WorldWideScience

Sample records for coat complex transports

  1. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  2. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  3. Moisture transport and equilibrium in organic coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, van der G.K.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Improving coating performance in regard of protection of substrates and structures against moisturerelated degradation requires detailed knowledge of underlying transport mechanisms. In this paper a review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic

  4. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  5. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  6. Water transport in multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.

    2012-01-01

    Coatings form the interface between structures and the environment in many application domains. They play a crucial role in providing protection, e.g. against corrosion, they form a barrier against an aggressive environment and they create the aesthetic appearance. To fulfill such functionalities,

  7. Transport AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majoros, M [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ye, L [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Velichko, A V [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Sumption, M D [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collings, E W [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Transport AC loss measurements have been made on YBCO-coated conductors prepared on two different substrate templates-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) and IBAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). RABiTS samples show higher losses compared with the theoretical values obtained from the critical state model, with constant critical current density, at currents lower than the critical current. An origin of this extra AC loss was demonstrated experimentally by comparison of the AC loss of two samples with different I-V curves. Despite a difference in I-V curves and in the critical currents, their measured losses, as well as the normalized losses, were practically the same. However, the functional dependence of the losses was affected by the ferromagnetic substrate. An influence of the presence of a ferromagnetic substrate on transport AC losses in YBCO film was calculated numerically by the finite element method. The presence of a ferromagnetic substrate increases transport AC losses in YBCO films depending on its relative magnetic permeability. The two loss contributions-transport AC loss in YBCO films and ferromagnetic loss in the substrate-cannot be considered as mutually independent.

  8. Molecular Composition and Ultrastructure of the Caveolar Coat Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Alexander; Howard, Gillian; Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Deerinck, Thomas; Mackey, Mason; Sandin, Sara; Ellisman, Mark H.; Nichols, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Caveolae are an abundant feature of the plasma membrane of many mammalian cell types, and have key roles in mechano-transduction, metabolic regulation, and vascular permeability. Caveolin and cavin proteins, as well as EHD2 and pacsin 2, are all present in caveolae. How these proteins assemble to form a protein interaction network for caveolar morphogenesis is not known. Using in vivo crosslinking, velocity gradient centrifugation, immuno-isolation, and tandem mass spectrometry, we determine that cavins and caveolins assemble into a homogenous 80S complex, which we term the caveolar coat complex. There are no further abundant components within this complex, and the complex excludes EHD2 and pacsin 2. Cavin 1 forms trimers and interacts with caveolin 1 with a molar ratio of about 1∶4. Cavins 2 and 3 compete for binding sites within the overall coat complex, and form distinct subcomplexes with cavin 1. The core interactions between caveolin 1 and cavin 1 are independent of cavin 2, cavin 3, and EHD2 expression, and the cavins themselves can still interact in the absence of caveolin 1. Using immuno-electron microscopy as well as a recently developed protein tag for electron microscopy (MiniSOG), we demonstrate that caveolar coat complexes form a distinct coat all around the caveolar bulb. In contrast, and consistent with our biochemical data, EHD2 defines a different domain at the caveolar neck. 3D electron tomograms of the caveolar coat, labeled using cavin-MiniSOG, show that the caveolar coat is composed of repeating units of a unitary caveolar coat complex. PMID:24013648

  9. The structure of the COPII transport-vesicle coat assembled on membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Giulia; Prinz, Simone; Daum, Sebastian; Meister, Annette; Schekman, Randy; Bacia, Kirsten; Briggs, John A G

    2013-09-17

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates formation of the membrane vesicles that export newly synthesised proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum. The inner COPII proteins bind to cargo and membrane, linking them to the outer COPII components that form a cage around the vesicle. Regulated flexibility in coat architecture is essential for transport of a variety of differently sized cargoes, but structural data on the assembled coat has not been available. We have used cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to determine the structure of the complete, membrane-assembled COPII coat. We describe a novel arrangement of the outer coat and find that the inner coat can assemble into regular lattices. The data reveal how coat subunits interact with one another and with the membrane, suggesting how coordinated assembly of inner and outer coats can mediate and regulate packaging of vesicles ranging from small spheres to large tubular carriers. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00951.001.

  10. THERMAL COMPOSITE COATINGS IMPROVING QUALITY OF TECHNICAL MEANS OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej POSMYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the thermal properties of composite insulating material designed for producing of technical means of transport. This material can be coated on most of engineering materials. The matrix of this material is an acrylic resin ant non porous ceramic microspheres made of alumina are the reinforcing phase. Thanks to that into the spheres almost vacuum (0,13 Pa dominants and a big amount of spheres pro thickness unit is it possible to achieve low thermal conductivity. Usage of these coatings for producing of cooling cabins on vehicles let us to reduce of fuel for maintain of given temperature. Usage of these coatings in planes flying on high altitudes (temperature up to -60 allows to reduce of fuel consumption for heating. It has an important influence on transport quality and quality costs.

  11. Quantum transport in complex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnezov, D.; Bulgac, A.; DoDang, G.

    1998-01-01

    We derive the influence function and the effective dynamics of a quantum systems coupled to a chaotic environment, using very general parametric and banded random matrices to describe the quantum properties of a chaotic bath. We find that only in certain limits the thermalization can result from the environment. We study the general transport problems including escape, fusion and tunneling (fission). (author)

  12. New complex-dryers with RE for coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The complex coating dryers are produced with good 2-Ethylhexanoic acid, rare earths and other metals. Simply using such a complex drier can get the total effect instead of the traditional dryers such as Co, Mn, Pb, Zn, Ca etc. It has advantages of saving quantity, decreasing cost, simplifying process, making the operation convenient, good quality, good stability and without Pb. Invention patent of China requisition number is 95119867.X

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT FOR PLASMA SPRAY CERAMIC COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Develop a set equipment for plasma forming ceramic coatings. The article presents characteristics and parameters of the developed complex equipment for formation of plasma ceramic coatings as well as results of its testing. Methods of research is based on studies of structural elements composite plasma coatings system ZrO2 – Y2O3  obtained  using  developed complex equipment. One of the most effective ways to protect the components from high temperature corrosion and oxidation is formation on the surface of plasma thermal barrier coatings. For thermal barrier coating has very strict requirements: сharacterized by a smooth change of physico-mechanical properties (porosity, microhardness, elastic modulus in the cross section of the metal substrate to the outer ceramic layer; to withstand multiple cycles of thermal cycling from room temperature to the operating temperature; to maintain gastightness under operating conditions and thus ensure a sufficiently high level of adhesive strength. For realization of new technological schemes applying thermal barrier coatings with high operational characteristics was developed, patented and manufactured a range of new equipment. The experiments show that authors developed PBG-1 plasmatron and powder feeder PPBG-04 have at least 2–3 times the service life during the deposition of ceramic materials compared to the standard equipment of the company "Plasma-Technik", by changing the structure of the cathode-anode plasma torch assembly and construction of the delivery unit of the feeder to facilitate the uniform supply of the powder into the plasma jet and the best of his penetration. The result is better plasma coatings with improved operational characteristics: adhesion strength is increased to 1.3–2 times, material utilization in 1.5–1.6 times microhardness 1.2–1.4 times the porosity is reduced by 2–2.5 times.

  14. Complex anticorrosion coating for ZK30 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Knoernschild, G.; Snihirova, D.V.; Taryba, M.G.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a new complex anticorrosion protection system for ZK30 magnesium alloy. This protective coating is based on an anodic oxide layer loaded with corrosion inhibitors in its pores, which is then sealed with a sol-gel hybrid polymer. The porous oxide layer is produced by spark anodizing. The sol-gel film shows good adhesion to the oxide layer as it penetrates through the pores of the anodized layer forming an additional transient oxide-sol-gel interlayer. The thickness of this complex protective coating is about 3.7-7.0 μm. A blank oxide-sol-gel coating system or one doped with Ce 3+ ions proved to be effective corrosion protection for the magnesium alloy preventing corrosion attack after exposure for a relatively long duration in an aggressive NaCl solution. The structure and the thickness of the anodized layer and the sol-gel film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of the ZK30 substrates pre-treated with the complex coating was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), and scanning ion-selective electrode techniques (SIET).

  15. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  16. Stochastic transport through complex comb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaburdaev, V. Yu.; Popov, P. V.; Romanov, A. S.; Chukbar, K. V.

    2008-01-01

    A unified rigorous approach is used to derive fractional differential equations describing subdiffusive transport through comb structures of various geometrical complexity. A general nontrivial effect of the initial particle distribution on the subsequent evolution is exposed. Solutions having qualitative features of practical importance are given for joined structures with widely different fractional exponents

  17. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.

  18. Hydrogen transport behavior of metal coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma-facing components for experimental and commercial fusion reactor studies may include cladding or coatings of refractory metals like tungsten on metallic structural substrates such as copper, vanadium alloys and austenitic stainless steel. Issues of safety and fuel economy include the potential for inventory buildup and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. This paper reports on laboratory-scale studies with 3-keV D 3 + ion beams to investigate the hydrogen transport behavior in tungsten coatings on substrates of copper. These experiments entailed measurements of the deuterium re-emission and permeation rates for tungsten, copper, and tungsten-coated copper specimens at temperatures ranging from 638 K to 825 K and implanting particle fluxes of approximately 5 x 10 19 D/m 2 s. Diffusion constants and surface recombination coefficients with enhancement factors due to sputtering were obtained from these measurements. These data may be used in calculations to estimate permeation rates and inventory buildups for proposed diverter designs. 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. 'Complexity' and anomalous transport in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tom; Wu Chengchin

    2002-01-01

    'Complexity' has become a hot topic in nearly every field of modern physics. Space plasma is of no exception. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures are the origin of 'complexity' in space plasmas. The intermittent localized interactions, which generate the anomalous diffusion, transport, and evolution of the macroscopic state variables of the overall dynamical system, may be modeled by a triggered (fast) localized chaotic growth equation of a set of relevant order parameters. Such processes would generally pave the way for the global system to evolve into a 'complex' state of long-ranged interactions of fluctuations, displaying the phenomenon of forced and/or self-organized criticality. An example of such type of anomalous transport and evolution in a sheared magnetic field is provided via two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The coarse-grained dissipation due to the intermittent triggered interactions among the magnetic coherent structures induces a 'fluctuation-induced nonlinear instability' that reconfigures the sheared magnetic field into an X-point magnetic geometry (in the mean field sense), leading to the anomalous acceleration of the magnetic coherent structures. A phenomenon akin to such type of anomalous transport and acceleration, the so-called bursty bulk flows, has been commonly observed in the plasma sheet of the Earth's magnetotail

  20. A Genome-wide Combinatorial Strategy Dissects Complex Genetic Architecture of Seed Coat Color in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ranjan, Rajeev; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    The study identified 9045 high-quality SNPs employing both genome-wide GBS- and candidate gene-based SNP genotyping assays in 172, including 93 cultivated (desi and kabuli) and 79 wild chickpea accessions. The GWAS in a structured population of 93 sequenced accessions detected 15 major genomic loci exhibiting significant association with seed coat color. Five seed color-associated major genomic loci underlying robust QTLs mapped on a high-density intra-specific genetic linkage map were validated by QTL mapping. The integration of association and QTL mapping with gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling identified novel allelic variants (non-synonymous SNPs) and haplotypes in a MATE secondary transporter gene regulating light/yellow brown and beige seed coat color differentiation in chickpea. The down-regulation and decreased transcript expression of beige seed coat color-associated MATE gene haplotype was correlated with reduced proanthocyanidins accumulation in the mature seed coats of beige than light/yellow brown seed colored desi and kabuli accessions for their coloration/pigmentation. This seed color-regulating MATE gene revealed strong purifying selection pressure primarily in LB/YB seed colored desi and wild Cicer reticulatum accessions compared with the BE seed colored kabuli accessions. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to decipher the complex transcriptional regulatory gene function of seed coat coloration and for understanding the selective sweep-based seed color trait evolutionary pattern in cultivated and wild accessions during chickpea domestication. The genome-wide integrated approach employed will expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement for developing cultivars with desirable seed coat color types in chickpea.

  1. TFG facilitates outer coat disassembly on COPII transport carriers to promote tethering and fusion with ER-Golgi intermediate compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Michael G; Block, Samuel; Frankel, E B; Hou, Feng; Johnson, Adam; Yuan, Lin; Knight, Gavin; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Ashton, Randolph; Schekman, Randy; Tong, Yufeng; Audhya, Anjon

    2017-09-12

    The conserved coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the initial steps of secretory protein trafficking by assembling onto subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in two layers to generate cargo-laden transport carriers that ultimately fuse with an adjacent ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Here, we demonstrate that Trk-fused gene (TFG) binds directly to the inner layer of the COPII coat. Specifically, the TFG C terminus interacts with Sec23 through a shared interface with the outer COPII coat and the cargo receptor Tango1/cTAGE5. Our findings indicate that TFG binding to Sec23 outcompetes these other associations in a concentration-dependent manner and ultimately promotes outer coat dissociation. Additionally, we demonstrate that TFG tethers vesicles harboring the inner COPII coat, which contributes to their clustering between the ER and ERGIC in cells. Together, our studies define a mechanism by which COPII transport carriers are retained locally at the ER/ERGIC interface after outer coat disassembly, which is a prerequisite for fusion with ERGIC membranes.

  2. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the

  3. Relationship between ion transport and the failure behavior of epoxy resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •An epoxy resin-Q345 system with a sandwich structure was prepared. •Cl − ions permeated into epoxy resin coating prior to K + ions. •Free volume size and PAL increased when the coating was immersed into the solution. -- Abstract: An epoxy resin coating with a sandwich structure was prepared to investigate ion transport behavior in the coating. The macro- and micro- appearance of the coating immersed in 5 wt.% KCl solutions was observed by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. The electrochemical property of the coating was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and change of free volume after immersion was characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results indicated that Cl − ions permeated into the coating prior to K + ions, the free volume size and positron annihilation lifetime of the coating increased during immersion

  4. Transport losses in single and assembled coated conductors with textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, N.; Jiang, Z.; Li, Z.; Nakahata, M.; Kato, T.; Ueyama, M.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Shiohara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Transport losses in a coated conductor with a textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism were studied experimentally. The substrate is with a clad structure, and HoBCO superconductor layer is deposited on the substrate with buffer layers. The measured transport loss of a sample whose critical current is 126.0 A falls between Norris's strip value and Norris's ellipse value. The increase in the measured transport loss from Norris's strip value can be attributed to its non-uniform lateral J c distribution. The same buffered clad tape was placed under an IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor with a non-magnetic substrate, and its transport loss was measured. The comparison between the measured transport loss of this sample and that of the identical IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor without the buffered clad tape indicates that the increase in the transport loss due to this buffered clad tape is small. The transport losses of hexagonal assemblies of IBAD-MOCVD coated conductors, whose structure simulates that of superconducting power transmission cables, were also measured where the buffered clad tapes were under-lied or over-lied on the coated conductors. The increase in the transport loss of hexagonal assemblies of coated conductors due to the buffered clad tapes is at an allowable level

  5. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    organic paints, inert metallic layers, and protective oxide layers. 2 Although coatings have been commercially used for many years, the design of new...pigments found in chromates protect the substrate by passivating the metallic surface with an oxide layer. Sacrificial coatings prevent the self...surface, eliminating the components needed for a cathodic reaction to occur. Additionally, organic barrier coatings are protective by preventing

  6. Transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: influence of temperature, coating properties and defects on permeation of water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheim, Dennis; Jaritz, Montgomery; Hopmann, Christian; Dahlmann, Rainer; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter; Gebhard, Maximilian; Devi, Anjana; Brochhagen, Markus; Böke, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Gas transport mechanisms through plastics are usually described by the temperature-dependent Arrhenius-model and compositions of several plastic layers are represented by the CLT. When it comes to thin films such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) coatings on substrates of polymeric material, a universal model is lacking. While existing models describe diffusion through defects, these models presume that permeation does not occur by other means of transport mechanisms. This paper correlates the existing transport models with data from water vapour transmission experiments. (paper)

  7. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    So-called cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings immersed in electrolyte solutions (e.g. seawater). Cathodic delamination occurs as a result of the electrochemical reactions, which takes place on a corroding steel surface. This means that reactants must...... continuously be transported from the bulk solution to the cathodic areas. The transport of sodium ions from a defect in the coating to the cathodic areas is generally considered the rate-determining step for cathodic delamination because the transport of oxygen and water through the coating is sufficient...... for the corrosion processes. In this work, a novel practical method, which allows direct estimation of the apparent diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the ultrathin aqueous layer at the coating-steel interface, is described. The apparent diffusion coefficients estimated are of similar magnitude as previously...

  8. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    important for metal substrates, as it is well-known that chloride increases corrosion of metals . 3 For metal -loaded primers, it has been established...volume (MPV) percent, solvent polarity, and resin molecular weight impact corrosion protection of metal -rich organic (MRO) coatings. Following design of...pH and chloride ion concentration levels over time. As the corrosion protection of the coating decreases, chloride ion concentration will increase

  9. Fuel efficiency and fouling control coatings in maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger

    . As a result, it was determined that other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of FCCs in conditions that mimic those encountered by ships’ hulls during actual voyages. In an experimental study, five commercial FCC systems were applied to smooth disks......, compared to the two SPC coatings. Furthermore, the drag performances of two different FCC systems with varying substrate roughness values (i.e., the roughness below the coating system) were measured in the newly applied condition.An increase in the substrate roughness led to increased drag for both FCC......’s hull, and a second, laboratory part measured the torque (drag) of coated cylinders in a rotary setup. Four commercial FCCs were exposed for 53 weeks in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, i.e., in relatively cold seawater (salinity of 1.2 wt%), from the spring of 2013 to the autumn of 2014. The in situ immersion...

  10. Enhanced Thermal Transport of Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    resistance conferred by superhydrophobic fluorinated polyacrylate-silica composite coatings on cold-rolled steel. Journal of Applied Polymer Science... thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology. ChemInform. 2005:36. doi: 10.1002/chin.200532281. 9. Chen C-H, Cai Q, Tsai C, Chen C-L, Xiong G

  11. Three-dimensional blade coating of complex fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vachitar; Grimaldi, Emma; Sauret, Alban; Dressaire, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    The application of a layer of non-newtonian fluid on a solid substrate is an important industrial problem involved in polymer or paint coatings, and an everyday life challenge when it comes to spreading peanut butter on a toast. Most experimental and theoretical work has focused on the two-dimensional situation, i.e. the scraping of a fixed blade on a moving substrate to turn a thick layer of liquid into a thin coat. However the spreading of a finite volume of non-newtonian fluid using a blade has received less attention, despite significant practical and fundamental implications. In this study, we investigate experimentally the spreading of a finite volume of a model non-newtonian fluid, carbopol, initially deposited against the fixed blade. As the substrate is translated at constant speed, we characterize the dynamics of spreading and the final shape of the coated layer. We measure and rationalize the influence of the liquid volume, the height and orientation of the blade, and the speed of the substrate on the spreading.

  12. The Highly Conserved COPII Coat Complex Sorts Cargo from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Targets It to the Golgi

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Christopher; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is driven by a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex called the COPII coat. The COPII coat complex contains an inner shell (Sec23/Sec24) that sorts cargo into ER-derived vesicles and an outer cage (Sec13/Sec31) that leads to coat polymerization. Once released from the ER, vesicles must tether to and fuse with the target membrane to deliver their protein and lipid contents. This delivery step also depends on the COPII coat, with coat proteins bin...

  13. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  14. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  15. Energetics of Transport through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghavami, Ali; van der Giessen, Erik; Onck, Patrick R

    2016-01-01

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells is solely controlled by the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The NPC provides two types of nucleocytoplasmic transport: passive diffusion of small molecules and active chaperon-mediated translocation of large molecules. It has been shown

  16. Properties of metallocene complexes during the oxidative crosslinking of air drying coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stava, Vit; Erben, Milan; Vesely, David; Kalenda, Petr

    2007-05-01

    Driers are added to air drying paints to accelerate the hardening of spread coating. For decades cobalt octoate has been the most widely used drier because of its good performance at ambient temperature. Recently, several reports describing possible carcinogenity and genotoxicity of cobalt and cobalt salts, such as cobalt sulfate in aerosols, have appeared. It is necessary to reduce the amount of cobalt compounds in coatings industry. Present study deals with the possibility of using ferrocene and its derivatives as driers for air drying coatings. We concentrated particularly on the synergic effect between these metallocene complexes and the cobalt drier. In the first step the kinetics of autooxidation by FTIR spectroscopy in model systems was investigated. Then the metallocene complexes were applied together with cobalt drier to alkyd resin, where their influence on hardness of spread coatings was examined.

  17. Efficiency increase of complex production and transport systems management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilov S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the reduced efficiency of management in complex production - transport systems due to the lack of co-ordination in the operation of industrial enterprises and transport carrying out their maintenance. The existing transport service schedules for auxiliary departments do not take into account possible changes in operating conditions, the probability of malfunctions and the amount of reserves, which leads to an increase in general production costs. To solve this problem, we propose to use the interval regulation of production and transport processes in all departments of the complex production and transport systems. Also, such regulation involves the determination of traffic service priority. This will allow passing on from the regulated control of production and transport processes to the situational one, adapted to specific conditions, and reducing losses from untimely transport servicing, which will lead to a stores reduction and efficiency increase of the enterprise circulating facilities use. Testing the effectiveness of interval regulation was performed on the system and dynamics simulation model of liquid iron transportation in the oxygen converter shop of the metallurgical enterprise. It was established that the use of interval regulation processes in iron production and its transportation will allow decreasing non-productive downtime by 21% and the amount of the liquid iron in anticipation of recasting in the oxygen converter shop – by 33%. Economical effect of reducing the liquid iron downtime during transportation to the oxygen converter shop will be about 30 million rubles per year.

  18. Transport of complexed cyanide in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeussen, J.C.L.; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Bosma, W.J.P.; Keizer, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of the soil with cyanide is common at sites of several types of industries. Risks for adverse effects of this cyanide for human health or for the environment are largely determined by the behaviour of this cyanide in soil. In acidic soils this behaviour is probably dominated by precipitation and dissolution of prussian blue, Fe 4 (Fe(CN) 6 ) 3 (s), an iron cyanide precipitate. Calculations of multi-component cyanide transport, including equilibrium with this solid phase, iron hydroxide and several redox reactions, are compared with cyanide concentrations observed in contaminated soils. The calculated cyanide concentrations, as well as the pH and redox potentials, agree well with the field situations

  19. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  20. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Patrick; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry,...

  1. Complex eigenvalues for neutron transport equation with quadratically anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    Complex eigenvalues for the monoenergetic neutron transport equation in the buckling approximation have been calculated for various combinations of linearly and quadratically anisotropic scattering. The results are discussed in terms of the time-dependent case. Tables are given of complex bucklings for real decay constants and of complex decay constants for real bucklings. The results fit nicely into the pattern of real and purely imaginary eigenvalues obtained earlier. (author)

  2. Impact of surface coating and environmental conditions on the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, Jamie R., E-mail: Jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk (CENR), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 (United States); Baalousha, Mohammed, E-mail: Mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk (CENR), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The role of surface coating (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate) and water chemistry on the fate and behavior of AgNPs in aquatic microcosms is reported in this study. The migration and transformation of the AgNPs was examined in low (ultrapure water-UPW) and high ionic strength (moderately hard water – MHW) preparations, and in the presence of modeled natural organic matter (NOM) of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The migration and fate of the AgNPs in the microcosms was validated using a sedimentation-diffusion model and the aggregation behavior was monitored by UV–visible spectrometry (UV–vis). Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (% Ag) were analyzed by ultrafiltration methods. Imaging of the AgNPs was captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) remained stable for 28 days with similarly distributed concentrations of the PVP-AgNPs throughout the columns in each of the water conditions after approximately 96 h (4 days). The sedimentation-diffusion model confirmed PVP-AgNP stability in each condition, by showing diffusion dominated transport by using the original unaltered AgNP sizes to fit the parameters. In comparison, citrate AgNPs were largely unstable in the more complex water preparations (MHW). In MHW, aggregation dominated behavior followed by sedimentation/dissolution controlled transport was observed. The addition of SRFA to MHW resulted in small stabilizing effects, to the citrate coated AgNPs, producing smaller sized AgNPs (TEM) and mixed sedimentation and diffusion migration compared the studies absent of SRFA. The results suggest that surface coating and solution chemistry has a major impact on AgNP stability, furthermore the corresponding modeling will support the experimental understanding of the overall fate of AgNPs in the environment. - Highlights: • Aquatic microcosms were used to study the transport and behavior of AgNPs • Experiments were conducted in low

  3. Impact of surface coating and environmental conditions on the fate and transport of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Laura-Jayne A.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R.; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface coating (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate) and water chemistry on the fate and behavior of AgNPs in aquatic microcosms is reported in this study. The migration and transformation of the AgNPs was examined in low (ultrapure water-UPW) and high ionic strength (moderately hard water – MHW) preparations, and in the presence of modeled natural organic matter (NOM) of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). The migration and fate of the AgNPs in the microcosms was validated using a sedimentation-diffusion model and the aggregation behavior was monitored by UV–visible spectrometry (UV–vis). Dissolved and particulate Ag concentrations (% Ag) were analyzed by ultrafiltration methods. Imaging of the AgNPs was captured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate that PVP-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) remained stable for 28 days with similarly distributed concentrations of the PVP-AgNPs throughout the columns in each of the water conditions after approximately 96 h (4 days). The sedimentation-diffusion model confirmed PVP-AgNP stability in each condition, by showing diffusion dominated transport by using the original unaltered AgNP sizes to fit the parameters. In comparison, citrate AgNPs were largely unstable in the more complex water preparations (MHW). In MHW, aggregation dominated behavior followed by sedimentation/dissolution controlled transport was observed. The addition of SRFA to MHW resulted in small stabilizing effects, to the citrate coated AgNPs, producing smaller sized AgNPs (TEM) and mixed sedimentation and diffusion migration compared the studies absent of SRFA. The results suggest that surface coating and solution chemistry has a major impact on AgNP stability, furthermore the corresponding modeling will support the experimental understanding of the overall fate of AgNPs in the environment. - Highlights: • Aquatic microcosms were used to study the transport and behavior of AgNPs • Experiments were conducted in low

  4. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-03-30

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously

  5. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously un

  6. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongheng; Geng Shaofeng; Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT). Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is p...

  7. Energetics of Transport through the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghavami

    Full Text Available Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells is solely controlled by the nuclear pore complex (NPC. The NPC provides two types of nucleocytoplasmic transport: passive diffusion of small molecules and active chaperon-mediated translocation of large molecules. It has been shown that the interaction between intrinsically disordered proteins that line the central channel of the NPC and the transporting cargoes is the determining factor, but the exact mechanism of transport is yet unknown. Here, we use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the energy barrier that has to be overcome for molecules to pass through the NPC. We focus on two aspects of transport. First, the passive transport of model cargo molecules with different sizes is studied and the size selectivity feature of the NPC is investigated. Our results show that the transport probability of cargoes is significantly reduced when they are larger than ∼5 nm in diameter. Secondly, we show that incorporating hydrophobic binding spots on the surface of the cargo effectively decreases the energy barrier of the pore. Finally, a simple transport model is proposed which characterizes the energy barrier of the NPC as a function of diameter and hydrophobicity of the transporting particles.

  8. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  9. Silver (Ag) Transport Mechanisms in TRISO coated particles: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I J van Rooyen; J H Neethling; J A A Engelbrecht; P M van Rooyen; G Strydom

    2012-10-01

    Transport of 110mAg in the intact SiC layer of TRISO coated particles has been studied for approximately 30 years without arriving at a satisfactory explanation of the transport mechanism. In this paper the possible mechanisms postulated in previous experimental studies, both in-reactor and out-of reactor research environment studies are critically reviewed and of particular interest are relevance to very high temperature gas reactor operating and accident conditions. Among the factors thought to influence Ag transport are grain boundary stoichiometry, SiC grain size and shape, the presence of free silicon, nano-cracks, thermal decomposition, palladium attack, transmutation products, layer thinning and coated particle shape. Additionally new insight to nature and location of fission products has been gained via recent post irradiation electron microscopy examination of TRISO coated particles from the DOE’s fuel development program. The combined effect of critical review and new analyses indicates a direction for investigating possible the Ag transport mechanism including the confidence level with which these mechanisms may be experimentally verified.

  10. Silver (Ag) transport mechanisms in TRISO coated particles: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooyen, I.J. van, E-mail: isabella.vanrooyen@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Dunzik-Gougar, M.L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, ID (United States); Rooyen, P.M. van [Philip M. van Rooyen Network Consultants, Midlands Estates (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    Transport of {sup 110m}Ag in the intact SiC layer of TRISO coated particles has been studied for approximately 30 years without arriving at a satisfactory explanation of the transport mechanism. In this paper the possible mechanisms postulated in previous experimental studies, both in-reactor and out-of reactor research environment studies are critically reviewed and of particular interest are relevance to very high temperature gas reactor operating and accident conditions. Among the factors thought to influence Ag transport are grain boundary stoichiometry, SiC grain size and shape, the presence of free silicon, nano-cracks, thermal decomposition, palladium attack, transmutation products, layer thinning and coated particle shape. Additionally new insight to nature and location of fission products has been gained via recent post irradiation electron microscopy examination of TRISO coated particles from the DOE's fuel development program. The combined effect of critical review and new analyses indicates a direction for investigating possible the Ag transport mechanism including the confidence level with which these mechanisms may be experimentally verified.

  11. On the tungsten single crystal coatings achieved by chemical vapor transportation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.Q.; Shen, Y.B.; Yao, S.Y.; Zhang, P.J.; Zhou, Q.; Guo, Y.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, C.W., E-mail: tanchengwen@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Yu, X.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Nie, Z.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, H.L. [China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Cai, H.N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The tungsten single crystal has many excellent properties, namely a high melting point, high anti-creeping strength. Chemical vapor transportation deposition (CVTD) is a possible approach to achieve large-sized W single crystals for high-temperature application such as the cathode of a thermionic energy converter. In this work, CVTD W coatings were deposited on the monocrystalline molybdenum substrate (a tube with < 111 > axial crystalline orientation) using WCl{sub 6} as a transport medium. The microstructures of the coatings were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The as-deposited coatings are hexagonal prisms—rough surfaces perpendicular to < 110 > with alternating hill-like bulges and pits at the side edges of the prisms, and flat surfaces perpendicular to < 112 > with arc-shaped terraces at the side faces. This can be explained by two-dimensional nucleation -mediated lateral growth model. Some parts of the coatings contain hillocks of an exotic morphology (noted as “abnormal growth”). The authors hypothesize that the abnormal growth is likely caused by the defects of the Mo substrate, which facilitate W nucleation sites, cause orientation difference, and may even form boundaries in the coatings. A dislocation density of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (counts/cm{sup 2}) was revealed by an etch-pit method and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As the depositing temperature rises, the dislocation density decreases, and no sub-boundaries are found on samples deposited over 1300 °C, as a result of atom diffusion and dislocation climbing. - Highlights: •The varied growth rate causes the different morphologies of different planes. •The W coating is a single crystal when only single hillocks appear. •The (110) plane tends to have the lowest dislocation density. •The dislocation density tends to decrease as the temperature increases.

