview of recent research papers and review articles provides readers with a comprehensive insight into the field of next-generation yeast expression systems. Major breakthroughs in recombinant yeast technology linked to Pichia pastoris are (i) the public availability of tools to generate proteins with tailored and highly homogenous N-glycan structures, similar to the forms assembled in humans, (ii) the recent accomplishment of the annotation of its genome sequence, and finally, (iii) the presence of the first few (non-glycosylated) therapeutic proteins in Pichia on the market. The P. pastoris expression platform is now well developed, as proven by multiple products used in human and veterinary medicine and in industry (e.g., enzymes for chemical synthesis and for the modification/synthesis of pharmaceuticals, drug target proteins used for structural analysis or for high throughput screening, proteins for diagnostics, proteinous biomaterials, vaccines, and therapeutic proteins). Nevertheless, the complexity of protein analysis (monitoring) continues to restrict process development for recombinant products. Drawing on combined expertise in molecular biology and process technology, the Institute of Biotechnology (IBT) at the Zurich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) and its international partners have developed solutions which (i) fully eliminate (or partially reduce) the use of methanol, which is undesirable in high-cell-density and high-productivity processes, (ii) match both strain construction and process design with the target protein characteristics to the benefit of the cells' physiological shape, and (iii) allow multi

  10. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  11. Feasibility of surface-coated friction stir welding tools to join AISI 304 grade austenitic stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K. LAKSHMINARAYANAN; C.S.RAMACHANDRAN; V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop the tools that are capable enough to withstand the shear, impact and thermal forces that occur during friction stir welding of stainless steels. The atmospheric plasma spray and plasma transferred arc hardfacing processes are employed to deposit refractory ceramic based composite coatings on the Inconel 738 alloy. Five different combinations of self-fluxing alloy powder and 60% ceramic rein-forcement particulate mixtures are used for coating. The best friction stir welding tool selected based on tool wear analysis is used to fabricate the austenitic stainless steel joints.

  12. Bonding mechanism and performance of ceramic coatings by sol-gel process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thin alumina coatings were prepared on carbide tools to enhance their wear-resistant ability by dip coating from an aluminum alkoxide solution. The coating eventually obtained was perfectly integrated, without any macroscopic defect, and showed good performance in turning medium carbon steel, which presented a novel and promising coating method for cutting tools. The coating morphology before and after heat treatment was examined with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composition of coating and interface layer as well as the crystal structure of coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The elemental distribution near the interlayer was analyzed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).

  13. Fabrication, characterization and tests on Si{sub 3} N{sub 4} cutting tools; Fabricacao, caracterizacao e testes em ferramentas de corte de Si{sub 3} N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Oliverio Moreira de Macedo; Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira da; Piorino Neto, Francisco [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Silicon nitride based ceramic cutting tools were developed in Brazil. Itria and aluminium nitride has been used as sintering aids. The samples evaluations were performed using, specific mass determination, X ray diffraction, microhardness testing, fracture toughness by by indentation method and microstructural examination via scanning electron microscopy. After samples evaluation, some pressureless sintering silicon nitride based ceramic cutting tools were made. A piece of cast iron was machined using these cutting tools. For the purpose of comparison, a commercial hard metal cutting tools have also been used to perform the same machining. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY coating on laser modified H13 tool steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2016-06-01

    Bonding strength of thermal spray coatings depends on the interfacial adhesion between bond coat and substrate material. In this paper, NiCrAlY (Ni-164/211 Ni22 %Cr10 %Al1.0 %Y) coatings were developed on laser modified H13 tool steel surface using atmospheric plasma spray (APS). Different laser peak power, P p, and duty cycle, DC, were investigated in order to improve the mechanical properties of H13 tool steel surface. The APS spraying parameters setting for coatings were set constant. The coating microstructure near the interface was analyzed using IM7000 inverted optical microscope. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY was investigated by interfacial indentation test (IIT) method using MMT-X7 Matsuzawa Hardness Tester Machine with Vickers indenter. Diffusion of atoms along NiCrAlY coating, laser modified and substrate layers was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) using Hitachi Tabletop Microscope TM3030 Plus. Based on IIT method results, average interfacial toughness, K avg, for reference sample was 2.15 MPa m1/2 compared to sample L1 range of K avg from 6.02 to 6.96 MPa m1/2 and sample L2 range of K avg from 2.47 to 3.46 MPa m1/2. Hence, according to K avg, sample L1 has the highest interface bonding and is being laser modified at lower laser peak power, P p, and higher duty cycle, DC, prior to coating. The EDXS analysis indicated the presence of Fe in the NiCrAlY coating layer and increased Ni and Cr composition in the laser modified layer. Atomic diffusion occurred in both coating and laser modified layers involved in Fe, Ni and Cr elements. These findings introduce enhancement of coating system by substrate surface modification to allow atomic diffusion.

  15. Echicetin coated polystyrene beads: a novel tool to investigate GPIb-specific platelet activation and aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Navdaev

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways.

  16. Echicetin Coated Polystyrene Beads: A Novel Tool to Investigate GPIb-Specific Platelet Activation and Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Alexey; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Gambaryan, Stepan; Walter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor/ristocetin (vWF/R) induces GPIb-dependent platelet agglutination and activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, which also binds vWF. These conditions make it difficult to investigate GPIb-specific signaling pathways in washed platelets. Here, we investigated the specific mechanisms of GPIb signaling using echicetin-coated polystyrene beads, which specifically activate GPIb. We compared platelet activation induced by echicetin beads to vWF/R. Human platelets were stimulated with polystyrene beads coated with increasing amounts of echicetin and platelet activation by echicetin beads was then investigated to reveal GPIb specific signaling. Echicetin beads induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation of washed platelets, while under the same conditions vWF/R treatment led only to αIIbβ3-independent platelet agglutination. The average distance between the echicetin molecules on the polystyrene beads must be less than 7 nm for full platelet activation, while the total amount of echicetin used for activation is not critical. Echicetin beads induced strong phosphorylation of several proteins including p38, ERK and PKB. Synergistic signaling via P2Y12 and thromboxane receptor through secreted ADP and TxA2, respectively, were important for echicetin bead triggered platelet activation. Activation of PKG by the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway inhibited echicetin bead-induced platelet aggregation. Echicetin-coated beads are powerful and reliable tools to study signaling in human platelets activated solely via GPIb and GPIb-triggered pathways. PMID:24705415

  17. Numerical simulation of tube-tooling cable-coating with polymer melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muslimawi, A.; Tamaddon-Jahromi, H. R.; Webster, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the numerical solution of viscous and viscoelastic flows for tube-tooling die-extrusion coating using a hybrid nite element/nite volume discretisation ( fe/fv). Such a complex polymer melt extrusion-draw-coating flow displays a dynamic contact line, slip, die-swell and two separate free-surfaces, presenting an inner and outer conduit surface to the melt-coating. The practical interest lies in determining efficient windows for process control over variation in material properties, stressing levels generated and vacuum pressure levels imposed. The impact of shear-thinning is also considered. Extensive reference is made throughout to viscous inelastic counterpart solutions. Attention is paid to the influence and variation in relevant parameters of Weissenberg number ( We), solvent-fraction (β) and second normal difference ( N 2) (ξ parameter for EPTT). The impact of model choice and parameters upon field response is described in situ through, pressure-drops, rates of deformation and stress. Various numerical alternative strategies, their stability and convergence issues are also addressed. The numerical scheme solves the momentum-continuity-surface equations by a semi-implicit time-stepping Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction (TGPC) finite element (parent-cell) method, whilst invoking a sub-cell cell-vertex fluctuation distribution finite volume scheme for the constitutive stress equation. The hyperbolic aspects of the constitutive equation are addressed discretely through upwind Fluctuation Distribution techniques, whilst temporal and source terms are consistently accommodated through medium-dual-cell schemes. The dynamic solution of the moving boundary problem may be resolved by either separating the solution process for each free-surface section (decoupling), or coupling both sections and solving simultaneously. Each involves a surface height location method, with dependency on surface nodal velocities and surface element sections; two

  18. Development of Software for Analyzing Breakage Cutting Tools Based on Image Processing%基于图像技术分析刀具破损的软件开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦玲; 刘献礼; 王鹏; 王波; 王红运

    2004-01-01

    As the present day digital microsystems do not provide specialized microscopes that can detect cutting-tool, analysis software has been developed using VC++. A module for verge test and image segmentation is designed specifically for cutting-tools. Known calibration relations and given postulates are used in scale measurements. Practical operations show that the software can perform accurate detection.

  19. The structure and formation of functional hard coatings: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turning tools come in different shapes and sizes, geometry, base material and coating, according to their destination. They are widely used both for obtaining parts and for machinability tests. In this paper a short review about high-speed steel (HSS turning tools and their coatings is presented. Hard coatings formed on the tool material should be functional depending on the tool final application. Requirements for hard coatings and technological problems for layer formation on the real cutting tool are discussed.

  20. Wear Patterns and Wear Mechanisms of Tool in High Speed Cutting of Inconel 718%高速切削Inconel 718刀具磨损形态和机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪红; 赵军

    2013-01-01

    The dry-cutting tests of high speed turning Inconel 718 using coated carbide tool is presented.The worn surface morphology of tool and its abrasion mechanism are studied by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectrum (EDS).The results show that the failure modes are rake wear,flake wear,flaking and chipping and the main failure mechanisms of tool are adhesive wear,abrasion wear,oxidation wear,diffusive wear and so on.%利用涂层硬质合金刀具对Inconel 718进行了高速干切削试验,采用扫描电子显微镜SEM和能量分散光谱EDS扫描,对不同切削参数下刀具的损坏形态和损坏机理进行了研究.分析结果表明刀具损坏形式主要有前刀面磨损、后刀面磨损、剥落和崩刃.刀具损坏机理主要是粘结磨损、磨粒磨损、氧化磨损和扩散磨损等.

  1. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  2. [Effect of blanching and hygroscopic coating on quality of fresh cut carrots (Daucus carota var. chantenay) during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uquiche Carrasco, Edgar; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2002-06-01

    The effect of blanching at low temperatures (solution 1% acid citric, 50 degrees C for 30 seconds) and the application of glycerol as humectant (3% p/p, 20 seconds) to preserve the quality of fresh-cut carrots (Daucus carota) were studied as individual or combined treatments. Four treatments were evaluated: a control by dipping samples for 30 seconds in distilled water (T1); blanching (T2); glycerol application (T3); and blanching plus glycerol application (T4). Total carotenoids content, color, soluble solids and weight loss were monitored during storage. Results showed no differences between treatments in carotenoids content (p > 0.10) and soluble solids (p > 0.05). However, differences were observed between treatments in weight loss (p Blanched samples (T2 and T4) showed small changes in orange color intensity compared to treatments T1 and T3 (p < 0.05).

  3. A New Type Built-in Measuring Device for Cutting Tools%一种新型机内刀具测量装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 薛萍

    2001-01-01

    A kind of built-in measuring device for cutting tools in which the linear array CCD is used as a photoelectric sighting device is developed. The auto-sight of cutting tool and the real-time display of measuring results can becarried out by the device. The measuring principle, optical system, circuit design, error analysis and function features of the device are introduced.%研制了一种以线阵CCD作为光电瞄准器件、可实现刀具自动瞄准并实时显示测量结果的机内刀具测量装置。介绍了该装置的测量原理、光学系统、电路设计、精度分析和性能特点。

  4. Synergistically toughening effect of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles in Al2O3-based composite ceramic cutting tool material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Liu, Hanlian; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Limei; Zou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many additives with different characteristics have been applied to strengthen and toughen Al2O3-based ceramic cutting tool materials. Among them, SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles showed excellent performance in improving the material properties. While no attempts have been made to add SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles together into the ceramic matrix and the synergistically toughening effects of them have not been studied. An Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp advanced ceramic cutting tool material is fabricated by adding both one-dimensional SiC whiskers and zero-dimensional SiC nanoparticles into the Al2O3 matrix with an effective dispersing and mixing process. The composites with 25 vol% SiC whiskers and 25 vol% SiC nanoparticles alone are also investegated for comparison purposes. Results show that the Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp composite with both 20 vol% SiC whiskers and 5 vol% SiC nanoparticles additives have much improved mechanical properties. The flexural strength of Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp is 730±95 MPa and fracture toughness is 5.6±0.6 MPa·m1/2. The toughening and strengthening mechanisms of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are studied when they are added either individually or in combination. It is indicated that when SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are added together, the grains are further refined and homogenized, so that the microstructure and fracture mode ratio is modified. The SiC nanoparticles are found helpful to enhance the toughening effects of the SiC whiskers. The proposed research helps to enrich the types of ceramic cutting tool and is benefit to expand the application range of ceramic cutting tool.

  5. Synergistically toughening effect of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles in Al2O3-based composite ceramic cutting tool material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Liu, Hanlian; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Limei; Zou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In recent decades, many additives with different characteristics have been applied to strengthen and toughen Al2O3-based ceramic cutting tool materials. Among them, SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles showed excellent performance in improving the material properties. While no attempts have been made to add SiC whiskers and SiC nanoparticles together into the ceramic matrix and the synergistically toughening effects of them have not been studied. An Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp advanced ceramic cutting tool material is fabricated by adding both one-dimensional SiC whiskers and zero-dimensional SiC nanoparticles into the Al2O3 matrix with an effective dispersing and mixing process. The composites with 25 vol% SiC whiskers and 25 vol% SiC nanoparticles alone are also investegated for comparison purposes. Results show that the Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp composite with both 20 vol% SiC whiskers and 5 vol% SiC nanoparticles additives have much improved mechanical properties. The flexural strength of Al2O3-SiCw-SiCnp is 730±95 MPa and fracture toughness is 5.6±0.6 MPa·m1/2. The toughening and strengthening mechanisms of SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are studied when they are added either individually or in combination. It is indicated that when SiC whiskers and nanoparticles are added together, the grains are further refined and homogenized, so that the microstructure and fracture mode ratio is modified. The SiC nanoparticles are found helpful to enhance the toughening effects of the SiC whiskers. The proposed research helps to enrich the types of ceramic cutting tool and is benefit to expand the application range of ceramic cutting tool.

  6. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit.

  7. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  8. CONTROL DE CALIDAD DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE CON REMOCIÓN MÍNIMA DE MATERIAL QUALITY CONTROL OF CUTTING TOOLS WITH MINIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrey Maldaner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la mejora de las tecnologías de mecanizado, es necesario que las herramientas satisfagan las demandas requeridas. Una condición especial, para poder describir con seguridad el corte con remoción mínima de material, es el conocimiento de los valores característicos de la superficie y de la geometría. Las herramientas poseen una influencia substancial en la calidad de las piezas producidas, así como en la estabilidad y en la seguridad del proceso de mecanizado. Aunque hay una gran cantidad de herramientas para el corte con remoción mínima de material, se presenta como ejemplo la investigación con medición óptica y la obtención de los valores característicos para dientes de sierras de cinta.Due to improved machine cutting technologies it is necessary that tools fulfil the required performance. A special condition, for minimal machine cutting removal, is the knowledge of surface and geometry characteristic values. These tools represent both a substantial influence on the quality of the manufactured pieces and on stability and working safety of the cutting process. Since there is a large number of tools for minimal removal of material, examples of optical measurement and examination of characteristic values by the belt saw teeth are presented.

  9. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL(-1) nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg(-1) citric acid and 10 g kg(-1) calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. ADHESION STRENGTH OF COATING SUBSTRATE AND SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF PRETREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Premature failure of coated tool often results from a poor adhesion of coating-substrate and shortens the lifetime of the tool.The results of increasing the adhesion strength of thin film coatings on cutting tool inserts by pretreating the inserts with sandblasting technique to obtain a desirable surface morphology of the inserts are presented.A geometric model representing the ideal surface morphology is established to enhance the nucleation density and adhesion strength of coating-substrate.Thin film coating experiment is conducted on the substrates of four different sample groups.Indentation and wear tests are performed on coated inserts to evaluate the effect of sandblasting on the adhesion strength of the coatings.A theoretical analysis is provided on the formation and growth of atom clusters in terms of the contact angle and the thermodynamic barrier of a substrate to predict thin film nucleation.

  11. Theoretical modeling of cutting temperature in high-speed end milling process for die/mold machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Tang

    2005-01-01

    A parametric model of cutting temperature generated in end milling process is developed according to the thermal mechanism of end milling as an intermittent operation, which periodically repeats the cycle of heating under cutting and cooling under noncutting. It shows that cutting speed and the tool-workpiece engagement condition are determinative for tool temperature in the operation. The suggested model was investigated by tests of AlTiN coated endmill machining hardened die steel JIS SKD61, where cutting temperature on the flank face of tool was measured with an optical fiber type radiation thermometer. Experimental results show that the tendency of cutting temperature to increase with cutting speed and engagement angle is intensified with the progressing tool wear.

  12. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  13. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  14. Application and Research of High Speed Cutting Tool Material, Selection and Process%论高速切削刀具材料、选择及过程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤娇

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the basic principle of high speed cutting technology , studies the basic requirements of the high-speed cutting tool material , cutting tool material , and describes common high-speed cutting tool material and its selection , and finally introduces high-speed cutting machine and CNC .%本文主要介绍了高速切削技术的基本原理,研究了高速切削对刀具材料的基本要求,对常见的高速切削刀具材料及其选择进行了阐述,最后简单对高速切削用机床和数控做一介绍。

  15. Terahertz pulsed imaging as an advanced characterisation tool for film coatings--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Miriam; Gordon, Keith C; Strachan, Clare J; Rades, Thomas

    2013-12-05

    Solid dosage forms are the pharmaceutical drug delivery systems of choice for oral drug delivery. These solid dosage forms are often coated to modify the physico-chemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in particular to alter release kinetics. Since the product performance of coated dosage forms is a function of their critical coating attributes, including coating thickness, uniformity, and density, more advanced quality control techniques than weight gain are required. A recently introduced non-destructive method to quantitatively characterise coating quality is terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). The ability of terahertz radiation to penetrate many pharmaceutical materials enables structural features of coated solid dosage forms to be probed at depth, which is not readily achievable with other established imaging techniques, e.g. near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy. In this review TPI is introduced and various applications of the technique in pharmaceutical coating analysis are discussed. These include evaluation of coating thickness, uniformity, surface morphology, density, defects and buried structures as well as correlation between TPI measurements and drug release performance, coating process monitoring and scale up. Furthermore, challenges and limitations of the technique are discussed.