  12. On the tungsten single crystal coatings achieved by chemical vapor transportation deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.Q.; Shen, Y.B.; Yao, S.Y.; Zhang, P.J.; Zhou, Q.; Guo, Y.Z.; Tan, C.W.; Yu, X.D.; Nie, Z.H.; Ma, H.L.; Cai, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The tungsten single crystal has many excellent properties, namely a high melting point, high anti-creeping strength. Chemical vapor transportation deposition (CVTD) is a possible approach to achieve large-sized W single crystals for high-temperature application such as the cathode of a thermionic energy converter. In this work, CVTD W coatings were deposited on the monocrystalline molybdenum substrate (a tube with < 111 > axial crystalline orientation) using WCl 6 as a transport medium. The microstructures of the coatings were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The as-deposited coatings are hexagonal prisms—rough surfaces perpendicular to < 110 > with alternating hill-like bulges and pits at the side edges of the prisms, and flat surfaces perpendicular to < 112 > with arc-shaped terraces at the side faces. This can be explained by two-dimensional nucleation -mediated lateral growth model. Some parts of the coatings contain hillocks of an exotic morphology (noted as “abnormal growth”). The authors hypothesize that the abnormal growth is likely caused by the defects of the Mo substrate, which facilitate W nucleation sites, cause orientation difference, and may even form boundaries in the coatings. A dislocation density of 10 6 to 10 7 (counts/cm 2 ) was revealed by an etch-pit method and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As the depositing temperature rises, the dislocation density decreases, and no sub-boundaries are found on samples deposited over 1300 °C, as a result of atom diffusion and dislocation climbing. - Highlights: •The varied growth rate causes the different morphologies of different planes. •The W coating is a single crystal when only single hillocks appear. •The (110) plane tends to have the lowest dislocation density. •The dislocation density tends to decrease as the temperature increases.

  13. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  14. Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.

  15. Redirected charge transport arising from diazonium grafting of carbon coated LiFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, L; Seid, K A; Badot, J-C; Humbert, B; Moreau, P; Dubrunfaut, O; Lestriez, B; Guyomard, D; Gaubicher, J

    2014-11-07

    The morphological and the electrical properties of carbon coated LiFePO4 (LFPC) active material functionalized by 4-ethynylbenzene tetrafluoroboratediazonium salt were investigated. For this purpose, FTIR, Raman, XPS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS) were considered. Electronic conductivities of LFPC samples at room temperature were found to decrease in a large frequency range upon simple immersion in polar solvents and to decrease further upon functionalization. Due to their high dipole moment, strongly physisorbed molecules detected by XPS likely add barriers to electron hopping. Significant alteration of the carbon coating conductivity was only observed, however, upon functionalization. This effect is most presumably associated with an increase in the sp(3) content determined by Raman spectroscopy, which is a strong indication of the formation of a covalent bond between the organic layer and the carbon coating. In this case, the electron flux appears to be redirected and relayed by short-range (intra chain) and long-range (inter chain) electron transport through molecular oligomers anchored at the LFPC surface. The latter are controlled by tunnelling and slightly activated hopping, which enable higher conductivity at low temperature (T < 250 K). Alteration of the electron transport within the carbon coating also allows detection of a relaxation phenomenon that corresponds to small polaron hopping in bulk LiFePO4. XPS and HRTEM images allow a clear correlation of these findings with the island type oligomeric structure of grafted molecules.

  16. Characterization of HR coatings for the megajoule laser transport mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornier, A.; Cordillot, C.; Bernardino, D.; Lam, O.; Roussel, A.

    1997-01-01

    One of the concerns with the Megajoule Laser design is the laser-induced damage threshold of the transport mirrors. Earlier studies have shown that the main constraint on the laser damage threshold comes from nodules at the mirror surface. It is therefore important to restrict the number of such nodules. SFIM-ODS, in close collaboration with CEL-V, has initiated a special study to characterize these nodules as precisely as possible. The objective of the study is twofold: (1) to determine the origin of the nodules and subsequently to adapt the mirror fabrication process in order to limit their formation, (2) to analyze their shapes and dimensions in order to ascertain which nodules are critical for laser-induced damage. To understand the origin of the nodules and their effect on the laser damage threshold, the mirrors are characterized using various methods, (3) absorption and scatter mapping: does the presence of nodules result in specific absorption patterns? (4) surface analysis by atomic force microscopy: to characterize nodule shape and dimensions, (5) Focused Ion Beam (FIB) cutting of nodules: to locate the seed initiating the nodule (on the substrate or in the stack), and to characterize the seed shape and composition (contamination, material spatter during evaporation, etc.), and (6) laser damage threshold measurements: to determine the laser damage threshold of the mirror and study the behavior of nodules under laser irradiation depending on their dimensions and shape

  17. Evaluation of thermal sprayed metallic coatings for use on the structures at Launch Complex 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the evaluation program is presented. The objective was to evaluate the applicability of Thermal Sprayed Coatings (TSC) to protect the structures in the high temperature acid environment produced by exhaust of the Solid Rocket Boosters during the launches of the Shuttle Transportation System. Only the relatively low cost aluminum TSC which provides some cathodic protection for steel appears to be a practical candidate for further investigation.

  18. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail; Helgesen, Martin; Garcia Valverde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide has been proposed as a good alternative hole transport layer for improving device lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The article presents a study on the optimization of slot-die-coated vanadium oxide films produced with a roll coating machine with the aim of achieving scalable ...

  19. Mass transport and chloride ion complexes in occluded cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Nishikata, A.; Haruyama, S.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the transport and the concentration of ions in a model occluded cell are traced during galvanostatic anodic polarization of a mild steel and a stainless steel. Apparent transport numbers of anions and cations, which were estimated from chemical analysis of solution, were different from those calculated from known mobility data. At the initial stage of the polarization, the transport number of chloride ion was almost unity, and then decreased gradually. For the mild steel, the concentration of total chloride ion accumulated in the occluded compartment increased with the anodic charge passed, and the amount of chloride ion complexed with cations also increased. The chloride complex was estimated as FeCl + . For SUS304 stainless steel, the total chloride ion increased, however, the free chloride ion, which responded to an Ag/AgCl electrode remained approximately 2 mol/dm 3 . Therefore, most of the chloride ions transferred into the occluded cell formed complex ions, such as CrCl n 3-n . The number of chloride ion coordinated to ferrous and chromic ions was estimated from the data fo mass transport for the case of the mild steel and the stainless steel. (author) 9 refs., 14 figs

  20. Preparation and self-sterilizing properties of Ag@TiO{sub 2}–styrene–acrylic complex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang-dong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jin-tao, E-mail: yangjt@zjut.edu.cn; Yan, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Ming-qiang, E-mail: zhongmingqiang@hotmail.com

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we report a simple and cost-effective method for self-sterilized complex coatings obtained by Ag@TiO{sub 2} particle incorporation into styrene–acrylic latex. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} particles were prepared via a coupling agent modification process. The composite latices characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study were highly homogeneous at the nanometric scale, and the Ag@TiO{sub 2} particles were well dispersed and exhibited an intimate contact between both the organic and inorganic components. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles significantly enhanced the absorption in the visible region and engendered a good heat-insulating effect of the complex coatings. Moreover, the Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporation into this polymer matrix renders self-sterilized nanocomposite materials upon light excitation, which are tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The complex coatings display an impressive performance in the killing of all micro-organisms with a maximum for a Ag@TiO{sub 2} loading concentration of 2–5 wt.%. The weathering endurance of the complex coating was also measured. - Highlights: ► We prepared Ag@TiO{sub 2}–styrene–acrylic complex latex in one pot. ► Good antibacterial performances of complex coatings were observed. ► The complex coating was resistant to weathering after 48 h. ► The complex coating exhibits good heat-insulating effect.

  1. Influence Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose For The Transport Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles In Clean Silica And Mineral-Coated Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport properties of titanium dioxide (anatase polymorph) nanoparticles encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were evaluated as a function of changes in the solute chemical properties in clean quartz, amorphous aluminum and iron hydroxide-coated sands. While prist...

  2. Membrane transporters and drought resistance – a complex issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Jarzyniak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved complex adaptation strategies to survive changes in water status in the environment. Understanding the molecular nature of such adaptive changes allows the development of rapid innovations to improve crop performance. Plant membrane transport systems play a significant role when adjusting to water scarcity. Here we put proteins participating in transmembrane allocations of various molecules in the context of stomatal, cuticular and root responses, representing a part of the drought resistance strategy. Their role in the transport of signaling molecules, ions or osmolytes is summarized and the challenge of the forthcoming research, resulting from the recent discoveries, is highlighted.

  3. Biomechanics of the transport barrier in the nuclear pore complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, George J; Fassati, Ariberto; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2017-08-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the selective gateway through which all molecules must pass when entering or exiting the nucleus. It is a cog in the gene expression pathway, an entrance to the nucleus exploited by viruses, and a highly-tuned nanoscale filter. The NPC is a large proteinaceous assembly with a central lumen occluded by natively disordered proteins, known as FG-nucleoporins (or FG-nups). These FG-nups, along with a family of soluble proteins known as nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), form the selective transport barrier. Although much is known about the transport cycle and the necessity of NTRs for chaperoning cargo molecules through the NPC, the mechanism by which NTRs and NTR•cargo complexes translocate the selective transport barrier is not well understood. How can disordered FG-nups and soluble NTRs form a transport barrier that is selective, ATP-free, and fast? In this work, we review various mechanical approaches - both experimental and theoretical/computational - employed to better understand the morphology of the FG-nups, and their role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recent experiments on FG-nups tethered to planar surfaces, coupled with quantitative modelling work suggests that FG-nup morphologies are the result of a finely balanced system with significant contributions from FG-nup cohesiveness and entropic repulsion, and from NTR•FG-nup binding avidity; whilst AFM experiments on intact NPCs suggest that the FG-nups are sufficiently cohesive to form condensates in the centre of the NPC lumen, which may transiently dissolve to facilitate the transport of larger cargoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transport of poly(acrylic acid) coated 2-line ferrihydrite nanoparticles in saturated aquifer sediments for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Aishuang; Zhou, Sheng; Koel, Bruce E.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    2014-04-01

    Groundwater remediation using iron oxide and zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NPs) can be effective, but is limited in many applications due to the NP strong retention in groundwater-saturated porous media after injection, the passivation of the porous surface, and the high cost of nanomaterials versus macro scale iron. In this study, we investigated transport of bare and polymer-coated 2-line ferrihydrite NPs (30-300 nm) in saturated aquifer sediments. The influence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer coatings was studied on the colloidal stability and transport in sediments packed column tests simulating groundwater flow in saturated sediments. In addition, the influence of calcium cations was investigated by transport measurements using sediments with calcium concentrations in the aqueous phase ranging from 0.5 (typical for most sediments) to 2 mM. Measurements were also made of zeta potential, hydrodynamic diameter, polymer adsorption and desorption properties, and bio-availability of PAA-coated NPs. We found that NP transport through the saturated aquifer sediments was improved by PAA coating and that the transport properties could be tuned by adjusting the polymer concentration. We further discovered that PAA coatings enhanced NP transport, compared to bare NPs, in all calcium-containing experiments tested, however, the presence of calcium always exhibited a negative effect on NP transport. In tests of bioavailability, the iron reduction rate of the coated and bare NPs by Geobacter sulfurreducens was the same, which shows that the PAA coating does not significantly reduce NP Fe(III) bioavailability. Our results demonstrate that much improved transport of iron oxide NP can be achieved in saturated aquifer sediments by introducing negatively charged polyelectrolytes and optimizing polymer concentrations, and furthermore, these coated NPs retain their bioavailability that is needed for applications in bio-environmental remediation.

  5. Stochastic transport in complex systems from molecules to vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    What is common between a motor protein, an ant and a vehicle? Each can be modelled as a"self-propelled particle"whose forward movement can be hindered by another in front of it. Traffic flow of such interacting driven"particles"has become an active area of interdisciplinary research involving physics, civil engineering and computer science. We present a unified pedagogical introduction to the analytical and computational methods which are currently used for studying such complex systems far from equilibrium. We also review a number of applications ranging from intra-cellular molecular motor transport in living systems to ant trails and vehicular traffic. Researchers working on complex systems, in general, and on classical stochastic transport, in particular, will find the pedagogical style, scholarly critical overview and extensive list of references extremely useful.

  6. Reactive solute transport in streams: A surface complexation approach for trace metal sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A model for trace metals that considers in-stream transport, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption is presented. Linkage between a surface complexation submodel and the stream transport equations provides a framework for modeling sorption onto static and/or dynamic surfaces. A static surface (e.g., an iron- oxide-coated streambed) is defined as a surface with a temporally constant solid concentration. Limited contact between solutes in the water column and the static surface is considered using a pseudokinetic approach. A dynamic surface (e.g., freshly precipitated metal oxides) has a temporally variable solid concentration and is in equilibrium with the water column. Transport and deposition of solute mass sorbed to the dynamic surface is represented in the stream transport equations that include precipitate settling. The model is applied to a pH-modification experiment in an acid mine drainage stream. Dissolved copper concentrations were depressed for a 3 hour period in response to the experimentally elevated pH. After passage of the pH front, copper was desorbed, and dissolved concentrations returned to ambient levels. Copper sorption is modeled by considering sorption to aged hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) on the streambed (static surface) and freshly precipitated HFO in the water column (dynamic surface). Comparison of parameter estimates with reported values suggests that naturally formed iron oxides may be more effective in removing trace metals than synthetic oxides used in laboratory studies. The model's ability to simulate pH, metal oxide precipitation-dissolution, and pH-dependent sorption provides a means of evaluating the complex interactions between trace metal chemistry and hydrologic transport at the field scale.

  7. Complex impedance study on nano-CeO2 coating TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei; Wang Honglian; Wang Xidong; Li Wenchao

    2006-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles and cerium dioxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles coated titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles) have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The complex impedance of the materials was investigated. The grain resistance, boundary resistance and activation energy of the nanoparticles were calculated according to Arrhenius equation. According to calculating results, the active capacity of pure TiO 2 nanoparticles has been improved because of nano-CeO 2 coating. An optimal CeO 2 content of 4.9 mol% was achieved. The high resolution electron microscopy images of CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles, as a core, were covered by CeO 2 nanoparticles. The average size of CeO 2 coating TiO 2 nanoparticles was about 70 nm. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicted that CeO 2 nanoparticle coating improved the separation, insulation, and stability the CeO 2 -TiO 2 nanoparticles, which was benefit to the activity of materials

  8. Predicting the timing properties of phosphor-coated scintillators using Monte Carlo light transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncali, Emilie; Schmall, Jeffrey P; Viswanath, Varsha; Berg, Eric; Cherry, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in positron emission tomography focus on improving timing performance for scanners with time-of-flight (TOF) capability, and incorporating depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. Recent studies have shown that incorporating DOI correction in TOF detectors can improve timing resolution, and that DOI also becomes more important in long axial field-of-view scanners. We have previously reported the development of DOI-encoding detectors using phosphor-coated scintillation crystals; here we study the timing properties of those crystals to assess the feasibility of providing some level of DOI information without significantly degrading the timing performance. We used Monte Carlo simulations to provide a detailed understanding of light transport in phosphor-coated crystals which cannot be fully characterized experimentally. Our simulations used a custom reflectance model based on 3D crystal surface measurements. Lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals were simulated with a phosphor coating in contact with the scintillator surfaces and an external diffuse reflector (teflon). Light output, energy resolution, and pulse shape showed excellent agreement with experimental data obtained on 3 × 3 × 10 mm 3  crystals coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Scintillator intrinsic timing resolution was simulated with head-on and side-on configurations, confirming the trends observed experimentally. These results indicate that the model may be used to predict timing properties in phosphor-coated crystals and guide the coating for optimal DOI resolution/timing performance trade-off for a given crystal geometry. Simulation data suggested that a time stamp generated from early photoelectrons minimizes degradation of the timing resolution, thus making this method potentially more useful for TOF-DOI detectors than our initial experiments suggested. Finally, this approach could easily be extended to the study of timing properties in other scintillation crystals, with a

  9. Prediction of Thermal Transport Properties of Materials with Microstructural Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Youping

    2017-10-10

    This project aims at overcoming the major obstacle standing in the way of progress in dynamic multiscale simulation, which is the lack of a concurrent atomistic-continuum method that allows phonons, heat and defects to pass through the atomistic-continuum interface. The research has led to the development of a concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) methodology for multiscale simulations of materials microstructural, mechanical and thermal transport behavior. Its efficacy has been tested and demonstrated through simulations of dislocation dynamics and phonon transport coupled with microstructural evolution in a variety of materials and through providing visual evidences of the nature of phonon transport, such as showing the propagation of heat pulses in single and polycrystalline solids is partially ballistic and partially diffusive. In addition to providing understanding on phonon scattering with phase interface and with grain boundaries, the research has contributed a multiscale simulation tool for understanding of the behavior of complex materials and has demonstrated the capability of the tool in simulating the dynamic, in situ experimental studies of nonequilibrium transient transport processes in material samples that are at length scales typically inaccessible by atomistically resolved methods.

  10. Study of structure of HTS coated conductor with ferromagnetic substrate having low AC transport current loss using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagi, D.; Amadutsumi, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Tsukamoto, O.

    2007-01-01

    AC transport current losses of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are higher than the loss calculated by the Norris equation. In order to reduce the AC transport current loss we propose in this paper a structure of the coated conductor that has wider substrate than the SC (Superconducting) layer. The current distribution and AC loss of the proposed model are analyzed by means of FEM. The AC transport current loss is reduced due to the change of current density distribution near the edge of SC layer, consequent to the high value of magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic substrate, that is wider than the SC layer

  11. Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions

  12. Wear Behavior of Uncoated and Coated Tools under Complex Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry crash relevant structures of the body in white are manufactured using the direct hot stamping process. Due to the high temperature difference between the hot blank and the cold tool surfaces and the relative movement between the blank and the tool surfaces during the forming operation, high thermal and mechanical loads are applied on the tool leading to excessive wear in terms of adhesion on the tool surfaces. One possibility to reduce wear of hot stamping tools is the application of tool coating systems. In the scope of this work uncoated and coated tools are characterized under complex loading conditions with respect to adhesive layer build-up.

  13. Hydrogen transport behavior of metal coatings for plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Plasma-facing components for experimental and commercial fusion reactor studies may include cladding or coatings of refractory metals like tungsten on metallic structural substrates such as copper, vanadium alloys and austenitic stainless steel. Issues of safety and fuel economy include the potential for inventory buildup and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. This paper reports on laboratory-scale studies with 3 keV D{sub 3}{sup +} ion beams to investigate the hydrogen transport behavior in tungsten coatings on substrates of copper. These experiments entailed measurements of the deuterium re-emission and permeation rates of tungsten, copper, and tungsten-coated copper specimens at temperatures ranging from 638 to 825 K and implanting particle fluxes of approximately 5x10{sup 19} D/m{sup 2} s. Diffusion constants and surface recombination coefficients with enhancement factors due to sputtering were obtained from these measurements. These data may be used in calculations to estimate permeation rates and inventory buildups for proposed diverter designs. (orig.).

  14. Hydrogen transport behavior of metal coatings for plasma-facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Holland, D. F.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1990-12-01

    Plasma-facing components for experimental and commercial fusion reactor studies may include cladding or coatings of refractory metals like tungsten on metallic structural substrates such as copper, vanadium alloys and austenitic stainless steel. Issues of safety and fuel economy include the potential for inventory buildup and permeation of tritium implanted into the plasma-facing surface. This paper reports on laboratory-scale studies with 3 keV D +3 ion beams to investigate the hydrogen transport behavior in tungsten coatings on substrates of copper. These experiments entailed measurements of the deuterium re-emission and permeation rates for tungsten, copper, and tungsten-coated copper specimens at temperatures ranging from 638 to 825 K and implanting particle fluxes of approximately 5 × 10 19 D/m 2 s. Diffusion constants and surface recombination coefficients with enhancement factors due to sputtering were obtained from these measurements. These data may be used in calculations to estimate permeation rates and inventory buildups for proposed diverter designs.

  15. Elastic Network Model of a Nuclear Transport Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick; Liu, Wing K.; Lee, Dockjin; Seo, Sangjae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Moon K.

    2010-05-01

    The structure of Kap95p was obtained from the Protein Data Bank (www.pdb.org) and analyzed RanGTP plays an important role in both nuclear protein import and export cycles. In the nucleus, RanGTP releases macromolecular cargoes from importins and conversely facilitates cargo binding to exportins. Although the crystal structure of the nuclear import complex formed by importin Kap95p and RanGTP was recently identified, its molecular mechanism still remains unclear. To understand the relationship between structure and function of a nuclear transport complex, a structure-based mechanical model of Kap95p:RanGTP complex is introduced. In this model, a protein structure is simply modeled as an elastic network in which a set of coarse-grained point masses are connected by linear springs representing biochemical interactions at atomic level. Harmonic normal mode analysis (NMA) and anharmonic elastic network interpolation (ENI) are performed to predict the modes of vibrations and a feasible pathway between locked and unlocked conformations of Kap95p, respectively. Simulation results imply that the binding of RanGTP to Kap95p induces the release of the cargo in the nucleus as well as prevents any new cargo from attaching to the Kap95p:RanGTP complex.

  16. Glycosaminoglycan-resistant and pH-sensitive lipid-coated DNA complexes produced by detergent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Julia; Hyvönen, Zanna; Subrizi, Astrid; Bunjes, Heike; Urtti, Arto

    2008-10-21

    Cationic polymers are efficient gene delivery vectors in in vitro conditions, but these carriers can fail in vivo due to interactions with extracellular polyanions, i.e. glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The aim of this study was to develop a stable gene delivery vector that is activated at the acidic endosomal pH. Cationic DNA/PEI complexes were coated by 1,2-dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS) (3:2 mol/mol) using two coating methods: detergent removal and mixing with liposomes prepared by ethanol injection. Only detergent removal produced lipid-coated DNA complexes that were stable against GAGs, but were membrane active at low pH towards endosome mimicking liposomes. In relation to the low cellular uptake of the coated complexes, their transfection efficacy was relatively high. PEGylation of the coated complexes increased their cellular uptake but reduced the pH-sensitivity. Detergent removal was thus a superior method for the production of stable, but acid activatable, lipid-coated DNA complexes.

  17. Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with phenol-ionic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Kerem; Previdi, Rodolfo; Gibson, Brant C; Shimoni, Olga; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-03-21

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and bio-labeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to achieve an encapsulation of individual nanodiamonds with phenol-ionic complexes that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation reduces the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications.

  18. Quantum transport in the FMO photosynthetic light-harvesting complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllidis, Ioannis G

    2017-06-01

    The very high light-harvesting efficiency of natural photosynthetic systems in conjunction with recent experiments, which showed quantum-coherent energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes, raised questions regarding the presence of non-trivial quantum effects in photosynthesis. Grover quantum search, quantum walks, and entanglement have been investigated as possible effects that lead to this efficiency. Here we explain the near-unit photosynthetic efficiency without invoking non-trivial quantum effects. Instead, we use non-equilibrium Green's functions, a mesoscopic method used to study transport in nano-conductors to compute the transmission function of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex using an experimentally derived exciton Hamiltonian. The chlorosome antenna and the reaction center play the role of input and output contacts, connected to the FMO complex. We show that there are two channels for which the transmission is almost unity. Our analysis also revealed a dephasing-driven regulation mechanism that maintains the efficiency in the presence of varying dephasing potentials.

  19. Progress in Solving the Elusive Ag Transport Mechanism in TRISO Coated Particles: What is new?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabella Van Rooyen

    2014-10-01

    The TRISO particle for HTRs has been developed to an advanced state where the coating withstands internal gas pressures and retains fission products during irradiation and under postulated accidents. However, one exception is Ag that has been found to be released from high quality TRISO coated particles when irradiated and can also during high temperature accident heating tests. Although out- of- pile laboratory tests have never hither to been able to demonstrate a diffusion process of Ag in SiC, effective diffusion coefficients have been derived to successfully reproduce measured Ag-110m releases from irradiated HTR fuel elements, compacts and TRISO particles It was found that silver transport through SiC does not proceed via bulk volume diffusion. Presently grain boundary diffusion that may be irradiation enhanced either by neutron bombardment or by the presence of fission products such as Pd, are being investigated. Recent studies of irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission kukuchi diffraction (TKD) patterns and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been used to further the understanding of Ag transport through TRISO particles. No silver was observed in SiC grains, but Ag was identified at triple-points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium was also found in some of the very same triple junctions, but this could be related to silver behavior as Ag-110m decays to Cd-110. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries and in most SiC grain boundaries and the potential role of Pd in the transport of Ag will be discussed.

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with phenol-ionic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Kerem; Previdi, Rodolfo; Gibson, Brant C.; Shimoni, Olga; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and bio-labeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to achieve an encapsulation of individual nanodiamonds with phenol-ionic complexes that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation reduces the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications.Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and bio-labeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to achieve an encapsulation of individual nanodiamonds with phenol-ionic complexes that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation reduces the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07510b

  1. Antimicrobial coatings on polyethylene terephthalate based on curcumin/cyclodextrin complex embedded in a multilayer polyelectrolyte architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlar, Ilya; Droby, Samir; Rodov, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial contamination is a growing concern worldwide. The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial coating based on curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film as a support matrix. After a pre-treatment aimed to provide sufficient electric charge to the PET surface, it was electrostatically coated with repeated multilayers comprising alternately deposited positively-charged poly-l-lysine (PLL) and negatively-charged poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA) and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CMBCD). The coatings had an architecture (PLL-PLGA) 6 -(PLL-PLGA-PLL-CMBCD) n , with the number of repeated multilayers n varying from 5 to 20. The CMBCD molecules were either covalently cross-linked using carbodiimide crosslinker chemistry or left unbound. The surface morphology, structure and elemental composition of the coatings were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. To impart antimicrobial properties to the coatings they were loaded with a natural phenolic compound curcumin forming inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. The non-cross-linked coatings showed bactericidal activity towards Escherichia coli in the dark, and this activity was further enhanced upon illumination with white light. Curcumin was released from the non-cross-linked coatings into an aqueous medium in the form of cyclodextrin inclusion complex. After the cross-linking, the coating lost its dark antimicrobial activity but retained the photodynamic properties. Stabilized cross-linked curcumin-loaded coatings can serve a basis for developing photoactivated antimicrobial surfaces controlling bacterial contamination and spread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Column study for the evaluation of the transport properties of polyphenol-coated nanoiron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystrioti, C; Papassiopi, N; Xenidis, A; Dermatas, D; Chrysochoou, M

    2015-01-08

    Injection of a nano zero valent iron (nZVI) suspension in the subsurface is a remedial option for obtaining the in situ reduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium in contaminated aquifers. Prerequisite for the successful implementation of this technology is that the nanoparticles form a stable colloidal suspension with good transport properties when delivered in the subsurface. In this study we produced stable suspensions of polyphenol-coated nZVI (GT-nZVI) and we evaluated their transport behavior through representative porous media. Two types of porous materials were tested: (a) silica sand as a typical inert medium and (b) a mixture of calcareous soil and sand. The transport of GT-nZVI through the sand column was effectively described using a classic 1-D convection-dispersion flow equation (CDE) in combination with the colloid filtration theory (CFT). The calculations indicate that nZVI travel distance will be limited in the range 2.5-25cm for low Darcy velocities (0.1-1m/d) and in the order of 2.5m at higher velocities (10m/d). The mobility of GT-nZVI suspension in the soil-sand column is lower and is directly related to the progress of the neutralization reactions between the acidic GT-nZVI suspension and soil calcite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transport of nanoparticles with dispersant through biofilm coated drinking water sand filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Aly Hassan, Ashraf; Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Sorial, George A

    2013-11-01

    This article characterizes, experimentally and theoretically, the transport and retention of engineered nanoparticles (NP) through sand filters at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) under realistic conditions. The transport of four commonly used NPs (ZnO, CeO2, TiO2, and Ag, with bare surfaces and coating agents) through filter beds filled with sands from either acid washed and calcined, freshly acquired filter media, and used filter media from active filter media, were investigated. The study was conducted using water obtained upstream of the sand filter at DWTP. The results have shown that capping agents have a determinant importance in the colloidal stability and transport of NPs through the different filter media. The presence of the biofilm in used filter media increased adsorption of NPs but its effects in retaining capped NPs was less significant. The data was used to build a mathematical model based on the advection-dispersion equation. The model was used to simulate the performance of a scale-up sand filter and the effects on filtration cycle of traditional sand filtration system used in DWTPs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  5. Aspects of transport system management within mining complex using information and telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semykina, A. S.; Zagorodniy, N. A.; Konev, A. A.; Duganova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers aspects of transport system management within the mining complex. It indicates information and telecommunication systems that are used to increase transportation efficiency. It also describes key advantages and disadvantages. It is found that software products of the Modular Company used in pits allow increasing transport performance, minimizing losses and ensuring efficient transportation of minerals.

  6. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    Full Text Available Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD and Recessive Red (MC1Re. A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele.

  7. Cell surface clustering of Cadherin adhesion complex induced by antibody coated beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cadherin receptors mediate cell-cell adhesion, signal transduction and assembly of cytoskeletons. How a single transmembrane molecule Cadherin can be involved in multiple functions through modulating its binding activities with many membrane adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal components is an unanswered question which can be elucidated by clues from bead experiments. Human lung cells expressing N-Cadherin were examined. After co-incubation with anti-N-Cadherin monoclonal antibody coated beads, cell surface clustering of N-Cadherin was induced. Immunofluorescent detection demonstrated that in addition to Cadherin, β-Catenin, α-Catenin, α-Actinin and Actin fluorescence also aggregated respectively at the membrane site of bead attachment. Myosin heavy chain (MHC), another major component of Actin cytoskeleton, did not aggregate at the membrane site of bead attachment. Adhesion unrelated protein Con A and polylysine conjugated beads did not induce the clustering of adhesion molecules. It is indicated that the Cadherin/Catenins/α-Actinin/Actin complex is formed at Cadherin mediated cell adherens junction; occupancy and cell surface clustering of Cadherin is crucial for the formation of Cadherin adhesion protein complexes.

  8. The coat protein complex II, COPII, protein Sec13 directly interacts with presenilin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the human gene encoding presenilin-1, PS1, account for most cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 has nine transmembrane domains and a large loop orientated towards the cytoplasm. PS1 locates to cellular compartments as endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, vesicular structures, and plasma membrane, and is an integral member of γ-secretase, a protein protease complex with specificity for intra-membranous cleavage of substrates such as β-amyloid precursor protein. Here, an interaction between PS1 and the Sec13 protein is described. Sec13 takes part in coat protein complex II, COPII, vesicular trafficking, nuclear pore function, and ER directed protein sequestering and degradation control. The interaction maps to the N-terminal part of the large hydrophilic PS1 loop and the first of the six WD40-repeats present in Sec13. The identified Sec13 interaction to PS1 is a new candidate interaction for linking PS1 to secretory and protein degrading vesicular circuits.

  9. The coat protein complex II, COPII, protein Sec13 directly interacts with presenilin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Anders Lade, E-mail: aln@humgen.au.dk [Department of Human Genetics, The Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2009-10-23

    Mutations in the human gene encoding presenilin-1, PS1, account for most cases of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 has nine transmembrane domains and a large loop orientated towards the cytoplasm. PS1 locates to cellular compartments as endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, vesicular structures, and plasma membrane, and is an integral member of {gamma}-secretase, a protein protease complex with specificity for intra-membranous cleavage of substrates such as {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. Here, an interaction between PS1 and the Sec13 protein is described. Sec13 takes part in coat protein complex II, COPII, vesicular trafficking, nuclear pore function, and ER directed protein sequestering and degradation control. The interaction maps to the N-terminal part of the large hydrophilic PS1 loop and the first of the six WD40-repeats present in Sec13. The identified Sec13 interaction to PS1 is a new candidate interaction for linking PS1 to secretory and protein degrading vesicular circuits.

  10. Preparation and self-sterilizing properties of Ag@TiO2-styrene-acrylic complex coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-dong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jin-tao; Yan, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Ming-qiang

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we report a simple and cost-effective method for self-sterilized complex coatings obtained by Ag@TiO2 particle incorporation into styrene-acrylic latex. The Ag@TiO2 particles were prepared via a coupling agent modification process. The composite latices characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study were highly homogeneous at the nanometric scale, and the Ag@TiO2 particles were well dispersed and exhibited an intimate contact between both the organic and inorganic components. The Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles significantly enhanced the absorption in the visible region and engendered a good heat-insulating effect of the complex coatings. Moreover, the Ag@TiO2 nanoparticle incorporation into this polymer matrix renders self-sterilized nanocomposite materials upon light excitation, which are tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The complex coatings display an impressive performance in the killing of all micro-organisms with a maximum for a Ag@TiO2 loading concentration of 2-5 wt.%. The weathering endurance of the complex coating was also measured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flame Retardant Multilayered Coatings on Acrylic Fabrics Prepared by One-Step Deposition of Chitosan/Montmorillonite Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Carosio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilayered coatings deposited using the layer-by-layer (LbL assembly technique have attracted great interest in recent years as a sustainable and efficient solution for conferring flame retardant properties to fabrics. The unique structure and interaction established upon the coating assembly are the key factors for successful flame retardant properties. In this study we aimed at the deposition of multilayered coatings comprising chitosan and montmorillonite with a LbL-like structure and interactions by the simple processing of compacted chitosan/montmorillonite complexes obtained by the direct mixing of an oppositely charged solution/suspension. Upon drying, the prepared complex yielded a continuous coating characterized by a brick-and-mortar multi-layered structure, in which oriented clay nanoplatelets were held together by a continuous chitosan matrix. When deposited on acrylic fabrics these coatings were able to suppress the melt-dripping phenomenon, and at 10 and 20% add-ons achieved self-extinguishing behavior within a few seconds after ignition. Cone calorimetry testing revealed an increase in time to ignition (up to +46% and considerable reductions of the rates at which heat is released (up to −62 and −49% for peak of heat release rate and total heat release, respectively. A reduction in the total smoke release (up to −49% was also observed.

  12. The PsB glycoprotein complex is secreted as a preassembled precursor of the spore coat in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N; McGuire, V; Alexander, S

    1994-09-01

    The PsB glycoprotein in Dictyostelium discoideum is one of a diverse group of developmentally regulated, prespore-cell-specific proteins, that contain a common O-linked oligosaccharide. This post-translational modification is dependent on the wild-type modB allele. The PsB protein exists as part of a multiprotein complex of six different proteins, which have different post-translational modifications and are held together by both covalent and non-covalent interactions (Watson et al. (1993). J. Biol. Chem. 268, 22634-22641). In this study we have used microscopic and biochemical analyses to examine the cellular localization and function of the PsB complex during development. We found that the PsB complex first accumulates in prespore vesicles in slug cells and is secreted later during culmination and becomes localized to both the extracellular matrix of the apical spore mass of mature fruiting bodies and to the inner layer of the spore coat. The PsB associated with the spore coat is covalently bound by disulfide bridges. The PsB protein always exists in a multiprotein complex, but the composition of the PsB complex changes during secretion and spore maturation. Some of the PsB complex proteins have been identified as spore coat proteins. These data demonstrate that some of the proteins that form the spore coat exist as a preassembled precursor complex. The PsB complex is secreted in a developmentally regulated manner during the process of spore differentiation, at which time proteins of the complex, as well as additional spore coat proteins, become covalently associated in at least two forms of extracellular matrix: the interspore matrix and the spore coat. These and other studies show that proteins with modB dependent O-linked oligosaccharides are involved in a wide variety of processes underlying morphogenesis in this organism. These developmental processes are the direct result of cellular mechanisms regulating protein targeting, assembly and secretion, and the

  13. ANOMALOUS ELECTRODEPOSITION OF Fe-Ni ALLOY COATING FROM SIMPLE AND COMPLEX BATHS AND ITS MAGNETIC PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni thin films has been carried on copper substrate under various electrodeposition conditions from two simple and six complex baths. Sulfate baths composing of NiSO4. 7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, H3BO3 and Na2SO4KEYWORDS: Anomalous Electrodeposition, Fe-Ni Coating, Complexing agent, Current Density, Magnetic Property. 1. INTRODUCTION Alloy electrodeposition technologies can extend tremendously the potential of electrochemical deposition processes to provide coatings that require unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties [1]. There has been a great research interest in the development and characterization of iron-nickel (Fe-Ni thin films due to their operational capacity, economic interest, magnetic and other properties [2]. Due to their unique low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and soft magnetic properties, Fe-Ni alloys have been used in industrial applications for over 100 years [3]. Typical examples of applications that are based on the low CTE of Fe-Ni alloys include: thermostatic bimetals, glass sealing, integrated circuit packaging, cathode ray tube, shadow masks, membranes for liquid natural gas tankers; applications based on the soft magnetic properties include: read-write heads for magnetic storage, magnetic actuators, magnetic shielding, high performance transformer cores. comprise the simple baths whereas complex baths were prepared by adding ascorbic acid, saccharin and citric acid in simple baths. The effect of bath composition, pH and applied current density on coating appearance, composition, morphology and magnetic property were studied. Wet chemical analysis technique was used to analyze the coating composition whereas SEM and VSM were used to study the deposit morphology and magnetic property respectively. Addition of complexing agents in plating baths suppressed the anomalous nature of Fe-Ni alloy electrodeposition. Coatings obtained from simple baths were characterized by coarse grained non

  14. Transport ac loss studies of YBCO coated conductors with nickel alloy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R C; Thompson, J R; Gouge, M J; Lue, J W; Ijaduola, A O; Yu, D; Verebelyi, D T

    2003-01-01

    Transport alternating current (ac) loss measurements were performed on a series of rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) processed YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO) coated conductors at 77 K. While each sample possessed a 1 μm layer of YBCO and a 3 μm silver cap layer, two different nickel alloy substrates were used and their impact on the ac loss was examined. Both substrates possessed a 75 μm Ni-5 at%W base, but one substrate also had a 2 μm nickel overlayer as part of the buffer layer architecture. The ac losses, which were determined by thermal and electrical measurements, contained two dominant contributions: superconductive hysteresis in the YBCO and ferromagnetic hysteresis in the substrates. The superconductive component followed the Norris elliptic model for the substrate with the nickel overlayer and the Norris thin strip model for the substrate without the nickel overlayer. The substrates' ferromagnetic loss was determined separately through magnetization measurements, which showed that this loss contribution was independent of the presence of the nickel overlayer for effective ac currents less than 50 A. While the overall loss was lower for the thin-strip-like conductor with no nickel overlayer, further research is necessary to strengthen this connection

  15. An inexpensive and fast method for infiltration coating of complex geometry matrices for ISOL production target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    An inexpensive, fast, and close to universal infiltration coating technique has been developed for fabricating fast diffusion-release ISOL targets. Targets are fabricated by deposition of finely divided (∼1μm) compound materials in a paint-slurry onto highly permeable, complex structure reticulated-vitreous-carbon-foam (RVCF) matrices, followed by thermal heat treatment. In this article, we describe the coating method and present information on the physical integrity, uniformity of deposition, and matrix adherence of SiC, HfC and UC 2 targets, destined for on-line use as targets at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF)

  16. Measurements and 2-D Modeling of Recycling and Edge Transport in Discharges with Lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canik, John; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Osborne, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D-alpha emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D-alpha emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R similar to 0.98 to R similar to 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/chi(e) similar to 0.2/1.0 m(2)/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  17. Measurements and 2-D modeling of recycling and edge transport in discharges with lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canik, J.M., E-mail: canikjm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D{sub {alpha}} emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/{chi}{sub e} {approx} 0.2/1.0 m{sup 2}/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  18. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF ELECTRIC RAIL TRANSPORT IMPLEMENTATION IN VILNIUS CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas BUREIKA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current problems of Vilnius city public transportation. The possible solutions (options and the technical means to improve the attractiveness of public transportation and accessibility are considered. Two main alternatives of means of electric transport (underground and tram have been singled out for Vilnius city. The suitability of these rail transport means have been substantiated. The nature and density of the work and residence places (areas of Vilnius city residents have been analysed. The scheme of tram and underground lines projected in Vilnius city are evaluated, which have been composed according to the current and forecasted flows of passengers, the nature of their changes and critical points. The technical economic indicators of the tram routes and underground lines in Vilnius city are analysed: average driving speed, average distance between the stations, the duration of the trip, the capacity of a single means of transport, the costs of line support and the size of investment. The accident rate of urban rail transportation is estimated. Comparative criteria of tram and underground lines are selected. The effectiveness of both rail means of transport in Vilnius city are compared according to three multi-criteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting and geometrical means. The final conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  19. Complexities in Shallow Magma Transport at Kilauea (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The standard model of Kilauea's shallow plumbing system includes magma storage under the caldera and conduits in the southwest rift zone (SWRZ) and the east rift zone (ERZ). As a field geologist, I find that seemingly aberrant locations and trends of some eruptive vents indicate complexities in shallow magma transport not addressed by the standard model. This model is not wrong but instead incomplete, because it does not account for the development of offshoots from the main plumbing. These offshoots supply magma to the surface at places that tell us much about the complicated stress system within the volcano. Perhaps most readily grasped are fissures peripheral to the north and south sides of the caldera. Somehow magma can apparently be injected into caldera-bounding faults from the summit reservoir complex, but the process and pathways are unclear. Of more importance is the presence of fissures with ENE trends on the east side of the caldera, including Kilauea Iki. Is this a rift zone that forms an acute angle with the ERZ? I think there is another explanation: the main part of the ERZ has migrated ~5 km SSE during the past few tens of thousands of years owing to seaward movement of the south flank, but older parts of the rift zone can be reactivated. The fissures east of the caldera have the ERZ trend and may record such reactivation; this interpretation includes the location of the largest eruption (15th century) known from Kilauea. Whether or not this interpretation has validity, the question remains: what changes in the plumbing system allow magma to erupt east of the caldera? The SWRZ can be divided into two sections, the SWRZ proper and the seismically active part (SASWRZ) southeast of the SWRZ. The total width of both sections is ~4 km. The SWRZ might be migrating SSE, as is the ERZ. Fissures in the SWRZ proper trend SW. Fissures in the SASWRZ, however, have ENE trends like that of the ERZ, although, because of en echelon offsets, the fissure zone itself

  20. Light transport and lasing in complex photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Seng Fatt

    Complex photonic structures refer to composite optical materials with dielectric constant varying on length scales comparable to optical wavelengths. Light propagation in such heterogeneous composites is greatly different from homogeneous media due to scattering of light in all directions. Interference of these scattered light waves gives rise to many fascinating phenomena and it has been a fast growing research area, both for its fundamental physics and for its practical applications. In this thesis, we have investigated the optical properties of photonic structures with different degree of order, ranging from periodic to random. The first part of this thesis consists of numerical studies of the photonic band gap (PBG) effect in structures from 1D to 3D. From these studies, we have observed that PBG effect in a 1D photonic crystal is robust against uncorrelated disorder due to preservation of long-range positional order. However, in higher dimensions, the short-range positional order alone is sufficient to form PBGs in 2D and 3D photonic amorphous structures (PASS). We have identified several parameters including dielectric filling fraction and degree of order that can be tuned to create a broad isotropic PBG. The largest PBG is produced by the dielectric networks due to local uniformity in their dielectric constant distribution. In addition, we also show that deterministic aperiodic structures (DASs) such as the golden-angle spiral and topological defect structures can support a wide PBG and their optical resonances contain unexpected features compared to those in photonic crystals. Another growing research field based on complex photonic structures is the study of structural color in animals and plants. Previous studies have shown that non-iridescent color can be generated from PASs via single or double scatterings. For better understanding of the coloration mechanisms, we have measured the wavelength-dependent scattering length from the biomimetic samples. Our

  1. Influence of kaolin addition on the dynamics of oxygen mass transport in polyvinyl alcohol dispersion coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nyflött, Åsa; Axrup, Lars; Gunilla, Carlsson; Järnström, Lars; Lestelius, Magnus; Moons, Ellen; Wahlström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The permeability of dispersion barriers produced from polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and kaolin clay blends coated onto polymeric supports has been studied by employing two different measurement methods: the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the ambient oxygen ingress rate (AOIR). Coatings with different thicknesses and kaolin contents were studied. Structural information of the dispersion-barrier coatings was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning ele...

  2. Bioinspired tannic acid-copper complexes as selective coating for nanofiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Tina

    2017-04-27

    Bio-polyphenols that are present in tea, date fruits, chockolate and many other plants have been recognized as scaffold material for the manufacture of composite filtration membranes. These phenolic biomolecules possess abundant gallol (1,2,3-trihydroxyphenyl) and catechol (1,2-dihydroxyphenyl) functional groups, which allow the spontaneous formation of a thin polymerized layer at the right pH conditions. Here, we report a facile and cost-effective method to coat porous membranes via the complexation of tannic acid (TA) and cupric acetate (mono hydrate) through co-deposition. The modified membranes were investigated by XPS, ATR/FTIR, water contact angle, SEM and water permeance for a structural and morphological analysis. The obtained results reveal that the modified membranes with TA and cupric acetate (CuII) developed a thin skin layer, which showed excellent hydrophilicity with good water permeance. These membranes were tested with different molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEG) in aqueous solution; the MWCO was around 600 Daltons.

  3. Crystal structure of the bacteriophage Qβ coat protein in complex with the RNA operator of the replicase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumnieks, Janis; Tars, Kaspars

    2014-03-06

    The coat proteins of single-stranded RNA bacteriophages specifically recognize and bind to a hairpin structure in their genome at the beginning of the replicase gene. The interaction serves to repress the synthesis of the replicase enzyme late in infection and contributes to the specific encapsidation of phage RNA. While this mechanism is conserved throughout the Leviviridae family, the coat protein and operator sequences from different phages show remarkable variation, serving as prime examples for the co-evolution of protein and RNA structure. To better understand the protein-RNA interactions in this virus family, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of the coat protein from bacteriophage Qβ bound to its cognate translational operator. The RNA binding mode of Qβ coat protein shares several features with that of the widely studied phage MS2, but only one nucleotide base in the hairpin loop makes sequence-specific contacts with the protein. Unlike in other RNA phages, the Qβ coat protein does not utilize an adenine-recognition pocket for binding a bulged adenine base in the hairpin stem but instead uses a stacking interaction with a tyrosine side chain to accommodate the base. The extended loop between β strands E and F of Qβ coat protein makes contacts with the lower part of the RNA stem, explaining the greater length dependence of the RNA helix for optimal binding to the protein. Consequently, the complex structure allows the proposal of a mechanism by which the Qβ coat protein recognizes and discriminates in favor of its cognate RNA. © 2013.

  4. Cr(VI) retention and transport through Fe(III)-coated natural zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Gaoxiang [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Libing [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Hanson, Renee; Leick, Samantha; Hoeppner, Nicole [Geosciences Department, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-30

    Graphical abstract: Breakthrough curves of Cr(VI) from columns packed with raw zeolite (a) and Fe(III)-zeolite (b). The solid line in (b) is the HYDRUS-1D fit to the observed data with adsorption term only, while the dashed line in (b) includes a reduction term in the HYDRUS-1D fit. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite modified with Fe(III) could be used for adsorption and retention of Cr(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe present on zeolite was in an amorphous Fe(OH){sub 3} form. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of 82 mg/kg was found on Fe(III)-zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Cr(VI) retardation factor of 3 or 5 was determined from column and batch studies. - Abstract: Cr(VI) is a group A chemical based on the weight of evidence of carcinogenicity. Its transport and retention in soils and groundwater have been studied extensively. Zeolite is a major component in deposits originated from volcanic ash and tuff after alteration. In this study, zeolite aggregates with the particle size of 1.4-2.4 mm were preloaded with Fe(III). The influence of present Fe(III) on Cr(VI) retention by and transport through zeolite was studied under batch and column experiments. The added Fe(III) resulted in an enhanced Cr(VI) retention by the zeolite with a capacity of 82 mg/kg. The Cr(VI) adsorption on Fe(III)-zeolite followed a pseudo-second order kinetically and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm thermodynamically. Fitting the column experimental data to HYDRUS-1D resulted in a retardation factor of 3 in comparison to 5 calculated from batch tests at an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 3 mg/L. The results from this study showed that enhanced adsorption and retention of Cr(VI) may happen in soils derived from volcanic ash and tuff that contains significant amounts of zeolite with extensive Fe(III) coating.

  5. Effect of complexing agents and pH on microstructure and tribological properties of Co-W coatings produced by double pulse electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Fenghua; Liu Cansen; Huang Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Co-W coatings were produced by double pulse electrodeposition from aqueous bath with cobalt sulphate and sodium tungstate. Effect of complexing agent and pH value in the plating bath on the microstructure, morphology and hardness of the electrodeposited Co-W coatings were investigated using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. The friction and wear properties of the Co-W coatings deposited from different baths were evaluated with a ball-on-disk UMT-3MT tribometer. The correlation among the electrodepositing condition that varied with the complexing agent or pH value, the microstructure and the tribological properties of the deposited Co-W coatings were discussed. The results show that the complexing agent and pH value significantly affect the microstructure and tribological properties of the electrodeposited Co-W coatings. The sodium citrate is the best complexing agent to improve the tribological properties of the electrodeposited Co-W coatings at pH 6.0, followed by the sodium gluconate. The Co-W coatings electrodeposited from the near neutral bath can obtain better tribological properties than those deposited from strong acid or strong alkaline bath. The differences of the tribological properties for Co-W coatings from different baths were attributed to their different hardness, crystal structure and morphological characterizations, which can be optimized by the electrodepositing condition, i.e., the complexing agent and pH value in bath.

  6. Electrochemical Formation of Multilayer SnO2-Sb x O y Coating in Complex Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizelis, Antonina; Bairachniy, Boris

    2017-12-01

    The multilayer antimony-doped tin dioxide coating was obtained by cathodic deposition of multilayer metal-hydroxide coating with near 100-nm thickness layers on the alloy underlayer accompanied by the anodic oxidation of this coating. The potential regions of deposition of tin, antimony, tin-antimony alloy, and mixture of this metals and their hydroxides in the pyrophosphate-tartrate electrolyte were revealed by the cyclic voltammetric method. The possibility of oxidation of cathodic deposit consisting of tin and Sn(II) hydroxide compounds to the hydrated tin dioxide in the same electrolyte was demonstrated.The operations of alloy underlayer deposition and oxidation of multilayer metal-hydroxide coating were proposed to carry out in the diluted pyrophosphate-tartrate electrolyte, similar to the main electrolyte.The accelerated tests showed higher service life of the titanium electrode with multilayer antimony-doped tin dioxide coating compared to both electrode with single-layer electrodeposited coating and the electrode with the coating obtained using prolonged heat treatment step.

  7. Coat/Tether Interactions—Exception or Rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Saskia; Beckmann, Sabrina; Schmitt, Hans Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Coat complexes are important for cargo selection and vesicle formation. Recent evidence suggests that they may also be involved in vesicle targeting. Tethering factors, which form an initial bridge between vesicles and the target membrane, may bind to coat complexes. In this review, we ask whether these coat/tether interactions share some common mechanisms, or whether they are special adaptations to the needs of very specific transport steps. We compare recent findings in two multisubunit tethering complexes, the Dsl1 complex and the HOPS complex, and put them into context with the TRAPP I complex as a prominent example for coat/tether interactions. We explore where coat/tether interactions are found, compare their function and structure, and comment on a possible evolution from a common ancestor of coats and tethers. PMID:27243008

  8. Coat/Tether Interactions-Exception or Rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Saskia; Beckmann, Sabrina; Schmitt, Hans Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Coat complexes are important for cargo selection and vesicle formation. Recent evidence suggests that they may also be involved in vesicle targeting. Tethering factors, which form an initial bridge between vesicles and the target membrane, may bind to coat complexes. In this review, we ask whether these coat/tether interactions share some common mechanisms, or whether they are special adaptations to the needs of very specific transport steps. We compare recent findings in two multisubunit tethering complexes, the Dsl1 complex and the HOPS complex, and put them into context with the TRAPP I complex as a prominent example for coat/tether interactions. We explore where coat/tether interactions are found, compare their function and structure, and comment on a possible evolution from a common ancestor of coats and tethers.

  9. Coat/tether interactions – exceptions or rule?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eSchroeter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coat complexes are important for cargo selection and vesicle formation. Recent evidence suggests that they may also be involved in vesicle targeting. Tethering factors, which form an initial bridge between vesicles and the target membrane, may bind to coat complexes. In this review, we ask whether these coat/tether interactions share some common mechanisms, or whether they are special adaptations to the needs of very specific transport steps. We compare recent findings in two multisubunit tethering complexes, the Dsl1 complex and the HOPS complex, and put them into context with the TRAPP I complex as a prominent example for coat/tether interactions. We explore where coat/tether interactions are found, compare their function and structure, and comment on a possible evolution from a common ancestor of coats and tethers.

  10. Transport of uranium concentrates: low specific activity versus logistic complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Pedro L.S.; Macedo, Eclesio F.; Carvalho, Leonardo B.; Carvalho, Renata R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the case of radioactive material transport, according to pertinent documentation - nuclear material specifically in the form op ammonium diuranate, produced by Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. - from the mine and physic-chemical processing at Caetite, Bahia, to the port of Salvador, state of Bahia, approaching the radiological protection aspects

  11. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of transport through the nuclear pore complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghavami, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift is gewijd aan het mechanisme van Nucleo - cytoplasmatisch transport openbaren door grofkorrelige moleculaire dynamica simulaties van ontvouwen eiwitten in de nucleaire porie complex (NPC) . NPC's zijn zeer selectief poorten, die alle transporten over nucleaire envelop controleren .

  12. Microstructural Analysis and Transport Properties of Thermally Sprayed Multiple-Layer Ceramic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Haynes, J. Allen; Porter, Wallace D.; England, Roger D.; Hays, Michael; Dwivedi, Gopal; Sampath, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    Multilayer, graded ceramic/metal coatings were prepared by an air plasma spray method on Ti-6Al-4V, 4140 steel and graphite substrates. The coatings were designed to provide thermal barriers for diesel engine pistons to operate at higher temperatures with improved thermal efficiency and cleaner emissions. A systematic, progressive variation in the mixture of yttria-stabilized zirconia and bondcoat alloys (NiCoCrAlYHfSi) was designed to provide better thermal expansion match with the substrate and to improve thermal shock resistance and cycle life. Heat transfer through the layers was evaluated by a flash diffusivity technique based on a model of one-dimensional heat flow. The aging effect of the as-sprayed coatings was captured during diffusivity measurements, which included one heating and cooling cycle. The hysteresis of thermal diffusivity due to aging was not observed after 100-h annealing at 800 °C. The measurements of coatings on substrate and freestanding coatings allowed the influence of interface resistance to be evaluated. The microstructure of the multilayer coating was examined using scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalysis.

  13. The cellulose-binding activity of the PsB multiprotein complex is required for proper assembly of the spore coat and spore viability in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S; Griffiths, K R; McGuire, V; Champion, A; Williams, K L; Alexander, S

    2000-08-01

    The terminal event of spore differentiation in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum is the assembly of the spore coat, which surrounds the dormant amoeba and allows the organism to survive during extended periods of environmental stress. The spore coat is a polarized extracellular matrix composed of glycoproteins and cellulose. The process of spore coat formation begins by the regulated secretion of spore coat proteins from the prespore vesicles (PSVs). Four of the major spore coat proteins (SP96, PsB/SP85, SP70 and SP60) exist as a preassembled multiprotein complex within the PSVs. This complete complex has an endogenous cellulose-binding activity. Mutant strains lacking either the SP96 or SP70 proteins produce partial complexes that do not have cellulose-binding activity, while mutants lacking SP60 produce a partial complex that retains this activity. Using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical methods we now show that the lack of cellulose-binding activity in the SP96 and SP70 mutants results in abnormally assembled spore coats and spores with greatly reduced viability. In contrast, the SP60 mutant, in which the PsB complex retains its cellulose-binding activity, produces spores with apparently unaltered structure and viability. Thus, it is the loss of the cellulose-binding activity of the PsB complex, rather than the mere loss of individual spore coat proteins, that results in compromised spore coat structure. These results support the idea that the cellulose-binding activity associated with the complete PsB complex plays an active role in the assembly of the spore coat.

  14. Calculating transport AC losses in stacks of high temperature superconductor coated conductors with magnetic substrates using FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Flack, Tim J.; Campbell, Archie M.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of stacks of HTS coated conductors with and without a magnetic substrate. Non-magnetic substrate model is consistent with existing methods. Presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack. Differences and similarities between certain tapes within stacks are explained. Ferromagnetic loss of substrate negligible in most cases except small currents/fields. In this paper, the authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of stacks of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors with a particular focus on calculating the total transport AC loss. The cross-section of superconducting cables and coils is often modeled as a two-dimensional stack of coated conductors, and these stacks can be used to estimate the AC loss of a practical device. This paper uses a symmetric two dimensional (2D) finite element model based on the H formulation, and a detailed investigation into the effects of a magnetic substrate on the transport AC loss of a stack is presented. The number of coated conductors in each stack is varied from 1 to 150, and three types of substrate are compared: non-magnetic weakly magnetic and strongly magnetic. The non-magnetic substrate model is comparable with results from existing models for the limiting cases of a single tape (Norris) and an infinite stack (Clem). The presence of a magnetic substrate increases the total AC loss of the stack, due to an increased localized magnetic flux density, and the stronger the magnetic material, the further the flux penetrates into the stack overall. The AC loss is calculated for certain tapes within the stack, and the differences and similarities between the losses throughout the stack are explained using the magnetic flux penetration and current density distributions in those tapes. The ferromagnetic loss of the substrate itself is found to be negligible in most cases, except for small magnitudes of current. Applying these findings to practical applications, where AC

  15. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manish; Lou, Silja; Zelenyuk, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.

  16. Surface modification of coronary artery stent by Ti-O/Ti-N complex film coating prepared with plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, N.; Leng, Y.X.; Yang, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reported the work of surface coating of Ti-O/Ti-N complex films on coronary stents by means of the plasma immersion ion implantation/deposition process. The deformation behavior of the Ti-O/Ti-N coated stainless steel stents was investigated. In vivo investigation of the anticoagulation behavior of Ti-O coated coronary stents was also performed. The results of mechanical characterization of the Ti-O/Ti-N coated stents show that the film has strong binding strength, and to some extent the ability to withstand plastic deformation. The biological response behavior of the coated stent surface was significantly different from the uncoated. The results of implantation of stents into rabbit ventral aorta show no thrombus formation on the surfaces of the Ti-O coated stents, although serious coagulation had occurred on the surfaces of unmodified stents over a period of 4 weeks under conditions with no anticoagulant

  17. Ultra-low fouling and high antibody loading zwitterionic hydrogel coatings for sensing and detection in complex media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ying-Nien; Sun, Fang; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Jain, Priyesh; Sinclair, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Tao; Chang, Yung; Wen, Ten-Chin; Yu, Qiuming; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2016-08-01

    For surface-based diagnostic devices to achieve reliable biomarker detection in complex media such as blood, preventing nonspecific protein adsorption and incorporating high loading of biorecognition elements are paramount. In this work, a novel method to produce nonfouling zwitterionic hydrogel coatings was developed to achieve these goals. Poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA) hydrogel thin films (CBHTFs) prepared with a carboxybetaine diacrylamide crosslinker (CBAAX) were coated on gold and silicon dioxide surfaces via a simple spin coating process. The thickness of CBHTFs could be precisely controlled between 15 and 150nm by varying the crosslinker concentration, and the films demonstrated excellent long-term stability. Protein adsorption from undiluted human blood serum onto the CBHTFs was measured with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Hydrogel thin films greater than 20nm exhibited ultra-low fouling (crosslinked, purely zwitterionic, carboxybetaine thin film hydrogel (CBHTF) coating platform. The CBHTF on a hydrophilic surface demonstrated long-term stability. By varying the crosslinker content in the spin-coated hydrogel solution, the thickness of CBHTFs could be precisely controlled. Optimized CBHTFs exhibited ultra-low nonspecific protein adsorption below 5ng/cm(2) measured by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, and their 3D architecture allowed antibody loading to reach 693ng/cm(2). This strategy provides a facile method to modify SPR biosensor chips with an advanced nonfouling material, and can be potentially expanded to a variety of implantable medical devices and diagnostic biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Genetic Algorithm to the Design Optimization of Complex Energy Saving Glass Coating Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, F. M.; Azmin, F. A.; Shibghatullah, A. S.; Suaidi, M. K.; Ahmad, B. H.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Salleh, S. N.; Shukor, M. Md

    2014-04-01

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  19. Application of genetic algorithm to the design optimization of complex energy saving glass coating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, F M; Azmin, F A; Suaidi, M K; Ahmad, B H; Aziz, M Z A Abd; Salleh, S N; Shukor, M Md; Shibghatullah, A S

    2014-01-01

    Attenuation of GSM, GPS and personal communication signal leads to poor communication inside the building using regular shapes of energy saving glass coating. Thus, the transmission is very low. A brand new type of band pass frequency selective surface (FSS) for energy saving glass application is presented in this paper for one unit cell. Numerical Periodic Method of Moment approach according to a previous study has been applied to determine the new optimum design of one unit cell energy saving glass coating structure. Optimization technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain an improved in return loss and transmission signal. The unit cell of FSS is designed and simulated using the CST Microwave Studio software at based on industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM). A unique and irregular shape of an energy saving glass coating structure is obtained with lower return loss and improved transmission coefficient.

  20. Complex governance system issues for transportation renewal projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Strong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public–private partnerships (PPPs is growing in the United States in response to reductions in funding combined with an aging highway transportation infrastructure. Many other countries have longer experience with PPP and a greater understanding of the issues surrounding their use. The main governance issues to be addressed in PPPs deal with risk-sharing, relationships, contracts, and legal framework, and standard processes within dedicated organizational units. These governance issues are examined in the context of a case study for the US 36 Phase II PPP in Colorado. Findings suggest that for the US Phase II project, governance issues are resolved through more relational forms than prescriptive contractual language. Colorado has established a dedicated organizational unit to facilitate the use of PPPs, but there exist no standards or best practices in the United States for procurement, concession terms, or risk-sharing.