  16. Development of flank wear model of cutting tool by using adaptive feedback linear control system on machining AISI D2 steel and AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orra, Kashfull; Choudhury, Sounak K.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build an adaptive feedback linear control system to check the variation of cutting force signal to improve the tool life. The paper discusses the use of transfer function approach in improving the mathematical modelling and adaptively controlling the process dynamics of the turning operation. The experimental results shows to be in agreement with the simulation model and error obtained is less than 3%. The state space approach model used in this paper successfully check the adequacy of the control system through controllability and observability test matrix and can be transferred from one state to another by appropriate input control in a finite time. The proposed system can be implemented to other machining process under varying range of cutting conditions to improve the efficiency and observability of the system.

  17. The Impact of Cutting Tool Advances on Machining Productivity%刀具创新对提高金属切削效率的作用与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Intense global competition is forcing the manufacturing industry to reduce costs so as to maintain profitability. Since a major component of manufacturing cost is machine tool time, attention is focused on cycle time reduction through greater machining productivity. Advances in machine tools, development of stronger workpiece materials, new machining methods, and environmental regulations with regard to safe disposal of cutting fluids are providing additional challenges to the cutting tool industry. In response to these challenges, the industry has made significant innovations in every class of tool materials. This paper discusses the role of tooling advances in enhancing metalcutting productivity.

  18. Research on Cutting Parameters Optimization based on Tool Life%基于刀具寿命的切削参数优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张棉好

    2011-01-01

    Cutting life has direct effects on the cost of manufacture, so it is paid more attention in the modern manufacturing industry. The paper presented a new approach for improving cutting tool life by using optimal values of velocity, feeds, depth and cutting stepover throughout the cutting process. The orthogonal experiment was built by the Taguchi methods, and the Taguchi method was used to obtain the optical milling parameters. The VMC65OE machining center was used to carry out the milling experiment. The experimental results showed an improvement of tool life.%刀具寿命直接影响制造成本,因此在现代制造业中受到越来越多的重视.文中分析了切削用量对刀具寿命的影响,并优化铣削过程的切削速度、进给率、切深及行距等切削用量,以提升刀具寿命.通过切削试验,获取了不同切削用量下的刀具磨损量,建立田口直交表,并利用直交表对试验数据进行分析和优化,获得优化后的切削参数值,最后在加工中心中进行试验验证.试验证明,采用优化后的切削用量进行切削,可有效地控制磨损量,延长刀具寿命.

  19. Formation of Structure in Hard-Alloy Coatings from Powders Under Passage of a Powerful Pulse of Electric Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S. V.; Peretyagin, P. Yu.; Dolzhikova, E. Yu.; Torrecillas, R.

    2016-01-01

    A method of ultrafast deposition of hard-alloy coatings from powders upon passage of a powerful pulse of electric current is considered. The structure of the coatings obtained by the electric-pulse and standard processes is studied by metallographic, electron microscope and x-ray diffraction analyses. The physical, mechanical and cutting properties of the hard-alloy coatings are determined. The endurance of the cutting tools with hard-alloy coatings is estimated under the conditions of large-scale and pilot productions. The possibility of creation of tools with enhanced operating characteristics is demonstrated.

  20. Latest Development of Coating Technology for Cutting Tool%刀具涂层技术的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付德君; 杨慧娟; 吴大维; 范湘军

    2009-01-01

    涂层刀具的出现,使刀具切削性能有了重大突破,它将刀具基体与硬质薄膜表层相结合,由于基体保持了良好的韧性和较高的强度,而硬质薄膜表层又具有高耐磨性和低摩擦系数,从而使刀具的性能得到大大提高。

  1. 技术创新助推新型陶瓷刀具在机加工中的应用优势凸显%Technology Innovation Boost New Types of Ceramic Cutting Tool in Machining Application Advantages Highlighted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠敏

    2014-01-01

    随着新技术革命的发展,要求不断提高切削加工生产率和降低生产成本,特别是数控机床的发展,要求开发比硬质合金刀具切速更高、更耐磨的新型刀具。针对新型陶瓷切削刀具的应用前景广阔,分析了切削刀具材料的种类及其特点,研究了新型陶瓷切削刀具的性能突显,介绍了新型陶瓷切削刀具运用实例,提出了陶瓷切削刀具材料的研发应用方向。%With the development of new technology revolution ,requirements to improve machi‐ning productivity and reduce production cost ,especially the development of CNC machine tools ,to develop higher than cemented carbide cutting speed ,more new tool wear .Application prospect of the new ceramic cutting tool .Analyzes the types and characteristics of the cutting tool materials ,studies the performance of the new type of ceramic cutting tools highlight ,this paper introduces the new type of ceramic cutting tools using instance ,put forward the direction of development and application of ceramic cutting tool materials .

  2. Surface wear of TiN coated nickel tool during the injection moulding of polymer micro Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Limited tool life of nickel mould inserts represents an issue for the mass-production of polymer optics with complex micro three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding. TiN coating was applied to a nickel insert for the injection moulding of polycarbonate micro Fresnel lenses. Surface wear ...... cycles the measured height reduction of 23μm high ribs was on the order of 400–1000nm....

  3. The Analysis of the Cutting Tool Failure Mode in the Modern Mechanical Manufacturing Industry%现代机械制造业中的刀具失效形式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田育

    2011-01-01

    The condition of cutting tool materials is pointed out, the main failure mode of cutting tools which are made with different materials is summed up. The thorough investigation is made on the cutting tool wear part and wear mechanism. It is very beneficial for putting forward measures to reduce cutting tool failure.%本文分析了机械加工中刀具材料满足的基本条件,通过调查分析总结了不同材料刀具的主要失效形式,最后对刀具磨损的部位和刀具磨损的原因进行了深入的研究,为生产上提出减少刀具失效的措施提供了有利条件.

  4. Design and Implementation of Cutting-tools Database in NC Simulation System%数控加工仿真中刀具数据库的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 杨岳

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a numeral control machining simulation system model. Further, the paper explains the description of cutting-tools, building and management of cutting-tools database and configuration of cutting-tools base in NC simulation system. And the article shows in details the principle of designing cutting-tools database.%首先提出数控加工仿真系统模型,阐述面向数控加工仿真的刀具定义与描述方法,在此基础上构建刀具数据库,并详细叙述刀具数据库的实现原理与方法以及数控机床刀具库配置功能的实现方法.

  5. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  6. Study on the PcBN cutting tools proprerties during hardened steel machining%PcBN加工淬硬钢刀具材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启泉; 张旺玺

    2011-01-01

    PcBN cutting tool materials were prepared using two kinds of binder and in three different concentrations of cBN . Through cutting experiment on hardened steel , it was found that cBN concentration played a key role on the performances of PcBN. After cutting for the same distance, PcBN tools of low concentration had smaller amount of flank wear. SEM observation revealed that CoAl alloy powder improved the density of the PcBN tool material. Based on the results of wear resistance test , it is suggested that the technical indicators of wear test for PCD is not suitable for PcBN.%介绍了立方氮化硼刀具材料( PcBN)的制备过程,并制备了六种不同配方的样品加工淬硬钢.通过切削实验和性能检测,发现PcBN刀片在加工淬硬钢时cBN浓度起着关键作用,切削同样的路程,低浓度PcBN的后刀面磨损量小.经扫描电镜观察,CoAl合金粉能够提高PcBN烧结刀具材料的致密度.测量耐磨性时,证明用于金刚石复合片PCD性能检测的磨耗比技术指标不适用于PcBN材料的检测.

  7. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a coating tool for reinforcing fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A K; Baumann, W; König, I; Baumann, G; Schulze, S; Hietschold, M; Mäder, T; Nestler, D J; Wielage, B; Goedel, W A

    2010-03-01

    Layers of alumina were deposited on to bundled carbon fibers in an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process via sequential exposure to vapors of aluminium chloride and water, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of the coated fibers revealed that each individual fiber within a bundle was coated evenly and separately, fibers are not bridged by the coating. SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images indicate that the coating was uniform and conformal with good adhesion to the fiber surface. Average deposition rate, measured from SEM images, was 0.06 nm per cycle at 500 °C. SEM also revealed that at deposition temperatures of 500 °C few of the fibers were damaged. At temperatures of 300 °C, no damaged fibers were observed, the average deposition rate decreased down to 0.033 nm per cycle. Oxidation resistance of the alumina-coated fibers was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The alumina coating improved oxidation resistance of the carbon fiber significantly. Oxidation onset temperature was 600 °C for fibers coated with a 45 nm thick alumina. Uncoated fibers, on the other hand, started to oxidize at temperatures as low as 250 °C.

  8. Study on the Optimum Choice of Cutting Tools in NC Machining Based on the Polychromatic Sets Theory%基于多色集合理论的数控加工刀具优化选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩福; 刘晓阳; 方忆湘

    2012-01-01

    基于建立刀具选择的关系模型并以围道布尔矩阵的形式表示,通过多色集合中着色的逻辑运算,找到满足加工条件的候选刀具集合并对其进行模糊优选;综合考虑换刀时间,加工顺序以及其它相关加工信息对刀具选择的影响,使选择刀具在整体上述到最佳化.%A relational model of cutting tools choice was established, which was shown with a contour Boolean matrix. Through the coloring logical operation, the cutting tools candidate set was calculated to meet machining conditions. With the candidate cutting tools set, the fuzzy optimization was made for every part feature. And with considering the effects of the time of cutting tools exchange, processing sequence and other relevant information for the selection of cutting tools, the choice of cutting tools is optimized as a whole during machining.

  9. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  10. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  11. Optimal Design of the Rotor Shaft Cutting Trace Used in Power Tools%电动工具用转子轴切痕长优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟; 张立祥; 宁贻江; 张永娟

    2011-01-01

    Base on analysis of the structure characteristic of the power tool's rotor shaft and the processing principle of gear shaft's tooth, it is deduced that the contradictions of the hob diameter, cutting trace distance and the hob lifespan are existed.By using VB's character of parametric design and Lingo's strong numerical calculation capability, the software to calculate the rotor shaft cutting trace automatically was developed, and the optimal design of the rotor shaft cutting trace's size was achieved.Through the example, it is showed that the software can be used to reduce the designer's working intensity, and to improve the calculation accuracy obviously.%分析电动工具用转子轴的结构特点及齿轮轴轮齿的加工原理,表明滚刀直径、切痕距及滚刀寿命之间存在矛盾.利用VB可进行参数化设计的特点和Lingo强大的数值计算能力,开发转子轴切痕长自动计算软件,实现了转子轴切痕长尺寸的优化设计.计算实例表明:使用该软件能明显降低设计者的劳动强度,并显著提高计算精度.

  12. Influence of melt treatments and polished CVD diamond coated insert on cutting force and surface integrity in turning of Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Basavakumar; P G Mukunda; M Chakraborty

    2007-10-01

    The microstructures, machinability and surface characteristics of Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys were studied after various melt treatments like grain refinement and modification. The results indicate that combined grain refined and modified Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys have microstructures consisting of uniformly distributed -Al grains, eutectic Al-silicon and fine CuAl2 particles in the interdendritic region. These alloys exhibited better machinability and surface characteristics in the cast condition compared with the same alloy subjected to only grain refinement or modification. Performances of the turning inserts (uncoated and polished CVD diamond coated) were evaluated in machining Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys under dry environment using a lathe. The polished CVD diamond coated insert outperformed the uncoated cutting insert which suffered from sizeable edge buildup leading to higher cutting force and poor surface finish. The polished CVD diamond coated insert shows a very small steady wear without flaking of the diamond film during cutting. This paper attempts to investigate the influence of grain refinement, modification and combined action of both on the microstructural changes in the Al–7Si and Al–7Si–2.5Cu cast alloys and their machinability and surface finish when different turning inserts are used.

  13. 基于特征的刀具“形-性-用”一体化设计方法%Feature Based Cutting Tool “Shape-Performance-Application” Integrating Design Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘献礼; 计伟; 范梦超; 王昌红

    2016-01-01

    Cutting tool is regarded as the tooth of machine tool, and they play a key role in metal cutting. Nowadays, the customization is a develop direction of cutting tool to improve the machining capability of cutting tool. In this case, the flexibility and accuracy of cutting tool design is the main challenges. Towards the issues, a feature based cutting tool “shape-performance-application” integrating design (CTSPAID) approach is presented, which is driven by the machining requirements. It utilizes the basic theories of cutting process, e.g. geometry constraint, cutting force distribution, cutting layer mechanism, cutting tool strength, high temperature material science, high temperature tribology, chemistry relationship. Integrating all of the related theories into cutting tool design feature (TDF), the method can realize the unification of shape, capability and application of cutting tools. The suitable cutting tool can be achieved, as well as the cutting condition, cutting parameters. Also, the architecture of the cutting tool design system is proposed, and also the software platform of this system. The case study is used to show the details of the process of the approach, and demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The CTSPAID method provides a new idea for the customization of cutting tool.%刀具作为机床的“牙齿”,在金属切削中非常重要,目前专用化是刀具发展的一个主要趋势,挑战刀具设计的灵活性和准确性。为了实现这一目标,提出了刀具“形-性-用”一体化设计方法,它以加工需求为驱动,利用切削过程中涉及的理论(几何约束、切削力作用、切削层作用机理、刀具强度理论、高温材料学属性以及化学反应关系等),并通过刀具设计特征,将刀具的形状、性能和使用结合起来,进而实现针对加工需求的专用刀具设计,以及相应的加工条件和切削参数等的确定。然后建立了刀具“形-性-用”

  14. About one algorithm of the broken line approximation and a modeling of tool path for CNC plate cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennov, D. V.; Petunin, A. A.; Repnitskii, V. B.; Shipacheva, E. N.

    2016-12-01

    The problem of approximating two-dimensional broken line with composite curve consisting of arc and line segments is considered. The resulting curve nodes have to coincide with source broken line nodes. This problem arises in the development of control programs for CNC (computer numerical control) cutting machines, permitting circular interpolation. An original algorithm is proposed minimizing the number of nodes for resulting composite curve. The algorithm is implemented in the environment of the Russian CAD system T-Flex CAD using its API (Application Program Interface). The algorithm optimality is investigated. The result of test calculation along with its geometrical visualization is given.

  15. Automatic Extraction of Tongue Coatings from Digital Images: A Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostic Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Yunlu BAI; SHI Yundi; WU Jia; ZHANG Yonghong; WONG Weiliang; WU Yu; BAI Jing

    2009-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, the coating on the tongue is considered to be a reflection of various pathologic factors. However, the conventional method to examine the tongue lacks an acceptable standard and does not provide the means for sharing information. This paper describes a segmentation method to extract tongue coatings. First, the tongue body was extracted from the original image using the watershed transform. Then, a threshold method was applied to the image to eliminate the light from the camera flash.Finally, a threshold method using the Otsu model in combination with a splitting-merging method was used in the red, green, and blue (RGB) space to extract the thin coating. The combination of the above two methods is applied in the hue, saturation, and value (HSV) space to extract the thick coating. The feasibility of this method is tested by experiments, and the accuracy of segmentation is 95.9%.

  16. 超精密车削刀具偏置校正方法的研究%Research on Correction Method of Tool Decentration in Ultra Precision Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 余景池

    2012-01-01

    刀具偏置的校正是超精密车削的首要任务,对提高超精密车削效率及精度具有非常重要的意义.传统的刀具偏置校正方法由于缺乏理论指导,存在校正效率低、精度低的缺点,即使利用国外进口软件进行辅助校正,也存在一些问题.对超精密车削中金刚石刀具偏置造成的车削误差展开理论分析,在理论分析的基础上,给出提高刀具偏置校正精度及效率的原则,提出一种新的刀具偏置校正方法——泰曼格林干涉仪在线检测法,并用实验证明其准确性.%Correction of tool decentraton is the key task and making important significance for the precision and efficiency of ultra precision cutting. For lacking of theoretical instruction, efficiency and accuracy of the traditional method of tool position correction are not high, even using imported software to help correction, some problems still exist. The cutting errors caused by the position of diamond tool were analyzed theoretically. Based on the theoretical analysis, the principle for enhancing the accuracy and efficiency of correction was given. A new tool position correction method, Twyman-Green interferometer online test method, was put forward. Its veracity is verified by a practical experiment.

  17. The design and qualification of the TEL CLEAN TRACK ACT TM M photomask coating tool at Intel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Andrew; Dam, Thuc; Baik, Ki-Ho; Duerksen, Ken; Eidson, Elie; Akai, Keiji; Hisano, Kazuya; Kohama, Norifumi; Machidori, Shinichi

    2006-05-01

    As photomask complexity has increased, mask manufacturing has become significantly more challenging. Tightening specs on defect performance, resolution, and CD control have pushed mask manufacturing to achieve levels that nearly match wafer capabilities. To meet wafer manufacturing needs, mask production requires high yield and quick turn-around time, resulting in an increased demand for very high equipment reliability. In-line resist coating capability is important to meet these demands; both for robust 2 nd level phase-shift coating processes, and the enablement of advanced 1 st-level process development with new resists and new resist process conditions. Intel Corporation worked with Tokyo Electron Ltd (TEL) to bring one of the first CLEAN TRACK ACT M (ACT M) units through design, acceptance tests and into manufacturing. TEL's CLEAN TRACK ACT M is a resist coating tool based on the CLEAN TRACK ACT12 (ACT 12) wafer manufacturing platform, and contains multiple mask-specific modules including advanced softbake oven units, edge-bead removal modules, and cleaning systems. After setup and optimization, the tool shows impressive performance, (for example, within-plate thickness uniformity of manufacturing performance.