  1. Substrate-mediated delivery of gene complex nanoparticles via polydopamine coating for enhancing competitiveness of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo-Chao; Chang, Hao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Substrate-mediated delivery of functional plasmid DNA (pDNA) has been proven to be a promising strategy to promote competitiveness of endothelial cells (ECs) over smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which is beneficial to inducing fast endothelialization of implanted vascular devices. Thus, it is of great importance to develop universal approaches with simplicity and easiness to immobilize DNA complex nanoparticles on substrates. In this study, the bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) coating was employed in immobilization of DNA complex nanoparticles, which were composed of protamine (PrS) and plasmid DNA encoding with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-pDNA) gene. We demonstrated that the DNA complex nanoparticles can be successfully immobilized onto the PDA surface. Consequently, the HGF expression of both ECs and SMCs were significantly improved when they cultured on the DNA complex nanoparticles-immobilized substrates. Furthermore, EC proliferation was specifically promoted due to bioactivity of HGF, leading to an enhancement of EC competitiveness over SMCs. Our findings demonstrated the substrate-mediated functional gene nanoparticle delivery through PDA coating as a simple and efficient approach. It may hold great potential in the field of interventional cardiovascular implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial transport of atomic coherence in electromagnetically induced absorption with a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2014-06-30

    We report the spatial transport of spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), which resulted from moving atoms with the STAC of the 5S(1/2) (F = 2)-5P(3/2) (F' = 3) transition of (87)Rb in a paraffin-coated vapor cell. In our experiment, two channels were spatially separate; the writing channel (WC) generated STAC in the EIA configuration, and the reading channel (RC) retrieved the optical field from the spatially transported STAC. Transported between the spatially separated positions, the fast light pulse of EIA in the WC and the delayed light pulse in the RC were observed. When the laser direction of the RC was counter-propagated in the direction of the WC, we observed direction reversal of the transported light pulse in the EIA medium. Furthermore, the delay time, the magnitude, and the width of the spatially transported light pulse were investigated with respect to the distance between the two channels.

  3. Transport of /sup 99m/Tc complexes through the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Corder, E.H.; Fields, A.T.; Callery, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen /sup 99m/Tc complexes have been synthesized and used to determine the relationships between protein binding, lipophilicity and membrane transport. The lipophilicity of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes was altered by adding substituents to either IDA, EDTA, DTPA or oxine; membrane transport was estimated using the brain uptake index (BUI) method. The BUI of the /sup 99m/Tc complexes was found to vary directly with lipophilicity and inversely with protein binding. These results demonstrated that /sup 99m/Tc-oxine derivatives are better suited for use in the development of intracellular tracers than are the /sup 99m/Tc derivatives of aminopolycarboxylates

  4. Frequency dependent magneto-transport in charge transfer Co(II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Bikash Kumar; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in

    2014-09-01

    A charge transfer chelated system containing ferromagnetic metal centers is the ideal system to investigate the magneto-transport and magneto-dielectric effects due to the presence of both electronic as well as magnetic properties and their coupling. Magneto-transport properties in materials are usually studied through dc charge transport under magnetic field. As frequency dependent conductivity is an essential tool to understand the nature of carrier wave, its spatial extension and their mutual interaction, in the present work, we have investigated frequency dependent magneto-transport along with magnetization behavior in [Co{sub 2}(II)-(5-(4-PhMe)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-H{sup +}-2-thiolate){sub 5}](OAc){sub 4} metal complex to elucidate the nature of above quantities and their response under magnetic field in the transport property. We have used the existing model for ac conduction incorporating the field dependence to explain the frequency dependent magneto-transport. It is seen that the frequency dependent magneto-transport could be well explained using the existing model for ac conduction. -Highlights: • Chelated Co(II) complex is synthesized for magneto-transport applications. • Frequency dependent magneto-transport and magnetization behavior are studied. • Nature of carrier wave, its spatial extension is investigated under magnetic field. • Existing model for ac conduction is used with magnetic field dependence.

  5. Humic acid facilitates the transport of ARS-labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in iron oxyhydroxide-coated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengjun; Bradford, Scott A.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Gao, Bin; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) have been widely used to remediate soil and wastewater contaminated with metals and radionuclides. However, our understanding of nHAP transport and fate is limited in natural environments that exhibit significant variability in solid and solution chemistry. The transport and retention kinetics of Alizarin red S (ARS)-labeled nHAP were investigated in water-saturated packed columns that encompassed a range of humic acid concentrations (HA, 0–10 mg L–1), fractional surface coverage of iron oxyhydroxide coatings on sand grains (λ, 0–0.75), and pH (6.0–10.5). HA was found to have a marked effect on the electrokinetic properties of ARS-nHAP, and on the transport and retention of ARS-nHAP in granular media. The transport of ARS-nHAP was found to increase with increasing HA concentration because of enhanced colloidal stability and the reduced aggregate size. When HA = 10 mg L–1, greater ARS-nHAP attachment occurred with increasing λ because of increased electrostatic attraction between negatively charged nanoparticles and positively charged iron oxyhydroxides, although alkaline conditions (pH 8.0 and 10.5) reversed the surface charge of the iron oxyhydroxides and therefore decreased deposition. The retention profiles of ARS-nHAP exhibited a hyperexponential shape for all test conditions, suggesting some unfavorable attachment conditions. Retarded breakthrough curves occurred in sands with iron oxyhydroxide coatings because of time-dependent occupation of favorable deposition sites. Consideration of the above effects is necessary to improve remediation efficiency of nHAP for metals and actinides in soils and subsurface environments.

  6. Progress in Solving the Elusive Ag Transport Mechanism in TRISO Coated Particles: “What is new?”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Petti, D.A.; Nabielek, H.; Neethling, J.H; Kania, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle for a high temperature reactor (HTR) has been developed to an advanced state where the coating withstands internal gas pressures and retains nearly all fission products during irradiation and under postulated accidents. However, one exception is silver (Ag) that has been found to be released from high quality TRISO coated particles during irradiation and high temperature accident heating tests. Although out-of-pile laboratory tests have yet to elucidate the mechanism of transport of Ag through silicon carbide (SiC), effective diffusion coefficients have been derived to successfully reproduce measured "1"1"0"mAg- releases from irradiated HTR fuel elements, compacts and TRISO particles. It was found that Ag transport through SiC does not proceed via bulk volume diffusion. Presently grain boundary diffusion that may be irradiation enhanced either by neutron bombardment or by the presence of fission products such as palladium (Pd), are the two hypotheses that have been proposed. Recent studies of irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) patterns, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been used to further the understanding of Ag transport through TRISO particles. No Ag was observed in SiC grains, but Ag was identified at triple-points and grain boundaries of the SiC layer in the TRISO particle. Cadmium (Cd) was also found in some of the very same triple junctions, but this could be related to silver behavior as "1"1"0"mAg decays to "1"1"0Cd or true Cd release as a fission product. Palladium was identified as the main constituent of micron-sized precipitates present at the SiC grain boundaries. The potential role of Pd in the transport of Ag will be discussed further. (author)

  7. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2010-01-01

    So-called cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for organic coatings immersed in electrolyte solutions (e.g. seawater). Cathodic delamination occurs as a result of the electrochemical reactions. which takes place on a corroding steel surface. This means that reactants must co...

  8. Study on the property of low friction complex graphite-like coating containing tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoping; Feng, Lajun; Shen, Wenning

    2018-03-01

    In order to enhance equipment lifetime under low oil or even dry conditions, tantalum was introduced into the graphite-like coating (GLC) by sputtering mosaic targets. The results showed that the introduction of Ta obviously reduced the friction coefficient and hardness of the GLC, while improved the wearability. When the atomic percentage of Ta was larger than 3%, the steady friction coefficient was lower than 0.01, suggesting the coating exhibited super lubricity. When the content of Ta was about 5.0%, the average friction coefficient was 0.02 by a sliding friction test under load of 20 N in unlubricated condition. Its average friction coefficient reduced by 75%, compared with that of control GLC (0.0825).

  9. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  10. Crystalline Coating and Its Influence on the Water Transport in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Reiterman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with an experimental study of the efficiency of surface coating treatment based on secondary crystallization as an additional protection of the subsurface concrete structure loaded by moisture or ground water pressure. The aim of the experimental program was the evaluation of the depth impact of the crystalline coating and the assessment of the reliability of construction joints performed on models simulating real conditions of the concrete structure. The evolution of the secondary crystallizing process was monitored using the water absorption test carried out at different depths of the samples. The coefficient of adsorption decreased to 60% of the reference mixture for a surface layer of up to 40 mm at 28 days and to 50% at 180 days after the coating’s application. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied with respect to the nature of measurement and the low accessibility of real subsurface concrete structures. The results of moisture measurement at a depth of 180–190 mm from the surface treated with a crystalline coating showed an essential decrease in moisture content percentage in comparison with untreated specimens (measured 125 days after the coating’s application.

  11. Robotic transport complex of automotive vehicles for handling of rock mass at the process of open cast mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly KOLGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the applicability of the robotic transportation complex of automotive barrows for haulage transportation along various transport routes of mining enterprises. The simultaneous application of robotic transport and telemetry links makes the door-to-door transportation possible, i.e. direct transportation from the starting to the final point avoiding intermediate storage and a considerable part of auxiliary equipment.

  12. Nature of complex time eigenvalues of the one speed transport equation in a homogeneous sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, E.B.; Sahni, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The complex time eigenvalues of the transport equation have been studied for one speed neutrons, scattered isotropically in a homogeneous sphere with vacuum boundary conditions. It is shown that the complex decay constants vary continuously with the radius of the sphere. Our earlier conjecture (Dahl and Sahni (1983-84)) regarding disjoint arcs is thus shown to be true. We also indicate that complex decay constants exist even for large assemblies, though with rapid oscillations in the corresponding eigenvectors. These modes cannot be predicted by the diffusion equation as this behaviour of the eigenvectors contradicts the assumption of 'slowly varying flux' needed to derive the diffusion approximation from the transport equation. For an infinite system, the existence of complex modes is related to the solution of a homogeneous equation. (author)

  13. Laboratory Investigation of Complex Conductivity and Magnetic Susceptibility on Natural Iron Oxide Coated Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Slater, L. D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Briggs, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Redox reactions occurring at the oxic/anoxic interface where groundwater discharges to surface water commonly result in iron oxide deposition that coats sediment grains. With relatively large total surface area, these iron oxide coated sediments serve as a sink for sorption of dissolved contaminants, although this sink may be temporary if redox conditions fluctuate with varied flow conditions. Characterization of the distribution of iron oxides in streambed sediments could provide valuable understanding of biogeochemical reactions and the ability of a natural system to sorb contaminants. Towards developing a field methodology, we conducted laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on natural iron oxide coated sand (Fe-sand) with grain sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 mm in order to assess the sensitivity of these measurements to iron oxides in sediments. The Fe-sand was also sorted by sieving into various grain sizes to study the impact of grain size on the polarization mechanisms. The unsorted Fe-sand saturated with 0.01 S/m NaCl solution exhibited a distinct phase response ( > 4 mrad) in the frequency range from 0.001 to 100 Hz whereas regular silica sand was characterized by a phase response less than 1 mrad under the same conditions. The presence of iron oxide substantially increased MS (3.08×10-3 SI) over that of regular sand ( Laboratory results demonstrated that SIP and MS may be well suited to mapping the distribution of iron oxides in streambed sediments associated with anoxic groundwater discharge.

  14. AC Transport Current Loss in a Coated Superconductor in the Bean Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Jr, W. J

    2004-01-01

    A new and straightforward calculation is made of the loss in a very thin superconducting strip of rectangular cross section carrying ac transport current in zero applied magnetic field, with a similar...

  15. Composite reinforced alumina ceramics with titan and lantana for use in coating storage tanks and transport of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.E.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Oliveira, J.C.S.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use ceramics to improve the performance of the tanks that store and transport crude oil and which use metallic materials for their manufacture. These tanks in contact with crude oil undergo a process of degradation on their surfaces, since crude oil is a highly corrosive substance. And in turn ceramic materials have good stability in hostile environments. However, they are inherently fragile for display little plastic deformation. Therefore, the choice of a ceramic composite alumina-titania-lantana has high mechanical strength and high toughness which were produced by thermo-mechanical processing. These composites were sintered at 1350 ° C for 36 hours, and it was held Vickers hardness testing and microstructural characterization to assess their surfaces before and after the attack by crude to use such material as ceramic coating. These results will be presented at the congress. (author)

  16. The behaviour of transport from the fission products caesium and strontium in coated particles for high temperature reactors under irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, P.

    1976-07-01

    At first survey is given about existing knowledge of the behaviour of caesium and strontium fission product transport in coated particles. In order to describe the complicated fission product transport mechanisms under irradiation conditions a suitable calculating model (SLIPPER) is taken over and modified to the special problems of an irradiation experiment. Fundamentally, the fission product transport is represented by the two contributions of diffusion and recoil, at which the diffusion is described by effective diffusion coefficients. In difference of that the possibility of a two-phase-diffusion is examined for the Cs diffusion in the fuel kernel. The model application on measuring results from irradiation experiments of KFA-Juelich and Mol-Belgien allowed the explanation from the characteristic of fission product transport in coated particles under irradiation conditions and produced effective diffusion coefficients for the fission products Cs and Sr. (orig.) [de

  17. Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickson Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents into selected populations of CNS (Central Nervous System neurons is an extremely compelling goal. Currently, systemic methods are generally used for delivery of pain medications, anti-virals for treatment of dermatomal infections, anti-spasmodics, and neuroprotectants. Systemic side effects or undesirable effects on parts of the CNS that are not involved in the pathology limit efficacy and limit clinical utility for many classes of pharmaceuticals. Axonal transport from the periphery offers a possible selective route, but there has been little progress towards design of agents that can accomplish targeted delivery via this intraneural route. To achieve this goal, we developed a tripartite molecular construction concept involving an axonal transport facilitator molecule, a polymer linker, and a large number of drug molecules conjugated to the linker, then sought to evaluate its neurobiology and pharmacological behavior. Results We developed chemical synthesis methodologies for assembling these tripartite complexes using a variety of axonal transport facilitators including nerve growth factor, wheat germ agglutinin, and synthetic facilitators derived from phage display work. Loading of up to 100 drug molecules per complex was achieved. Conjugation methods were used that allowed the drugs to be released in active form inside the cell body after transport. Intramuscular and intradermal injection proved effective for introducing pharmacologically effective doses into selected populations of CNS neurons. Pharmacological efficacy with gabapentin in a paw withdrawal latency model revealed a ten fold increase in half life and a 300 fold decrease in necessary dose relative to systemic administration for gabapentin when the drug was delivered by axonal transport using the tripartite vehicle. Conclusion Specific targeting of selected subpopulations of CNS neurons for drug delivery by axonal

  18. Beach-dune dynamics: Spatio-temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport under complex offshore airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K.; Jackson, D.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study examines sand transport and wind speed across a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland, under offshore wind conditions. Traditionally the offshore component of local wind regimes has been ignored when quantifying beach-dune sediment budgets, with the sheltering effect of the foredune assumed to prohibit grain entrainment on the adjoining beach. Recent investigations of secondary airflow patterns over coastal dunes have suggested this may not be the case, that the turbulent nature of the airflow in these zones enhances sediment transport potential. Beach sediment may be delivered to the dune toe by re-circulating eddies under offshore winds in coastal areas, which may explain much of the dynamics of aeolian dunes on coasts where the dominant wind direction is offshore. The present study investigated aeolian sediment transport patterns under an offshore wind event. Empirical data were collected using load cell traps, for aeolian sediment transport, co-located with 3-D ultrasonic anemometers. The instrument positioning on the sub-aerial beach was informed by prior analysis of the airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics. The array covered a total beach area of 90 m alongshore by 65 m cross-shore from the dune crest. Results confirm that sediment transport occurred in the ‘sheltered’ area under offshore winds. Over short time and space scales the nature of the transport is highly complex; however, preferential zones for sand entrainment may be identified. Alongshore spatial heterogeneity of sediment transport seems to show a relationship to undulations in the dune crest, while temporal and spatial variations may also be related to the position of the airflow reattachment zone. These results highlight the important feedbacks between flow characteristics and transport in a complex three dimensional surface.

  19. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Coat Protein II Transport Machinery Coordinates Cellular Lipid Secretion and Cholesterol Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Lee G. D.; Jones, Bethan; Duncan, Emma J.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Ozkan, Tozen; Williams, Paul A.; Alder, Olivia; Nieuwdorp, Max; Townley, Anna K.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Stephens, David J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Shoulders, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential for life in most organisms. Triglycerides serve as the principal energy storage depot and, where vascular systems exist, as a means of energy transport. Cholesterol is essential for the functional integrity of all cellular membrane systems. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of secretory lipoprotein production and de novo cholesterol synthesis, yet little is known about how these activities are coordinated with each other or with the activity of the COPII machinery, which transports endoplasmic reticulum cargo to the Golgi. The Sar1B component of this machinery is mutated in chylomicron retention disorder, indicating that this Sar1 isoform secures delivery of dietary lipids into the circulation. However, it is not known why some patients with chylomicron retention disorder develop hepatic steatosis, despite impaired intestinal fat malabsorption, and why very severe hypocholesterolemia develops in this condition. Here, we show that Sar1B also promotes hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B lipoprotein secretion and that this promoting activity is coordinated with the processes regulating apoB expression and the transfer of triglycerides/cholesterol moieties onto this large lipid transport protein. We also show that although Sar1A antagonizes the lipoprotein secretion-promoting activity of Sar1B, both isoforms modulate the expression of genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes and the synthesis of cholesterol de novo. These results not only establish that Sar1B promotes the secretion of hepatic lipids but also adds regulation of cholesterol synthesis to Sar1B's repertoire of transport functions. PMID:24338480

  20. The endoplasmic reticulum coat protein II transport machinery coordinates cellular lipid secretion and cholesterol biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fryer, Lee G. D.; Jones, Bethan; Duncan, Emma J.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Ozkan, Tozen; Williams, Paul A.; Alder, Olivia; Nieuwdorp, Max; Townley, Anna K.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Stephens, David J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Shoulders, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential for life in most organisms. Triglycerides serve as the principal energy storage depot and, where vascular systems exist, as a means of energy transport. Cholesterol is essential for the functional integrity of all cellular membrane systems. The endoplasmic

  1. Mimicking Retention and Transport of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in Sand Media Using DNA-labeled, Protein-coated Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Farkas, Kata; Bennett, Grant; Varsani, Arvind; Easingwood, Richard; Tilley, Richard; Nowostawska, Urszula; Lin, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus (RoV) and adenovirus (AdV) are important viral pathogens for the risk analysis of drinking water. Despite this, little is known about their retention and transport behaviors in porous media (e.g. sand filtered used for water treatment and groundwater aquifers due to a lack of representative surrogates. In this study, we developed RoV and AdV surrogates by covalently coating 70-nm sized silica nanoparticles with specific proteins and a DNA marker for sensitive detection. Filtration experiments using beach sand columns demonstrated the similarity of the surrogates' concentrations, attachment, and filtration efficiencies to the target viruses. The surrogates showed the same magnitude of concentration reduction as the viruses. Conversely, MS2 phage (a traditional virus model) over predicted concentrations of AdV and RoV by 1- and 2-orders of magnitude, respectively. The surrogates remained stable in size, surface charge and DNA concentration for at least one year. They can be easily and rapidly detected at concentrations down to one particle per PCR reaction and are readily detectable in natural waters and even in effluent. With up-scaling validation in pilot trials, the surrogates can be a useful cost-effective new tool for studying virus retention and transport in porous media, e.g. for assessing filter efficiency in water and wastewater treatment, tracking virus migration in groundwater after effluent land disposal, and establishing safe setback distances for groundwater protection.

  2. A Proactive Complex Event Processing Method for Large-Scale Transportation Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongheng; Cao, Kening

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a new way to improve the transportation system. The key issue is how to process the numerous events generated by IoT. In this paper, a proactive complex event processing method is proposed for large-scale transportation IoT. Based on a multilayered adaptive dynamic Bayesian model, a Bayesian network structure learning algorithm using search-and-score is proposed to support accurate predictive analytics. A parallel Markov decision processes model is design...

  3. Study on silicon oxide coated on silver nanocrystal to enhance fluorescence intensity of rare earth complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Yan-rong; Lin, Xue-mei; Wang, Ai-ling; Wang, Zhong-xia; Kang, Jie; Chu, Hai-bin, E-mail: binghai99@gmail.com; Zhao, Yong-liang, E-mail: hxzhaoyl@163.com

    2014-10-15

    Twelve kinds of rare earth complexes were synthesized using halo-benzoic acid as anion ligand and Sm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} as central ions, respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, rare earth coordination titration and electrospray ionization mass spectra, from which the compositions of the complexes were confirmed to be RE(p-FBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O, RE(p-ClBA){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, RE(p-BrBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O, RE(o-FBA){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, RE(o-ClBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O, RE(o-BrBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (RE=Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}). Besides, IR spectra and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy indicated that the carboxyl oxygen atoms of ligands coordinated to the rare earth ions. Moreover, Ag@SiO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via a modified Stöber method. The average diameters of silver cores were typically between 60 nm and 70 nm, and the thicknesses of the SiO{sub 2} shells were around 10 nm, 15 nm and 25 nm, respectively. The influence of Ag@SiO{sub 2} NPs on the luminescence properties of the rare earth complexes showed that the luminescence intensities of rare earth complexes were enhanced remarkably. As the thickness of SiO{sub 2} shell increases in the range of 10–25 nm, the effect of metal-enhanced fluorescence become obvious. The mechanism of the changes of the fluorescence intensity is also discussed. - Highlights: • Among 10–25 nm, the thicker the shell thickness, the better the fluorescence effect. • The strong the intensity of the pure complexes, the smaller the multiple enhanced. • The intensity of Sm(p-BrBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O is the strongest among Sm(p-XBA){sub 3}·nH{sub 2}O complexes. • The intensity of Dy(p-ClBA){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O is the strongest among Dy(p-XBA){sub 3}·nH{sub 2}O complexes. • When halogen is in o-position, the intensity of RE(o-ClBA){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O is the strongest.

  4. Flow and Transport in Complex Microporous Carbonates as a Consequence of Separation of Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B.; Raeini, A. Q.; Lin, Q.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most important examples of flow and transport in complex pore structures are found in subsurface applications such as contaminant hydrology, carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery. Carbonate rock structures contain most of the world's oil reserves, considerable amount of water reserves, and potentially hold a storage capacity for carbon dioxide. However, this type of pore space is difficult to represent due to complexities associated with a wide range of pore sizes and variation in connectivity which poses a considerable challenge for quantitative predictions of transport across multiple scales.A new concept unifying X-ray tomography experiment and direct numerical simulation has been developed that relies on full description flow and solute transport at the pore scale. Differential imaging method (Lin et al. 2016) provides rich information in microporous space, while advective and diffusive mass transport are simulated on micro-CT images of pore-space: Navier-Stokes equations are solved for flow in the image voxels comprising the pore space, streamline-based simulation is used to account for advection, and diffusion is superimposed by random walk.Quantitative validation has been done on analytical solutions for diffusion and by comparing the model predictions versus the experimental NMR measurements in the dual porosity beadpack. Furthermore, we discriminate signatures of multi-scale transport behaviour for a range of carbonate rock (Figure 1), dependent on the heterogeneity of the inter- and intra-grain pore space, heterogeneity in the flow field, and the mass transfer characteristics of the porous media. Finally, we demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model through an analysis that includes a number of probability density functions flow and transport (PDFs) measures of non-Fickian transport on the micro-CT i935mages. In complex porous media separation of scales exists, leading to flow and transport signatures that need to be described by

  5. Dissecting the sequential assembly and localization of intraflagellar transport particle complex B in Chlamydomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Richey

    Full Text Available Intraflagellar transport (IFT, the key mechanism for ciliogenesis, involves large protein particles moving bi-directionally along the entire ciliary length. IFT particles contain two large protein complexes, A and B, which are constructed with proteins in a core and several peripheral proteins. Prior studies have shown that in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, IFT46, IFT52, and IFT88 directly interact with each other and are in a subcomplex of the IFT B core. However, ift46, bld1, and ift88 mutants differ in phenotype as ift46 mutants are able to form short flagella, while the other two lack flagella completely. In this study, we investigated the functional differences of these individual IFT proteins contributing to complex B assembly, stability, and basal body localization. We found that complex B is completely disrupted in bld1 mutant, indicating an essential role of IFT52 for complex B core assembly. Ift46 mutant cells are capable of assembling a relatively intact complex B, but such complex is highly unstable and prone to degradation. In contrast, in ift88 mutant cells the complex B core still assembles and remains stable, but the peripheral proteins no longer attach to the B core. Moreover, in ift88 mutant cells, while complex A and the anterograde IFT motor FLA10 are localized normally to the transition fibers, complex B proteins instead are accumulated at the proximal ends of the basal bodies. In addition, in bld2 mutant, the IFT complex B proteins still localize to the proximal ends of defective centrioles which completely lack transition fibers. Taken together, these results revealed a step-wise assembly process for complex B, and showed that the complex first localizes to the proximal end of the centrioles and then translocates onto the transition fibers via an IFT88-dependent mechanism.

  6. Magnetic and transport properties of granular and Heusler-type glass-coated microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, Arcady, E-mail: arkadi.joukov@ehu.es [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Garcia, Carlos [Bogazici Univ., Dept. Phys., TR-34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Ilyn, Maxim [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Varga, Rastislav [Inst. Phys., Fac. Sci., UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, Kosice (Slovakia); Val, Juan Jose del [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Granovsky, Alexander [IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Rodionova, Valeria [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukova, Valentina [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Fac. Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    We studied magnetic and structural properties of granular Co{sub x}Cu{sub 100-x} (5coated microwires. We found that the structure of Co-Cu microwires consists of two phases: fcc Cu for all the samples and fcc {alpha}-Co present for higher Co content. In the case of low Co content, Co atoms are distributed within the Cu matrix. The quantity and the size of grains strongly depend on the geometry of the microwire. Co-Cu and Fe-Cu microwires exhibited considerable magnetoresistance (MR). For Co{sub x}Cu{sub 100-x} microwires at x{>=}30 the anisotropic contribution to MR has been observed. Temperature dependences of magnetization measured without an external magnetic field (ZFC) and in the presence of a field (FC) show considerable difference below 20 K, indicating the presence of small {alpha}-Fe or Co grains embedded in the Cu matrix. Annealed Ni{sub 2}MnGa microwires showed ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature about 330 K and polycrystalline structure with space group I4/mmm and lattice parameters a=3.75 A and c=6.78 A.

  7. Magnetic and transport properties of granular and Heusler-type glass-coated microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Arcady; Garcia, Carlos; Ilyn, Maxim; Varga, Rastislav; Val, Juan Jose del; Granovsky, Alexander; Rodionova, Valeria; Ipatov, Mihail; Zhukova, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    We studied magnetic and structural properties of granular Co x Cu 100−x (5 63 Fe 37 and Heusler-type Ni 2 MnGa glass-coated microwires. We found that the structure of Co–Cu microwires consists of two phases: fcc Cu for all the samples and fcc α-Co present for higher Co content. In the case of low Co content, Co atoms are distributed within the Cu matrix. The quantity and the size of grains strongly depend on the geometry of the microwire. Co–Cu and Fe–Cu microwires exhibited considerable magnetoresistance (MR). For Co x Cu 100−x microwires at x≥30 the anisotropic contribution to MR has been observed. Temperature dependences of magnetization measured without an external magnetic field (ZFC) and in the presence of a field (FC) show considerable difference below 20 K, indicating the presence of small α-Fe or Co grains embedded in the Cu matrix. Annealed Ni 2 MnGa microwires showed ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature about 330 K and polycrystalline structure with space group I4/mmm and lattice parameters a=3.75 Å and c=6.78 Å.

  8. Nanoscale stiffness topography reveals structure and mechanics of the transport barrier in intact nuclear pore complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestembayeva, Aizhan; Kramer, Armin; Labokha, Aksana A.; Osmanović, Dino; Liashkovich, Ivan; Orlova, Elena V.; Ford, Ian J.; Charras, Guillaume; Fassati, Ariberto; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the gate for transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. Small molecules cross the NPC by passive diffusion, but molecules larger than ∼5 nm must bind to nuclear transport receptors to overcome a selective barrier within the NPC. Although the structure and shape of the cytoplasmic ring of the NPC are relatively well characterized, the selective barrier is situated deep within the central channel of the NPC and depends critically on unstructured nuclear pore proteins, and is therefore not well understood. Here, we show that stiffness topography with sharp atomic force microscopy tips can generate nanoscale cross-sections of the NPC. The cross-sections reveal two distinct structures, a cytoplasmic ring and a central plug structure, which are consistent with the three-dimensional NPC structure derived from electron microscopy. The central plug persists after reactivation of the transport cycle and resultant cargo release, indicating that the plug is an intrinsic part of the NPC barrier. Added nuclear transport receptors accumulate on the intact transport barrier and lead to a homogenization of the barrier stiffness. The observed nanomechanical properties in the NPC indicate the presence of a cohesive barrier to transport and are quantitatively consistent with the presence of a central condensate of nuclear pore proteins in the NPC channel.

  9. Initial transport and retention behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in quartz sand porous media coated with Escherichia coli biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Wang, Xueting; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The significance of biofilm on the transport and deposition behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles were examined under a series of environmentally relevant ionic strength at two fluid velocities of 4 m-d −1 and 8 m-d −1 . Biofilm enhanced nanoparticles retention in porous media under all examined conditions. The greater deposition was also observed in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) coated surfaces by employment of quartz microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) system. Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) failed to interpret more ZnO nanoparticles deposition on biofilm (EPS) coated silica surfaces. Chemical interaction and physical morphology of biofilm contributed to this greater deposition (retention). Biofilm affected the spacial distribution of retained ZnO nanoparticles as well. Relatively steeper slope of retained profiles were observed in the presence of biofilm, corresponding to the greater deviation from colloid filtration theory (CFT). Pore space constriction via biofilm induced more nanoparticle trapped in the column inlet, leading to greater deviations (σln k f ) from the CFT. Highlights: ► Biofilm reduced the mobility of ZnO nanoparticles in column. ► DLVO and non-DLVO interactions contributed the more nanoparticles deposition. ► Biofilm also affected the spacial distribution of ZnO nanoparticles in column. ► Greater deviation from classic filtration theory was observed with biofilm. ► Physical structure of biofilm induced greater deviation from log-linear prediction. -- Biofilm enhanced ZnO nanoparticle deposition and altered spacial distribution in porous media

  10. Solar Proton Transport within an ICRU Sphere Surrounded by a Complex Shield: Combinatorial Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z (is) less than 2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency.