  18. 可食性莲子淀粉涂膜对鲜切菠萝品质的影响%Effects of edible lotus seed starch coating on quality of fresh-cut pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林鸳缘; 郑宝东; 曾绍校; 张帆; 吴树铮

    2011-01-01

    Influence of edible lotus seed starch coating on quality of fresh-cut pineapple was studied. Fresh-cut pineapple was coated with 1%, 2% or 3% lotus seed starch pasting incorporating nisin an a natural antimicrobial agent; placed into plastic trays, and o ver-wrapped with PE film and then stored at (5 ± 1) ℃. Changes in ripening index, juioe leakage, colour, firmness and microbial growth were evaluated over time. The results showed that lotus seed starch coating retarded senescence, browning and softening. It also inhibited the growth of microorganisms effectively. The total microbial count coated with 2%, 3% lotus seed starch could be controlled under 105 (less than 105 was in line with fresh-cut food hygiene requirements) during tea days due to the synergistic effect of lotus seed starch coating and nisin. The results revealed that lotus seed starch coating maintained the quality attributes of fresh-cut pineapple effectively.%分别采用1%、2%、3%不同浓度莲子淀粉膜液(含天然防腐剂nisin)对鲜切菠萝片进行涂膜处理,再装入塑料盒中,用PE薄膜密封,于(5±1)℃贮藏.在贮藏过程中,对鲜切菠萝的成熟度、流汁率、色泽、硬度和细菌菌落总数等相关指标进行评价,研究可食性莲子淀粉涂膜对鲜切菠萝品质的影响.结果表明,涂膜处理能延缓鲜切菠萝的衰老、褐变、软化,有效抑制微生物的生长.2%、3%涂膜处理组贮藏10 d内,莲子淀粉膜与nisin的协同作用可使菌落总数控制在105以下,符合鲜切果蔬的食品卫生要求.因此,采用莲子淀粉涂膜处理能有效保持鲜切菠萝的品质.

  19. Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3-NA Micro-Exposure Tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Hudyma, R M; Spiller, E; Gullikson, E M; Schmidt, M A; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L; Walton, C C; Taylor, J S

    2007-01-03

    This manuscript discusses the multilayer coating results for the primary and secondary mirrors of the Micro Exposure Tool (MET): a 0.30-numerical aperture (NA) lithographic imaging system with 200 x 600 {micro}m{sup 2} field of view at the wafer plane, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. Mo/Si multilayers were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on large-area, curved MET camera substrates, and a velocity modulation technique was implemented to consistently achieve multilayer thickness profiles with added figure errors below 0.1 nm rms to achieve sub-diffraction-limited performance. This work represents the first experimental demonstration of sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for high-NA EUV imaging systems.

  20. PVD涂层刀具高速铣削CoCrMo合金的性能研究%Performance of PVD-coated Tool in High Speed Milling of CoCrMo Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张而耕; 王琴雪; 张锁怀

    2017-01-01

    目的 为了提高涂层硬质合金刀具的切削性能,研究了物理气相沉积PVD法制备的涂层硬质合金铣刀在高速干式环境下的铣削性能.方法 采用阴极电弧技术制备了TiN、TiAlN以及TiAlSiN涂层硬质合金铣刀刀头,通过一同沉积涂层的硬质合金圆片,间接测量得出涂层的显微硬度、厚度和平均摩擦系数,并以CoCrMo合金为切削对象,进行了PVD涂层与无涂层刀具高速铣削下的对比试验.结果 TiAlSiN显微硬度最高达3800HV,摩擦系数达0.3,TiAlN涂层平均膜厚为2μm,间接测得TiN、TiAlN以及TiAlSiN涂层的结合力依次为60、58、42 N.在三者的切削性能中,TiAlSiN涂层的切削性能比TiAlN和TiN涂层的好,同等切削参数时,TiN刀具的高速铣削时间最短,TiAlSiN涂层的平均磨损值为0.1895,TiN的平均磨损值为0.3047.结论 涂层中添加A1、Si,极大地提高了刀具的使用性能,改善了刀具切削过程中的耐磨性、红硬性,极大地延长了刀具的使用寿命.TiAlSiN涂层的硬度高,耐磨损性好,切削性能好,适合高速铣削加工.%The work aims to improve cutting performance of coated carbide-tipped alloy cutters by studying milling performance of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coated carbide-tipped alloy cutters in at high speed and dry environment.TiN,TiAlN and TiAlSiN coated carbide-tipped alloy cutter heads were prepared on surfaces of carbide substrates by cathode arc plasma method.Microhardness,thickness and average friction coefficient were determined by indirect measurement of the cemented carbide disks deposited together with the coating system.A comparative test was performed to CoCrMo alloy at high-speed milling between PVD coatings and uncoated tools.The mechanical properties of the coating obtained were as follows,TiAlSiN micro hardness was up to 3800HV,friction coefficient 0.3,average thickness of TiAlN coating 2 μm,and adhesive force of TiN,TiAlN and TiAlSiN coatings indirectly measured

  1. Research on the Effectiveness of Cleaning Cutting Fluid Used for Machining During Abrasive and Diamond Tools Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vykintas Dusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problem of cleaning effectively lubricant - coolant fluid using two different metal-working techniques. Compared with lubricant-coolant fluid, the use of steel abrasive tools produces very small steel particles having relative weight. Steel processing with diamond polishing tools does not make chips. The paper considers theoretical cleaning methods and compares them with experimental results cleaning an additional flow of lubrication and cooling with a magnetic separator and hydro-cyclone.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Improving thermal and electrochemical performances of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode at high cut-off charge potentials by MF{sub 3} (M=Ce, Al) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulaich, Abdelmaula, E-mail: a.aboulaich@managemgroup.com; Ouzaouit, Khalid; Faqir, Hakim; Kaddami, Abderrahman; Benzakour, Intissar; Akalay, Ismail

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Fluoride metal is successfully coated on the surface of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Easy and scalable method is adopted for the synthesis of coated-LiCoO{sub 2}. • Appropriate amount of AlF{sub 3} or CeF{sub 3} is beneficial to reduce cation disorder. • The electrochemical performances of coated LiCoO{sub 2} is significantly enhanced at higher potential (cycling efficiency and reversible capacity). • The coated cathode exhibits excellent thermal stability highlighted by calorimetric technique. - Abstract: Surface coating of LiCoO{sub 2} remained one of the efficient methods to enhance its electrochemical and thermal performances, especially at high cut-off potential. In this work, MF{sub 3} (M = Ce, Al) coated LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized via co-precipitation method followed by a solid state reaction at 400 °C. The morphology and structure of the modified cathode material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the fluoride compound MF{sub 3} is successfully coated on the surface of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode particles with an average layer thickness about 12 nm and 40 nm for AlF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}, respectively. The electrochemical tests show that the AlF{sub 3}-coating layer significantly enhances the cycling performance of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode material, even at high cut-off potential. While the bare LiCoO{sub 2} cathode displays fast fading at 4.6 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li cutoff potential, the surface-modified electrode exhibits the great capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1} with excellent capacity retention on several cycles. We concluded that the electrochemical and the thermal enhancement at high potential are ascribed to the presence of MF{sub 3} coating layer which prevent the side reaction during the charge discharge process, alleviate the attack by the acidic electrolyte and reduce the damage of electrode structure.

  3. In-situ fabricated TiB2 particle-whisker synergistically toughened Ti(C, N)-based ceramic cutting tool material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanlian; Shi, Qiang; Huang, Chuanzhen; Zou, Bin; Xu, Liang; Wang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical properties of ceramic cutting tool materials can be modified by introducing proper content of nanoparticles or whiskers. However, the process of adding whiskers or nanoparticles has the disadvantages of high cost and health hazard as well as the agglomeration; although a new in-situ two-step sintering process can solve the above problems to some extent, yet the problems of low conversion ratio of the raw materials and the abnormal grain growth exist in this process. In this paper, an in-situ one-step synthesis technology is proposed, which means the growth of whiskers or nanoparticles and the sintering of the compact can be accomplished by one time in furnace. A kind of Ti(C, N)-based ceramic cutting tool material synergistically toughened by TiB2 particles and whiskers is fabricated with this new process. The phase compositions, relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties as well as the toughening mechanisms are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite which is sintered under a pressure of 32 MPa at a temperature of 1700°C in vacuum holding for 60 min can get the optimal mechanical properties. Its flexural strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness are 540 MPa, 7.81 MPa · m1/2 and 20.42 GPa, respectively. The composite has relatively high density, and the in-situ synthesized TiB2 whiskers have good surface integrity, which is beneficial for the improvement of the fracture toughness. It is concluded that the main toughening mechanisms of the present composite are whiskers pulling-out and crack deflection induced by whiskers, crack bridging by whiskers/particles and multi-scale particles synergistically toughening. This study proposes an in-situ one-step synthesis technology which can be well used for fabricating particles and whiskers synergistically toughened ceramic tool materials.

  4. In-situ Fabricated TiB2 Particle-whisker Synergistically Toughened Ti(C, N)-based Ceramic Cutting Tool Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hanlian; SHI Qiang; HUANG Chuanzhen; ZOU Bin; XU Liang; WANG Jun

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ceramic cutting tool materials can be modified by introducing proper content of nanoparticles or whiskers. However, the process of adding whiskers or nanoparticles has the disadvantages of high cost and health hazard as well as the agglomeration;although a new in-situ two-step sintering process can solve the above problems to some extent, yet the problems of low conversion ratio of the raw materials and the abnormal grain growth exist in this process. In this paper, an in-situ one-step synthesis technology is proposed, which means the growth of whiskers or nanoparticles and the sintering of the compact can be accomplished by one time in furnace. A kind of Ti(C, N)-based ceramic cutting tool material synergistically toughened by TiB2 particles and whiskers is fabricated with this new process. The phase compositions, relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties as well as the toughening mechanisms are analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite which is sintered under a pressure of 32 MPa at a temperature of 1700℃ in vacuum holding for 60 min can get the optimal mechanical properties. Its flexural strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness are 540 MPa, 7.81 MPa•m1/2 and 20.42 GPa, respectively. The composite has relatively high density, and the in-situ synthesized TiB2 whiskers have good surface integrity, which is beneficial for the improvement of the fracture toughness. It is concluded that the main toughening mechanisms of the present composite are whiskers pulling-out and crack deflection induced by whiskers, crack bridging by whiskers/particles and multi-scale particles synergistically toughening. This study proposes an in-situ one-step synthesis technology which can be well used for fabricating particles and whiskers synergistically toughened ceramic tool materials.

  5. 精密切削刀具磨损监控系统设计%Designing of test and control system on tools wear in precision cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马廉洁

    2011-01-01

    设计了刀具磨损检测控制系统,采用EPF10K10TC144-4主控芯片、位移传感器,采用分布式算法编制了控制软件并进行了系统仿真.将数据输入到CNC系统,修改刀具参数,并在数控车床上进行了切削实验.对比研究结果表明,该系统避免了人工检测误差、机床频繁停机,减少了换刀次数和重新对刀引入的二次误差,延长了刀具有效使用时间,且加工效率、加工精度、产品合格率都有明显提高.%The test and control system was designed on tools wear, it selected EPF10K10TC144-4 type controlling chip, displacement sensor, the control software was programmed using distributed algorithm, and system simulation was carried out. The data was input into the CNC system, tools parameters were modified. The cutting experiment was carried out in turning machine. The results of comparing study indicate that the manual examination errors and machine tools on-and-off frequently are avoided, the quadric errors introduced by the number of change tools and re-adjust tools are reduced, the effective time of using the tools was extended, in addition , machining efficiency, machining precision and product qualification rate have been obviously improved.

  6. 两类陶瓷刀具的现状、性能与应用%THE CURRENT SITUATION, PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATION OF TWO KINDS OF CERAMIC CUTTING TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝友; 崔丽华; 黄传真; 艾兴

    2001-01-01

    The currently development situation of Al2O3 matrix ceramic and Si3N4 matrix ceramic cutting tools is elaborated in this paper. The physical performance and cutting performance of which are discussed. The characterstics of Al2O3 matrix ceramic and Si3N4 matrix ceramic cutting tools are described. The cutting rields of which and the suitable machining values are discussed emphatically. Some questions in using ceramic cutting tools are also probed. Which has practical meaning for propagating the using of ceramic cutting tools.%综述了氧化铝系和氮化硅系两类陶瓷刀具的发展现状,阐述了两类陶瓷刀具的力学性能与切削性能,论述了两类陶瓷刀具的特点、加工范围以及合适的切削加工用量,提出了刀具使用过程中的一些注意问题。

  7. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  8. The research of structure and mechanical properties of superhard electro-spark coatings for hardwearing mining tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, P. A.; Chijikov, A. P.; Leybo, D. V.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Yudin, A. G.; Alymov, M. A.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of low cost and hardwearing mining tools is one of the most important areas in mining industry. It is especially important for technologies of rare and rare earth metals mining due to high hardness of related ores. Coatings for electrodes, produced by extrusion of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) products from hard-alloyed materials with nanosized structure, for further application in processes of electrospark alloying and deposition were studied in this work. The results of microstructure and properties of deposited layers, interaction of support with SHS produced electrodes, comparison of frictional properties of obtained materials as well as some industrial testing results are presented in this work.

  9. Experimental investigation of PCBN cutting tool in hard turning of powder metallurgy valve seat%PCBN硬态切削粉末冶金气门座圈的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海东; 张俊生; 邹玉明; 叶铮; 丁宁; 陈鸿运

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the surface quality and tool life of hard machining powder metallurgy valve seat with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN ) tools ,the influence of cutting parameters on cutting forces should be studied .By the orthogonal experimental design of PCBN cutting tool in hard turning of powder metallurgy valve seat ,empirical formulas of cutting forces were set up and the effect of cutting parameters on cutting forces was studied .The experimental results indicate that the radial force is relatively large because of the tool nose radius and negative chamfer .T he cutting forces are mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting depth ,w hile the cutting speed has less effect .With the increasing of cutting speed ,the main cutting force decreases during the machining of V 581 .Light cut‐ting depth ,low feed rate and high cutting speed should be chosen in practical machining to improve the surface quality and tool life .%为了提高粉末冶金气门座圈实际加工中的加工表面质量和刀具寿命,需要研究聚晶立方氮化硼(PCBN )刀具硬态切削时切削参数对切削力的影响规律。文章通过正交试验设计,建立了PCBN刀具硬态切削粉末冶金气门座圈切削力的经验公式,并研究了切削用量对切削力的影响。试验结果表明:PCBN刀具硬态切削粉末冶金气门座圈时,刀尖圆弧半径和负倒棱导致径向力相对较大;切削参数中切削深度和进给量对切削力的影响较大,切削速度的影响相对较小;切削 V581过程中,主切削力随着切削速度的增加而有所下降;实际加工中应选用较小的切削深度和进给量、较高的切削速度,以提高加工表面质量和刀具寿命。

  10. PCBN刀具断续切削高强度钢的实验研究%The experimental study of interrupted cutting of high strength steel with PCBN tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱坤杰; 黄树涛; 周丽; 许立福

    2012-01-01

    通过整体PCBN刀具硬态切削淬硬钢58SiMn实验,研究了切削速度和进给量对切削力及表面粗糙度的影响.实验结果表明:切削力和表面粗糙度值都随进给量增加而增大;在较低切削速度时切削力随切削速度提高而减小,当切削速度达到一定程度时出现拐点,继续提高切削速度切削力逐渐增大.在实验条件下,切削速度低于569 m/min时刀片以磨损为主;当速度为768 m/min时,以崩刃为主.%The influence of cutting speed and feed rate on cutting force and surface roughness was researched by the experiment of hard machining of 58SiMn with PCBN tools. According to the experimental results, the cutting force and surface roughness increase with the increasing of cutting speed and feed rate; The cutting force decreases with the increasing of cutting speed when the cutting speed is lower, while cutting force increases gradually with the increasing of cutting speed when cutting speed reachs a certain extent. In the experiment, when the cutting speed is lower than 569 m/min, the blade is wear; when the cutting speed is 768 m/min, the blade is tipping.

  11. Disinvestment in the age of cost-cutting sound and fury. Tools for the Spanish National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Armesto, Sandra; Campillo-Artero, Carlos; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes the framing of disinvestment strategies as the "value for money" approach suitable for the current situation of acute budget restrictions. Building on the experiences from other countries, it first reviews the instruments already available for implementing this approach within the Spanish National Health Service (SNS) named (A) The mandate to do it: regulatory framework.(B) The capacity to identify “low value” interventions and produce guidance on best practice.(C) The capacity to monitor compliance to and effects of “enforced” guidance.These three elements have been in place in the SNS for some years now. However their effective alignment in supporting a disinvestment strategy has met with several hurdles. Components of organisational incentives as well as the "technological fascination" affecting professionals' and public perceptions have played a role in Spain as elsewhere. In addition, some idiosyncratic political factors lead to weak mechanisms for the channelling of available evidence into decision-making and the existing SNS technical bodies capped to issue only non-binding recommendations. Sadly, the "cuts across the board" strategy adopted in facing the financial crisis might have finally triggered the required political clime to overcome these obstacles to disinvestment. In the current context, the SNS stakeholders (professionals and the public) may regard the disinvestment proposal of informed local decisions about how best to spend the shrinking amount of resources, getting rid of low value care, as a shielding rationale, rather than a thread.