  11. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD

  12. Generalized Bloch Theorem for Complex Periodic Potentials - A Powerful Application to Quantum Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Varga, Kalman; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2007-01-01

    Band-theoretic methods with periodically repeated supercells have been a powerful approach for ground-state electronic structure calculations, but have not so far been adapted for quantum transport problems with open boundary conditions. Here we introduce a generalized Bloch theorem for complex periodic potentials and use a transfer-matrix formulation to cast the transmission probability in a scattering problem with open boundary conditions in terms of the complex wave vectors of a periodic system with absorbing layers, allowing a band technique for quantum transport calculations. The accuracy and utility of the method is demonstrated by the model problems of the transmission of an electron over a square barrier and the scattering of a phonon in an inhomogeneous nanowire. Application to the resistance of a twin boundary in nanocrystalline copper yields excellent agreement with recent experimental data

  13. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ki Soon [Department of Biology, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin Jung, E-mail: sjkang@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  14. Selective transport of metal ions through cation exchange membrane in the presence of a complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingchia Huang; Jaukai Wang (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-01-01

    Selective transport of metal ions through a cation exchange membrane was studied in stirred batch dialyzer for the systems Ni[sup 2+]-Cu[sup 2+] and Cu[sup 2+]-Fe[sup 3+]. Oxalic acid, malonic acid, citric acid, glycine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were employed as the complexing agents added in the feed solution in order to increase the permselectivity of metal ions. The experimental results show that the selective transport behavior of metal ions depends on the valence and the concentration of metal ions, the stoichiometric ratio of complexing agent to metal ions, and the pH value of the feed solution, but is independent of the concentration of counterion in the stripping phase. A theoretical approach was formulated on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equation and interface quasi-equilibrium. Theoretical solutions obtained from numerical calculation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  15. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF HIGHER EFFICIENCY IN FUNCTIONING OF ROAD-TRANSPORT COMPLEX IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Solodkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The road-transport complex objectively reflects the essence of efficient transportation process which is carried out by transport facilities along the highways. The complex  emphasizes an equivalent contribution of transport facilities and highways in a unified transportation process. Efficiency of the state economy rigidly depends on availability of the developed and well-functioning network of highways. Countries with the developed economy which have generally finished creation of national highway networks continue to invest money in public road systems that stimulates development of industrial sectors, agriculture and trade, etc. Their progress and efficient functioning is possible only with the balanced, overall development of the road-transport complex of the country. Functioning of the road-transport complex is inextricable connected with the operation of automotive transport and road infrastructure. Interaction of these two components of the unified economic system is determined by technical characteristics of the automotive transport and transport and operational indices of  the highways. Development of methods for optimum organization of management for functioning of the road complex is considered as an important problem of the national economy while forming market economy mechanisms. Further growth of capital expenditures including  investments will be needed in order to ensure such road conditions that meet the requirements of modern and perspective road traffic. Management of the highway network conditions presupposes a selection of such set of regulatory impacts on road conditions which will allow to minimize expenses in the road-transport complex. Elaboration and realization of the most efficient repair measures serve as such regulatory impact. The purpose is achieved while solving the problem pertaining to minimization of expenses on  transportations in the road-transport complex in the process of the realization of the most

  16. Spontaneous and Directional Bubble Transport on Porous Copper Wires with Complex Shapes in Aqueous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Jingjing; Xue, Zhongxin; Wang, Jingming; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-24

    Manipulation of gas bubble behaviors is crucial for gas bubble-related applications. Generally, the manipulation of gas bubble behaviors generally takes advantage of their buoyancy force. It is very difficult to control the transportation of gas bubbles in a specific direction. Several approaches have been developed to collect and transport bubbles in aqueous media; however, most reliable and effective manipulation of gas bubbles in aqueous media occurs on the interfaces with simple shapes (i.e., cylinder and cone shapes). Reliable strategies for spontaneous and directional transport of gas bubbles on interfaces with complex shapes remain enormously challenging. Herein, a type of 3D gradient porous network was constructed on copper wire interfaces, with rectangle, wave, and helix shapes. The superhydrophobic copper wires were immersed in water, and continuous and stable gas films then formed on the interfaces. With the assistance of the Laplace pressure gradient between two bubbles, gas bubbles (including microscopic gas bubbles) in the aqueous media were subsequently transported, continuously and directionally, on the copper wires with complex shapes. The small gas bubbles always moved to the larger ones.

  17. In situ coating nickel organic complexes on free-standing nickel wire films for volumetric-energy-dense supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min; Xu, Shusheng; Yao, Lu; Zhou, Chao; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Zhihua; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-07-06

    A self-free-standing core-sheath structured hybrid membrane electrodes based on nickel and nickel based metal-organic complexes (Ni@Ni-OC) was designed and constructed for high volumetric supercapacitors. The self-standing Ni@Ni-OC film electrode had a high volumetric specific capacity of 1225.5 C cm -3 at 0.3 A cm -3 and an excellent rate capability. Moreover, when countered with graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) film electrode, the as-assembled Ni@Ni-OC//G-CNT hybrid supercapacitor device delivered an extraordinary volumetric capacitance of 85 F cm -3 at 0.5 A cm -3 and an outstanding energy density of 33.8 at 483 mW cm -3 . Furthermore, the hybrid supercapacitor showed no capacitance loss after 10 000 cycles at 2 A cm -3 , indicating its excellent cycle stability. These fascinating performances can be ascribed to its unique core-sheath structure that high capacity nano-porous nickel based metal-organic complexes (Ni-OC) in situ coated on highly conductive Ni wires. The impressive results presented here may pave the way to construct s self-standing membrane electrode for applications in high volumetric-performance energy storage.

  18. Copper Complexes with Tetradentate Ligands for Enhanced Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Michaels

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, the redox mediator is responsible for the regeneration of the oxidized dye and for the hole transport towards the cathode. Here, we introduce new copper complexes with tetradentate 6,6′-bis(4-(S-isopropyl-2-oxazolinyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligands, Cu(oxabpy, as redox mediators. Copper coordination complexes with a square-planar geometry show low reorganization energies and thus introduce smaller losses in photovoltage. Slow recombination kinetics of excited electrons between the TiO2 and CuII(oxabpy species lead to an exceptionally long electron lifetime, a high Fermi level in the TiO2, and a high photovoltage of 920 mV with photocurrents of 10 mA∙cm−2 and 6.2% power conversion efficiency. Meanwhile, a large driving force remains for the dye regeneration of the Y123 dye with high efficiencies. The square-planar Cu(oxabpy complexes yield viscous gel-like solutions. The unique charge transport characteristics are attributed to a superposition of diffusion and electronic conduction. An enhancement in charge transport performance of 70% despite the higher viscosity is observed upon comparison of Cu(oxabpy to the previously reported Cu(tmby2 redox electrolyte.

  19. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, M. [Google Research, Venice, California 90291 (United States); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shabani, A. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lloyd, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rabitz, H. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k{sub B}λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap.

  20. The GARP Complex Is Involved in Intracellular Cholesterol Transport via Targeting NPC2 to Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Zhang, Ying-Yu; Luo, Jie; Wang, Ju-Qiong; Zhou, Yu-Xia; Miao, Hong-Hua; Shi, Xiong-Jie; Qu, Yu-Xiu; Xu, Jie; Li, Bo-Liang; Song, Bao-Liang

    2017-06-27

    Proper intracellular cholesterol trafficking is critical for cellular function. Two lysosome-resident proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, mediate the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. However, other proteins involved in this process remain largely unknown. Through amphotericin B-based selection, we isolated two cholesterol transport-defective cell lines. Subsequent whole-transcriptome-sequencing analysis revealed two cell lines bearing the same mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 53 (Vps53) gene. Depletion of VPS53 or other subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex impaired NPC2 sorting to lysosomes and caused cholesterol accumulation. GARP deficiency blocked the retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) to the trans-Golgi network. Further, Vps54 mutant mice displayed reduced cellular NPC2 protein levels and increased cholesterol accumulation, underscoring the physiological role of the GARP complex in cholesterol transport. We conclude that the GARP complex contributes to intracellular cholesterol transport by targeting NPC2 to lysosomes in a CI-MPR-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M.; Shabani, A.; Lloyd, S.; Rabitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k B λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap

  2. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  3. Evidence of active transport of cadmium complexing dithiocarbamates into renal and hepatic cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Smith, A.B.; Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of certain inhibitors of transport systems on the actions of four cadmium (Cd) complexing N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in mobilizing murine renal and hepatic Cd in vivo. Probenecid, the prototypical antagonist of organic anion transport in the kidney, when given 1 hr prior to each DTC, sharply suppressed the DTC-induced reduction of renal Cd but was virtually without effect on mobilization of Cd from liver. Sulfinpyrazone, which blocks tubular reabsorption of uric acid and also inhibits transport of a variety of organic acids, inhibited markedly the mobilization of both renal and hepatic Cd by DTCs. Phlorizin, an inhibitor of tubular sugar reabsorption, did not affect the Cd mobilizing actions of DTCs in any consistent fashion. We propose that the high degree of selectivity of DTCs in mobilizing renal hepatic Cd is dependent, at lest in part, upon active transport of DTCs into these tissues via the organic anion transport systems. This report presents the first evidence that compounds of the (R) 2 NCSS - class may gain access to intracellular space by an active, carrier-mediated process. (au)

  4. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  5. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  6. Electrochemical chiral recognition by microparticle coatings of Pd complexes with bridging cyclometalated phosphines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, Antonio [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.domenech@uv.es; Koshevoy, Igor O.; Penno, Dirk; Ubeda, Maria Angeles [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2008-03-10

    The palladium(II) dinuclear complex with bridging cyclometalated phosphines, {l_brace}Pd{sub 2}[{mu}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 4})PPh{sub 2}]{sub 2}({mu}-O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}{r_brace} (Pd{sub 2}L{sub 2}), having a paddlewheel structure, is reversibly oxidized in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} to a dinuclear palladium(III) analogue via two successive one-electron steps. Solid state voltammetry of Pd{sub 2}L{sub 2} in contact with aqueous electrolytes produce as one-electron oxidation with two competing mechanisms involving anion intercalation/anion binding between/to metal centres, chloride ions acting as inhibitors for the first pathway. R- and S-Pd{sub 2}L{sub 2} produces a significant stereoselective electrocatalytic activity with respect to the oxidation of L- and D-glutamic acid in alkaline media.

  7. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  8. Complex inheritance of melanoma and pigmentation of coat and skin in Grey horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    Full Text Available The dominant phenotype of greying with age in horses, caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17, is associated with a high incidence of melanoma and vitiligo-like skin depigmentation. However, the progressive greying and the incidence of melanoma, vitiligo-like depigmentation, and amount of speckling in these horses do not follow a simple inheritance pattern. To understand their inheritance, we analysed the melanoma grade, grey level, vitiligo grade, and speckling grade of 1,119 Grey horses (7,146 measurements measured in six countries over a 9-year period. We estimated narrow sense heritability (h(2, and we decomposed this parameter into polygenic heritability (h(2 (POLY, heritability due to the Grey (STX17 mutation (h(2 (STX17, and heritability due to agouti (ASIP locus (h(2 (ASIP. A high heritability was found for greying (h(2 = 0.79, vitiligo (h(2 = 0.63, and speckling (h(2 = 0.66, while a moderate heritability was estimated for melanoma (h(2 = 0.37. The additive component of ASIP was significantly different from zero only for melanoma (h(2 (ASIP = 0.02. STX17 controlled large proportions of phenotypic variance (h(2 (STX17 = 0.18-0.55 and overall heritability (h(2 (STX17/h(2 = 0.28-0.83 for all traits. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated as moderate to high, primarily due to the effects of the STX17 locus. Nevertheless, the correlation between progressive greying and vitiligo-like depigmentation remained large even after taking into account the effects of STX17. We presented a model where four traits with complex inheritance patterns are strongly influenced by a single mutation. This is in line with evidence of recent studies in domestic animals indicating that some complex traits are, in addition to the large number of genes with small additive effects, influenced by genes of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the STX17 mutation explains to a large extent the

  9. Quantum transport through complex networks - from light-harvesting proteins to semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisbeck, Christoph

    2012-06-18

    Electron transport through small systems in semiconductor devices plays an essential role for many applications in micro-electronics. One focus of current research lies on establishing conceptually new devices based on ballistic transport in high mobility AlGaAs/AlGa samples. In the ballistic regime, the transport characteristics are determined by coherent interference effects. In order to guide experimentalists to an improved device design, the characterization and understanding of intrinsic device properties is crucial. We develop a time-dependent approach that allows us to simulate experimentally fabricated, complex devicegeometries with an extension of up to a few micrometers. Particularly, we explore the physical origin of unexpected effects that have been detected in recent experiments on transport through Aharonov-Bohm waveguide-interferometers. Such interferometers can be configured as detectors for transfer properties of embedded quantum systems. We demonstrate that a four-terminal waveguide-ring is a suitable setup for measuring the transmission phase of a harmonic quantum dot. Quantum effects are not restricted exclusively to artificial devices but have been found in biological systems as well. Pioneering experiments reveal quantum effects in light-harvesting complexes, the building blocks of photosynthesis. We discuss the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, which is a network of coupled bacteriochlorophylls. It acts as an energy wire in the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. Recent experimental findings suggest that energy transfer takes place in the form of coherent wave-like motion, rather than through classical hopping from one bacteriochlorophyll to the next. However, the question of why and how coherent transfer emerges in light-harvesting complexes is still open. The challenge is to merge seemingly contradictory features that are observed in experiments on two-dimensional spectroscopy into a consistent theory. Here, we provide such a

  10. Lateral gene transfer of an ABC transporter complex between major constituents of the human gut microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meehan Conor J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several links have been established between the human gut microbiome and conditions such as obesity and inflammatory bowel syndrome. This highlights the importance of understanding what properties of the gut microbiome can affect the health of the human host. Studies have been undertaken to determine the species composition of this microbiome and infer functional profiles associated with such host properties. However, lateral gene transfer (LGT between community members may result in misleading taxonomic attributions for the recipient organisms, thus making species-function links difficult to establish. Results We identified a peptides/nickel transport complex whose components differed in abundance based upon levels of host obesity, and assigned the encoded proteins to members of the microbial community. Each protein was assigned to several distinct taxonomic groups, with moderate levels of agreement observed among different proteins in the complex. Phylogenetic trees of these proteins produced clusters that differed greatly from taxonomic attributions and indicated that habitat-directed LGT of this complex is likely to have occurred, though not always between the same partners. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that certain membrane transport systems may be an important factor within an obese-associated gut microbiome and that such complexes may be acquired several times by different strains of the same species. Additionally, an example of individual proteins from different organisms being transferred into one operon was observed, potentially demonstrating a functional complex despite the donors of the subunits being taxonomically disparate. Our results also highlight the potential impact of habitat-directed LGT on the resident microbiota.

  11. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Multifunctional Phosphorescent Dendrimers with Iridium-Complex Core and Charge-Transporting Dendrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Toshimitsu; Shirasawa, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Tokito, Shizuo

    2005-06-01

    We report a novel class of light-emitting materials for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): multifunctional phosphorescent dendrimers that have a phosphorescent core and dendrons based on charge-transporting building blocks. We synthesized first-generation and second-generation dendrimers consisting of a fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3] core and hole-transporting phenylcarbazole-based dendrons. Smooth amorphous films of these dendrimers were formed by spin-coating them from solutions. The OLEDs using the dendrimer exhibited bright green or yellowish-green emission from the Ir(ppy)3 core. The OLEDs using the film containing a mixture of the dendrimer and an electron-transporting material exhibited higher efficiency than those using the neat dendrimer film. The external quantum efficiency of OLEDs using the film containing a mixture of the first-generation dendrimer and an electron-transporting material was as high as 7.6%.

  12. Implication of the C terminus of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus movement protein in cell-to-cell transport and in its interaction with the coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for viral transport. Previous analysis with MPs of other members of the family Bromoviridae has shown that the C-terminal part of these MPs plays a critical role in the interaction with the cognate coat protein (CP) and in cell-to-cell transport. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and overlay analysis confirm an interaction between the C-terminal 38 aa of PNRSV MP and its cognate CP. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal region of the PNRSV MP revealed that its C-terminal 38 aa are dispensable for virus transport, however, the 4 aa preceding the dispensable C terminus are necessary to target the MP to the plasmodesmata and for the functionality of the protein. The capacity of the PNRSV MP to use either a CP-dependent or a CP-independent cell-to-cell transport is discussed.

  13. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO{sub 2} synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S., E-mail: drsomnathbiswas@gmail.com [The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur-302031 (India); Singh, G.P. [Centre for Nanotechnology, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835205 (India); Ram, S. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Fecht, H.-J. [Insitut für Micro-und Nanomaterialien, Universität Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee-47, Ulm, D-89081, and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO{sub 2} (∼18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2–3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr{sup 4+} ions by Ag atoms on the CrO{sub 2} surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO{sub 2}-polymer complex with Ag{sup +} ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300–400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO{sub 2} such that it no longer converts to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO{sub 2} structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (−) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO{sub 2} powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime (<100 K) arises not only due to the suppressed spin flipping at low temperature but also from a spin dependent co-tunneling through an interlinked structure of silver and silver coated CrO{sub 2} nanorods. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structural studies of a novel GMR material of Ag coated CrO{sub 2}. • Tailoring useful GMR property in CrO{sub 2} nanorods of controlled shape and anisotropy. • Enhanced GMR is explained in correlation to the surface structure of CrO{sub 2} nanorods.

  14. Advances in complexity of beam halo-chaos and its control methods for beam transport networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2004-11-01

    The complexity theory of beam halo-chaos in beam transport networks and its control methods for a new subject of high-tech field is discussed. It is pointed that in recent years, there has been growing interest in proton beams of high power linear accelerator due to its attractive features in possible breakthrough applications in national defense and industry. In particular, high-current accelerator driven clean activity nuclear power systems for various applications as energy resources has been one of the most focusing issues in the current research, because it provides a safer, cleaner and cheaper nuclear energy resource. However, halo-chaos in high-current beam transport networks become a key concerned issue because it can generate excessive radioactivity therefore significantly limits its applications. It is very important to study the complexity properties of beam halo-chaos and to understand the basic physical mechanisms for halo chaos formation as well as to develop effective control methods for its suppression. These are very challenging subjects for the current research. The main research advances in the subjects, including experimental investigation and the oretical research, especially some very efficient control methods developed through many years of efforts of authors are reviewed and summarized. Finally, some research outlooks are given. (author)

  15. Vesicular glutamate transporter-immunoreactivities in the vestibular nuclear complex of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiao; Zhang, Fu-Xing; Pang, You-Wang; Li, Jin-Lian; Li, Yun-Qing

    2006-07-01

    Objective Aims to delineate the distribution profile of three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT), viz. VGluT1-3, and their cellular localization within vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Methods Brain sections from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were processed immunohistochemically for VGluT detection, employing avidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex method with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as chromogen. Results The whole VNC expressed all of the three transporters that were observed to be localized to the fiber endings. Compared with VGluT1 and VGluT3, VGluT2 demonstrated a relatively homogeneous distribution, with much higher density in VNC. VGluT3 displayed the highest density in lateral vestibular nucleus and group X, contrasting with the sparse immunostained puncta within vestibular medial and inferior nuclei. Conclusion Glutamtatergic pathways participate in the processing of vestibular signals within VNC mainly through the re-uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by VGluT1 and 2, whereas VGluT3 may play a similar role mainly in areas other than medial and inferior nuclei of VNC.

  16. Vesicular glutamate transporter-immunoreactivities in the vestibular nuclear complex of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao DENG; Fu-Xing ZHANG; You-Wang PANG; Jin-Lian LI; Yun-Qing LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective Aims to delineate the distribution profile of three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT), viz. VGluT1~3, and their cellular localization within vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Methods Brain sections from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were processed immunohistochemically for VGluT detection, employing avidinbiotinylated peroxidase complex method with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as chromogen. Results The whole VNC expressed all of the three transporters that were observed to be localized to the fiber endings. Compared with VGluT1 and VGluT3, VGluT2 demonstrated a relatively homogeneous distribution, with much higher density in VNC. VGluT3 displayed the highest density in lateral vestibular nucleus and group X, contrasting with the sparse immunostained puncta within vestibular medial and inferior nuclei. Conclusion Glutamtatergic pathways participate in the processing of vestibular signals within VNC mainly through the re-uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by VGluT1 and 2, whereas VGluT3 may play a similar role mainly in areas other than medial and inferior nuclei of VNC.

  17. Possible evidence for transport of an iron cyanide complex by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiotakis, M.; Ebbs, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and wild cane (Sorghum bicolor L.), were exposed to 15 N-labeled ferrocyanide to determine whether these plant species can transport this iron cyanide complex. Plants were treated with ferrocyanide in a nutrient solution that simulated iron cyanide contaminated groundwater and soil solutions. This nutrient solution has been shown to maintain ferrocyanide speciation with minimal dissociation to free cyanide. Following treatment, all three plants showed dramatic enrichments in roots (δ 15 N%o=1000-1500) and shoots (δ 15 N%o=500). Barley and oat showed enrichment primarily in roots while wild cane showed a near equal enrichment in root and shoot tissues. Nitrogen-deficient barley plants treated with ferrocyanide showed a significantly greater 15 N enrichment as compared to nitrogen-sufficient plants. While the results are suggestive of ferrocyanide transport by these plant species, additional study will be required to verify these results. - Results suggest ferrocyanide transport by barley, oat and wild cane

  18. Toward a better understanding of the complex geochemical processes governing subsurface contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Identification and understanding of the geochemical processes, including ion exchange, precipitation, organic partitioning, chemisorption, aqueous complexation, and colloidal stability and transport, controlling subsurface contamination is essential for making accurate predictions of the fate and transport of these constituents. Current approaches to quantify the effect of these processes primarily involve laboratory techniques, including the use of closed static systems (batch experiments) where small amounts of aquifer solids or minerals are contacted with an aqueous phase containing the components of interest for relatively short durations; and dynamic systems (column experiments) where a larger segment of the aquifer is investigated by analyzing the breakthrough profiles of reactive and non-reactive species. Both approaches are constrained by differences in scale, alteration of media during sample collection and use, and spatial variability. More field reactivity studies are needed to complement established laboratory approaches for the determination of retardation factors and scaling factors, corroboration of batch and column results, and validation of sampling techniques. These studies also serve to accentuate areas of geochemical process research where data deficiencies exist, such as the kinetics of adsorption-desorption, metal-organic-mineral interactions, and colloidal mobility. The advantages and disadvantages of the above approaches are discussed in the context of achieving a more completely integrated approach to geochemical transport experiments, with supportive data presented from selected studies. (Author) (16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. Possible evidence for transport of an iron cyanide complex by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiotakis, M.; Ebbs, S.D

    2004-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and wild cane (Sorghum bicolor L.), were exposed to {sup 15}N-labeled ferrocyanide to determine whether these plant species can transport this iron cyanide complex. Plants were treated with ferrocyanide in a nutrient solution that simulated iron cyanide contaminated groundwater and soil solutions. This nutrient solution has been shown to maintain ferrocyanide speciation with minimal dissociation to free cyanide. Following treatment, all three plants showed dramatic enrichments in roots ({delta} {sup 15}N%o=1000-1500) and shoots ({delta} {sup 15}N%o=500). Barley and oat showed enrichment primarily in roots while wild cane showed a near equal enrichment in root and shoot tissues. Nitrogen-deficient barley plants treated with ferrocyanide showed a significantly greater {sup 15}N enrichment as compared to nitrogen-sufficient plants. While the results are suggestive of ferrocyanide transport by these plant species, additional study will be required to verify these results. - Results suggest ferrocyanide transport by barley, oat and wild cane.

  20. Adhesion and cleaning of foods with complex structure: Effect of oil content and fluoropolymer coating characteristics on the detachment of cake from baking surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Magens, Ole; Liu, Y; Hofmans, JFA; Nelissen, JA; Wilson, David Ian

    2017-01-01

    The effect of surface coating on the detachment of a complex microstructured food material, was investigated using an improved version of the millimanipulation device described by Ali et al. (2015 $\\textit{Food & Bioproducts Processing}$, Vol. 93, 256–268). The test material was baked sponge cake batter, which contains approximately 27 vol% bubbles in a ‘continuous’ phase of emulsified oil in a flour/syrup suspension. Detachment in the dry state was studied for aluminium, 304 stainless steel ...

  1. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO2 synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Singh, G. P.; Ram, S.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2013-08-01

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO2 (˜18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2-3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr4+ ions by Ag atoms on the CrO2 surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO2-polymer complex with Ag+ ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300-400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO2 such that it no longer converts to Cr2O3 in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO2 structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d5/2 and 3d3/2 X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (-) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO2 powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime (<100 K) arises not only due to the suppressed spin flipping at low temperature but also from a spin dependent co-tunneling through an interlinked structure of silver and silver coated CrO2 nanorods.

  2. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO2 synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Singh, G.P.; Ram, S.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO 2 (∼18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2–3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr 4+ ions by Ag atoms on the CrO 2 surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO 2 -polymer complex with Ag + ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300–400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO 2 such that it no longer converts to Cr 2 O 3 in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO 2 structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (−) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO 2 powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime ( 2 nanorods. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structural studies of a novel GMR material of Ag coated CrO 2 . • Tailoring useful GMR property in CrO 2 nanorods of controlled shape and anisotropy. • Enhanced GMR is explained in correlation to the surface structure of CrO 2 nanorods

  3. Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  4. Integrating surrogate models into subsurface simulation framework allows computation of complex reactive transport scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Jatnieks, Janis; Kühn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Reactive transport simulations - where geochemical reactions are coupled with hydrodynamic transport of reactants - are extremely time consuming and suffer from significant numerical issues. Given the high uncertainties inherently associated with the geochemical models, which also constitute the major computational bottleneck, such requirements may seem inappropriate and probably constitute the main limitation for their wide application. A promising way to ease and speed-up such coupled simulations is achievable employing statistical surrogates instead of "full-physics" geochemical models [1]. Data-driven surrogates are reduced models obtained on a set of pre-calculated "full physics" simulations, capturing their principal features while being extremely fast to compute. Model reduction of course comes at price of a precision loss; however, this appears justified in presence of large uncertainties regarding the parametrization of geochemical processes. This contribution illustrates the integration of surrogates into the flexible simulation framework currently being developed by the authors' research group [2]. The high level language of choice for obtaining and dealing with surrogate models is R, which profits from state-of-the-art methods for statistical analysis of large simulations ensembles. A stand-alone advective mass transport module was furthermore developed in order to add such capability to any multiphase finite volume hydrodynamic simulator within the simulation framework. We present 2D and 3D case studies benchmarking the performance of surrogates and "full physics" chemistry in scenarios pertaining the assessment of geological subsurface utilization. [1] Jatnieks, J., De Lucia, M., Dransch, D., Sips, M.: "Data-driven surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations.", Energy Procedia 97, 2016, p. 447-453. [2] Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., De Lucia, M., Nakaten, N., Otto, C., Pohl, M., Chabab [Tillner], E., Kühn, M

  5. Supervanadophile: Complexation, preconcentration and transport studies of vanadium by octa functionalized calix [4] resorcinarene - hydroxamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V. K.; Pillai, S. G.; Gupte, H. S.

    2008-01-01

    A new octa functionalized calix[4] resorcinarene bearing eight hydroxamic acid groups has been synthesized and its analytical properties have been investigated. To elucidate the structure of the compound, elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared and 1 H NMR spectral data have been used. The compound showed high affinity and selectivity for vanadium(V) in presence of large quantities of associated metal ions. The complexation of vanadium(V) with octa functionalized calix[4] resorcinarene bearing eight hydroxamic acid has a 4:1 metal: ligand stoichiometry as evaluated by Job's plot. A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the extractive determination of vanadium(V) in an acidic medium in the presence of diversified matrix, and verified by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Under the optimum condition of acidity, solvent, interfering ions and octa functionalized calix[4] resorcinarene bearing eight hydroxamic acid concentration, the molar absorptivity of the complex is 5630 1 mol -1 cm -1 at 495 nm. The system obeys Beer's law over the range 0.125-8.75 μg ml -1 of vanadium(V) with Sandell sensitivity 0.009 μg cm -2 . The preconcentration factor and overall stability constant evaluated at 25 d eg C were 142 and 14.18, respectively. The complexation is characterized by favorable enthalpy and entropy changes. Liquid membrane transport studies of vanadium(V) were carried out from source to the receiving phase under controlled conditions and a mechanism for transport is suggested. To check the validity of the proposed method, vanadium is determined in environmental, biological samples and some standard reference materials from NIST and BCS

  6. SAM-CE, Time-Dependent 3-D Neutron Transport, Gamma Transport in Complex Geometry by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The SAM-CE system comprises two Monte Carlo codes, SAM-F and SAM-A. SAM-F supersedes the forward Monte Carlo code, SAM-C. SAM-A is an adjoint Monte Carlo code designed to calculate the response due to fields of primary and secondary gamma radiation. The SAM-CE system is a FORTRAN Monte Carlo computer code designed to solve the time-dependent neutron and gamma-ray transport equations in complex three-dimensional geometries. SAM-CE is applicable for forward neutron calculations and for forward as well as adjoint primary gamma-ray calculations. In addition, SAM-CE is applicable for the gamma-ray stage of the coupled neutron-secondary gamma ray problem, which may be solved in either the forward or the adjoint mode. Time-dependent fluxes, and flux functionals such as dose, heating, count rates, etc., are calculated as functions of energy, time and position. Multiple scoring regions are permitted and these may be either finite volume regions or point detectors or both. Other scores of interest, e.g., collision and absorption densities, etc., are also made. 2 - Method of solution: A special feature of SAM-CE is its use of the 'combinatorial geometry' technique which affords the user geometric capabilities exceeding those available with other commonly used geometric packages. All nuclear interaction cross section data (derived from the ENDF for neutrons and from the UNC-format library for gamma-rays) are tabulated in point energy meshes. The energy meshes for neutrons are internally derived, based on built-in convergence criteria and user- supplied tolerances. Tabulated neutron data for each distinct nuclide are in unique and appropriate energy meshes. Both resolved and unresolved resonance parameters from ENDF data files are treated automatically, and extremely precise and detailed descriptions of cross section behaviour is permitted. Such treatment avoids the ambiguities usually associated with multi-group codes, which use flux

  7. Low-cost copper complexes as p-dopants in solution processable hole transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, Renate [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Taroata, Dan; Maltenberger, Anna; Hartmann, David; Schmid, Guenter [Siemens AG – Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Department for Materials Science and Engineering, Chair for Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058 (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    We demonstrate the usage of the Lewis-acidic copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(hfac){sub 2}) and copper(II)trifluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(tfac){sub 2}) as low-cost p-dopants for conductivity enhancement of solution processable hole transport layers based on small molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The materials were clearly soluble in mixtures of environmentally friendly anisole and xylene and spin-coated under ambient atmosphere. Enhancements of two and four orders of magnitude, reaching 4.0 × 10{sup −11} S/cm with a dopant concentration of only 2 mol% Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 1.5 × 10{sup −9} S/cm with 5 mol% Cu(tfac){sub 2} in 2,2′,7,7′-tetra(N,N-ditolyl)amino-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-TTB), respectively, were achieved. Red light emitting diodes were fabricated with reduced driving voltages and enhanced current and power efficiencies (8.6 lm/W with Cu(hfac){sub 2} and 5.6 lm/W with Cu(tfac){sub 2}) compared to the OLED with undoped spiro-TTB (3.9 lm/W). The OLED with Cu(hfac){sub 2} doped spiro-TTB showed an over 8 times improved LT{sub 50} lifetime of 70 h at a starting luminance of 5000 cd/m{sup 2}. The LT{sub 50} lifetime of the reference OLED with PEDOT:PSS was only 8 h. Both non-optimized OLEDs were operated at similar driving voltage and power efficiency.