  12. 硬质合金切削刀片优化设计%Optimum Design of Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志超; 谢平; 罗煜

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the manufacturing costs of cemented carbide cutting blades, various methods can be adopted such as adjusting the tolerance zone of the products, designing the protective straight sets for the sharp edge products with back angle bigger than 0°, and ensuring the mold's accuracy up to M level for the negative angle blades. Combined with modem high precision mold manufacturing technology and precision pressing technology, 1%~3.5% of manufacturing costs in the colligation of material, labor and machine can be saved.%为降低硬质合金切削刀片的制造成本,可以通过控制产品的公差带,为法后角大于0°的产品的锋利刃口设计保护性直台,为负角刀片设计周边尺寸可直接压制达到M级精度等级水平的模具,结合现代高精度模具制造技术和精密压制技术,在物料成本、人工费用、机器费用三方面综合达到节约硬质合金产品制造成本1%~3.5%的目的.

  13. Terahertz pulsed imaging as an advanced characterisation tool for film coatings--a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaser, Miriam; Gordon, Keith C; Strachan, Clare J;

    2013-01-01

    Solid dosage forms are the pharmaceutical drug delivery systems of choice for oral drug delivery. These solid dosage forms are often coated to modify the physico-chemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in particular to alter release kinetics. Since the product perform...

  14. Multiple Regression Prediction Model for Cutting Forces in Turning Carbon-Reinforced PEEK CF30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the thermoplastic polymers available, the reinforced polyetheretherketone with 30% of carbon fibres (PEEK CF 30 demonstrates a particularly good combination of strength, rigidity, and hardness, which prove ideal for industrial applications. Considering these properties and potential areas of application, it is necessary to investigate the machining of PEEK CF30. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to predict the cutting forces in turning operations using TiN-coated cutting tools under dry conditions where the machining parameters are cutting speed ranges, feed rate, and depth of cut. For this study, the experiments have been conducted using full factorial design in the design of experiments (DOEs on CNC turning machine. Based on statistical analysis, multiple quadratic regression model for cutting forces was derived with satisfactory 2-squared correlation. This model proved to be highly preferment for predicting cutting forces.

  15. Improvement Of Tools Durability By Application Of Hybrid Layer Of Nitrided/PECVD Coating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronostajski Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of die hot forging the tools are subjected to three main factors leading to their destruction: the intensive thermal shocks, cyclically variable mechanical loads and intensive friction. The above mentioned factors causing destruction in the process of hot forging and warm forging concern mainly the surface of tools. Hybrid technique nitrided/PECVD belong to the latest methods of modifying the properties of the surface layer. In the paper the application of this technique for forging tools of constant velocity joint body is presented. The durability of the new tools is much better than the tools applied so far.

  16. Effect of the cBN content and sintering temperature on the transverse rupture strength and hardness of cBn/diamond cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kır Durmuş

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cBN content and sintering temperature on the transverse rupture strength (TRS of cBN/diamond cutting tools produced by hot pressing. The segments containing different cBN content were manufactured under 35 MPa pressure at 600, 650 and 700°C with a 3 minutes sintering time. The TRS of segments were determined using three-point bending test. Microstructure and phase composition of fracture surface of segments were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The obtained results show that the TRS of the segments with cBN were higher than that of the segments with diamond.

  17. Predictive Tool Life Model of Ultra High Speed Turning Inconel 718 and Cutting Parameter Optimization%超高速切削Inconel 718刀具寿命研究及切削参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 郑光明; 李安海; 崔晓斌

    2011-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a difficult to machine alloy with low cutting efficiency and server tool wear. A series of orthogonal turning tests with sialon ceramic tools in ultra high speed scale was carried out to study tool life and wear mechanism. At the same time, the cutting parameters were optimized based on tool life-efficiency contour analysis.The experiential functions of tool life were developed. The main wear mechanisms of sialon ceramic tool involve adhesion and abrasion. In the same cutting efficiency, the higher cutting speed and small depth of cut are the better selection. For the selested tool, the optimized cutting parameter are cutting speed 150 ~ 250 m/min, depth of cut 0. 05 ~0.2 mm, feed rate 0. 1 ~ 0.2 mm, and the predietve tool life is about 5 ~ 20 min in this cutting condition.%针对Inconel 718加工时,切削效率低和刀具磨损严重,通过角正交试验对Sialon陶瓷刀具超高速切削Inconel 718的刀具寿命及磨损机理进行了研究,同时利用等效率-等寿命响应曲面法,对切削参数进行了优化,获得了干切削状态下刀具寿命的经验公式,得到陶瓷刀具超高速切削Inconel 718主要的磨损机理是粘结磨损和磨粒磨损,在效率不变的情况下,适当的降低切削速度,增大切削深度,可以提高刀具寿命,试验刀具的切削参数优化结果为:切削速度150~250 m/min、切削深度0.05~0.2 mm、进给量0.1~0.2 mm,在该建议切削参数下刀具寿命约在5~20 min.

  18. Finite Element Simulation of Surface Micro-pits Texture Cutting Tool Structure Strength%表面微坑织构刀具结构强度的有限元仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 李亮; 戚宝运

    2011-01-01

    在月具前刀面置入微织构能够改善刀屑间的摩擦状况,提高刀具的切削性能.为了研究表面织构的置入对刀具的应力、变形等产生的影响,本文针对微坑阵列结构,通过有限元软件ABAQUS对表面微坑织构刀具的结构强度进行仿真.结果表明:微坑的置人在一定程度上降低了刀具强度,增大了刀尖变形.在本文的研究范围内,与微坑深度、间距相比,微坑直径对刀具强度影响较大.%Placing micro-texture in rake face can improve the friction condition between the cutting tool and chip, as well as the cutting performance of the tool. To study the effect of surface texture on the stress and deformation of the cutting tool, the structure strength of the surface micro-pits textured cutting tool was simulated through the finite element software ABAQUS in this article. The results showed that micro-pits texture, in a certain extent, reduced thestrength of the cutting tool and increased the deformation of the tool nose. Compared with the depth and distance of the micro-pits, the micro-pits diameter had a greater impact on the cutting tool strength.

  19. Effects of sintering processes on mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB{sub 2}-TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Bin, E-mail: zou20011110@163.com [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China) and Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education (China); Huang Chuanzhen; Song Jinpeng; Liu Ziye; Liu Lin; Zhao Yan [Centre for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture (Shandong University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2012-04-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiB{sub 2}-TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic tool material was sintered by six processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of material depended mainly on the holding stages and duration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP1 process was involved with the multiple holding stages and longer duration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP1 process led to many pores, and coarsening and brittle rupture of grains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum mechanical properties. - Abstract: TiB{sub 2}-TiC composite powder was prepared by ball-milled with ethanol and vacuum dry, and TiB{sub 2}-TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material was sintered using vacuum hot-pressed sintering technique by six processes which included the different holding stages and times. The effects of sintering processes on the mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. The polished surface and fracture surface of TiB{sub 2}-TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramics sintered by the different sintering processes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure were discussed. The mechanical properties and microstructure depended mainly on the total holding time and the different holding stages. The longer holding time and multiple holding stages led to coarsening of TiB{sub 2} and TiC grains, formation of pores and the brittle rupture of grains, which deteriorated the mechanical properties of TiB{sub 2}-TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic. TiB{sub 2}-TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum resultant mechanical properties because of its finer microstructure and higher relative density, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness were 916.8 MPa, 7.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} and 22.54 GPa

  20. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Quality of Fresh-cut Pumpkin(Cucurbita Moschata) during Storage%壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切南瓜贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹丹; 杨绍兰; 吴昊; 张宏斌; 王成荣

    2012-01-01

    Fresh "MiBen" pumpkins were subjected to coating with chitosan at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%)and subsequent storage at 4 ℃ in order to examine the fresh-keeping effect of chitosan coating on fresh-cut pumpkin. During the storage, changes in polysaccharose, carotenoid and total phenol contents, ethylene production, weight loss rate, firmness and the activity of PAL and POD of fresh-cut pumpkin were measured. Results showed that chitosan coating could delay the reductions of firmness, polysaccharose, carotenoid and total phenol contents, and also could delay the increase of ethylene production, obviously enhance PAL and POD activities, reduce weight loss rate, and substantially extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pumpkin, especially at a concentration of 1.0%.%以新鲜的“蜜本”南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)为试验材料,探讨不同质量分数(0.5%、1.0%、1.5%)壳聚糖涂膜液处理对鲜切南瓜贮藏品质的影响.结果表明:采用壳聚糖涂膜液处理,不同程度地延缓了鲜切南瓜乙烯释放量的增加和硬度的下降,阻止了多糖和类胡萝卜素的减少,抑制了POD、PAL酶活性的下降和总酚含量的降低.其中以质量分数为1.0%壳聚糖涂膜液处理的效果最好,有效地保持了鲜切南瓜贮藏期间的品质.

  1. 汽车钛合金连杆切削加工中的刀具磨损研究%Research on Tool Wear in Cutting Process of Automobile Titanium Alloy Connecting Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海波; 姜淑华

    2016-01-01

    以汽车钛合金连杆为研究对象,分析了钛合金连杆在切削加工工艺过程中的刀具磨损量、切削力和刀具寿命随着切削速度、润滑压力的变化规律。试验分析结果表明:刀具磨损量随着切削速度的增加而增加,随着水射流润滑压力的增加先减小后增加;刀具切削力和轴向力均随着水射流压力的增大先减小后增加,但轴向力的变化较切削力更加敏感,变化速率更快;刀具寿命随着切削速度的增加而减小,随着水射流压力的增加先增大后减小,钛合金连杆的最佳工况为切削速度75m/min,润滑压力10MPa。%The automobile titanium alloy connecting rod was regarded as the study object;the effects different cutting speeds and lubrication pressures to the tool wear,cutting forces and tool life of titanium alloy connecting rod were re-searched.The experimental results show that with the increase of cutting speed,the tool wear increases;with the increase of the pressure of the jet water,the tool wear first increases and then decreases;the cutting force and the axial force of the cut-ting tool first decreases and then increases with the increase of the pressure of the jet water,but the change rate of axial force is more sensitive to the cutting force;the tool life decreases with the increase of the cutting speed and increases with the increase of the pressure of the jet water,the best work conditions of titanium alloy connecting rod can get at the cutting speed of 75m/min and the lubrication pressure of 1 0MPa.The experiments prove that the jet water assisted lubrication can increase the tool life and improve the surface properties of the materials,which provides a theoretical basis for titanium ma-terials and automotive components manufacturing.

  2. Surface roughness and cutting forces modeling for optimization of machining condition in finish hard turning of AISI 52100 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, Mohamed Walid; Belhadi, Salim; Yallese, Mohamed Athmane [Univ. of Guelma, Guelma (Algeria); Mabrouki, Tarek; Rigal, Jean Francois [Univ. of Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2012-12-15

    An experimental investigation was conducted to analyze the effect of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) and workpiece hardness on surface roughness and cutting force components. The finish hard turning of AISI 52100 steel with coated Al2O3 + TiC mixed ceramic cutting tools was studied. The planning of experiment were based on Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. The response table and analysis of variance (ANOVA) have allowed to check the validity of linear regression model and to determine the significant parameters affecting the surface roughness and cutting forces. The statistical analysis reveals that the feed rate, workpiece hardness and cutting speed have significant effects in reducing the surface roughness; whereas the depth of cut, workpiece hardness and feed rate are observed to have a statistically significant impact on the cutting force components than the cutting speed. Consequently, empirical models were developed to correlate the cutting parameters and workpiece hardness with surface roughness and cutting forces. The optimum machining conditions to produce the lowest surface roughness with minimal cutting force components under these experimental conditions were searched using desirability function approach for multiple response factors optimization. Finally, confirmation experiments were performed to verify the pertinence of the developed empirical models.

  3. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  4. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  5. Basic features of low-temperature plasma formation in the course of composite coating synthesis at the active faces of complex contoured hard tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzhozovsky, B. M.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Zinina, E. P.; Martynov, V. V.; Pleshakova, E. S.; Yuvchenko, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Basic features of combined-discharge low-temperature plasma formation around the surfaces of complex-contoured metal units are considered. It is shown that it makes the possibilities for synthesis of hardened high-durable coatings of hard tools appropriate for material processing in extreme load-temperature conditions. Experimental study of the coating formation was carried out in combination with the analysis of emission spectra of a low-temperature plasma cloud. Some practical examples of the coating applications are presented.

  6. Comparison of the PVD gradient coatings deposited onto X40CrMoV5-1 and HS6-5-2 tool steel substrate

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lukaszkowicz; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Staszuk; M. Pancielejko

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this research was investigation and comparison of selected properties of gradient coatings TiCN and AlSiCrN. In this paper both coatings were deposited by cathode arc evaporation physical vapour deposition (CAE-PVD) method onto high speed steel HS6-5-2 and hot work tool steel X40CrMoV5-1.Design/methodology/approach: Observations of surface and structures of the deposited coatings were carried out on cross sections in the scanning electron microscope. The phase composi...

  7. Improvement Of Tools Durability By Application Of Hybrid Layer Of Nitrided/PECVD Coating.

    OpenAIRE

    Gronostajski Z.; Kaszuba M.; Paschke H.; Zakrzewski T.; Rogaliński G.

    2015-01-01

    In the process of die hot forging the tools are subjected to three main factors leading to their destruction: the intensive thermal shocks, cyclically variable mechanical loads and intensive friction. The above mentioned factors causing destruction in the process of hot forging and warm forging concern mainly the surface of tools. Hybrid technique nitrided/PECVD belong to the latest methods of modifying the properties of the surface layer. In the paper the application of this technique for fo...

  8. Effect of chitosan edible coating incorporated with origanum essential oil on preservation of fresh-cut pineapple%壳聚糖涂膜与牛至精油复配对鲜切菠萝的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯可; 胡文忠; 姜爱丽; 萨仁高娃; 徐永平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of chitosan edible coating and incorporated with oregano essential oil on preservation of fresh-cut pineapple.Methods The values of the firmness, Vc content, peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of fresh-cut pineapple were analyzed by processed with chitosan edible coating incorporated with 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% of oregano essential, respectively, with water and chitosan edible coating processing as control.Results The processing of chitosan coating with 0.5% oregano essential oil could slow down softening of the tissue; the processing with 0.1% of oregano essential oil could maintain the decline of Vc content slowly; the POD and CAT activity of fresh cut pineapple were declined when it was processed with chitosan coating containing 0.3% and 0.5% oregano essential oil, and appeared increasing trend under other processing condition. The PPO and LOX activity with chitosan edible coating processing were lower than those of the control. Conclusions Chitosan edible coating incorporation with oregano essential oil would extend shelf-life of fresh-cut pineapple at the condition of keeping nutrition ingredient.%目的:研究壳聚糖涂膜及与牛至精油复配对鲜切菠萝的保鲜的影响。方法在低温环境中,按照0.1%、0.3%和0.5%不同浓度的牛至精油与壳聚糖复配,并分别以水、壳聚糖涂膜处理为对照,分析不同处理方式对鲜切菠萝硬度、Vc 含量、过氧化物酶(POD)、多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和脂氧合酶(LOX)活性的影响。结果壳聚糖涂膜与0.5%的牛至精油复配后可减缓组织软化;与0.1%牛至精油复配可以维持Vc含量的缓慢降低。在不同处理组中,当含有0.3%和0.5%牛至精油时,鲜切菠萝的POD和CAT活性则呈下降趋势,而其他处理组则显著升高;当含有壳聚糖处理组时,其 PPO和LOX活性则低于对照组。结论壳聚糖与牛至

  9. PCBN tool wear mechanism in laser ultrasonically combined cutting cemented carbide%PCBN刀具激光超声复合切削硬质合金的磨损机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昌娟; 焦锋; 牛赢

    2016-01-01

    结合激光加热辅助切削和超声振动切削提出了激光超声复合切削加工工艺。采用PCBN刀具对YG10硬质合金进行普通切削、超声振动切削、激光加热辅助切削和激光超声复合切削对比试验,采用超景深显微镜观测刀具磨损量及磨损形貌,通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对刀具磨损区域进行能谱分析,研究激光超声复合切削条件下刀具的磨损规律、磨损形态及磨损原因。研究结果表明:与普通切削、超声振动切削及激光加热辅助切削相比,激光超声复合切削时刀具后刀面磨损量平均值分别降低57.5%、46%、41.3%,刀具使用寿命明显提高;刀具磨损形态主要表现为前刀面磨损、后刀面磨损和崩刃;激光超声复合切削硬质合金时粘接磨损、氧化磨损、相变磨损和微裂解磨损是引起PCBN刀具磨损的主要原因。%Laser ultrasonically combined cutting was proposed based on ultrasonic vibration cutting with laser heating assisted cutting. A series of experiments were conducted in conventional cutting, ultrasonic vibration cutting, laser heating assisted cutting and laser ultrasonically combined cutting YG10 cemented carbide with PCBN tools. The tool wear characteristics and tool wear mechanism were observed by using digital microscope with super depth, the energy spectrum analysis was carried out in worn areas of tools by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the average flank wear of PCBN tool obtained by laser ultrasonically combined cutting is reduced by almost 57.5%, 46% and 41.3% respectively when compared with that by conventional cutting, ultrasonic vibration cutting and laser heating assisted cutting, therefore the tool life is obviously lengthened. The main wear types are crater wear, flank wear and tipping for PCBN tools in cutting YG10 cemented carbide. And the adhesion, oxidation, phase transformation and micro dissociation are the

  10. Experimental investigation on flank wear and tool life, cost analysis and mathematical model in turning hardened steel using coated carbide inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turning hardened component with PCBN and ceramic inserts have been extensively used recently and replaces traditional grinding operation. The use of inexpensive multilayer coated carbide insert in hard turning is lacking and hence there is a need to investigate the potential and applicability of such tools in turning hardened steels. An attempt has been made in this paper to have a study on turning hardened AISI 4340 steel (47 ± 1 HRC using coated carbide inserts (TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/ZrCN under dry environment. The aim is to assess the tool life of inserts and evolution of flank wear with successive machining time. From experimental investigations, the gradual growth of flank wear for multilayer coated insert indicates steady machining without any premature tool failure by chipping or fracturing. Abrasion is found to be the dominant wear mechanisms in hard turning. Tool life of multilayer coated carbide inserts has been found to be 31 minute and machining cost per part is Rs.3.64 only under parametric conditions chosen i.e. v = 90 m/min, f = 0.05 mm/rev and d = 0.5 mm. The mathematical model shows high determination coefficient, R2 (99% and fits the actual data well. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie very close to the experimental value at 95% confidence level. This shows the potential and effectiveness of multilayer coated carbide insert used in hard turning applications.

  11. Applications of Cr-Based Metal Nitride Hard Coatings Using Multi-Magnetron Sputtering Sources and Elemental Metal Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shicai Yang; Eric Wiemann; D.G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    Cr-based nitride hard coatings were produced by multi-magnetron sputtering sources using elemental metal materials. Cr, Ti, Mo, V, Al, and Y target materials were used for the metal sources whilst nitrogen was introduced at the same time to produce multilayer nitride hard coatings. The deposition process was optimised according to the properties of hardness, adherence and wear measured using microhardness, scratch, Rockwell indentation and pin-on-disc tests. The coatings were deposited onto hard metal carbide as well as high speed steel cutting tools such as inserts and drills. The coated inserts were tested on a wide range of difficult to machine materials using a Boehringer VDF180-C CNC lathe. The machining was performed under interrupted cutting conditions and the results were compared with those obtained using an advanced commercially available TiA1N coating. The coated carbide drills were tested under dry conditions to cut hard alloy steel and the coated tool steel drills were tested under lubricant conditions to cut carbon steel with comparing the similar tests on commercial TiN coatings. These test results were compared with those from drills coated with a commercial TiN.

  12. Applications of Cr-Based Metal Nitride Hard Coatings Using Multi-Magnetron Sputtering Sources and Elemental Metal Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShicaiYang; EricWiemann; D.C.Teer

    2004-01-01

    Cr-based nitride hard coatings were produced by multi-magnetron sputtering sources using elemental metal materials. Cr, Ti, Mo, V, A1, and Y target materials were used for the metal sources whilst nitrogen was introduced at the same time to produce multilayer nitride hard coatings. The deposition process was optimised according to the properties of hardness, adherence and wear measured using microhardness, scratch, Rockwell indentation and pin-on-disc tests. The coatings were deposited onto hard metal carbide as well as high speed steel cutting tools such as inserts and drills. The coated inserts were tested on a wide range of difficult to machine materials using a Boehringer VDF180-C CNC lathe. The machining was performed under interrupted cutting conditions and the results were compared with those obtained using an advanced commercially available TiA1N coating. The coated carbide drills were tested under dry conditions to cut hard alloy steel and the coated tool steel drills were tested under lubricant conditions to cut carbon steel with comparing the similar tests on commercial TiN coatings. These test results were compared with those from drills coated with a commercial TiN.

  13. 碳纤维复合材料手工制孔刀具和工具的选择方案%Scheme of Choosing Cutting Tool and Tool for Manual Drilling in CFRP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海勇; 郑伟; 涂卿

    2013-01-01

    At present, CFRP is widely applied in aircraft manufacture. Drill is very important process in assembly. So choosing the right cutting tool and tool is very necessary to make sure the quality of drill. Now vari-ous kinds of drills and tools are used in domestic factory. To improve the technology of drill for CFRP, the better scheme should be summarized from practice.%目前,碳纤维复合材料正广泛应用于飞机制造,而装配中制孔是重要的一环,因此,选择合适的刀具和工具是保证制孔质量的前提。国内各公司采用的工具和刀具各不相同,为提高复合材料的制孔技术,应从众多实际应用实例中总结出更优的选择方案。

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT DRILLING COATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated (coated particleboards (PB are wood-based composites intensively used in the furniture industry. In order to prepare the PB for joining, drilling is the most commonly applied machining process. The surface quality and the dynamic parameters (thrust force and torque are significantly influenced by the tools characteristics and the machining parameters. The point/tip angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the dynamic parameters. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of both the geometric and cinematic parameters on the dynamic parameters at drilling with twist (helical drills. The experiments were performed based on a factorial design. The results show that, a low feed rate generally minimizes both the drilling torque and the thrust force, while a small tip angle increases the drilling torque and minimizes the thrust force.

  15. The Dynamic Model Based on PFC of Asphalt Concrete Cutting Process and Optimization of Tools Installation%基于PFC的沥青混凝土铣削仿真及刀具安装优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周里群; 李军; 邢国

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the superiority of the simulation of the discrete element method with the rheological properties on asphalt concrete, it simulates milling machine cutting process of asphalt concrete , overcome the limitations of the macro continuity hypothesis based on traditional continuum mechanics model, and can make this cutting process visible from microcosmic angle. The research results indicated that the model checked by uniaxial compression test, gets change rule of cutting force and friction force in different cutting angle on cutting knife surface of cutting tools, and gets the conclusion that 5~20 degrees cutting angle in installation tools is good to tools' life.%基于离散元对沥青混凝土流变特性模拟的优越性,对其切削过程进行动态仿真,克服了传统连续介质力学模型的宏观连续性假设的局限性,可以从徽观角度对切削过程进行可视化的数值模拟.研究结果表明:通过单轴压缩试验校正后的模型,得到在不同切削角下切削过程中刀具前刀面受力变化规律,并得出刀具在安装工程中优先选择5~20°切削角的结论,为工程实际提供了参考.

  16. 车削过程中刀具振动响应测试及分析%Testing and analysis on vibration responses of cutting tool in tuming process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟华; 李顺才; 刘玉庆

    2012-01-01

    利用QLVC-ZSA1振动信号分析仪及加速度传感器,对数控车床在不同切削要素的车削过程中刀具的振动响应进行了测试及量化研究,得到了刀具振动加速度信号的时域曲线及自功率谱密度曲线.研究表明:刀具的振动响应是一个随车削进行的时变过程,在同一走刀相同车削要素的车削过程中,随着去除材料的增加,刀具所受的激振能量减少;随着切削深度的增加,刀具振动的最大自功率谱密度并非单调增加,车削深度对于刀具振动的影响存在一个临界值;随着主轴转速及进给速度的提高,刀具振动的自谱密度值随之增大,而相应的振动频率降低.%By means of the QLVC-ZSA1 analysis instrument of vibration signals and acceleration sensor, the vibration responses of the cutting tool are tested and quantitatively studied for the turning process of the numerically controlled lathe under the different cutting elements, and the time series curves and the self-power spectral density curves of the acceleration vibration signals of the cutting tool are obtained. The study indicates that (1) the vibration response of the cutting tool is a time-varying process with the operating of the turning. For the turning period with same turning parameters in a tool moving path, the hammer vibration energy of the cutting tool decreases with the increase of the material removal; (2) with the increase in cutting depth, the maximum of the self-power spectral density of the tool vibration doesn't increase monotonically and the cutting depth has a critical value for the effect on the tool vibration; (3) with the increase in the spindle speed and feeding velocity, the self-power spectral density of the tool vibration also increases, while the corresponding vibration frequency decreases.

  17. M42高速钢刀具的抗弯强度试验及分析%Test & Analysis for Bend Strength of M42 HSS Cutting Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉华

    2001-01-01

    通过抗弯强度试验分析了M42高速钢刀具的热处理硬度与韧性之间的关系,提出采用等温淬火工艺将M42高速钢刀具的硬度控制在65~67.5HRC可获得较佳切削性能。%The relationship between the heat treating hardness and ductility of M42 HSS cutting tool is analyzed through the bend strength test. It is pointed out that the heat treating hardness of M42 HSS cutting tool shall be held in 65~67.5 HRC by the isothermal hardening to acquire the good cutting performance.

  18. Application of edible active films coatings on preservation of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables%可食性活性涂膜在鲜切果蔬保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨仁高娃; 胡文忠; 修志龙; 姜爱丽; 冯可

    2015-01-01

    可食性涂膜是一种由天然可食性材料制成的选择透过性薄膜,具有调节果蔬内部气体交换、减少水分损失、降低腐烂率及延长货架期的特性,在果蔬包装及保鲜领域中已引起广泛关注。鲜切果蔬具有新鲜、方便、快捷等特点,已在全球范围内广泛供应餐饮业及零售业。可食性涂膜作为多种食品添加剂的载体常应用于生鲜产品中,且将活性添加剂与可食性涂膜结合可以延长鲜切果蔬的货架期,提高果蔬品质,减少果蔬表面致腐及致病菌增长的风险。可食性活性涂膜将作为一种绿色、安全、营养的保鲜技术,并将应用于鲜切果蔬保鲜领域的研究。本文综述了可食性涂膜的分类及其添加的抗菌剂、抗氧化剂、塑形剂、营养素等活性成分在鲜切果蔬保鲜中的应用,旨在开发用于鲜切果蔬保鲜的功能性可食性涂膜。%Edible film is a kind of selectively permeable membrane which is made of natural edible material. It can coordinate the gas exchange, reduce the water loss and the rot rate, and prolong the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. Edible coating film has gained a wide concern in the fields of food package and food storage. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables had the characters of fresh, convenient, and rapid, which were widely applied in catering industry and retail industry. Edible coating as carrier of food adding agent were applied in fresh products. It incorporated with active adding agent that would prolong the shelf life, improve quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and reduce the increasing of pathogenic bacteria. Edible coating had been applied to preservation for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables as a kind of preservation technology of food safety. The application of edible coating classification and adding active ingredient of antimicrobial, antioxidant, nutrient on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables was reviewed in this paper. The

  19. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...... within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force...

  20. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  1. Laboratory and Performance Studies of Anti-wear Coatings Deposited on Nitrided Surfaces of Tools used in an Industrial Hot Die Forging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Marek; Widomski, Paweł; Smolik, Jerzy; Kaszuba, Marcin; Ziemba, Jacek; Gronostajski, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory studies performed on produced anti-wear coatings as well as the results of performance tests conducted on tools with these coatings in industrial conditions, in the process of hot die forging. Three different coatings were selected: AlCrTiSiN, Cr/CrN and AlCrTiN, deposited by means of the vacuum-arc method on test samples as well as forging tools used in the hot forging process of a lid. The first part of the paper discusses the results of the studies performed in laboratory conditions, which included: surface morphology by means of SEM, hardness and Young modulus measurements, determination of the chemical composition by means of the EDS method, adhesion tests by means of the scratch method and tribological tests by means of the ball-on-disk method. The obtained results were correlated and applied in the analysis of the performance tests on forging punches with these coatings at an early stage of their performance (up to 4000 produced forgings), which were tested on 19 tools, of which 3 representatives were selected for each coating. A thorough analysis was performed of the wear phenomena and mechanisms and the manner of wear of hybrid layers as well as their resistance to the particular destructive mechanisms. Based on the performed laboratory and performance studies as well as their analysis, it was possible to select the optimal hybrid layer, which enables an increase in the durability of forging tools used in industrial hot die forging processes. The preliminary results showed that the best results for the whole working surface of the tool were obtained for the Cr/CrN layer, which characterizes in high adhesion as well as a lower Young modulus and hardness. In the case of high pressures and the correlated friction, better results were obtained for the AlCrTiN coating, which, besides its good adhesion properties, also exhibited the highest frictional resistance.

  2. Research and Development of Information System of Cutting Tool Based on Web%基于Web切削刀具信息系统的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀明; 王春海; 张景峰; 孙中文

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies a information system of cutting tool based on web. The system's function is that it can look out the tool size, model and other technical information of cutting tool producers home and abroad through client browser. It can also provide tool type and cutting parameters based on the work piece materials, precision, procession methods and other cutting conditions. Apart from that, it can offer maintaining function such as user registration, right-rank management, date bank maintenance, etc.%本文研究的是一种基于Web的切削刀具信息系统.这种系统具有用户通过客户端浏览器快速检索到系统中国内外主要刀具生产厂家及企业内部的刀具型号、尺寸及其它技术参数信息的功能.同时也具有可以根据加工零件的材料、加工精度要求、加工工艺方法及其它加工条件,获得推荐的刀具种类及切削用量的功能.另外,系统本身还具有维护功能,可以进行用户的注册、权限管理及数据库的维护等功能.

  3. Hot Machining of Hardened Steels with Coated Carbide Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lajis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The benefits of easier manufacture of hardened steel components can be substantial in terms of reduced machining costs and lead times compared to the traditional route involving machining of the annealed state followed by heat treatment, grinding/EDM and manual finishing. But machinability of hard material through conventional machining is hindered due to excessive wear of the cutting tools and differently in achieving desired quality of the machined surface. In end milling the cutting tool is not in constant operation and so undergoes a heat cycle during the intermittent cutting. This alternate heating and cooling of the inserts lead to the thermal cracks and subsequently failure of the tool. Approach: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of preheating through inductive heating mechanism in end milling (vertical milling center of AISI D2 hardened steel (56-62 HRC by using coated carbide tool inserts. Apart from preheating, two other machining parameters such as cutting speed and feed were varied while the depth of cut was kept constant. Results: Tool wear phenomenon and machined surface finish were found to be significantly affected by preheating temperature and other two variables. Preheating temperature of 335°C coupled with cutting speed of 40 m min-1, depth of cut of 1.0 mm and feed of 0.02 mm/tooth resulted in a noticeable reduction in tool wear rate leading to a maximum tool life 188.55 min. In addition, cutting speed of 56.57 m min-1 together with feed of 0.044 mm/tooth and depth of cut 1.0 mm at which maximum VMR (9500 mm3 was secured provides a better surface finish with minimum surface roughness 0.25µm leaving a possibility of skipping the grinding and polishing operations for certain applications. Conclusion/Recommendation: Through the end milling of preheated AISI D2 hardened steel by using TiAlN coated carbide cutting tool it can be concluded that an overall enhanced machinability is achievable by

  4. The Effect of the Double-Deck Filament Setup on Enhancing the Uniformity of Temperature Field on Long-Flute Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Chen, Sulin; Cheng, Lei; Sun, Fanghong

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a double-deck filament setup is proposed for the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method and an optimization method is presented to determine its optimal geometry that is able to produce a highly uniform temperature field on the whole flute surface of long-flute cutting tools. The optimization method is based on the finite volume method (FVM) simulation and the Taguchi method. The simulation results show that this double-deck filament setup always produce a highly uniform temperature distribution along the filament direction. Comparatively, for the temperature uniformity along the drill axis, the heights of the two filament decks present virtually significant influence, while the separations between the two filaments in either deck exhibit a relative weak effect. An optimized setup is obtained that can produce a highly uniform temperature field with an average temperature of 834°C, a standard deviation (σ) of 2.59°C and a temperature range (R) of 11.75°C. Finally, the precision of the proposed simulation method is verified by an additional temperature measurement. The measured temperature results show that a highly uniform temperature fields with σ/R = 9.6/35.2°C can be generated by the optimized setup and the deviation of the simulated results from the measured actual temperatures are within 0.5-3.5%, which justifies the correctness of the simulation method proposed in present study.

  5. Magnetic poly(vinylpyridine)-coated carbon nanotubes: an efficient supramolecular tool for wastewater purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Laura; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Marega, Riccardo; Jensen Ahrens, Jennifer; Pineux, Florent; Meyer, Franck; Dubois, Philippe; Bonifazi, Davide

    2013-02-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a supramolecular carbon nanotube (CNT)-based magnetic depolluting agent for divalent metal ion (M(2+)) removal from aqueous solutions. In particular, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) coated with poly(vinylpyridine) (PVPy) self-aggregate in aqueous solutions that contain divalent metal ions (such as Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+)) to form tight insoluble bundles in which the M(2+) ions remain trapped through pyridyl-M(2+)-pyridyl interactions. Magnetic filtration ultimately affords the efficient separation of the depolluted solution from the precipitated M(2+)-CNT agglomerates. Upon acid treatment, the supramolecular threads could be disassembled to afford the free CNT-polymer hybrid, thus allowing recycling of the depolluting agent. All materials and complexation/decomplexation steps were thoroughly characterised by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). The quantification of the M(2+) residual concentrations in water was evaluated by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which showed that, depending on the metal cation, this material can remove up to 99% of the contaminant.

  6. 过江隧道大型泥水盾构刀具使用与管理%Application and Management of Cutting Tools of Large Slurry Shield in River-crossing Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季玉国; 杨荣斌

    2016-01-01

    为了进一步推进和提高我国大型泥水盾构刀具的使用与管理水平,解决其目前存在的突出问题,以南京长江隧道、南京扬子江隧道、南京地铁3号线和10号线过江单洞双线隧道等大型泥水盾构施工为背景,通过对复合地层盾构掘进施工刀具使用的分析总结,提出了刀具管理的前期设计、过程使用管理、刀具检查更换、意外事故的预防和恢复掘进注意事项等刀具使用系统管理理念,以期为今后类似工程盾构施工刀具管理提供指导与借鉴。%The application of cutting tools of shield in complex strata of Nanjing Yangtze River-crossing Tunnels and Nanjing River-crossing Metro Line No.3 and Line No.1 0 is analyzed and summarized.And then the initial design, application and management,cutting tool checking and replacing,incident prevention and boring recovery of cutting tool management are proposed,so as to improve the application and management of cutting tools of large slurry shield in China. The results can provide reference for application and management of cutting tools of shield in similar projects in the future.

  7. Development of Diamond-Coated Drills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with the sintered polycrystalline diamond, the deposited thin film diamond has the great advantage on the fabrication of cutting tools with complex geometries such as drills. Because of their low costs for fabrication equipment and high performance on high speed machining non-ferrous metals and alloys, metal-compound materials, and hard brittle non-metals, diamond-coated drills find great potentialities in the commercial application. However, the poor adhesion of the diamond film on the substrate...