  8. Large-Scale Transport Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis: Distributed Sources in Complex Hydrogeologic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sig Drellack, Lance Prothro

    2007-01-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is in the process of assessing and developing regulatory decision options based on modeling predictions of contaminant transport from underground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project is attempting to develop an effective modeling strategy that addresses and quantifies multiple components of uncertainty including natural variability, parameter uncertainty, conceptual/model uncertainty, and decision uncertainty in translating model results into regulatory requirements. The modeling task presents multiple unique challenges to the hydrological sciences as a result of the complex fractured and faulted hydrostratigraphy, the distributed locations of sources, the suite of reactive and non-reactive radionuclides, and uncertainty in conceptual models. Characterization of the hydrogeologic system is difficult and expensive because of deep groundwater in the arid desert setting and the large spatial setting of the NTS. Therefore, conceptual model uncertainty is partially addressed through the development of multiple alternative conceptual models of the hydrostratigraphic framework and multiple alternative models of recharge and discharge. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is assessed through development of alternative groundwater fluxes through multiple simulations using the regional groundwater flow model. Calibration of alternative models to heads and measured or inferred fluxes has not proven to provide clear measures of model quality. Therefore, model screening by comparison to independently-derived natural geochemical mixing targets through cluster analysis has also been invoked to evaluate differences between alternative conceptual models. Advancing multiple alternative flow models, sensitivity of transport predictions to parameter uncertainty is assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. The

  9. Aeolian sand transport over complex intertidal bar-trough beach topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Ruz, Marie-Hélène; Vanhée, Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Aeolian sand transport on macrotidal beaches with complex intertidal bar-trough topography (ridge-and-runnel beaches) was assessed from experiments in northern France that involved measurements of wind speed, saltation, surface moisture contents, and rates of sand trapping across surveyed portions of the upper beach profile. Beaches exhibiting intertidal bars and troughs are much more complex, topographically, than simple reflective or dissipative beaches. Furthermore, the intertidal bar-trough morphology commonly exhibits strong cross-shore variations in the moisture contents of the beach surface and in patterns of bedform development. The results of four 30-minute experiments, conducted along topographically surveyed portions of the upper beach-dune toe profile, show that troughs act as extremely efficient sand interceptors, because of their permanently saturated state, which also inhibits sand mobilisation. Troughs, thus, limit or segment the dry fetch during conditions of intermittent saltation. Flow lines, inferred from the wind profiles, suggest that complex interactions at the boundary layer are generated by the bar-trough topography. Troughs systematically appear to be characterised by air expansion, while bar faces generate ramp wind acceleration for onshore winds, and sometimes immediate downwind deceleration for offshore winds. These effects may also contribute to cross-shore variations in the rates of sand trapping. Finally, a simple conceptual model of effective fetch development, integrating the effects of the spring-neap tidal range and of gross bar-trough morphological variability over time, is proposed for bar-trough beaches. The model highlights the key theme of fetch segmentation induced by cross-shore differentiation in the moisture contents of the beach surface hinged on the complex topography of multiple bars and troughs.

  10. Solar Proton Transport Within an ICRU Sphere Surrounded by a Complex Shield: Ray-trace Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z is less than or equal to 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  11. Spin-polarized transport through single-molecule magnet Mn6 complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Cremades, Eduard; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Sanvito, Stefano; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six MnIII cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S G; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-06-10

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

  13. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in peripheral vestibular structures and vestibular nuclear complex of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F X; Pang, Y W; Zhang, M M; Zhang, T; Dong, Y L; Lai, C H; Shum, D K Y; Chan, Y S; Li, J L; Li, Y Q

    2011-01-26

    Glutamate transmission from vestibular end organs to central vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) plays important role in transferring sensory information about head position and movements. Three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been considered so far the most specific markers for glutamatergic neurons/cells. In this study, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were immunohistochemically localized to axon terminals in VNC and somata of vestibular primary afferents in association with their central and peripheral axon endings, and VGLUT1 and VGLUT3 were co-localized to hair cells of otolith maculae and cristae ampullaris. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 defined three subsets of Scarpa's neurons (vestibular ganglionic neurons): those co-expressing VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 or expressing only VGLUT2, and those expressing neither. In addition, many neurons located in all vestibular subnuclei were observed to contain hybridized signals for VGLUT2 mRNA and a few VNC neurons, mostly scattered in medial vestibular nucleus (MVe), displayed VGLUT1 mRNA labelling. Following unilateral ganglionectomy, asymmetries of VGLUT1-immunoreactivity (ir) and VGLUT2-ir occurred between two VNCs, indicating that the VNC terminals containing VGLUT1 and/or VGLUT2 are partly of peripheral origin. The present data indicate that the constituent cells/neurons along the vestibular pathway selectively apply VGLUT isoforms to transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles for glutamate transmission. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation

  15. Modeling of radiation heat transport in complex ladder-like structures placed in rectangular enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Bohl, W.R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1999-01-01

    Complex ladder-like structures recently have been considered as the target design for accelerator applications. The decay heat, during a postulated beyond design-basis loss-of-coolant accident in the target where all normal and emergency cooling fails, is removed mainly by radiation heat transfer. Modeling of the radiation transport in complex ladder-like structures has several challenges and limitations when the standard net-radiation model is used. This paper proposes a simplified lumped, or 'hot-rung' model, that considers the worst elements and utilizes the standard net-radiation method. The net-radiation model would under-predict structure temperatures if surfaces were subject to non-uniform radiosity. The proposed model was assessed to suggest corrections to account for the non-uniform radiosity. The non-uniform radiosity effect causes the proposed hot-rung model to under-predict the center-rung temperatures by ∼4-74 C when all parametrics, including temperatures up to 1500 C, were considered. These temperatures are small. The proposed model predicted that an important effect of decreasing the emissivity was smoothing of non-isothermal effects. The radiosity effects are more pronounced when there are strong temperature gradients. Uniform rung temperatures tend to decrease the radiosity effects. We concluded that a relatively simple model that is conservative with respect to radiosity effects could be developed. (orig.)

  16. Experiments, modeling and simulation of the magnetic behavior of inhomogeneously coated nickel/aluminum hybrid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, A., E-mail: anne.jung@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Institute of Applied Mechanics, Campus A4 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Klis, D., E-mail: d.klis@lte.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Laboratory for Electromagnetic Theory, Campus C6 3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Goldschmidt, F., E-mail: f.goldschmidt@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Institute of Applied Mechanics, Campus A4 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Open-cell metal foams are used as lightweight construction elements, energy absorbers or as support for catalytic coatings. Coating of open-cell metal foams is not only used for catalytic applications, but it leads also to tremendous increase in stiffness and energy absorption capacity. A non-line of sight coating technique for complex 3D structures is electrodeposition. Unfortunately, due to the 3D porosity and the related problems in mass transport limitation during the deposition, it is not possible to produce homogeneously coated foams. In the present contribution, we present a semi-non-destructive technique applicable to determine the coating thickness distribution of magnetic coatings by measuring the remanent magnetic field of coated foams. In order to have a closer look at the mass transport mechanism, a numerical model was developed to predict the field scans for different coating thickness distributions in the foams. For long deposition times the deposition reaches a steady state whereas a Helmholtz equation is sufficient to predict the coating thickness distribution. The applied current density could be identified as the main influencing parameter. Based on the developed model, it is possible to improve the electrodeposition process and hence the homogeneity in the coating thickness of coated metal foams. This leads to enhanced mechanical properties of the hybrid foams and contributes to better and resource-efficient energy absorbers and lightweight materials. - Highlights: • Production of hybrid foams by electrodeposition of nickel on open-cell metal foams. • Magnetic field scans for visualization of spatial coating thickness distribution. • Modeling of magnetic fields of inhomogeneously coated hybrid foams. • Investigation of mass transport limitation during coating by a Helmholtz equation. • Increasing coating homogeneity by use of low current densities and deposition rates.

  17. Comparative studies on mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes of Sitophilus zeamais treated with allyl isothiocyanate and calcium phosphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Hua; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    With Sitophilus zeamais as the target organism, the present study for the first time attempted to elucidate the comparative effects between allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and calcium phosphide (Ca3P2), exposure on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC.) complex I & IV and their downstream effects on enzymes relevant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vivo, both AITC and Ca3P2 inhibited complex I and IV with similar downstream effects. In contrast with Ca3P2, the inhibition of complex I caused by AITC was dependent on time and dose. In vitro, AITC inhibited complex IV more significantly than complex I. These results indicate that mitochondrial complex IV is the primary target of AITC, and that complex I is another potential target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex Systems Science for Subsurface Fate and Transport Report from the August 2009 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    modeling and is defined, in the context of Biological Systems Science research programs under DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), as ''the holistic, multidisciplinary study of complex interactions that specify the function of an entire biological system - whether single cells or a multicellular organism - rather than the reductionist study of individual components.'' In August 2009, BER held the Subsurface Complex System Science Relevant to Contaminant Fate and Transport workshop to assess the merits and limitations of complex systems science approaches to subsurface systems controlled by coupled hydrological, microbiological, and geochemical processes.

  19. Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Chou, Kang Wei; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Yan, Buyi; Li, Ruipeng; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John Edward; Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is currently the most widely used solution processing method in organic electronics. Here, we report, for the first time, a direct investigation of the formation process of the small-molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) 6,13-bis

  20. An improved FEM model for computing transport AC loss in coils made of RABiTS YBCO coated conductors for electric machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, Mark D; Yuan Weijia; Flack, Timothy J; Coombs, Timothy A; Rodriguez-Zermeno, Victor M; Hong Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    AC loss can be a significant problem for any applications that utilize or produce an AC current or magnetic field, such as an electric machine. The authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of high temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in superconducting coils made from YBCO coated conductors for use in an all-superconducting electric machine. This paper presents an improved 2D finite element model for the cross-section of such coils, based on the H formulation. The model is used to calculate the transport AC loss of a racetrack-shaped coil using constant and magnetic field-dependent critical current densities, and the inclusion and exclusion of a magnetic substrate, as found in RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) YBCO coated conductors. The coil model is based on the superconducting stator coils used in the University of Cambridge EPEC Superconductivity Group's all-superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor design. To validate the modeling results, the transport AC loss of a stator coil is measured using an electrical method based on inductive compensation by means of a variable mutual inductance. Finally, the implications of the findings on the performance of the motor are discussed.

  1. An improved FEM model for computing transport AC loss in coils made of RABiTS YBCO coated conductors for electric machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainslie, Mark D; Yuan Weijia; Flack, Timothy J; Coombs, Timothy A [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Zermeno, Victor M [Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Hong Zhiyong, E-mail: mda36@cam.ac.uk [School of Electronic, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-04-15

    AC loss can be a significant problem for any applications that utilize or produce an AC current or magnetic field, such as an electric machine. The authors investigate the electromagnetic properties of high temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in superconducting coils made from YBCO coated conductors for use in an all-superconducting electric machine. This paper presents an improved 2D finite element model for the cross-section of such coils, based on the H formulation. The model is used to calculate the transport AC loss of a racetrack-shaped coil using constant and magnetic field-dependent critical current densities, and the inclusion and exclusion of a magnetic substrate, as found in RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) YBCO coated conductors. The coil model is based on the superconducting stator coils used in the University of Cambridge EPEC Superconductivity Group's all-superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor design. To validate the modeling results, the transport AC loss of a stator coil is measured using an electrical method based on inductive compensation by means of a variable mutual inductance. Finally, the implications of the findings on the performance of the motor are discussed.

  2. URDME: a modular framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-transport processes in complex geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawert, Brian; Engblom, Stefan; Hellander, Andreas

    2012-06-22

    Experiments in silico using stochastic reaction-diffusion models have emerged as an important tool in molecular systems biology. Designing computational software for such applications poses several challenges. Firstly, realistic lattice-based modeling for biological applications requires a consistent way of handling complex geometries, including curved inner- and outer boundaries. Secondly, spatiotemporal stochastic simulations are computationally expensive due to the fast time scales of individual reaction- and diffusion events when compared to the biological phenomena of actual interest. We therefore argue that simulation software needs to be both computationally efficient, employing sophisticated algorithms, yet in the same time flexible in order to meet present and future needs of increasingly complex biological modeling. We have developed URDME, a flexible software framework for general stochastic reaction-transport modeling and simulation. URDME uses Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes to resolve general geometries, and relies on the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation formalism to model the processes under study. An interface to a mature geometry and mesh handling external software (Comsol Multiphysics) provides for a stable and interactive environment for model construction. The core simulation routines are logically separated from the model building interface and written in a low-level language for computational efficiency. The connection to the geometry handling software is realized via a Matlab interface which facilitates script computing, data management, and post-processing. For practitioners, the software therefore behaves much as an interactive Matlab toolbox. At the same time, it is possible to modify and extend URDME with newly developed simulation routines. Since the overall design effectively hides the complexity of managing the geometry and meshes, this means that newly developed methods may be tested in a realistic setting already at

  3. Loss of ift122, a Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) Complex Component, Leads to Slow, Progressive Photoreceptor Degeneration Due to Inefficient Opsin Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Meriam; Chaya, Taro; Hirata, Hiromi; Kajimura, Naoko; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Ueno, Akiko; Malicki, Jarema; Furukawa, Takahisa; Omori, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In the retina, aberrant opsin transport from cell bodies to outer segments leads to retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Opsin transport is facilitated by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that mediates the bidirectional movement of proteins within cilia. In contrast to functions of the anterograde transport executed by IFT complex B (IFT-B), the precise functions of the retrograde transport mediated by IFT complex A (IFT-A) have not been well studied in photoreceptor cilia. Here, we analyzed developing zebrafish larvae carrying a null mutation in ift122 encoding a component of IFT-A. ift122 mutant larvae show unexpectedly mild phenotypes, compared with those of mutants defective in IFT-B. ift122 mutants exhibit a slow onset of progressive photoreceptor degeneration mainly after 7 days post-fertilization. ift122 mutant larvae also develop cystic kidney but not curly body, both of which are typically observed in various ciliary mutants. ift122 mutants display a loss of cilia in the inner ear hair cells and nasal pit epithelia. Loss of ift122 causes disorganization of outer segment discs. Ectopic accumulation of an IFT-B component, ift88, is observed in the ift122 mutant photoreceptor cilia. In addition, pulse-chase experiments using GFP-opsin fusion proteins revealed that ift122 is required for the efficient transport of opsin and the distal elongation of outer segments. These results show that IFT-A is essential for the efficient transport of outer segment proteins, including opsin, and for the survival of retinal photoreceptor cells, rendering the ift122 mutant a unique model for human retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27681595

  4. Pollutant transport over complex terrain: Flux and budget calculations for the pollumet field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, Michael; Richner, Hans; Kok, Gregory L.

    Especially over complex terrain, transport processes dominate the local pollutant concentrations observed. The data gathered during the POLLUMET measuring campaign in 1993 allow a quantitative analysis of the pollutant fluxes and the pollutant budgets. The data include airborne measurements by NCAR's King Air, radio soundings, radar wind profiles, and data from meteorological ground stations. The regions of interest were the rather densely populated Swiss Plateau, which is embedded between the Alps and the Jura Mountains, and a box south of the Alps covering the south Ticino region and parts of northern Italy. An interpolation scheme was developed to reconstruct the wind field from all available measurements. From the wind field and the reconstruction of the concentration field the fluxes into and out of a box with fixed boundaries are calculated. The pollutant budgets are obtained from the sum of the fluxes and considering a mean vertical velocity. To assess the uncertainties introduced through the interpolation of the measurements, an extensive sensitivity analysis is included. The Swiss Plateau exports ozone and nitrogen oxides. The export rates can be interpreted as an ozone accumulation or fraction of 'homemade pollution' between 3 and 10% and require a net production rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. Accumulation of nitrogen oxides amounts to 20-60%. The box south of the Alps imports polluted air from northern Italy. Thus, oxidized nitrogen is not exported but a net production of ozone still occurs at a rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. The interpolated flow and concentration fields are decomposed into the mean over a box-boundary and the deviation from that mean. This allows isolation of the contribution of local circulations and large-scale turbulence to the total flux. It is shown how the local thermotopographic circulations increasingly dominate the transport as typical Alpine topography is approached. Even over the Swiss Plateau, approximately 20 km away from Alpine topography

  5. Ductile polyelectrolyte macromolecule-complexed zinc phosphate conversion crystal pre-coatings and topcoatings embodying a laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Carciello, Neal R.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a precoat, laminate, and method for ductile coatings on steel and non-ferrous metals which comprises applying a zinc phosphating coating solution modified by a solid polyelectrolyte selected from polyacrylic acid (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMA), polyitaconic acid (PIA), and poly-L-glutamic acid. The contacting of the resin with the phosphating solution is made for a period of up to 20 hours at about 80.degree. C. The polyelectrolyte or the precoat is present in about 0.5-5.0% by weight of the total precoat composition and after application, the precoat base is dried for up to 5 hours at about 150.degree. C. to desiccate. Also, a laminate may be formed where polyurethane (PU) is applied as an elastomeric topcoating or polyfuran resin is applied as a glassy topcoating. It has been found that the use of PAA at a molecular weight of about 2.times.10.sup.5 gave improved ductility modulus effect.

  6. Immunohistochemical and transcriptome analyses indicate complex breakdown of axonal transport mechanisms in canine distemper leukoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzbarth, Ingo; Lempp, Charlotte; Kegler, Kristel; Ulrich, Reiner; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke

    2016-07-01

    CDV-DL (Canine distemper virus-induced demyelinating leukoencephalitis) represents a spontaneously occurring animal model for demyelinating disorders. Axonopathy represents a key pathomechanism in this disease; however, its underlying pathogenesis has not been addressed in detail so far. This study aimed at the characterization of axonal cytoskeletal, transport, and potential regenerative changes with a parallel focus upon Schwann cell remyelination. Immunohistochemistry of canine cerebellar tissue as well as a comparative analysis of genes from an independent microarray study were performed. Increased axonal immunoreactivity for nonphosphorylated neurofilament was followed by loss of cytoskeletal and motor proteins. Interestingly, a subset of genes encoding for neurofilament subunits and motor proteins was up-regulated in the chronic stage compared to dogs with subacute CDV-DL. However, immunohistochemically, hints for axonal regeneration were restricted to up-regulated axonal positivity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, while growth-associated protein 43, erythropoietin and its receptor were not or even down-regulated. Periaxin-positive structures, indicative of Schwann cell remyelination, were only detected within few advanced lesions. The present findings demonstrate a complex sequence of axonal cytoskeletal breakdown mechanisms. Moreover, though sparse, this is the first report of Schwann cell remyelination in CDV-DL. Facilitation of these very limited endogenous regenerative responses represents an important topic for future research.

  7. Quantum mechanics of excitation transport in photosynthetic complexes: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Federico; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco; Mintert, Florian

    2015-07-01

    For a long time microscopic physical descriptions of biological processes have been based on quantum mechanical concepts and tools, and routinely employed by chemical physicists and quantum chemists. However, the last ten years have witnessed new developments on these studies from a different perspective, rooted in the framework of quantum information theory. The process that more, than others, has been subject of intense research is the transfer of excitation energy in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes, a consequence of the unexpected experimental discovery of oscillating signals in such highly noisy systems. The fundamental interdisciplinary nature of this research makes it extremely fascinating, but can also constitute an obstacle to its advance. Here in this review our objective is to provide an essential summary of the progress made in the theoretical description of excitation energy dynamics in photosynthetic systems from a quantum mechanical perspective, with the goal of unifying the language employed by the different communities. This is initially realized through a stepwise presentation of the fundamental building blocks used to model excitation transfer, including protein dynamics and the theory of open quantum system. Afterwards, we shall review how these models have evolved as a consequence of experimental discoveries; this will lead us to present the numerical techniques that have been introduced to quantitatively describe photo-absorbed energy dynamics. Finally, we shall discuss which mechanisms have been proposed to explain the unusual coherent nature of excitation transport and what insights have been gathered so far on the potential functional role of such quantum features.

  8. Spin-polarized transport through single-molecule magnet Mn6 complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Cremades, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six MnIII cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Molecular dynamics of conformation-specific dopamine transporter-inhibitor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Bernandie; Surratt, Christopher K; Madura, Jeffry D

    2017-09-01

    The recreational psychostimulant cocaine inhibits dopamine reuptake from the synapse, resulting in excessive stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in brain areas associated with reward and addiction. Cocaine binds to and stabilizes the outward- (extracellular-) facing conformation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, while the low abuse potential DAT inhibitor benztropine prefers the inward- (cytoplasmic-) facing conformation. A correlation has been previously postulated between psychostimulant abuse potential and preference for the outward-facing DAT conformation. The 3β-aryltropane cocaine analogs LX10 and LX11, however, differ only in stereochemistry and share a preference for the outward-facing DAT, yet are reported to vary widely in abuse potential in an animal model. In search of the molecular basis for DAT conformation preference, complexes of cocaine, benztropine, LX10 or LX11 bound to each DAT conformation were subjected to 100ns of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation. Results were consistent with previous findings from cysteine accessibility assays used to assess an inhibitor's DAT conformation preference. The respective 2β- and 2α-substituted phenyltropanes of LX10 and LX11 interacted with hydrophobic regions of the DAT S1 binding site that were inaccessible to cocaine. Solvent accessibility measurements also revealed subtle differences in inhibitor positioning within a given DAT conformation. This work serves to advance our understanding of the conformational selectivity of DAT inhibitors and suggests that MD may be useful in antipsychostimulant therapeutic design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Using histochemical methods offering high topographical resolution for evaluation of changes in the ischemic focus and the penumbra, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV were examined in rats subjected to 2 h of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...

  11. Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Chou, Kang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is currently the most widely used solution processing method in organic electronics. Here, we report, for the first time, a direct investigation of the formation process of the small-molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene during spin-coating in the context of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) application. The solution thinning and thin film formation were monitored in situ by optical reflectometry and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering, respectively, both of which were performed during spin-coating. We find that OSC thin film formation is akin to a quenching process, marked by a deposition rate of ∼100 nm s-1, nearly three orders of magnitude faster than drop-casting. This is then followed by a more gradual crystallization and healing step which depends upon the spinning speed. We associate this to further crystallization and healing of defects by residency of the residual solvent trapped inside the kinetically trapped film. The residency time of the trapped solvent is extended to several seconds by slowing the rotational speed of the substrate and is credited with improving the carrier mobility by nearly two orders of magnitude. Based on this insight, we deliberately slow down the solvent evaporation further and increase the carrier mobility by an additional order of magnitude. These results demonstrate how spin-coating conditions can be used as a handle over the crystallinity of organic semiconductors otherwise quenched during initial formation only to recrystallize and heal during extended interaction with the trapped solvent. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  12. Optical and magneto-optical properties of spin coated films of novel trinuclear bis(oxamato) and bis(oxamidato) type complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmalic, Mohammad A. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Chemie, Straße der Nationen 62, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Fronk, Michael [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bräuer, Björn [Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Salvan, Georgeta, E-mail: salvan@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Eya' ane Meva, Francois [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, BP 2701 (Cameroon); and others

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the first example of the spectroscopic measurements of the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) of films being composed of trinuclear transition metal complexes on a non-transparent substrate at room temperature. The thin films of the tailor-made trinuclear bis(oxamidato) type complex 5 ([Cu{sub 3}(opbo{sup n}Pr{sub 2})(tmcd){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}], opbo{sup n}Pr{sub 2} = o-phenylenebis(N’-{sup n}propyloxamido, tmcd=trans-(1 R,2 R)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-cyclohexanediamine) and of the bis(oxamato) type complexes 11 ([Cu{sub 2}Ni(opbaCF{sub 3})(pmdta){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}], opbaCF{sub 3} = 4-trifluoromethyl-o-phenylenebis(oxamato), pmdta = N,N,N,′N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) and 12 ([Cu{sub 3}(opba)(bppe){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamato), bppe = S-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)−1-phenylethylamine) were fabricated by spin-coating and their thicknesses in the range between 0.5 µm and 2 µm was determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Based on the spectroscopic ellipsometry results it was also possible to determine the optical constants of the film and compare them with the absorption of the complexes in solution in order to confirm the complex integrity after the film deposition. The fabrication of high-quality films which exhibit Kerr rotation up to 0.2 mrad (11.5 mdeg) was only possible due to tailor-made synthesis, which allows circumventing intermolecular interactions of the trinuclear complexes during the film formation. - Highlights: • Tailor-made trinuclear bis(oxamidato) and bis(oxamato) type complexes were synthesized. • Thin films (between 0.5 µm and 2 µm) were fabricated by spin-coating. • The film optical constants indicate the complex integrity after the deposition. • Film quality enabled first spectroscopic MOKE measurements of multi-nuclear complexes. • Magneto-optical Kerr rotation up to 11.5 mdeg was observed at RT (in 1.7 T).

  13. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/caffeic acid electrospun fibrous materials coated with polyelectrolyte complex and their antibacterial activity and in vitro antitumor effect against HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatova, Milena G. [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, Bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Manolova, Nevena E., E-mail: manolova@polymer.bas.bg [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, Bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rashkov, Iliya B. [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, Bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Markova, Nadya D. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Bl. 26, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Toshkova, Reneta A.; Georgieva, Ani K.; Nikolova, Elena B. [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St, bl. 25, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the possibility for the preparation of new poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based fibrous materials containing natural phenolic compound caffeic acid (CA) of diverse architectures, as well as to study the impact of the fiber composition on the in vitro CA release profile and on the biological properties of the fibrous materials. The application of the one-pot electrospinning enabled the fabrication of nanofibrous materials from PHB and PEG loaded with the CA. Materials with targeted design were obtained by coating with polyelectrolyte complex of alginate (Alg) and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (TMCh). Three different processing paths were used to obtain coated mats: (i) with CA incorporated in the PHB/PEG core; (ii) with CA embedded in the Alg layer; and (iii) with CA included in the TMCh layer. The in vitro release of CA was modulated by controlling the composition and the architecture of the nanofibrous mats. The performed microbiological screening and MTT cell viability studies revealed that in contrast to the bare mats, the CA-containing nanofibrous materials were effective in suppressing the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and displayed good cytotoxicity against human cervical HeLa tumor cells. In addition, the proliferation of murine spleen lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages was increased by the prepared CA-containing nanofibrous materials. The obtained materials are promising for antibacterial wound dressing applications as well as for application in local treatment of cervical tumors. - Highlights: • New caffeic acid-loaded materials from PHB and PEG were prepared by electrospinning. • Different design is achieved by coating and formation of polyelectrolyte complexes. • The control on the architecture of the mats enables modulating caffeic acid release. • The caffeic acid-loaded mats suppress the growth of

  14. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/caffeic acid electrospun fibrous materials coated with polyelectrolyte complex and their antibacterial activity and in vitro antitumor effect against HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatova, Milena G.; Manolova, Nevena E.; Rashkov, Iliya B.; Markova, Nadya D.; Toshkova, Reneta A.; Georgieva, Ani K.; Nikolova, Elena B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the possibility for the preparation of new poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based fibrous materials containing natural phenolic compound caffeic acid (CA) of diverse architectures, as well as to study the impact of the fiber composition on the in vitro CA release profile and on the biological properties of the fibrous materials. The application of the one-pot electrospinning enabled the fabrication of nanofibrous materials from PHB and PEG loaded with the CA. Materials with targeted design were obtained by coating with polyelectrolyte complex of alginate (Alg) and N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (TMCh). Three different processing paths were used to obtain coated mats: (i) with CA incorporated in the PHB/PEG core; (ii) with CA embedded in the Alg layer; and (iii) with CA included in the TMCh layer. The in vitro release of CA was modulated by controlling the composition and the architecture of the nanofibrous mats. The performed microbiological screening and MTT cell viability studies revealed that in contrast to the bare mats, the CA-containing nanofibrous materials were effective in suppressing the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and displayed good cytotoxicity against human cervical HeLa tumor cells. In addition, the proliferation of murine spleen lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages was increased by the prepared CA-containing nanofibrous materials. The obtained materials are promising for antibacterial wound dressing applications as well as for application in local treatment of cervical tumors. - Highlights: • New caffeic acid-loaded materials from PHB and PEG were prepared by electrospinning. • Different design is achieved by coating and formation of polyelectrolyte complexes. • The control on the architecture of the mats enables modulating caffeic acid release. • The caffeic acid-loaded mats suppress the growth of

  15. Template-directed formation of functional complex metal-oxide nanostructures by combination of sol-gel processing and spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.C.; Kim, J.; Bu, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report the template-based formation of functional complex metal-oxide nanostructures by a combination of sol-gel processing and spin coating. This method employs the spin-coating of a sol-gel solution into an anodic aluminum oxide membrane (SSAM). Various metal-oxide nanowires and nanotubes with a high aspect-ratio were prepared. The aspect-ratios of the PbO 2 nanowires and Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 nanowires were about 300 and 400, respectively, and their diameters were about 50 nm. The fabricated PbTiO 3 nanotubes have a relatively constant wall thickness of about 20 nm with an outer diameter of about 60 nm. The deposition time for all of the fabricated metal-oxide nanowires and nanotubes is less than 120 s, which is far shorter than those required in both the sol-gel dipping and sol-gel electrophoretic methods. These results indicate that the SSAM method can be a versatile pathway to prepare functional complex metal-oxide nanowires and nanotubes with a high aspect-ratio. The possible formation process for the one-dimensional nanostructures by SSAM is discussed

  16. The SEA complex – the beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokudovskaya S. S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of distinctive internal membrane compartments, dynamically connected via selective transport pathways, is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. Many of the proteins required for formation and maintenance of these compartments share an evolutionary history. We have recently identified a new conserved protein complex – the SEA complex – that possesses proteins with structural characteristics similar to the membrane coating complexes such as the nuclear pore complex (NPC, the COPII vesicle coating complex and HOPS/CORVET tethering complexes. The SEA complex in yeast is dynamically associated to the vacuole. The data on the function of the SEA complex remain extremely limited. Here we will discuss a possible role of the SEA complex based on the data from genetic assays and a number of functional studies in both yeast and other eukaryotes.

  17. Complex Systems Science for Subsurface Fate and Transport Report from the August 2009 Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    experimentation and modeling and is defined, in the context of Biological Systems Science research programs under DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), as ''the holistic, multidisciplinary study of complex interactions that specify the function of an entire biological system - whether single cells or a multicellular organism - rather than the reductionist study of individual components.'' In August 2009, BER held the Subsurface Complex System Science Relevant to Contaminant Fate and Transport workshop to assess the merits and limitations of complex systems science approaches to subsurface systems controlled by coupled hydrological, microbiological, and geochemical processes.