  8. 涂膜处理对鲜切山药褐变及抗氧化性的影响%Effect of Coating on Browning and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh-Cut Yam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利华; 秦卫东; 陈学红; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    为保持鲜切山药的色泽及抗氧化性,延长其货架期,研究壳聚糖、卡拉胶、海藻酸钠及复合涂膜剂对鲜切山药涂膜处理后,在5℃贮藏期间褐变及抗氧化性的影响。结果表明:壳聚糖1.57%+卡拉胶0.9%+海藻酸钠1.55%涂膜后,鲜切山药储存期间,可明显降低山药的褐变程度及抑制PPO的比活力,防止贮藏后期酚类物质的氧化,提高鲜切山药的整体抗氧化能力。%In order to preserve the color and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut yam and extend its shelf life, the effects of different types of coating treatment (chitosan alone, carrageenan alone, sodium alginate alone, and all of them) on browning degree and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut yam during storage at 5 ℃ were investigated. The results showed that a mixture of 1.57% chitosan, 0.9% carrageenan and 1.55% sodium alginate could inhibit PPO activity and reduce the browning degree of fresh-cut yam during storage, and prevent polyphenol oxidation and increase the total antioxidant activity of fresh-cut yam during the late period of storage.

  9. Effect of Nano-chitosan Coating on Quality of Fresh-cut Zizania latifolia%纳米壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切茭白品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静峰; 罗海波; 王隽; 江凯; 郁志芳

    2013-01-01

    研究了纳米壳聚糖涂膜对鲜切茭白品质的影响.鲜切茭白分别在去离子水(对照)、10g/L壳聚糖或10g/L壳聚糖+1.5 g/L纳米壳聚糖溶液中浸泡3min,自然晾干包装后于1±0.5℃下贮藏12d.贮藏过程中每3d测定鲜切茭白的白色指数(WI)、硬度、失重率及木质素、还原糖、抗坏血酸含量,PAL、SOD、CAT和POD活力.结果显示,纳米壳聚糖涂膜显著抑制了鲜切茭白WI值的下降和木质素含量的增加,维持了相对高的硬度及还原糖和抗坏血酸含量;贮藏12d后失重率为1.12%; PAL和POD活性显著低于对照(P<0.05),SOD和CAT活性显著高于对照(P<0.05).以上结果表明,纳米壳聚糖涂膜能有效延缓鲜切茭白褐变和木质化,提高抗氧化酶类活性,提示纳米壳聚糖涂膜具有商业上控制鲜切茭白品质劣变的潜在价值.%The effect of nano-chitosan coating on the quality of fresh-cut Z.latifolia was investigated.Fresh-cut Z.latifolia slices were dipped into deionised water (the control),10 g/L chitosan or the mixture of 10 g/L chitosan and 1.5 g/L nano-chitosan for 3 min,and then dried,packaged and finally stored for 12 days at 1±0.5 ℃.Changes in whiteness index (WI),firmness,weight loss,lignin,reducing sugar and ascorbic acid contents,phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL),superoxide dismutase (SOD),eatalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were evaluated at intervals of two days.The results showed that the nano-chitosan coating significantly inhibited the decline of WI value and the increase of lignin content,maintained relatively high firmness,reducing sugars and ascorbic acid contents of fresh-cut Z.latifolia.After a 12-day storage at 1±0.5 ℃,the weight loss of the fresh-cut Z.latifolia slices was 1.12%.The treatment also inhibited the activities of PAL and POD but promoted SOD and CAT activities compared with the control.The present findings indicated that the nano-chitosan coating could inhibit browning and

  10. GH4169高速切削刀具耐用度及给定约束参数优化方法研究%Research on Tool Life and Cutting Parameter Optimization with a Given Constraint Condition in High Speed Milling GH 4169

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 刘维伟; 史凯宁; 李文科

    2014-01-01

    针对难加工镍基高温合金材料G H4169切削过程中的加工效率低下、刀具耐用度差等问题,新型PVD-TiAlN涂层硬质合金刀具进行了高温合金GH4169高速铣削正交试验,研究了TiAlN涂层刀具高速铣削GH4169过程中的刀具耐用度。另外,应用退火罚函数遗传算法建立了以最大切除率为目标函数,以给定刀具寿命为约束条件的切削参数优化数学模型,得到了刀具寿命 T≥30 min条件下,切除率最大的最优参数组合,并进行了试验验证。研究结果表明:高温合金G H4169高速铣削过程中,切削速度对刀具寿命的影响非常明显,进给量及切削深度的影响较小;应用退火罚函数遗传算法建立的切削参数优化模型能在给定约束条件下明显提高加工效率,为现实加工过程中的参数优化提供了一种新方法。%For the problems of the poor tool life and the low removal rate to machine nickel based superalloys GH4169, the orthogonal experiment was processed to obtain the tool life data of a new developed PVD-TiAlN coated carbide tool to cut superalloy GH4169. In addition, by annealing penalty function genetic algorithm ,an optimization model of cutting parameters, which lead to maximum material removal rate, is built according to the specified tool life values .The optimal parameter combination is gotten when the tool life T≥30min as constraint conditions ,and the experimental validation is done .The results indicate that cutting speed has highly obvious influence on tool life. The optimization model, which is established based on annealing penalty function genetic algorithm, can improve materials processing efficiency and quality of the GH4169 effectively .

  11. Thermal shock resistance of TiN coating tool%TiN涂层刀具的抗热冲击性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海冰; 邓建新; 刘爱华; 连云松

    2012-01-01

    The thermal shock resistance of TiN coating tools was evaluated by laser irradiation method. The thermal stress distributions of TiN coating tools under irradiation by laser beams were analyzed using FEM. The results show that laser irradiation method can be used to evaluate the thermal shock resistance of coating tools, and the critical power density of laser beam is introduced as a measure to evaluate the thermal shock resistance of coating tools; the compressive stress induced by laser irradiation cause the coating to be unstable and buckle, and then the coating fracture; the calculation results get a good agreement with experimental results.%采用激光照射的方法研究了TiN涂层刀具的抗热冲击性能,并用有限元的方法计算了TiN涂层刀具在激光照射过程中产生的应力分布.结果表明:利用激光照射的方法研究涂层刀具的抗热冲击性能是可行的,将激光的临界功率密度作为评价涂层刀具抗热冲击性能的参数;涂层在激光照射过程中产生的压应力作用下发生失稳翘曲,进而导致裂纹的产生.试验结果和有限元计算结果吻合良好.

  12. Characterization of cohesion, adhesion and creep-properties of dynamically loaded coatings through the impact tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzakis, K.D.; Michailidis, N.; Lontos, A.; Siganos, A.; Hadjiyiannis, S.; Giannopoulos, G.; Maliaris, G. [Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. for Machine Tools and Mfg. Engineering; Erkens, G. [CemeCon GmbH, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    The coating impact test, in combination with finite elements method (FEM) simulation, is successfully used to characterize the fatigue performance of coatings. Critical values for stress components, responsible for distinctive fatigue failure modes of the coating, are obtained and the fatigue limits of various coatings are illustrated in form of generally applicable Smith and Woehler diagrams, determined through a developed evaluation software. This software takes into account the impact test experimental data, as well as coating and substrate constitutive laws. Herewith coating adhesive and cohesive failure modes are elucidated and a cutting performance prediction of coated tools can be carried out. On the other hand, creep phenomena of plasma sprayed coatings are quantitatively interpreted. (orig.)

  13. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, B.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Shahid, M.; Soomro, B. D.; Hashim, S.; Iqbal, R.

    2014-06-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms.

  14. Análisis por el Método de los Elementos Finitos de las tensiones en la zona de contacto herramienta-viruta. // Stress anallisys by Finite element Method in tool-cutting zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez Madrigal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo ha sido empleado el método de los elementos finitos para modelar las tensiones en la zona de contactoherramienta-viruta en un proceso de corte ortogonal. Se ha empleado una formulación de Lagrange actualizada parasolucionar la no linealidad del fenómeno. El comportamiento elasto-plástico del material ha sido formulado mediante lasecuaciones de Prandtl-Reuss y la teoría de endurecimiento por deformación para resolver la ecuación constitutiva elastoplásticadel proceso de corte ortogonal. Se han obtenido la tensión normal y la tensión de cizallamiento en la zona decontacto herramienta-viruta, definiéndose las zonas de adherencia y deslizamiento.Palabras claves: corte ortogonal, contacto herramienta-viruta, método de los elementos finitos, proceso decorte de metales._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The finite element method has been used to obtain the stress model in the tool-cutting contact zone in an orthogonal cuttingprocess. An updated Lagrange formulation has been used to solve the nonlinearity of the elasto-plastic phenomenonbehavior of the material.This behavior has been formulated by means of the Prandtl-Reuss equations and the theory ofdeformation by hardening, in order to solve the elasto-plastic equation of orthogonal cutting process. The normal and shearstresses in tool-cutting zone has been obtained, defining the adherence and sliding zones.Key words: Orthogonal cut , tool-cutting contact, finite element method, steel cutting process.

  15. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  16. Cutting Tool Selection in CFRP and AFRP Machining%碳纤维与芳纶纤维复合材料机械加工刀具选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉良; 张加波; 王震; 张佳朋; 李光

    2013-01-01

    Cutting tool plays an significant role in composite machining.In this paper the special property of composite and its machining mechanism is analyzed,the requirement of cutting tool materials,structure and geometrical parameters for composite machining is discussed.Several kinds of drilling and milling tools which are fit for carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and aramid fiber reinforced plastic (AFRP) are introduced.%通过对复合材料特性和加工机理的分析,论述了复合材料机械加工对刀具材质、结构和几何参数的要求,介绍了几种适合于碳纤维和芳纶纤维复合材料机械加工的钻削和铣削刀具.

  17. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  18. Effects of Chitosan Coating on Factors Relating to Enzymatic Browning of Fresh-Cut Lotus Root Slices%壳聚糖对鲜切莲藕酶促褐变相关因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟; 张伟; 孙莹; 高成; 朱丽琴

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chitosan coating of fresh-cut lotus root slices on the quality and relating factors in enzymatic browning were studied to explore the mechanism of chitosan in inhibition of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lotus roots.Fresh-cut lotus root slices were coated with chitosan in different concentrations ( 1%, 2%) and then stored at 4℃.The results showed that chitosan treatment significantly inhibited the increase of browning degree and weight loss rate, and maintained higher vitamin C and total phenolic content.Chitosan coating significantly inhibited the production of superoxide free radicals ( O2 · -) and H2 O2 content,maintained high catalase activity,and significantly inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroixdase during stor-age.Treatment with 2%chitosan showed better effect.%为探讨壳聚糖对鲜切莲藕的酶促褐变抑制机理,在4℃下对鲜切莲藕进行壳聚糖涂膜保鲜试验,研究了不同质量分数(1%、2%)壳聚糖对鲜切莲藕品质的影响和酶促褐变相关因子的影响。结果表明:壳聚糖处理显著抑制了鲜切莲藕贮藏过程中的褐变和水分损失,保持较高的维生素C和总酚含量,显著抑制了超氧阴离子(O2·-)和过氧化氢(H2O2)的积累,保持较高的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,并显著抑制了多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性。且2%的壳聚糖处理效果更好。

  19. INFLUENCE OF CUTTING ZONE COOLING METHOD ON CHIP FORMING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Feldshtein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an influence of a cutting zone cooling method on the chip shape and thickening ratio while turning R35 steel with the hardness of НВ 1250 МРа. Cutting with various types of cooling - dry, compressed air and emulsion fog has been investigated in the paper. OPORTET RG-2 emulsol with emulsion concentration of 4% has been used as an active substation. Cutting tool is a turning cutter with a changeable square plate SNUN120408 made of Р25 hard alloy with multilayer wear-resistant coating, upper titanium nitride layer. Front plate surface is flat. Range of cutting speeds - 80-450 m/min, motions - 0,1-0,5 mm/rev, emulsion flow - 1,5-3,5 g/min and compressed air - 4,5-7,0 m3/h, cutting depth - 1,0 mm. In order to reduce a number of single investigations it is possible to use plans based on ЛПх-sequences.It has been shown that the method for cutting zone cooling exerts significant influence on conditions for chip formation. Regression equation describing influence of machining conditions on Ка-chip thickening ratio has been obtained in the paper. The range of cutting modes is extended while using emulsion fog for cooling. In the process of these modes chip is formed in the shape of short spiral fragments or elements. Favourable form of chips is ensured while using the following rate of emulsion - not more than 2 g/min. The investigations have made it possible to determine conditions required for cooling emulsion fog. In this case it has been observed minimum values in chip thickening ratio and chip shape that ensures its easy removal from cutting zone. While making dry turning values of Ка is higher not less than 15 % in comparison with other methods for cutting zone cooling.

  20. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrNCoated AISI 1070 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cakan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN and chromium nitride (CrN are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The wear properties of TiN- and CrNcoated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples.

  1. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrNCoated AISI 1070 Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Ahmet; Ozkaner, Vedat; Yildirim, Mustafa M

    2008-11-05

    Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN) and chromium nitride (CrN) are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP) technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear properties of TiN- and CrNcoated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples.

  2. Numerical Value of Cutting Temperature and Tool Wear of Convex Curved Rake Gear Shaper Cutters%凸曲前刀面插齿刀插削温度与刀具磨损关系数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 韩志远

    2011-01-01

    The cutting process of convex curved rake gear shaper cutters was simulate based on DEFORM- 3D software, to analyze the temperature of cutting impacted the tool wear condition. The results show that the temperature gradient is large near the cutting edge. If the temperature is high, the amount of tool wear is big. The distance between the tool flank and cutting blade is equidistant which tends to the same temperature. If the temperature of flank is high, the amount of tool wear is big. Tool wear of flank is more serious than rake. In the chip left place, the temperature gradient is the lowest, there is diversification of temperature, but the diversification is heat conduction, and there is no tool wear happens.%基于DEFORM - 3D软件对凸曲前刀面插齿刀插削过程进行仿真,分析插削温度对刀具磨损影响情况.结果表明,在插削刃附近温度梯度很大,温度高,相应刀具磨损量大;刀具前后刀面距插削刃相等地方的温度趋于一致;后刀面温度梯度大,相应刀具磨损量较大,即后刀面磨损较为前刀面严重;在与切屑分离的地方,温度梯度最小,虽有温度变化,但属于热传导性质,该处刀具没有发生磨损.

  3. Property of AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.75 Si0.25 High-entropy Alloy Coating Tool Prepared by Laser Cladding%激光熔覆AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.75Si0.25高熵合金涂层刀具的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣; 梁红玉; 李烨

    2013-01-01

    利用激光熔覆技术制备了AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.75Si025高熵合金涂层刀具,研究了激光快速凝固和经过1 000℃退火处理的AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.75Si0.25高熵合金涂层微观组织和硬度、摩擦磨损性能,并比较了普通高速钢及高熵合金涂层刀具的切削加工性能.结果表明:激光熔覆AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.5Si0.5高熵合金涂层的主要相结构为bcc相,涂层具有较好的高温稳定性.激光熔覆高熵合金涂层刀具表面硬度高,摩擦因数小,断屑效果好,被加工材料表面光洁度高.%AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.75Si0.25 high-entropy alloy coated cutting tools was prepared by laser cladding.The microstructure,hardness,friction and wear properties of the AlCrCoFeNiMoTi0.75Si0.25 high-entropy alloy coatings prepared by laser rapid solidification and annealing treatment at 1 000 ℃ were studied.The machinability of the high-speed-steel tools and high-entropy alloy coated tools was compared.Results show that the main alloy structure of the coating is a body centered cubic (BCC) and the coating performs high tempera ture stability.The high-entropy coated cutting tool is characterized by higher hardness,lower friction coefficient,better chip breaker,and better surface finish of the machined materials.

  4. Analysis of surface roughness and cutting force during turning of Ti6Al4V ELI in dry environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sargade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of cutting parameters on the surface roughness and cutting force of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI when turning using PVD TiAlN coated tool in dry environment. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array design of experiment was used for the turning experiment 2 factors and 3 levels. Turning parameters studied were cutting speed (50, 65, 80 m/min, feed rate (0.08, 0.15, 0.2 mm/rev and depth of cut 0.5 mm constant. Linear and second order model of the surface roughness and cutting force has been developed in terms of cutting speed and feed. The results show that the feed rate was the most impact factor controlling the cutting force and surface roughness produced. MINITAB 17software was used to develop a linear and second order model of surface roughness and cutting force. Optimum condition was at 66.97 m/min of cutting speed, 0.08 mm/rev of feed rate. Surface roughness 0.57μm and cutting force 54.02 N were obtained at the optimum condition. A good agreement between the experimental and predicted surface roughness and cutting force were observed.

  5. Research Progress of PcBN Materials and Cutting Tools%PcBN材料及其刀具研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班新星; 谢欢; 纪莲清; 刘书锋

    2012-01-01

    介绍了PcBN材料及其刀具的发展史,给出了制备PcBN的工艺流程及关键技术.通过大量实验数据总结出,作为合成PcBN的基本原料,cBN具有高的硬度和化学惰性.但高的化学惰性阻碍了晶格间的良好烧结,即cBN与cBN晶粒直接键合是十分困难的.分析了不同结合剂对制备PcBN的影响,介绍了金属结合剂及陶瓷结合剂对PcBN性能的影响,如:Al、B、AlN、TiN和WC等.最后对PcBN材料的发展作了展望.%The development status of materials and cutting tools of PcBN were briefly introduced, and the preparation PcBN process and the key technologies were given. Summed up by a large number of experimental data, as synthetic PcBN of basic raw materials, cBN has high hardness and chemical inertness. But high chemical inertness hinders the good sintering between the lattices. cBN and cBN grain direct bonding is very difficult. To solve the problems, the influences of different binders on the preparation of PcBN were analyzed, the metal-binding agents and ceramic-binding agents of PcBN performance were introduced, such as: Al, B, AlN and TiN, WC, etc. Finally, the development of PcBN materials in the future was prospected.