  18. FOCUS, Neutron Transport System for Complex Geometry Reactor Core and Shielding Problems by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can

  19. Preliminary results from the Los Alamos TA54 complex terrain Atmospheric Transport Study (ATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.; Chan, M.; Sanders, L.

    1995-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal site at TA54, Area G la located on a mesa top amidst a complex terrain of finger like mesas typically 30 motors or more In height above canyons of widths varying from 100 to 300 motors. Atmospheric dispersion from this site is of concern for routine operations and for potential Incidents during waste retrieval operations. Indian lands are located In the dominant downwind direction within 500 m from the site and provide further incentive to understand the potential and actual impacts of waste disposal operations. The permanent network of meteorological towers at LANL have been located primarily at mesa-top locations to coincide with most laboratory facilities and as such do not resolve the effects of channeling in the canyons and the influence this has on potential surface releases. An Atmospheric Transport Study (ATS) was initiated to better understand the wind flow fields and dispersion from the LANL Waste Storage and Disposal facilities at TA-54, Area G. As part of this effort, a series of six portable meteorological towers were sited in the vicinity of Area G, two at mesa top locations, one just east of the site where the mesas have dissipated to mild ridges, and three in the canyons adjacent to the disposal site mesa as indicated on the topographic representation of the local terrain. Since 1994, the towers have collected horizontal wind velocities, pressure, temperature, relative humidity and a radiation gamma reading every fifteen minutes. The data bass is being analyzed for trends and to provide a basis for comparison to computational modeling efforts to predict the flow fields.

  20. Preliminary results from the Los Alamos TA54 complex terrain Atmospheric Transport Study (ATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.; Chan, M.; Sanders, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal site at TA54, Area G la located on a mesa top amidst a complex terrain of finger like mesas typically 30 motors or more In height above canyons of widths varying from 100 to 300 motors. Atmospheric dispersion from this site is of concern for routine operations and for potential Incidents during waste retrieval operations. Indian lands are located In the dominant downwind direction within 500 m from the site and provide further incentive to understand the potential and actual impacts of waste disposal operations. The permanent network of meteorological towers at LANL have been located primarily at mesa-top locations to coincide with most laboratory facilities and as such do not resolve the effects of channeling in the canyons and the influence this has on potential surface releases. An Atmospheric Transport Study (ATS) was initiated to better understand the wind flow fields and dispersion from the LANL Waste Storage and Disposal facilities at TA-54, Area G. As part of this effort, a series of six portable meteorological towers were sited in the vicinity of Area G, two at mesa top locations, one just east of the site where the mesas have dissipated to mild ridges, and three in the canyons adjacent to the disposal site mesa as indicated on the topographic representation of the local terrain. Since 1994, the towers have collected horizontal wind velocities, pressure, temperature, relative humidity and a radiation gamma reading every fifteen minutes. The data bass is being analyzed for trends and to provide a basis for comparison to computational modeling efforts to predict the flow fields

  1. Nondispersive hole transport in a spin-coated dendrimer film measured by the charge-generation-layer time-of-flight method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Richards, Gary J.; Burn, Paul L.; Im, Chan; Bassler, Heinz

    2002-10-01

    Measurements of the mobility of a first-generation (G1) bis-fluorene cored dendrimer have been performed on spin-coated samples of 500 nm thickness using the charge-generation-layer time-of-flight (TOF) technique. A 10 nm perylene charge generation layer was excited by the 532 nm line of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and the generated carriers swept through the dendrimer film under an applied field. We observe nondispersive hole transport in the dendrimer layer with a room-temperature mobility mu=2.0 x10-4 cm2/V s at a field of 0.55 MV/cm. There is a weak field dependence of the mobility and it increases from mu=1.6 x10-4 cm2/V s at 0.2 MV/cm to mu=3.0 x10-4 cm2/V s at 1.4 MV/cm. These results suggest that the measurement of mobility by TOF in spin-coated samples on thickness scales relevant to organic light-emitting diodes can yield valuable information, and that dendrimers are promising materials for device applications.

  2. Investigation of the mechanisms of using metal complexation and cellulose nanofiber/sodium alginate layer-by-layer coating for retaining anthocyanin pigments in thermally processed blueberries in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Simonsen, John; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-25

    This study investigated the mechanisms of anthocyanin pigment retention using Fe(3+)-anthocyanin complexation and cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/sodium alginate (SA) layer-by-layer (LBL) coatings on thermally processed blueberries in aqueous media. Anthocyanin pigments were polymerized through complexation with Fe(3+) but readily degraded by heat (93 °C for 7 min) in the aqueous media because of poor stability. CNF/SA LBL coating was successful to retain anthocyanin pigments in thermally processed blueberries. Fruits coated with CNF containing CaCl2 followed by treatment in a SA bath formed a second hydrogel layer onto the CNF layer (LBL coating system) through cross-linking between Ca(2+) and alginic acid. Methyl-cellulose-modified CNF improved the interactions between CNF, the fruit surface, and the SA layer. This study demonstrated that the CNF/SA LBL coating system was effective to retain anthocyanin pigments on thermally processed whole blueberries, whereas no combined benefit of complexation with coating was observed. Results explained the mechanisms of the new approaches for developing colorful and nutritionally enhanced anthocyanin-rich fruit products.

  3. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  4. EquilTheTA: Thermodynamic and transport properties of complex equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, G.; D'Angola, A.

    2012-01-01

    EquilTheTA (EQUILibrium for plasma THErmodynamics and Transport Applications) is a web-based software which calculates chemical equilibrium product concentrations from any set of reactants and determines thermodynamic and transport properties for the product mixture in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The program calculates chemical equilibrium by using a hierarchical approach, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients starting from recent and accurate databases of atomic and molecular energy levels and collision integrals. In the calculations, Debye length and cut-off are consistently updated and virial corrections (up to third order) can be considered. Transport coefficients are calculated by using high order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method.

  5. Fate and transport of furrow-applied granular tefluthrin and seed-coated clothianidin insecticides: Comparison of field-scale observations and model estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff Hartz, Kara E; Edwards, Tracye M; Lydy, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    The transport of agricultural insecticides to water bodies may create risk of exposure to non-target organisms. Similarly, widespread use of furrow-applied and seed-coated insecticides may increase risk of exposure, yet accessible exposure models are not easily adapted for furrow application, and only a few examples of model validation of furrow-applied insecticides exist using actual field data. The goal of the current project was to apply an exposure model, the Pesticide in Water Calculator (PWC), to estimate the concentrations of two in-furrow insecticides applied to maize: the granular pyrethroid, tefluthrin, and the seed-coated neonicotinoid, clothianidin. The concentrations of tefluthrin and clothianidin in surface runoff water, sampled from a field in central Illinois (USA), were compared to the PWC modeled pesticide concentrations in surface runoff. The tefluthrin concentrations were used to optimize the application method in the PWC, and the addition of particulate matter and guttation droplets improved the models prediction of clothianidin concentrations. Next, the tefluthrin and clothianidin concentrations were calculated for a standard farm pond using both the optimized application method and the application methods provided in PWC. Estimated concentrations in a standard farm pond varied by a factor of 100 for tefluthrin and 50 for clothianidin depending on the application method used. The addition of guttation droplets and particulate matter to the model increased the annual clothianidin concentration in a standard farm pond by a factor of 1.5, which suggested that these transport routes should also be considered when assessing neonicotinoid exposure.

  6. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  7. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Supplement 1: Transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B.; Zeleznik, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    An addition to the computer program of NASA SP-273 is given that permits transport property calculations for the gaseous phase. Approximate mixture formulas are used to obtain viscosity and frozen thermal conductivity. Reaction thermal conductivity is obtained by the same method as in NASA TN D-7056. Transport properties for 154 gaseous species were selected for use with the program.

  8. Facile spray-coating process for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous chemical compositions used for selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Zha, Fei; Yang, Yaoxia; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-06-11

    In this paper, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces have been fabricated successfully by spraying ZnO nanoparticle (NP) suspensions onto desired substrates. We regulate the spray-coating process by changing the mass percentage of hydrophobic ZnO NPs (which were achieved by modifying hydrophilic ZnO NPs with stearic acid) in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ZnO NP mixtures to control heterogeneous chemical composition of the ZnO surfaces. Thus, the water adhesion on the same superhydrophobic ZnO surface could be effectively tuned by controlling the surface chemical composition without altering the surface morphology. Compared with the conventional tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, on which there were only three different water sliding angle values: lower than 10°, 90° (the water droplet is firmly pinned on the surface at any tilted angles), and the value between the two ones, the water adhesion on the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces has been tuned effectively, on which the sliding angle is controlled from 2 ± 1° to 9 ± 1°, 21 ± 2°, 39 ± 3°, and 90°. Accordingly, the adhesive force can be adjusted from extremely low (∼2.5 μN) to very high (∼111.6 μN). On the basis of the different adhesive forces of the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes was achieved, which has never been reported before. In addition, we demonstrated a proof of selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes for application in the droplet-based microreactors via our tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces for the quantitative detection of AgNO3 and NaOH. The results reported herein realize the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes and we believe that this method would potentially be used in many important applications, such as selective water droplet transportation, biomolecular quantitative detection and droplet-based biodetection.

  9. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  10. High-efficiency red-light emission from polyfluorenes grafted with cyclometalated iridium complexes and charge transport moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiwen; Liao, Jin-Long; Liang, Yongmin; Ahmed, M O; Tseng, Hao-En; Chen, Show-An

    2003-01-22

    We report a new route for the design of electroluminescent polymers by grafting high-efficiency phosphorescent organometallic complexes as dopants and charge transport moieties onto alky side chains of fully conjugated polymers for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) with single layer/single polymers. The polymer system studied involves polyfluorene (PF) as the base conjugated polymer, carbazole (Cz) as the charge transport moiety and a source for green emission by forming an electroplex with the PF main chain, and cyclometalated iridium (Ir) complexes as the phosphorescent dopant. Energy transfer from the green Ir complex or an electroplex formed between the fluorene main chain and side-chain carbazole moieties, in addition to that from the PF main chain, to the red Ir complex can significantly enhance the device performance, and a red light-emitting device with the high efficiency 2.8 cd/A at 7 V and 65 cd/m2, comparable to that of the same Ir complex-based OLED, and a broad-band light-emitting device containing blue, green, and red peaks (2.16 cd/A at 9 V) are obtained.

  11. Quantum transport behavior of Ni-based dinuclear complexes in presence of zigzag graphene nanoribbon as electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab, E-mail: pranab.sarkar@visva-bharati.ac.in

    2016-10-20

    Highlights: • Quantum transport properties of some Ni-based dinuclear complexes are investigated. • The materials show various spin dependent properties like NDR, spin filtering, etc. • These are occurred by the influence of edge states of zGNR. • Proper tuning of these materials can alter these phenomena. - Abstract: Quantum transport properties of some Ni-based dinuclear complexes with different polydentate organic ligands have been studied by applying abinitio density functional theory along with nonequilibrium Green’s function formulations. It is demonstrated that these materials are capable of showing multifunctional spin dependent properties by the influence of edge states of zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons. The current–voltage characteristics of these materials show spin dependent negative differential resistance behavior, spin filtering effect, and also voltage rectifying property. Proper tuning of these materials can alter these effects which may be utilized in various spintronic devices.

  12. The complex factor of ecological risk and its application for planning the marine transport of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-controlled methods for scheduling the routes of ships, port calls, and cargo handling are now commonly used for the marine freight transport. This presentation proposed a method for preventing accidents for tanker fleets. The risk of accidental oil spills increases with weather deterioration, particularly in polar waters. It is therefore necessary to correlate the risk of the fixed costs with compensation for environmental damages and repair to facilities. The profits lost while waiting for favourable weather conditions are also considered. The proposed 'complex factor of ecological risk' is intended to improve ecological safety and economic efficiencies of transporting oil by sea in areas with difficult weather conditions. It requires computer simulation which is based on volumes of statistical data of weather in marine areas, emergency incidents with tankers near terminals and the economic aspects of crude oil transportation

  13. Grain boundary transport properties in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} coated conductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghuis, P.; Miller, D. J.; Kim, D. H.; Gray, K. E.; Feenstra, R.; Christen, D. K.

    2000-11-02

    Critical current data obtained as a function of magnetic field on an isolated grain boundary (GB) of a coated conductor and two other types of bicrystal GBs of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} show a peak in the critical current and an unusual hysteresis. These results provide support for a new mechanism for enhanced GB critical currents, arising from interactions of GB vortices with pinned Abrikosov vortices in the banks of a GB, as suggested by Gurevich and Cooley. A substantial fraction of this enhancement, which can exceed a factor of ten, also occurs upon surpassing the critical current of the grains after zero field cooling. A bulk GB and thin film GBs show qualitatively identical results.

  14. Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) facilitated transport in contaminated groundwater was investigated through the measurement of the binding capacity of landfill leachate DOM (Vejen, Denmark) towards two model pollutants (pyrene and phenanthrene). Three different methods for measuring binding capacity....... It was further concluded that DOM facilitated transport should be taken into account for non-ionic PAHs with lg K OW above 5, at DOM concentrations above 250 mg C/L. The total DOM concentration was found to be more important for the potential of facilitated transport than differences in the DOM binding capacity....

  15. Computational complexity in multidimensional neutron transport theory calculations. Progress report, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, E.H.

    1976-05-01

    The objectives of the work are to develop mathematically and computationally founded for the design of highly efficient and reliable multidimensional neutron transport codes to solve a variety of neutron migration and radiation problems, and to analyze existing and new methods for performance. As new analytical insights are gained, new numerical methods are developed and tested. Significant results obtained include implementation of the integer-preserving Gaussian elimination method (two-step method) in a CDC 6400 computer code, modes analysis for one-dimensional transport solutions, and a new method for solving the 1-T transport equation. Some of the work dealt with the interface and corner problem in diffusion theory

  16. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: c.morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-05

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm{sup 2}/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m{sub 0}. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  17. Complex quantum transport in a modulation doped strained Ge quantum well heterostructure with a high mobility 2D hole gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C.; Casteleiro, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.

    2016-09-01

    The complex quantum transport of a strained Ge quantum well (QW) modulation doped heterostructure with two types of mobile carriers has been observed. The two dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the Ge QW exhibits an exceptionally high mobility of 780 000 cm2/Vs at temperatures below 10 K. Through analysis of Shubnikov de-Haas oscillations in the magnetoresistance of this 2DHG below 2 K, the hole effective mass is found to be 0.065 m0. Anomalous conductance peaks are observed at higher fields which deviate from standard Shubnikov de-Haas and quantum Hall effect behaviour due to conduction via multiple carrier types. Despite this complex behaviour, analysis using a transport model with two conductive channels explains this behaviour and allows key physical parameters such as the carrier effective mass, transport, and quantum lifetimes and conductivity of the electrically active layers to be extracted. This finding is important for electronic device applications, since inclusion of highly doped interlayers which are electrically active, for enhancement of, for example, room temperature carrier mobility, does not prevent analysis of quantum transport in a QW.

  18. Humic acid facilitates the transport of ARS-labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in iron oxyhydroxide-coated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) have been widely used to remediate soil and wastewater contaminated with metals and radionuclides. However, our understanding of nHAP transport and fate is limited in natural environments that exhibit significant variability in solid and solution chemistry. The tr...

  19. Bipolar Alq3-based complexes: Effect of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq3-center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jianxin; Lu Mangeng; Yang Chaolong; Tong Bihai; Liang Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Two bipolar Alq 3 -based complexes, tris{5-[(carbazole-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline} aluminum (Al(CzHQ) 3 ) and tris{5-[(phenothiazine-9'-yl)methyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline} aluminum (Al(PHQ) 3 ), involving an Alq 3 -center and three hole-transporting substituents (carbazole or phenothiazine), were prepared and characterized. Effects of hole-transporting substituent on the properties of Alq 3 -center were investigated in detail. It is found that the two complexes have improved hole-transporting performance and appropriate thermal stability (the 5%-weight-loss temperatures T 5% >260 °C). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that both energy transfer and electron transfer can take place simultaneously in the PL process of these complexes. Both thermodynamics and dynamics of the electron transfer were studied and corresponding parameters were calculated. Energy transfer is favorable for the PL of Alq 3 -center, while electron transfer is unfavorable for the PL of Alq 3 -center. These results will be useful to explore novel OLEDs material with increased efficiency. - Highlights: ► Effects of substituent on the properties of Alq 3 -center were investigated. ► Energy transfer and electron transfer can transfer from substituent to Alq 3 -center. ► The thermodynamics and dynamics of electron transfer were studied. ► The mechanisms of PL and EL of Al(CzHQ) 3 were studied and compared with each other.

  20. The features of oil & gas complex's strategic management and hydrocarbon products transportation at developing marine oil & gas fields in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeev А. М.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical issues of strategic management of oil and gas complex at the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic offshore. The analysis of existing approaches in process and project management of oil and gas complex has been carried out taking into account characteristics of offshore projects in the Arctic zone. Considerable attention has been paid to the history and evolution of strategic management as an economic category, functional areas of strategic management at different levels of management have been proposed. The analysis of existing scientific works dedicated to the projects on the Arctic shelf, has shown insufficient development of the strategic management's theory and practice. In particular, the biggest part of the scientific studies is focused on studying issues of the management at the corporate level, at the same time questions at the level of the oil and gas complex are not considered. In existing studies, the project and process approaches to management are often opposed to each other, and according to the authors it is incorrect in relation to the management of the oil and gas complex on the Arctic shelf. The oil and gas complex is a complex and multilevel system that implements unprecedentedly difficult projects in terms of technology. The beginning of hydrocarbon production on the Arctic shelf is inextricably linked with the transportation of extracted raw materials to the processing and marketing sites; it complements the strategic management of the oil and gas complex by the features of organizing efficient transport and logistics solutions.

  1. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  2. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  3. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.

  4. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  5. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Cardenas, Walter Humberto; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel; Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Daniela Mara de

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  6. Oscillations, complex spatiotemporal behavior, and information transport in networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destexhe, A.

    1994-01-01

    Various types of spatiotemporal behavior are described for two-dimensional networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons with time delayed interactions. It is described how the network behaves as several structural parameters are varied, such as the number of neurons, the connectivity, and the values of synaptic weights. A transition from spatially uniform oscillations to spatiotemporal chaos via intermittentlike behavior is observed. The properties of spatiotemporally chaotic solutions are investigated by evaluating the largest positive Lyapunov exponent and the loss of correlation with distance. Finally, properties of information transport are evaluated during uniform oscillations and spatiotemporal chaos. It is shown that the diffusion coefficient increases significantly in the spatiotemporal phase similar to the increase of transport coefficients at the onset of fluid turbulence. It is proposed that such a property should be seen in other media, such as chemical turbulence or networks of oscillators. The possibility of measuring information transport from appropriate experiments is also discussed

  7. Computational complexity in multidimensional neutron transport theory calculations. Progress report, September 1, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the research remain the same as outlined in the original proposal. They are in short as follows: Develop mathematically and computationally founded criteria for the design of highly efficient and reliable multi-dimensional neutron transport codes to solve a variety of neutron migration and radiation problems and analyze existing and new methods for performance. (U.S.)

  8. Complex study of transport AC loss in various 2G HTS racetrack coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiran, E-mail: yc315@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim [University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Comparing transport AC losses of two types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. ► The magnetic substrate in the MAG RABITS coil is the main difference. ► Experimental data agree well with simulation results. ► The transport AC loss in the MAG RABITS coil is 36% higher than that in the IBAD coil. ► It is better to keep all the substrate non-magnetic. -- Abstract: HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  9. Charge transport through DNA/DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids: complex mechanism study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.; Špérová, M.; Schneider, Bohdan; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 9-9 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /11./. 14.03.2013-16.03.2013, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : charge transport * fluorescence spectroscopy * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. Techniques to better understand complex epikarst hydrogeology and contaminant transport in telogenetic karst settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The movement of autogenic recharge through the shallow epikarstic zone in soil-mantled karst aquifers is important in understanding recharge areas and rates, groundwater storage, and contaminant transport processes. The groundwater flow in agricultural karst areas, such as Kentucky’s Pennyroyal Plat...

  11. Monte-Carlo simulation of complex vapor-transport systems for RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Alton, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to minimize decay losses of short-lived radioactive species at ISOL based RIB facilities, effusive-flow particle transit times between target and ion source must be as short as practically achievable. A Monte-Carlo code has been developed for simulating the effusive-flow of neutral particles through vapor-transport systems independent of materials of construction. The code provides average distance traveled and time information associated with the transit of individual particles through a system. It offers a cost effective and accurate means for arriving at vapor-transport system designs. In this report, the code will be described and results obtained by its use in evaluating several prototype vapor-transport systems using specular reflection, cosine and isotropic particle re-emission about the normal to the surface models following adsorption. Simulation results obtained with an isotropic distribution are in close agreement with experimental measurements of the properties of prototype vapor-transport systems fabricated at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

  12. Targeting the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes for the Induction of Apoptosis and Cancer Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L. F.; Neužil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2013), s. 377-389 ISSN 1389-2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Cancer * mitochondria * electron transport chain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2013

  13. Computational complexity in multidimensional neutron transport theory calculations. Progress report, September 1976--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, E.H.

    1977-08-01

    The objectives of this research are to develop mathematically and computationally founded criteria for the design of highly efficient and reliable multidimensional neutron transport codes to solve a variety of neutron migration and radiation problems, and to analyze existing and new methods for performance

  14. Application of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to studies of transport in a dusty (complex) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremiah D.; Silver, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques [E. Thomas, Jr., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2672 (1999)] have been used to obtain detailed measurements of microparticle transport in dusty plasmas. This Letter reports on an extension of these techniques to a three-dimensional velocity vector measurement approach using stereoscopic PIV. Initial measurements using the stereoscopic PIV diagnostic are presented

  15. 4-Aminobenzoic Acid-Coated Maghemite Nanoparticles as Potential Anticancer Drug Magnetic Carriers: A Case Study on Highly Cytotoxic Cisplatin-Like Complexes Involving 7-Azaindoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Štarha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a one-pot synthesis of superparamagnetic maghemite-based 4-aminobenzoic acid-coated spherical core-shell nanoparticles (PABA@FeNPs as suitable nanocomposites potentially usable as magnetic carriers for drug delivery. The PABA@FeNPs system was subsequently functionalized by the activated species (1* and 2* of highly in vitro cytotoxic cis-[PtCl2(3Claza2] (1; 3Claza stands for 3-chloro-7-azaindole or cis-[PtCl2(5Braza2] (2; 5Braza stands for 5-bromo-7-azaindole, which were prepared by a silver(I ion assisted dechlorination of the parent dichlorido complexes. The products 1*@PABA@FeNPs and 2*@PABA@FeNPs, as well as an intermediate PABA@FeNPs, were characterized by a combination of various techniques, such as Mössbauer, FTIR and EDS spectroscopy, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM. The results showed that the products consist of well-dispersed maghemite-based nanoparticles of 13 nm average size that represent an easily obtainable system for delivery of highly cytotoxic cisplatin-like complexes in oncological practice.

  16. A SIL quantification approach based on an operating situation model for safety evaluation in complex guided transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beugin, J.; Renaux, D.; Cauffriez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Safety analysis in guided transportation systems is essential to avoid rare but potentially catastrophic accidents. This article presents a quantitative probabilistic model that integrates Safety Integrity Levels (SIL) for evaluating the safety of such systems. The standardized SIL indicator allows the safety requirements of each safety subsystem, function and/or piece of equipment to be specified, making SILs pivotal parameters in safety evaluation. However, different interpretations of SIL exist, and faced with the complexity of guided transportation systems, the current SIL allocation methods are inadequate for the task of safety assessment. To remedy these problems, the model developed in this paper seeks to verify, during the design phase of guided transportation system, whether or not the safety specifications established by the transport authorities allow the overall safety target to be attained (i.e., if the SIL allocated to the different safety functions are sufficient to ensure the required level of safety). To meet this objective, the model is based both on the operating situation concept and on Monte Carlo simulation. The former allows safety systems to be formalized and their dynamics to be analyzed in order to show the evolution of the system in time and space, and the latter make it possible to perform probabilistic calculations based on the scenario structure obtained

  17. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Juan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Su Biling; Li Qunfang; Qiu Bin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen Guonan, E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. {yields} Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. {yields} Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. {yields} Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. {yields} Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH{sub 4}, and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO{sub 2} (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3{sigma}) in pH 6.0 PBS-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available

  18. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Juan; Tang Dianping; Su Biling; Li Qunfang; Qiu Bin; Chen Guonan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. → Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. → Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. → Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. → Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO 2 ) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH 4 , and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO 2 (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO 2 ) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO 2 nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3σ) in pH 6.0 PBS-H 2 O 2 system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available electrochemiluminescent analyzer.

  19. APC binds the Miro/Milton motor complex to stimulate transport of mitochondria to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kate M; Brocardo, Mariana G; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) disrupt regulation of Wnt signaling, mitosis, and the cytoskeleton. We describe a new role for APC in the transport of mitochondria. Silencing of wild-type APC by small interfering RNA caused mitochondria to redistribute from the cell periphery to the perinuclear region. We identified novel APC interactions with the mitochondrial kinesin-motor complex Miro/Milton that were mediated by the APC C-terminus. Truncating mutations in APC abolished its ability to bind Miro/Milton and reduced formation of the Miro/Milton complex, correlating with disrupted mitochondrial distribution in colorectal cancer cells that could be recovered by reconstitution of wild-type APC. Using proximity ligation assays, we identified endogenous APC-Miro/Milton complexes at mitochondria, and live-cell imaging showed that loss of APC slowed the frequency of anterograde mitochondrial transport to the membrane. We propose that APC helps drive mitochondria to the membrane to supply energy for cellular processes such as directed cell migration, a process disrupted by cancer mutations. © 2016 Mills et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage Containing a Supramolecular Iron Complex as Hole Transport Material Dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygili, Yasemin; Turren-Cruz, Silver-Hamill; Olthof, Selina; Saes, Bartholomeus Wilhelmus Henricus; Pehlivan, Ilknur Bayrak; Saliba, Michael; Meerholz, Klaus; Edvinsson, Tomas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Hagfeldt, Anders; Freitag, Marina; Tress, Wolfgang

    2018-04-26

    In perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the most commonly used hole transport material (HTM) is spiro-OMeTAD, which is typically doped by metalorganic complexes, for example, based on Co, to improve charge transport properties and thereby enhance the photovoltaic performance of the device. In this study, we report a new hemicage-structured iron complex, 1,3,5-tris(5'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl)ethylbenzene Fe(III)-tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), as a p-type dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The formal redox potential of this compound was measured as 1.29 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode, which is slightly (20 mV) more positive than that of the commercial cobalt dopant FK209. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirm that the iron complex acts as an efficient p-dopant, as evidenced in an increase of the spiro-OMeTAD work function. When fabricating planar PSCs with the HTM spiro-OMeTAD doped by 5 mol % of the iron complex, a power conversion efficiency of 19.5 % (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm -2 ) is achieved, compared to 19.3 % for reference devices with FK209. Open circuit voltages exceeding 1.2 V at 1 sun and reaching 1.27 V at 3 suns indicate that recombination at the perovskite/HTM interface is low when employing this iron complex. This work contributes to recent endeavors to reduce recombination losses in perovskite solar cells. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Mathematical modelling of powder material motion and transportation in high-temperature flow core during plasma coatings application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, V. I.; Giorbelidze, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    A problem of mathematical modelling of powder material motion and transportation in gas thermal flow core has been addressed. Undertaken studies indicate significant impact on dynamics of motion of sprayed particles of phenomenological law for drag coefficient and accounting momentum loss of a plasma jet upon acceleration of these particles and their diameter. It is determined that at great dispersion of spraying particles, they reach detail surface at different velocity and significant particles separation takes place at spraying spot. According to the results of mathematical modelling, requirements for admissible dispersion of diameters of particles used for spraying have been formulated. Research has also allowed reducing separation of particles at the spraying spot due to the selection of the method of powder feed to the anode channel of the plasma torch.

  2. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  3. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The U.S. Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. Computer code used: SWIFT II (flow and transport code). 4 figs., 12 refs

  4. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Nam, Jiryun; Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Moon; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Jang, Chan-Yong; Lee, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hong Gi; Roh, Mark; Hammond, John

    2014-01-01

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP SP ) with that from AltMV-Po (CP Po ) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP Po [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP SP but not CP Po interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP SP than CP Po in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein

  5. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub, E-mail: hyounlim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiryun, E-mail: jilyoon@naver.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Eun-Young, E-mail: sey22@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Moon, E-mail: moonlit51@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Vaira, Anna Maria, E-mail: a.vaira@ivv.cnr.it [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, Torino 10135 (Italy); Bae, Hanhong, E-mail: hanhongbae@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Geongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chan-Yong, E-mail: sunbispirit@gmail.com [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Ho, E-mail: chlee1219@hanmail.net [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seokyoung University, Seoul 136-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Gi, E-mail: hgkim@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Mark, E-mail: marksroh@gmail.com [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Laboratory of Floriculture and Plant Physiology, School of Bio-Resource Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hammond, John, E-mail: john.hammond@ars.usda.gov [Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit, US National Arboretum, USDA-ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue B-010A, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP{sub SP}) with that from AltMV-Po (CP{sub Po}) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP{sub Po} [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP{sub SP} but not CP{sub Po} interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP{sub SP} than CP{sub Po} in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein.

  6. A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, I employ a complex moral assessment measure that provides a way to talk about harms that affect the public.

  7. Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiuchi, Takashi; Mi-ichi, Fumika; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Under anaerobic environments, the mitochondria have undergone remarkable reduction and transformation into highly reduced structures, referred as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs), which include mitosomes and hydrogenosomes. In agreement with the concept of reductive evolution, mitosomes of Entamoeba histolytica lack most of the components of the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, which is required for the targeting and membrane translocation of preproteins into the canonical aerobic mitochondria. Here we showed, in E. histolytica mitosomes, the presence of a 600-kDa TOM complex composed of Tom40, a conserved pore-forming subunit, and Tom60, a novel lineage-specific receptor protein. Tom60, containing multiple tetratricopeptide repeats, is localized to the mitosomal outer membrane and the cytosol, and serves as a receptor of both mitosomal matrix and membrane preproteins. Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment.

  8. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent-insoluble c...... intracellularly. I therefore propose that, in the enterocyte, the brush border enzymes are targeted directly from the trans-Golgi network toward the apical cell surface......., and their insolubility increased to that of the steady-state level soon after they achieved their mature, complex glycosylation, i.e., after passage through the Golgi complex. Detergent-insoluble complexes isolated by density gradient centrifugation were highly enriched in brush border enzymes, and the enrichment...