  6. Computer-aided Selection System for Cutting Tools and Parameters Based on Machining Features%面向加工特征的刀具和切削参数计算机辅助选择系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝传海; 刘战强; 任小平; 万熠

    2012-01-01

    Cutting tool manufacturers are facing increasing demands to supply a comprehensive advice service with relation to selection of appropriate tools and cutting parameters for a widely variety of part materials and machining features. The central element for process planning is to select the appropriate cutting tools and machining parameters, too. However, the main attention has been only paid on the part materials. It causes the mismatches between workpieces and tools. This study is to describe the development of a computer - aided selection system for cutting tools and cutting parameters based on machining features (FTCPS), which is designed to cover different component shapes including turning, milling, drilling as well as boring operation features. The kinematic link between machined surface feature with a simple icon based interface being used to input data records, and a relational database combined with data - driven method and rule - based decision logic is used to select cutting tool geometry and machining parameters for a range of machining operations. The system also utilizes mathematical model to calculate processing conditions (machining time in single path, cutting power, maximum harshness, etc. ). Process planning is completed in the end. By turning tools and turning parameters selection for example , the result shows the realization method of system. FTCPS will help the designers and manufacturing planners to select optimal set of cutting tools and cutting conditions.%切削刀具制造商面临围绕大量工件材料和加工特征为客户提供合理刀具和切削参数的现状,切削工艺规划的核心步骤也是刀具和切削参数的确定.确定刀具和切削参数一般多从零件材料角度出发,可能导致工件与刀具不匹配.文中提出面向加工特征的刀具和切削参数计算机辅助选择系统的开发.系统包括车削特征、铣削特征、钻削和镗削加工特征,系统利用特征

  7. 椭圆状微织构自润滑车刀切削性能试验%Cutting Performance of Self-lubricating Turning Tools with Elliptical Micro-textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽; 邓建新; 邢佑强; 程洁; 赵军

    2012-01-01

    采用激光加工方法在硬质合金刀具前刀面易磨损区域加工椭圆状微织构,并在微织构中填充MoS2固体润滑剂,制备了微织构自润滑刀具.运用有限元方法分析了微织构对刀具刀尖处应力分布的影响;将微织构自润滑刀具与传统刀具进行了干切削45号钢的对比试验.结果表明:微织构的存在对刀尖处的应力分布无显著影响,与传统刀具相比,微织构自润滑刀具能够有效降低切削力和切削温度,减小切屑变形,增加切屑卷曲,同时减缓刀具前刀面磨损.%Elliptical micro-textures were made by using laser on the rake face of the tungsten carbide cutting inserts. Molybdenum disulfide ( MoS2 ) solid lubricants were embedded into the micro-textures to form self-lubricating textured tools. Finite element analysis was conducted to assess the effect of micro-texture on the stress distribution of the cutting inserts. Dry cutting tests were carried out with these self-lubricated cutting tools and conventional cemented carbide tools. As the results, there is no conspicuous adverse effect on the stress distribution of the tool nose with micro-textures on the rake face. The cutting forces and the cutting temperatures with the self-lubricating textured tools were greatly reduced compared with that of conventional cemented carbide tools. Meanwhile, the rake wear and the chip deformation were reduced, and the chip coiling was improved with micro-texturing lubrication.

  8. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  9. SKD11铣削刀具寿命试验研究及工艺参数优化%Experimental study on milling tool life for SKD1 1 steel and optimization of cutting parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军民

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve tool life for hardened steel SKD1 1 during the mil ing process,the related mil ing experiments are carried out and the influence of cutting parameters on tool life is analyzed based on range method.It is found that the influence of axial cutting depth on tool wear is pretty strong,and the influence of radial cutting width on tool wear is very weak.Based on the mil ing experiments,the mathematical model of tool wear is established by using of regression a-nalysis method.In order to solve the actual mil ing problem,the cutting parameters are optimized by using of SQP optimization method based on MATLAB software.During the optimization process,the machining efficiency and the tool wear quantity are set as the objective function. The optimized cutting parameters could greatly improve the machining efficiency in the premise of ensuring smal er tool wear,and it provides the important theory evidence and case reference for NC machining enterprises to reduce compositive production costs.%为提高SKD11模具钢铣削刀具的寿命,对SKD11模具钢进行了刀具寿命铣削试验,基于极差方法分析了各工艺参数对刀具寿命的影响规律。基于刀具寿命铣削试验,利用多元线性回归方法,推导并求解出了SKD11模具钢铣削刀具磨损的数学模型。利用最优化设计方法和MATLAB优化工具箱,以加工效率和刀具磨损为目标函数,针对实际的铣削问题优选了工艺参数。优化的工艺参数能兼顾刀具寿命和加工效率,为加工企业降低综合生产成本提供了重要的理论依据和案例参考。

  10. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    The foundation for this book is an ethnographic study of masculinity in a Bugkalot village in northern Philippines. While offering new research on the Bugkalot, widely known as the Ilongot, more than 30 years after the last important works were written on this famous hill-people, Cutting Cosmos...... into egalitarian relations. Cutting Cosmos shows how these seemingly opposed characteristics of male life - the egalitarianism and the assertive ideals - are interwoven. Acts of dominance are presented as acts of transgression that are persistently ritualized, contained and isolated as spectacular events within...

  11. Scratch Cell Test: A Simple, Cost Effective Screening Tool to Evaluate Self-Healing in Anti-Corrosion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Amitha; Somaiah, Durga; Megha; Poddar, Mitalee

    2014-09-01

    A quick and simple scratch cell set up to evaluate the self-healing of an hybrid sol-gel (ormosil) coating was fabricated. This methacrylate-based anti-corrosion coating was applied on the aerospace aluminium alloy AA2024-T3, and cured at room temperature. This technique of evaluation requires minimum instrumentation. The inhibitors cerium nitrate, benzotriazole and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8-HQ) were used in the study. The self-healing ability of the inhibitors decreased in the following order: 8-HQ, BTZ and Ce. 8-HQ showed the highest self-healing ability and was comparable to the commercial hexavalent chromium conversion coating—Alodine. Spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte and EDX of the coatings indicated the movement of the inhibitor from the coating to the site of damage, thereby effecting self-healing. It was observed that an increased inhibitor concentration in the coatings did not accelerate the healing process. Inhibitor release was slower in the coatings doped with inhibitor-loaded nano-containers, when compared to inhibitor-spiked coatings. This property of controlled release is desirable in self-healing coatings. Electro impedance studies further confirmed self-healing efficiency of the coatings. The scratch cell study reported here is the first of its kind with the ormosil under study on AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The results are encouraging and warranty a quick and simple qualitative screening of the self-healing potential of the inhibitors with minimum instrumentation.

  12. 高速切削淬硬模具钢刀具磨损的对比实验研究%Tool wear when high-speed cutting hardened die steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 赵琰巍; 倪清泉; 董海

    2013-01-01

    使用PCBN和陶瓷两种材质的刀具对淬硬模具钢Cr12MoV进行高速切削试验,深入研究了高速切削时的刀具寿命、刀具磨损形态和磨损原因,得出如下结论:相同的切削条件下,PCBN刀具寿命约为陶瓷刀具的2~3倍,当切削速度由153 m/min增大到241 m/min时,两种材质刀具寿命均下降50%以上;在相对低速下切削时,PCBN刀具和陶瓷刀具磨损形态主要为月牙洼和后刀面磨损,在相对高速下切削时,两种刀具均出现破损,破损形态主要包括崩刃和片状剥落等;PCBN刀具磨损原因主要为黏结磨损、氧化磨损和扩散磨损,陶瓷刀具的主要磨损原因有磨粒磨损、黏结磨损和扩散磨损;相同切削条件下,PCBN刀具抗磨粒磨损的能力好于陶瓷刀具,而陶瓷刀具的抗氧化性能要好于PCBN刀具;切削速度对刀具磨损原因有重要影响,随着切削速度的增大,磨粒磨损程度和黏结磨损程度均减弱.%PCBN tool and ceramic tool were used to cut hardened die steel Crl2MoV at high speed. Tool life, tool wear forms and mechanisms were studied. Results showed that; under the same conditions, tool life of PCBN tool was 2 to 3 times than that of ceramic tool; when cutting speed increased from 153 m/min to 241 m/min, tool life of both tools decreased by more than 50% ; wear form of both tools was crater and flank wear under relatively low speed, but it became breakage under the relatively high speed, including tipping and exfoliated, etc; wear mechanisms of PCBN tool were mainly adhesive wear, oxidation wear and diffusion wear, while those of ceramic tool were mainly abrasive wear, adhesive wear and diffusion wear; under the same cutting conditions, the abrasive wear resistance of PCBN tool was better than that of ceramic tool, but its oxidation resistance was lower. Cutting speed had a significant effect on wear mechanism, which was that as the cutting speed increased, abrasive wear and adhesive wear became

  13. Ti(C,N) and (Ti,Al)N hard wear resistant coatings

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gołombek; J. Mikuła; W. Kwaśny; L.W. Żukowska; L.A. Dobrzański

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation the influence of kind of PVD coatings structure (homogenous or gradient) on properties of deposited tool materials: cemented carbides and cermets.Design/methodology/approach: Analysis of the structure, analysis of the mechanical and functional properties: surface roughness, microhardness tests, scratch tests, cutting tests. The Ti(C,N) gradient coating was investigated by XPS method with multifunctional PHI 5700/660 spectrometer. The characteristic of surface region coa...

  14. Durability influence depending on the thickness and microhardness of AlTiN and TiN thin layers deposed on cutting inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădănac, A.; Lupescu, O.; Paraschiv, D.; Ungureanu, C.; Rotaru, A.

    2016-11-01

    During the exploitation process of cutting tools occurs phenomens as wear which leads to deterioration of functional parameters, performance and partial or total loss of the functioning capacity. The wear resistance of cutting tools depends by the nature of the material and by the working conditions (the quality of surface processing, lubrication quality, temperature). For increased the durability of cutting tools and increase the wear resistance are taken action which aim, improving the surface quality. For increase the surfaces quality are known different deposit methods in vacuum of materials by coating technology PVD as: aluminum-titanium nitride (AlTiN) and titanium nitride (TiN). The coatings realized by vacuum deposition have gained special attention because of their unique physical and chemical properties for example excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. The most important characteristics which are checked in the deposition process of thin layers are: thickness and microhardness. The thickness and microhardness influence significantly the cutting tool durability. In this paper the authors carried out researches regarding the coatings of AlTiN and TiN in thin layers, on surface of some cutting inserts. It was studied the durability influence depending on the thickness and microhardness of AlTiN and TiN thin layers.

  15. Study on electroplating technology of diamond tools for machining hard and brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Jian Hua; Sun, Li Peng; Wang, Yue

    2016-10-01

    With the development of the high speed cutting, the ultra-precision machining and ultrasonic vibration technique in processing hard and brittle material , the requirement of cutting tools is becoming higher and higher. As electroplated diamond tools have distinct advantages, such as high adaptability, high durability, long service life and good dimensional stability, the cutting tools are effective and extensive used in grinding hard and brittle materials. In this paper, the coating structure of electroplating diamond tool is described. The electroplating process flow is presented, and the influence of pretreatment on the machining quality is analyzed. Through the experimental research and summary, the reasonable formula of the electrolyte, the electroplating technologic parameters and the suitable sanding method were determined. Meanwhile, the drilling experiment on glass-ceramic shows that the electroplating process can effectively improve the cutting performance of diamond tools. It has laid a good foundation for further improving the quality and efficiency of the machining of hard and brittle materials.

  16. Revestimento ativo de amido na conservação pós-colheita de pera Williams minimamente processada Starch-based edible coating on extending shelf life of fresh-cut pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alvarenga Botrel

    2010-08-01

    significantly more firms (P<0,05 compared to treatments C and T1. Cysteine action over enzymatic browning inhibition was observed in treatments T2 and T3 which do not differed significantly each other (P≥0,05 to ∆E values however these were significantly lower than control (C. At time 6, decimal reduction on psychrotrophs counting reached 3,03 and 2,43 to T3 e T2 compared to control. Enterobacteriaceae counting showed similar behavior where the reduction values were 3,16 and 3,05 to T2 e T3 compared to control. It was verified that using the studied edible coating on fresh cut pear can extend its shelf life.

  17. BILL MUNDY THEORY, EFFECTIVE RAKE ANGLE CUTTING TOOLS IN COPPER ALLOYS TEORIA DE BILL MUNDY Y EL ANGULO EFECTIVO DE ATAQUE DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE EN ALEACIONES DE COBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Godoy R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Magazines like American Machinist and Manufacturing Engineering, have explained the Bill Mundy theory about the effective rake angle of cutting tools. These articles show the effective rake angle of cutting tools for carbon steel, steel , alloys, cast iron, aluminium and stainless steel. In the present work the theory is applied to cutting tools used in brass and bronze. The effective rake angle for these materials was obtained with the tensile stress test. The rake angles in the cutting tools were made in a Universal Grinding Machine Heiler. Finally, the power consumption was measured in a CNC Lathe. Tools with commercial rake angles from bibliography were compared with tools with the experimental effective rake angle obtained from the Bill Mundy Theory. The results show that the power consumption is about 10% lower for tools with the experimental effective rake angle.Revistas como American Machinist y Manufacturing Engineering, han explicado la Teoría de Bill Mundy y el ángulo efectivo de ataque en herramientas de corte utilizadas en aceros al carbono, aceros aleados, hierro fundido, aluminio y acero inoxidable. En este trabajo, esta teoría es aplicada a herramientas de corte usadas para latón y bronce y sus resultados son comparados con los ángulos de ataque recomendados por los fabricantes de herramientas de corte. El ángulo de ataque efectivo se obtiene del ensayo de tracción del material a ser mecanizado. Los ángulos de las herramientas fueron hechos en una máquina universal de afilar Heiler. El consumo de potencia fue medido en un torno CNC. El consumo de potencia con herramientas de corte comerciales con ángulos de corte recomendados por la bibliografía existente, fue comparado con las herramientas afiladas con el ángulo de corte efectivo obtenido a través de la teoría de Bill Mundy. Los resultados indican que el consumo de potencia es un 10% menor para las herramientas afiladas con el ángulo efectivo recomendado por la

  18. EFFECT OF CUTTING PARAMETERS ON SUPER ALLOY IN TURNING OPERATION UNDER DRY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni-base super alloys are widely used in several industrial sectors, like petrochemical and power generation due to their high performance in aggressive environments. Inconel625 is primarily a Ni–Cr– Mo alloy used in different applications for its strength, excellent fabric ability and outstanding corrosion resistance. Machining of super alloy has been found to be a challenging task it has attracted considerable research. So, it is essential to know the cutting parameters for effective machining of super alloys. The present work focuses on finding the optimal cutting parameters for turning Inconel625 to achieve minimum surface roughness (SR, tool wear (TW and maximum material removal rate (MRR in CNC turning under dry conditions using TiAlN coated cutting tool. Single response optimization is performed by Taguchi method and multi response optimization is performed by desirability function analysis.

  19. REVIEW OF STATUS OF CERAMIC TOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERAMIC MATERIALS, CUTTING TOOLS , ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, FAILURE(MECHANICS), FRICTION, TEMPERATURE, SURFACE PROPERTIES, CUTTING FLUIDS, MACHINING, LATHE TOOLS, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING).

  20. Comportamiento del acabado superficial de la pieza y el desgaste de la herramienta al fresar aluminio con altas velocidades de corte en fresadoras cnc convencionales. // Superficial finish behavior and tool wear in aluminium milling with high cutting spee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2006-05-01

    mechanical components of high quality and great accuracy for systems of high performance isincreasing considerably in the last years at world level. This fact has caused the development of new appliedtechnologies in cutting processes.The development of machine tools (control, high-speed spindle, the cutting tools (new materials, substrata and layers andthe technology of machining, facilitated the application of cut with high cutting speed (High speed Cutting HSC. Theincrease of cutting speeds increases the efficiency of the productive processes through the reduction of the manufacturingtimes. The reduction in several times of the manufacturing process, is not achieved alone for the time of machining but alsofor the substitution of other elaboration processes that are part of the productive chain that are relatively slow in occasionsas the electroerosion (spark erosion, the manual finishing in molds and dies production as well as the changes of spareoperations. Being a relatively new process introduced starting from the decade of the 90’s; many technological questionsare still without answer. This paper presents the benefit of the high cutting speeds HSC on the tool useful life and thesuperficial finishing in spares, working in conventional milling machines of CNC. The results stated, that within the studiedparameters, that the durability of the tool and the surface roughness improve and that the behavior of the machine is stablein spite of not being conceived for high speeds.Keywords: High speed cutting, HSC, HSM, Wear, surface roughness.

  1. Cutting forces in orthogonal cutting of unidirectional GFRP composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprino, G.; Nele, L. [Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy). Dept. of Materials and Production Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The results of orthogonal cutting tests carried out on unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, using HSS tools, are presented and discussed. During the tests, performed on a milling machine at very low cutting speed to avoid thermal effects, the cutting speed was held constant and parallel to the fiber direction. Three parameters, namely the tool rake angle {alpha}, the tool relief angle {gamma}, and the depth of cut t, were varied. According to the experimental results, the horizontal force per unit width, F{sub hu}, undergoes a dramatic decrease, never verified for metals, with increasing {alpha}. Besides, F{sub hu} is only negligibly affected by the relief angle, and linearly increases with t. Similarly to metals, an effect of the depth of cut on the specific energy (size effect) is found also for composites. However, the presented results indicate that the size effect can be analytically modeled in a simple way in the case of composites. The vertical force per unit width, F{sub vu}, exhibits a marked reduction when the relief angle is increased. F{sub vu} is also very sensitive to the rake angle: the lower {alpha}, the higher is F{sub vu}. It is shown that this behavior probably reflects a strong influence of the rake angle on the forces developing at the flank. A linear dependence of the vertical force on the depth of cut is also demonstrated. Finally, the experimental data are utilized to obtain empirical formulae, allowing an approximate evaluation of cutting forces.

  2. 土压平衡盾构机刀盘刀具布置方法研究%Research on Cutting Tool Layout Method of Earth Pressure Balance Shield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲毅; 刘建琴; 郭伟; 裴瑞英

    2011-01-01

    To ensure rationality and practicability of the cutter configuration, it is necessary to propose the method of cutting tool layout of earth pressure balance (EPB) shield. According to the equal-life principle of tool wear, the wear coefficient method and tunneling coefficient method are proposed to determine the number of tools; When it comes to a specific construction, it also can predict tool wear condition and the tunneling distance under the allowable attrition in the range of the shield tunnel excavation, which offer a reference for the safety of project; Based on Archimedes spiral layout method, the arrangement curve of drag bits on cutter head should be calculated according to the equal-life principle of tool wear; In order to obtain the actual depth of a cutting tool, the rule of plane symmetry layout of the cutting tool is put forward, and cutting process is analyzed; the first knife's three-dimensional arrangement method of the EPB shield is established, the actual cutting depth of a single tool is obtained; The accuracy of the cutting tool layout theory above is investigated with the example of TA07 of Nanjing Metro number two line. The research content and method lay a theoretical foundation for the EPB shield cutter selection and design theory.%研究土压平衡(Earth pressure balanced,EPB)盾构机刀盘刀具的布置方法,目的是为了确保刀具结构布置的合理性和实用性.依据刀具磨损的等寿命原则,提出确定刀具数量的磨损系数法和掘进系数法;针对具体施工问题,可预测盾构在开挖区间,刀具的磨损量以及许用磨损情况下刀具的掘进距离,为保障工程的安全顺利进行提供参考.基于阿基米德螺旋线布置方法,计算以刀具磨损的等寿命原则下,主切削刀的布置曲线;提出刀具平面对称布局原则,分析刀具的切削过程,得到单把刀具的实际切深;建立EPB盾构刀盘上先行刀的立体布局方法,计算得到先行刀的超前

  3. Quality control tool of electrode coating for lithium-ion batteries based on X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiemble, A.; Besnard, N.; Adrien, J.; Tran-Van, P.; Gautier, L.; Lestriez, B.; Maire, E.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient method, based on X-ray radiography, is developed to check the quality (homogeneity of the thickness, presence of defects) of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrode coating for Li-ion batteries at the scale of several cm2 with a resolution of 20 μm. As a first step, the attenuation coefficient of NMC- and LFP-based coating is experimentally determined according to the Beer-Lambert law. Then, the attenuation coefficient of each active material is estimated from these experimental results and X-ray attenuation databases, which allows establishing an attenuation law for any coating composition. Finally, thanks to this relationship, the thickness can be evaluated in each spot of the film and the defects, such as pinholes or broad edges with gradual decrease of the thickness coating, can be detected. The analysis of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrodes shows that the coating quality decreases as coating thickness increases and as the nanometric vs. micrometric material content increases in the coating composition. This reveals detrimental aspects of nanomaterials with respect to their use in composite electrode manufactured through conventional slot-die or casting process.

  4. Study of surface roughness and flank wear in hard turning of AISI 4140 steel with coated ceramic inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sudhansu Ranjan; Kuma, Amaresh [National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur (India); Dhupal, Debabrata [Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla (India)

    2015-10-15

    This experimental investigation deals with dry hard turning of AISI 4140 steel using PVD-TiN coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+TiCN mixed ceramic inserts. The combined effect of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on performance characteristics such as surface roughness and flank wear is explored by Full factorial design (FFD) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that feed is the principal cutting parameter influencing surface roughness, followed by cutting speed. However, flank wear is affected by the cutting speed and interaction of feed-depth of cut, although depth of cut has not been found statistically significant, but flank wear is an increasing function of depth of cut. Observations are made on the machined surface, and worn tool by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) to establish the process. Abrasion was the major wear mechanism found during hard turning within the studied range. The effect of tool wear on surface roughness was also studied. The experimental data were analyzed to predict the optimal range of surface roughness and flank wear. Based on Response surface methodology (RSM), mathematical models were developed for surface roughness (Ra) and flank wear (VB) with 95% confidence level. Finally, under optimum cutting conditions (obtained by response optimization technique), tool life was evaluated to perform cost analysis for justifying the economic viability of coated ceramic inserts in hard turning. The estimated machining cost per part for TiN coated ceramic was found to be lower (Rs. 12.31) because of higher tool life (51 min), which results in the reduction of downtime and increase in savings.

  5. Modeling and Adhesive Tool Wear in Dry Drilling of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girot, F.; Gutiérrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Calamaz, M.; Coupard, D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in aeronautic drilling operations is the elimination of cutting fluids while maintaining the quality of drilled parts. This paper therefore aims to increase the tool life and process quality by working on relationships existing between drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), coatings and tool geometry. In dry drilling, the phenomenon of Built-Up Layer is the predominant damage mechanism. A model fitting the axial force with the cutting parameters and the damage has been developed. The burr thickness and its dispersion decrease with the feed rate. The current diamond coatings which exhibit a strong adhesion to the carbide substrate can limit this adhesive layer phenomenon. A relatively smooth nano-structured coating strongly limits the development of this layer.

  6. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  7. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  8. Finite Element Analysis and OADs Optimization of the Temperature in the Plane-strain Orthogonal Metal Cutting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙权; 姚振强; 袁光杰

    2004-01-01

    In order to analyze the influences of the different tool's shape and surface conditions (such as different coated and material) and their interaction on the cutting temperature, a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA)model of plane-strain orthogonal metal cutting process is constructed, and 16 simulation cases with 16 different types of tools, which cover 4 rake angles, - 10°, 0°, 10°, 20°,and 4 friction coefficient values, 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 in the same cutting condition (cutting depth and cutting speed)have been performed. Finally the simulation results are analyzed according to the variance analysis method (VAM)of orthogonal array designs (OADs), the relationships between the rake angle, tool-workpiece interface's friction coefficient and their interact effect to the maximum temperature value and the temperature field of the chip are obtained. This result has some instructive meaning to analyze the causes of the cutting temperature and to control the maximum temperature value and the overall temperature field in the metal cutting process.

  9. Application of ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management Tools for Advanced Development of Hot Melt Coated Multiparticulate Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Elena; Becker, Karin; Hate, Siddhi; Hohl, Roland; Schiemenz, Wolfgang; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile. The hot melt coated process was characterized via a flowchart, based on the identified potential critical process parameters (CPPs) and their impact on the CQAs. These CPPs were prioritized using a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and their critical impact on the CQAs was experimentally confirmed using a statistical design of experiments. Spray rate, atomization air pressure, and air flow rate were identified as CPPs. Coating amount and content of polysorbate 65 in the coating formulation were identified as critical material attributes. A hazard and critical control points analysis was applied to define control strategies at the critical process points. A fault tree analysis evaluated causes for potential process failures. We successfully demonstrated that a standardized quality risk management approach optimizes the product development sustainability and supports the regulatory aspects.

  10. Present and possible future applications of superhard nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubar, P.; Jilek, M.; Sima, M. [SHM, Ltd., Sumperk (Czech Republic)

    2000-11-01

    Recent investigations into the multicomponent (TiAlSi)N and TiBN superhard coatings revealed that the nanostructure, properties and deposition conditions needed for their preparation are in agreement with the known generic concept for the design of novel superhard nanocomposites due to thermodynamically driven phase segregation. All coatings to be reported here were developed on a production scale plasma PVD and CVD equipment consisting of vacuum arc evaporation from a central cathode for the metals in combination with PCVD of non-metals, such as boron, from gaseous reactant. Depending on the composition and deposition conditions the hardness of the coatings is controlled in the range between 35 and 45 GPa or higher. However, for the majority of applications the highest hardness is not the primary goal. More important is the appropriate combination of high hardness with other properties, such as fracture toughness, oxidation resistance, adhesion, etc. The effect of these properties on the resulting utility value of the coated tools will be discussed with respect to the available cutting tools made of cemented carbide and coated with the nanocomposites. Presently, dry milling, drilling and possibly turning are the most important applications of such coated tools. In view of the fairly fast transition from the initial development of these coatings towards their industrial production many further applications are expected. Therefore, future possibilities will be discussed as well. (orig.)

  11. Improving nanocrystalline diamond coatings for micro end mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Patrick J.

    A new method is presented for coating 300 mum diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills with diamond using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method. This method has been developed to create uniform, conformal and continuous diamond coatings. Initial work is shown to prove the feasibility and concept of the project. This was the first work known to coat and evaluate the machining performance WC micro end mills. The performance of uncoated and coated micro end mills was evaluated by dry machining channels in 6061-T6 aluminum. The test results showed a 75% and 90% decrease in both cutting and trust forces for machining, respectfully. The coated tools produced a more predictable surface finish with no burring. These improved results are due to the superior tribological properties of diamond against aluminum. Initial results indicated severe problems with coating delamination causing complete tool failure. After proving the initial concept, new methods for optimizing the coating and improving performance were studied. Each optimization step is monitored through surface analysis techniques to monitor changes in coating morphology and diamond quality. Nucleation density was increased by improving the seed method, using ultra dispersed diamond (UDD) seed. The increase in nucleation density allowed the synthesis of coatings as thin as 60 nm. The adhesion of the coating to the tool was improved through carbon ion implantation (CII). CII is a different surface preparation technique that deactivates the effect of Co, while not weakening the tool. CII also creates a great nucleation layer which diamond can directly grow from, allowing the diamond coating to chemically bond to the substrate improving adhesion and eliminating the need for a seed layer. These thin coatings were shown to be of high quality sp3 trigonaly bonded diamond that resulted in lower machining forces with less delamination. The 90% reduction in machining forces that thin conformal

  12. The study on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Weng, Yung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the nanomachining property and cutting model of single-crystal sapphire during nanomachining. The coated diamond probe is used to as a tool, and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) is as an experimental platform for nanomachining. To understand the effect of normal force on single-crystal sapphire machining, this study tested nano-line machining and nano-rectangular pattern machining at different normal force. In nano-line machining test, the experimental results showed that the normal force increased, the groove depth from nano-line machining also increased. And the trend is logarithmic type. In nano-rectangular pattern machining test, it is found when the normal force increases, the groove depth also increased, but rather the accumulation of small chips. This paper combined the blew by air blower, the cleaning by ultrasonic cleaning machine and using contact mode probe to scan the surface topology after nanomaching, and proposed the "criterion of nanomachining cutting model," in order to determine the cutting model of single-crystal sapphire in the nanomachining is ductile regime cutting model or brittle regime cutting model. After analysis, the single-crystal sapphire substrate is processed in small normal force during nano-linear machining; its cutting modes are ductile regime cutting model. In the nano-rectangular pattern machining, due to the impact of machined zones overlap, the cutting mode is converted into a brittle regime cutting model.

  13. Effects of cutting parameters and machining environments on surface roughness in hard turning using design of experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Mozammel; Bashir, Mahmood Al; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Hard turning is gradually replacing the time consuming conventional turning process, which is typically followed by grinding, by producing surface quality compatible to grinding. The hard turned surface roughness depends on the cutting parameters, machining environments and tool insert configurations. In this article the variation of the surface roughness of the produced surfaces with the changes in tool insert configuration, use of coolant and different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate) has been investigated. This investigation was performed in machining AISI 1060 steel, hardened to 56 HRC by heat treatment, using coated carbide inserts under two different machining environments. The depth of cut, fluid pressure and material hardness were kept constant. The Design of Experiment (DOE) was performed to determine the number and combination sets of different cutting parameters. A full factorial analysis has been performed to examine the effect of main factors as well as interaction effect of factors on surface roughness. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine the combined effect of cutting parameters, environment and tool configuration. The result of this analysis reveals that environment has the most significant impact on surface roughness followed by feed rate and tool configuration respectively.

  14. Heat shock and UV-C abiotic stress treatments as alternative tools to promote fresh-cut carrot quality and shelf-life

    OpenAIRE

    Alegria, Carla Sofia Marques

    2015-01-01

    Doutoramento em Engenharia Alimentar - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Abiotic stress treatments, heat shock (HS_100 ºC/45 s) and UV-C (0.1-5 kJ.m-2), and two passive modified atmosphere packaging conditions were evaluated under the hurdle concept as alternative approaches to the standard processing of fresh-cut carrot (FCC). The significant phenolic accumulation, via phenylalanine-ammonia lyase activation, showed to be independent on key factors contributing to raw material bioactivity, c...

  15. 线切割自动编程中刀补方向的确定方法%The Method of Tool Compensation Direction Calculation in Wire Cutting Automatic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫秀波; 张秋菊

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the wire cutting automatic programming system and simplify the operation process , it puts forward a automatic judgment tool compensation direction method based on a set of process parameters and processing conditions in the wire cutting tool path generation .This method does not need a manually tool direc-tion definition , effectively improves the efficiency of programming and avoids human error .%为了提高线切割自动编程系统的自动化程度,减少操作步骤,根据生成线切割刀补轨迹所需设定的工艺参数与加工条件,提出了一种可以自动判断刀补方向的方法,自动编程系统应用该方法后无需人工设定刀补方向,可有效提高编程效率,避免人为出错。

  16. Study on Electrical Discharge Machining Technology of Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tool%聚晶立方氮化硼刀具刃口放电加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾云海; 李建钢; 朱立新; 宋英杰

    2012-01-01

    通过调整电火花加工的主要放电参数(脉冲宽度和加工电流),对聚晶立方氮化硼(PCBN)样刀进行放电加工,进而对样刀刃口表面进行X射线衍射分析,并在扫描电子显微镜下观察其表层结构及能谱分析.通过对加工后样刀表面变质层主要成分及产生原因的分析,总结了脉冲宽度和加工电流对样刀表面变质层厚度、刃口表面粗糙度影响的关系曲线,为制定精密快速放电加工PCBN刀具的工艺提供了重要依据.%The samples of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride(PCBN) cutting tool were machined by adjusting the main parameters of electrical discharge machining (EDM). After the machining, the phases were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analyzer and the surface layer microstructure was observed by scanning electronic microscope. The fundamental component of machined PCBN cutting tool affected layer was obtained and the reason of begetting affected layer was analyzed. The relationship curves between pulse width, working electric current and depth affected layer, blade surface roughness were summarized. The results showed that to adjust electrical discharge machining parameters, such as decreasing pulse width or machining electric currents, can reduce the depth of affect layer and improve blade surface roughness. These researches provide valuable test reference for drawing up electrical discharge machining technology of PCBN cutting tool.

  17. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  18. LASER CUTTING MACHINES FOR 3-D THIN SHEET PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav RADOVANOVIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting machines are used for precise contour cutting thin sheet. In industrial application nowadays various types and construction of laser cutting machines can be met. For contour cutting 3-D thin sheet parts laser cutting machines with rotation movements and laser robots are used. Laser generates the light beam, that presents a tool in working process. Application of laser cutting machines made possible good quality of products, flexibility of production and enlargement of economy

  19. Tool Wear, Surface Integrity and Dimensional Accuracy in Turning Al2124SiCp (45%wt Metal Matrix Composite using CBN and PCD Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguthu Joseph Njuguna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the turning of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite using PCD, CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated tools. The machinability of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite is evaluated by measurement of tool wear, surface finish and dimensional accuracy of the work-piece. Wear mechanisms and patterns of tools in turning of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite are discussed. The experimental setup involved turning Al2124SiCp (45% wt 78.0 mm long and 31.8 mm diameter on a precision lathe at fixed feed rate, different depth of cut and cutting speed using PCD, CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated tools. The reinforcement of the matrix consists of SiC 5-8 µm in diameter. Experimental results reveal that abrasion and adhesion presented the most prevalent mode of wear among all the tools. Fracture was observed among CBN tools while chipping on PCD tools. Flank and crater wear were observed in all tools with flank wear more prevalent in both CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated. Wear among PCD tools was low as compared to CBN tools. Further analysis reveal that the outer layer of the CBN-coated tools wear off fast creating a good platform for adhesion of matrix material on to the tool. This further increases wear of the tool due to adhesive wear as the built-up edge breaks off from the tool. PCD tool presented better surface finish than CBN tools with CBN-coated performing better than CBN-uncoated. Due to high SiC content, discontinuous chips are formed which are also curled due to increase in temperature at cutting zone causing bimetallic effect on the chip. On dimensional accuracy it was observed that PCD tool produced lowest diameter error followed by CBN-uncoated and finally CBN-Coated. It is concluded that in machining Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite PCD tools are the best followed by CBN-coated and lastly CBN-uncoated.

  20. Results of investigations into coal cutting by asymmetric disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, K.

    1985-02-01

    Effects are analyzed of design and specifications of asymmetric disk cutters on coal cutting by a shearer loader with disk cutters on helical cutting drums. Effects of disk diameter, wedge angle, cutting depth and chip thickness on cutting resistance were analyzed under operational conditions (a coal seam was cut by asymmetric disk cutters). On the basis of analysis of coal resistance to cutting by asymmetric cutting disks, regression equations were derived which describe coal cutting. Effects of disk parameters and cutting conditions on cutting resistance were determined. Analyses show that replacing radial cutting tools with asymmetric disk cutters would cause an increase in energy consumption of cutting and increase coal resistance to cutting. 1 reference.