  9. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  10. Simulation of biological flow and transport in complex geometries using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebotich, David

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simulation capability to model multiscale flow and transport in complex biological systems based on algorithms and software infrastructure developed under the SciDAC APDEC CET. The foundation of this work is a new hybrid fluid-particle method for modeling polymer fluids in irregular microscale geometries that enables long-time simulation of validation experiments. Both continuum viscoelastic and discrete particle representations have been used to model the constitutive behavior of polymer fluids. Complex flow environment geometries are represented on Cartesian grids using an implicit function. Direct simulation of flow in the irregular geometry is then possible using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods without loss of geometric detail. This capability has been used to simulate biological flows in a variety of application geometries including biomedical microdevices, anatomical structures and porous media

  11. Improved Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by means of Coating Hole Transporting Layer as Double Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonsut, T.; Kayunkid, N.; Rahong, S.; Rangkasikorn, A.; Wirunchit, S.; Kaewprajak, A.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Nukeaw, J.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells is one of the promising technologies that gain tremendous attentions in the field of renewable energy. Optimization of thickness for each layer is an important factor determining the efficiency of the solar cells. In this work, the optimum thickness of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythione): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a famous polymer widely used as hole transporting layer in polymer solar cells, is determined through the analyzing of device’s photovoltaic parameters, e.g. short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) as well as power conversion efficiency (PCE). The solar cells were prepared with multilayer of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC70BM/TiOx/Al by rapid convective deposition. In such preparation technique, the thickness of the thin film is controlled by the deposition speed. The faster deposition speed is used, the thicker film is obtained. Furthermore, double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS was introduced as an approach to improve solar cell efficiency. The results obviously reveal that, with the increase of PEDOT:PSS thickness, the increments of Jsc and FF play the important role to improve PCE from 3.21% to 4.03%. Interestingly, using double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS shows the ability to enhance the performance of the solar cells to 6.12% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  12. Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.; Kocianová, E.; Sychra, O.; Najer, T.; Trnka, A.; Kverek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 489-493 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ticks * Hyalomma marginatum complex * Vector * Passerines * Migration * Central Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  13. Water retention, gas transport, and pore network complexity during short-term regeneration of soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2013-01-01

    mm sieved) samples of varying clay mineralogy (illite, kaolinite, and smectite) amended with organic material (7.5 t ha–1). Also, the newly-formed structure was compared with that of sieved repacked (SR) and natural intact samples. Assessment and comparison of structure complexity and organization....... The proportion of pores > 100 1m increased in order: smectite

  14. The exocyst complex contributes to PIN auxin efflux carrier recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdová, Edita; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Hála, Michal; Kulich, I.; Fowler, J.E.; Murphy, A.S.; Žárský, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2013), s. 709-719 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P853; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/1629; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA AV ČR KJB600380802 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME10033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : exocyst * polar auxin transport * PIN recycling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.815, year: 2013

  15. Asymmetric modes and complex time eigenvalues of the one-speed neutron transport equation in a homogeneous sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, S.D.; Kumar, V.; Sahni, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The one-speed, time-dependent, isotropically scattering, integral transport equation in a homogeneous sphere has been converted into a criticality-like problem by considering exponential time behaviour of the scalar flux. This criticality problem has been converted into a matrix eigenvalue problem using the Fourier transform technique. The time eigenvalues λ, which are complex in general, have been determined for spherically symmetric as well as asymmetric modes. For the former case, the real decay constants and the real parts of complex decay constants decrease monotonically with increasing system size and form two distinct families of single-valued functions. For the spherically asymmetric modes, certain new features emerge. The real decay constants are found to be multi-valued functions of system size and they do not always decrease monotonically with increasing system size. As the system size increases from zero onwards, the decay constants alternate between complex and real values and the real and complex decay constant curves interlace. (Author)

  16. New temperable solar coatings: Tempsol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    2001-11-01

    This paper deals with the large area deposition and coating properties of the thermo-stable (temperable/bendable) solar coating material, CuO, and some new optical coating systems comprising CuO films for architectural and automotive/transportation applications. The CuO solar coating is combined with other coating layers, for example, an anti-reflection film, a reflection film, a coloration coating layer, etc., which are also thermo-stable. The film systems are developed at the research laboratory by D.C. Magnetron reactive sputtering process. The new developed technologies then transferred to the production line. Product performances are compared before and after heat treatment of the coating systems. Performance tables and other physical properties, including optical parameters, mechanical and environmental stability, storage properties, etc., are also presented for this new product series.

  17. Complexity in the validation of ground-water travel time in fractured flow and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B; Hunter, R.L.; Pickens, J.F.

    1991-02-01

    Ground-water travel time is a widely used concept in site assessment for radioactive waste disposal. While ground-water travel time was originally conceived to provide a simple performance measure for evaluating repository sites, its definition in many flow and transport environments is ambiguous. The US Department of Energy siting guidelines (10 CFR 960) define ground-water travel time as the time required for a unit volume of water to travel between two locations, calculated by dividing travel-path length by the quotient of average ground-water flux and effective porosity. Defining a meaningful effective porosity in a fractured porous material is a significant problem. Although the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is not subject to specific requirements for ground-water travel time, travel times have been computed under a variety of model assumptions. Recently completed model analyses for WIPP illustrate the difficulties in applying a ground-water travel-time performance measure to flow and transport in fractured, fully saturated flow systems. 12 refs., 4 figs

  18. Computational modeling and statistical analyses on individual contact rate and exposure to disease in complex and confined transportation hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Tsui, K. L.; Lo, S. M.; Liu, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    Crowded transportation hubs such as metro stations are thought as ideal places for the development and spread of epidemics. However, for the special features of complex spatial layout, confined environment with a large number of highly mobile individuals, it is difficult to quantify human contacts in such environments, wherein disease spreading dynamics were less explored in the previous studies. Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic nature of human interactions, increasing studies proved the importance of contact distance and length of contact in transmission probabilities. In this study, we show how detailed information on contact and exposure patterns can be obtained by statistical analyses on microscopic crowd simulation data. To be specific, a pedestrian simulation model-CityFlow was employed to reproduce individuals' movements in a metro station based on site survey data, values and distributions of individual contact rate and exposure in different simulation cases were obtained and analyzed. It is interesting that Weibull distribution fitted the histogram values of individual-based exposure in each case very well. Moreover, we found both individual contact rate and exposure had linear relationship with the average crowd densities of the environments. The results obtained in this paper can provide reference to epidemic study in complex and confined transportation hubs and refine the existing disease spreading models.

  19. Selective transport and incorporation of highly charged metal and metal complex ions in self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toutianoush, Ali; Tieke, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    The transport of aqueous salts containing mono-, di- and trivalent metal and tetravalent metal complex ions across ultrathin polyvinylammonium/polyvinylsulphate (PVA/PVS) membranes is described. The membranes were prepared by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of the two polyelectrolytes. Using spectroscopic measurements and permeability studies, it is demonstrated that the transport of copper(II) chloride, lanthanum(III) chloride, barium chloride and potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) is accompanied by the permanent incorporation of the metal and metal complex ions in the membrane. Upon the uptake of copper, lanthanum and hexacyanoferrate ions, the membranes become cross-linked so that the permeation rates of other salts not taken up by the membrane, e.g. sodium chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium chloride, are decreased. The uptake of barium ions leads to a decrease of the cross-linking density of the membrane so that the permeation rate of NaCl is increased. Possible mechanisms for the ion uptake are discussed

  20. Fission yeast Sec3 and Exo70 are transported on actin cables and localize the exocyst complex to cell poles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O Bendezú

    Full Text Available The exocyst complex is essential for many exocytic events, by tethering vesicles at the plasma membrane for fusion. In fission yeast, polarized exocytosis for growth relies on the combined action of the exocyst at cell poles and myosin-driven transport along actin cables. We report here the identification of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sec3 protein, which we identified through sequence homology of its PH-like domain. Like other exocyst subunits, sec3 is required for secretion and cell division. Cells deleted for sec3 are only conditionally lethal and can proliferate when osmotically stabilized. Sec3 is redundant with Exo70 for viability and for the localization of other exocyst subunits, suggesting these components act as exocyst tethers at the plasma membrane. Consistently, Sec3 localizes to zones of growth independently of other exocyst subunits but depends on PIP(2 and functional Cdc42. FRAP analysis shows that Sec3, like all other exocyst subunits, localizes to cell poles largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton. However, we show that Sec3, Exo70 and Sec5 are transported by the myosin V Myo52 along actin cables. These data suggest that the exocyst holocomplex, including Sec3 and Exo70, is present on exocytic vesicles, which can reach cell poles by either myosin-driven transport or random walk.

  1. Transport and release of colloidal 3-mercaptopropionic acid-coated CdSe–CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana JM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jacopo M Fontana,1 Huijuan Yin,1 Yun Chen,2 Ricardo Florez,1 Hjalmar Brismar,1 Ying Fu1 1Section of Cellular Biophysics, Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Science for Life Laboratory, Solna, 2Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Clinical Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy and University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs have been extensively researched and developed for biomedical applications, including drug delivery and biosensing assays. Hence, it is pivotal to understand their behavior in terms of intracellular transport and toxicological effects. In this study, we focused on 3-mercaptopropionic acid-coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots (3MPA-QDs converted from the as-grown octadecylamine-coated quantum dots (ODA-QDs and their direct and dynamic interactions with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Live cell imaging using confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that 3MPA-QDs first attached to and subsequently aggregated on HUVEC plasma membrane ~25 min after QD deposition. The aggregated QDs started being internalized at ~2 h and reached their highest internalization degree at ~24 h. They were released from HUVECs after ~48 h. During the 48 h period, the HUVECs responded normally to external stimulations, grew, proliferated and wound healed without any perceptible apoptosis. Furthermore, 1 3MPA-QDs were internalized in newly formed LysoTracker-stained early endosomes; 2 adenosine 5'-triphosphate-induced [Ca2+]i modulation caused a transient decrease in the fluorescence of 3MPA-QDs that were attached to the plasma membrane but a transient increase in the internalized 3MPA-QDs; and 3 fluorescence signal modulations of co-stained LysoTracker and QDs induced by the lysosomotropic agent Gly-Phe-β-naphthylamide were spatially co-localized and temporally synchronized. Our findings suggest that 3MPA

  2. Ctr9, a Protein in the Transcription Complex Paf1, Regulates Dopamine Transporter Activity at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gois, Stéphanie; Slama, Patrick; Pietrancosta, Nicolas; Erdozain, Amaia M; Louis, Franck; Bouvrais-Veret, Caroline; Daviet, Laurent; Giros, Bruno

    2015-07-17

    Dopamine (DA) is a major regulator of sensorimotor and cognitive functions. The DA transporter (DAT) is the key protein that regulates the spatial and temporal activity of DA release into the synaptic cleft via the rapid reuptake of DA into presynaptic termini. Several lines of evidence have suggested that transporter-interacting proteins may play a role in DAT function and regulation. Here, we identified the tetratricopeptide repeat domain-containing protein Ctr9 as a novel DAT binding partner using a yeast two-hybrid system. We showed that Ctr9 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and forms a stable complex with DAT in vivo via GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In mammalian cells co-expressing both proteins, Ctr9 partially colocalizes with DAT at the plasma membrane. This interaction between DAT and Ctr9 results in a dramatic enhancement of DAT-mediated DA uptake due to an increased number of DAT transporters at the plasma membrane. We determined that the binding of Ctr9 to DAT requires residues YKF in the first half of the DAT C terminus. In addition, we characterized Ctr9, providing new insight into this protein. Using three-dimensional modeling, we identified three novel tetratricopeptide repeat domains in the Ctr9 sequence, and based on deletion mutation experiments, we demonstrated the role of the SH2 domain of Ctr9 in nuclear localization. Our results demonstrate that Ctr9 localization is not restricted to the nucleus, as previously described for the transcription complex Paf1. Taken together, our data provide evidence that Ctr9 modulates DAT function by regulating its trafficking. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. A preliminary investigation of the applicability of surface complexation modeling to the understanding of transportation cask weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstaff, V.E.; Chambers, W.B.; Doughty, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    A new application for surface complexation modeling is described. These models, which describe chemical equilibria among aqueous and adsorbed species, have typically been used for predicting groundwater transport of contaminants by modeling the natural adsorbents as various metal oxides. Our experiments suggest that this type of modeling can also explain stainless steel surface contamination and decontamination mechanisms. Stainless steel transportation casks, when submerged in a spent fuel storage pool at nuclear power stations, can become contaminated with radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co. Subsequent release or desorption of these contaminants under varying environmental conditions occasionally results in the phenomenon known as open-quotes cask weeping.close quotes We have postulated that contaminants in the storage pool adsorb onto the hydrous metal oxide surface of the passivated stainless steel and are subsequently released (by conversion from a fixed to a removable form) during transportation, due to varying environmental factors, such as humidity, road salt, dirt, and acid rain. It is well known that 304 stainless steel has a chromium enriched passive surface layer; thus its adsorption behavior should be similar to that of a mixed chromium/iron oxide. To help us interpret our studies of reversible binding of dissolved metals on stainless steel surfaces, we have studied the adsorption of Co +2 on Cr 2 O 3 . The data are interpreted using electrostatic surface complexation models. The FITEQL computer program was used to obtain the model binding constants and site densities from the experimental data. The MINTEQA2 computer speciation model was used, with the fitted constants, in an attempt to validate this approach

  4. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.L. Anawe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas. Keywords: Zn-SnO2-SiO2, Nanocomposite, Electrodeposition, Coatings and corrosion resistance

  5. Development of antibacterial paper coated with sodium hyaluronate stabilized curcumin-Ag nanohybrid and chitosan via polyelectrolyte complexation for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Kummara, Madhusudana; Kumar, Anuj; Soo, Han Sung

    2017-11-01

    Sodium hyaluronate (HA) stabilized curcumin-Ag (Cur-Ag) hybrid nanoparticles were prepared in the water-ethanol mixture under constant mechanical stirring condition. The obtained HA stabilized Cur-Ag hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction to confirm the formation and structural interactions. The obtained Cur-Ag hybrid nanoparticles showed spherical shape with their size range 5-12 nm that was increased with the increasing a amount of silver ions as confirmed by transmission electron microscopic analysis. Further, a fibrous cellulose filter paper was impregnated with these hybrid nanoparticles and chitosan (CS) as biopolymer via polyelectrolyte complexation. The morphological analysis confirmed the uniform distribution of hybrid nanoparticle system onto the cellulose fibers of the fibrous filter paper. As per disc diffusion method, the Cur-Ag hybrid nanoparticles impregnated CS-coated filter paper exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria compared to HA stabilized Cur only. Moreover, as prepared hybrid nanoparticles impregnated biocomposite system is eco-friendly with efficient antibacterial property and have good potential to be used in medical applications.

  6. The role of organic complexants and microparticulates in the facilitated transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Thomas, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    This progress report describes the results of ongoing radiological and geochemical investigations of the mechanisms of radionuclide transport in groundwater at two low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites within the waste management area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Ontario, Canada. These sites, the Chemical Pit liquid disposal facility and the Waste Management Area C solid LLW disposal site, have provided valuable 30- to 40-year-old field locations for characterizing the migration of radionuclides and evaluating a number of recent site performance objectives for LLW disposal facilities. This information will aid the NRC and other federal, state, and local regulators, as well as LLW disposal site developers and waste generators, in maximizing the effectiveness of existing or projected LLW disposal facilities for isolating radionuclides from the general public and thereby improving the health and safety aspects of LLW disposal

  7. Deterministic and stochastic transport theories for the analysis of complex nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffard, F.X.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics, particle transport plays an important role. Neutronic design, operation and evaluation calculations of nuclear systems make use of large and powerful computer codes. However, current limitations in terms of computer resources make it necessary to introduce simplifications and approximations in order to keep calculation time and cost within reasonable limits. Two different types of methods are available in these codes. The first one is the deterministic method, which is applicable in most practical cases but requires approximations. The other method is the Monte Carlo method, which does not make these approximations but which generally requires exceedingly long running times. The main motivation of this work is to investigate the possibility of a combined use of the two methods in such a way as to retain their advantages while avoiding their drawbacks. Our work has mainly focused on the speed-up of 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations (TRIPOLI-4 code) by means of an optimized biasing scheme derived from importance maps obtained from the deterministic code ERANOS. The application of this method to two different practical shielding-type problems has demonstrated its efficiency: speed-up factors of 100 have been reached. In addition, the method offers the advantage of being easily implemented as it is not very sensitive to the choice of the importance mesh grid. It has also been demonstrated that significant speed-ups can be achieved by this method in the case of coupled neutron-gamma transport problems, provided that the interdependence of the neutron and photon importance maps is taken into account. Complementary studies are necessary to tackle a problem brought out by this work, namely undesirable jumps in the Monte Carlo variance estimates. (author)

  8. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  9. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  10. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G

    2011-09-30

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11β; flow cytometry studies showed that 11β exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11β inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11β blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11β enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11β, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11β, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death.

  11. Determination of transport and reaction swarm coefficients from the analysis of complex transient pulses from the pulsed Townsend experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekstein, A; De Urquijo, J; Rodríguez-Luna, J C; Juárez, A M; Ducasse, O

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper the interpretation and analysis of transient pulses from a pulsed Townsend experiment by solving the continuity equations of the charged carriers (electrons and ions) involved in the avalanche. The set of second order partial differential equations is solved by SIMAV, a simulator designed specifically for the pulsed Townsend avalanche. Complex situations involving processes such as electron detachment, ion-molecule reactions, Penning ionization and secondary electron emission from ion impact at the cathode, virtually impossible to solve analytically, are discussed here to illustrate the capability of the simulator to help explain the various reaction processes involved in the avalanche, and also to derive some of the transport and reaction coefficients.

  12. A multi-step approach for testing non-toxic amphiphilic antifouling coatings against marine microfouling at different levels of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecher, Karsten; Aitha, Vishwa Prasad; Heuer, Kirsten; Ahlers, Herbert; Roland, Katrin; Fiedel, Michael; Philipp, Bodo

    2018-03-01

    Marine biofouling on artificial surfaces such as ship hulls or fish farming nets causes enormous economic damage. The time for the developmental process of antifouling coatings can be shortened by reliable laboratory assays. For designing such test systems, it is important that toxic effects can be excluded, that multiple parameters can be addressed simultaneously and that mechanistic aspects can be included. In this study, a multi-step approach for testing antifouling coatings was established employing photoautotrophic biofilm formation of marine microorganisms in micro- and mesoscoms. Degree and pattern of biofilm formation was determined by quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence. For the microcosms, co-cultures of diatoms and a heterotrophic bacterium were exposed to fouling-release coatings. For the mesocosms, a novel device was developed that permits parallel quantification of a multitude of coatings under defined conditions with varying degrees of shear stress. Additionally, the antifouling coatings were tested for leaching of potential compounds and finally tested in sea trials. This multistep-approach revealed that the individual steps led to consistent results regarding antifouling activity of the coatings. Furthermore, the novel mesocosm system can be employed for advanced antifouling analysis including metagenomic approaches for determination of microbial diversity attaching to different coatings under changing shear forces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mitochondrial genome-knockout cells demonstrate a dual mechanism of action for the electron transport complex I inhibitor mycothiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kirsten J; Singh, A Jonathan; Cameron, Alanna; Tan, An S; Leahy, Dora C; O'Sullivan, David; Joshi, Praneta; La Flamme, Anne C; Northcote, Peter T; Berridge, Michael V; Miller, John H

    2012-04-01

    Mycothiazole, a polyketide metabolite isolated from the marine sponge Cacospongia mycofijiensis, is a potent inhibitor of metabolic activity and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I in sensitive cells, but other cells are relatively insensitive to the drug. Sensitive cell lines (IC(50) 0.36-13.8 nM) include HeLa, P815, RAW 264.7, MDCK, HeLa S3, 143B, 4T1, B16, and CD4/CD8 T cells. Insensitive cell lines (IC(50) 12.2-26.5 μM) include HL-60, LN18, and Jurkat. Thus, there is a 34,000-fold difference in sensitivity between HeLa and HL-60 cells. Some sensitive cell lines show a biphasic response, suggesting more than one mechanism of action. Mitochondrial genome-knockout ρ(0) cell lines are insensitive to mycothiazole, supporting a conditional mitochondrial site of action. Mycothiazole is cytostatic rather than cytotoxic in sensitive cells, has a long lag period of about 12 h, and unlike the complex I inhibitor, rotenone, does not cause G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Mycothiazole decreases, rather than increases the levels of reactive oxygen species after 24 h. It is concluded that the cytostatic inhibitory effects of mycothiazole on mitochondrial electron transport function in sensitive cell lines may depend on a pre-activation step that is absent in insensitive cell lines with intact mitochondria, and that a second lower-affinity cytotoxic target may also be involved in the metabolic and growth inhibition of cells.

  15. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Ascorbate Biosynthesis in Mitochondria Is Linked to the Electron Transport Chain between Complexes III and IV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G.; Pastori, Gabriela M.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is synthesized from galactono-γ-lactone (GL) in plant tissues. An improved extraction procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation of membrane proteins from crude leaf homogenates yielded a simple, quick method for determining tissue activities of galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH). Total foliar ascorbate and GLDH activity decreased with leaf age. Subcellular fractionation experiments using marker enzymes demonstrated that 80% of the total GLDH activity was located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and 20% in the microsomal fraction. Specific antibody raised against potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber GLDH recognized a 56-kD polypeptide in extracts from the mitochondrial membranes but failed to detect the equivalent polypeptide in microsomes. We demonstrate that isolated intact mitochondria synthesize ascorbate in the presence of GL. GL stimulated mitochondrial electron transport rates. The respiration inhibitor antimycin A stimulated ascorbate biosynthesis, while cyanide inhibited both respiration and ascorbate production. GL-dependent oxygen uptake was observed in isolated intact mitochondria. This evidence suggests that GLDH delivers electrons to the mitochondrial electron transport chain between complexes III and IV. PMID:10806250

  17. Bronchial Mucus as a Complex Fluid: Molecular Interactions and Influence of Nanostructured Particles on Rheological and Transport Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odziomek Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport properties of bronchial mucus are investigated by two-stage experimental approach focused on: (a rheological properties and (b mass transfer rate through the stagnant layer of solutions of mucus components (mucine, DNA, proteins and simulated multi-component mucus. Studies were done using thermostated horizontal diffusion cells with sodium cromoglycate and carminic acid as transferred solutes. Rheological properties of tested liquids was studied by a rotational viscometer and a cone-plate rheometer (dynamic method. First part of the studies demonstrated that inter-molecular interactions in these complex liquids influence both rheological and permeability characteristics. Transfer rate is governed not only by mucus composition and concentration but also by hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of transported molecules. Second part was focused on the properties of such a layer in presence of selected nanostructured particles (different nanoclays and graphene oxide which may be present in lungs after inhalation. It was shown that most of such particles increase visco-elasticity of the mucus and reduce the rate of mass transfer of model drugs. Measured effects may have adverse impact on health, since they will reduce mucociliary clearance in vivo and slow down drug penetration to the bronchial epithelium during inhalation therapy.

  18. Genetic architecture of complex traits and accuracy of genomic prediction: coat colour, milk-fat percentage, and type in Holstein cattle as contrasting model traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic merit using dense SNP genotypes can be used for estimation of breeding values for selection of livestock, crops, and forage species; for prediction of disease risk; and for forensics. The accuracy of these genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the difference among three traits in distribution of effects and the consequences for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Proportion of black coat colour in Holstein cattle was used as one model complex trait. Three loci, KIT, MITF, and a locus on chromosome 8, together explain 24% of the variation of proportion of black. However, a surprisingly large number of loci of small effect are necessary to capture the remaining variation. A second trait, fat concentration in milk, had one locus of large effect and a host of loci with very small effects. Both these distributions of effects were in contrast to that for a third trait, an index of scores for a number of aspects of cow confirmation ("overall type", which had only loci of small effect. The differences in distribution of effects among the three traits were quantified by estimating the distribution of variance explained by chromosome segments containing 50 SNPs. This approach was taken to account for the imperfect linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the QTL affecting the traits. We also show that the accuracy of predicting genetic values is higher for traits with a proportion of large effects (proportion black and fat percentage than for a trait with no loci of large effect (overall type, provided the method of analysis takes advantage of the distribution of loci effects.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel Cu(II) complex coated Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles for catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajjadi, Mohaddeseh; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a convenient method for the synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles has been developed using a copper (II)-aminotetrazole complex immobilized on silica-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2) nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-aminotet-Cu(II)) as a novel and efficient magnetically catalyst. The constructed superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared, as proven using different spectroscopic techniques such as fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The applicability of Fe3O4@SiO2-aminotet-Cu(II) magnetic catalyst allows the efficient synthesis of a variety of arylaminotetrazoles from the reaction between various arylcyanamides with sodium azide in high yields. The effect of catalyst loading was investigated. In addition, the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles was reasonably proposed. Results show that the 1-aryl-5-amino-1H-tetrazole (B isomer) and 5-arylamino-1H-tetrazole (A isomer) can be obtained from the arylcyanamides carrying electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents, respectively. This procedure offers a simple methodology, relatively short reaction times, easy work-up, high yields of the products and a cleaner reaction with elimination of hydrazoic acid (HN3). Moreover, catalyst can be conveniently recovered through the use of external magnet and reused for at least 6 times without any significant loss of its activity.

  20. A Simple Representation of a Complex Urban Transport System Based on the Analysis of Transport Demand : The Case of Region Ile-de-France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Van Nes, R.

    2012-01-01

    In densely urbanised areas the structure of the transport systems becomes quite complicated. Many types of transportservices are available and many types of modes are being used, thus offering a wide palette of transport options. How do all these transport services and modes relate to each other? In

  1. Cell-derived matrix coatings for polymeric scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaris, Martin L; Binder, Bernard Y; Soicher, Matthew A; Bhat, Archana; Leach, J Kent

    2012-10-01

    Cells in culture deposit a complex extracellular matrix that remains intact following decellularization and possesses the capacity to modulate cell phenotype. The direct application of such decellularized matrices (DMs) to 3D substrates is problematic, as transport issues influence the homogeneous deposition, decellularization, and modification of DM surface coatings. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, we hypothesized that DMs deposited by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be transferred to the surface of polymeric scaffolds while maintaining their capacity to direct cell fate. The ability of the transferred DM (tDM)-coated scaffolds to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated and osteogenically induced MSCs under osteogenic conditions in vitro was confirmed. tDM-coated scaffolds increased MSC expression of osteogenic marker genes (BGLAP, IBSP) and intracellular alkaline phosphatase production. In addition, undifferentiated MSCs deposited significantly more calcium when seeded onto tDM-coated scaffolds compared with control scaffolds. MSC-seeded tDM-coated scaffolds subcutaneously implanted in nude rats displayed significantly higher blood vessel density after 2 weeks compared with cells on uncoated scaffolds, but we did not observe significant differences in mineral deposition after 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that DM-coatings produced in 2D culture can be successfully transferred to 3D substrates and retain their capacity to modulate cell phenotype.

  2. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  3. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  4. Investigation of the complex structure, comparative DNA-binding and DNA cleavage of two water-soluble mono-nuclear lanthanum(III) complexes and cytotoxic activity of chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles as drug delivery for the complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Zahra; Nasrollahi, Neda; Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamidreza; Eigner, Vaclav; Dusek, Michal; Mobaraki, Nabiallah; Pournejati, Roya

    2017-05-01

    Two water-soluble mono-nuclear macrocyclic lanthanum(III) complexes of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with 1,3-diamino-2-propanol (C1) or 1,3-propylenediamine (C2) were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. C1 complex was structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the complex was mononuclear and ten-coordinated. The coordination sites around lanthanum(III) were occupied with a five-dentate ligand, two bidentate nitrates, and one water molecule. The interaction of complexes with DNA was studied in buffered aqueous solution at pH 7.4. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and viscometric measurements provided clear evidence of the intercalation mechanism of binding. The obtained intrinsic binding constants (Kb) 9.3 × 103 and 1.2 × 103 M- 1 for C1 and C2, respectively confirmed that C1 is better intercalator than C2. The DNA docking studies suggested that the complexes bind with DNA in a groove binding mode with the binding affinity of C1 > C2. Moreover, agarose gel electrophoresis study of the DNA-complex for both compounds revealed that the C1 intercalation cause ethidium bromide replacement in a competitive manner which confirms the suggested mechanism of binding. Finally, the anticancer experiments for the treated cancerous cell lines with both synthesized compounds show that these hydrophilic molecules need a suitable carrier to pass through the hydrophobic nature of cell membrane efficiently.

  5. Development of a Repeatable Protocol to Uniformly Coat Internal Complex Geometries of Fine Featured 3D Printed Objects with Ceramic Material, including Determination of Viscosity Limits to Properly Coat Certain Pore Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-18

    HEPA filters are commonly used in air filtration systems ranging in application from simple home systems to the more advanced networks used in research and development. Currently, these filters are most often composed of glass fibers with diameter on the order of one micron with polymer binders. These fibers, as well as the polymers used, are known to be fragile and can degrade or become extremely brittle with heat, severely limiting their use in high temperature applications. Ceramics are one promising alternative and can enhance the filtration capabilities compared to the current technology. Because ceramic materials are more thermally resistant and chemically stable, there is great interest in developing a repeatable protocol to uniformly coat fine featured polymer objects with ceramic material for use as a filter. The purpose of this experiment is to determine viscosity limits that are able to properly coat certain pore sizes in 3D printed objects, and additionally to characterize the coatings themselves. Latex paint was used as a surrogate because it is specifically designed to produce uniform coatings.

  6. Preparation of the antithrombotic and antimicrobial coating through layer-by-layer self-assembly of nattokinase-nanosilver complex and polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Liu, Huizhou

    2014-04-01

    The bifunctional coating with antithrombotic and antimicrobial activity was developed using nattokinase (NK) and nanosilver (AgNPs). Firstly, the adsorption interactions between NK and AgNPs were confirmed, and the composite particles of NK-AgNPs were prepared by adsorption of NK with AgNPs. At 5FU/mL of NK concentration, the saturation adsorption capacity reached 24.35 FU/mg AgNPs with a high activity recovery of 97%, and adsorption by AgNPs also enhanced the heat stability and anticoagulant effect of NK. Based on the electrostatic force driven layer-by-layer self-assembly, the NK-AgNPs were further assembled with polyethylenimine (PEI) to form coating. UV-vis analysis showed that the self-assembly process was regular, and atom force microscopy analysis indicated that NK-AgNPs were uniformly embedded into the coating. The NK-AgNPs-PEI composite coating showed potent antithrombotic activity and antibacterial activity. This study developed a novel strategy to construct the bifunctional coating with antithrombotic and antimicrobial properties, and the coating material showed promising potential to be applied in the medical device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 123I-BPA and 123I-BPA-fructose complex as a new radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of amino acid transport in tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T. H.; Choi, C. W.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Lee, S. J.; Hong, S. W.; Lim, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Boronophenylalanine (BPA) as derivative of phenylalanine, was used to treatment for glioma and melanoma in BNCT. We labeled BPA with radioiodides for tumor imaging of amino acid transport with gamma camera. Because of limited solubility of BAP, I-BPA-Fructose(I-BPA was complexed with fructose) to increase solubility. I-BPA was labeled by chloramine T coated bead method. Serum stability of I-BPA analyzed by HPLC at 37 .deg. C. Cellular uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA-Fructose was compared in 9L glioma and B16 melanoma. To see biodistribution, I-BPA 9x10 5 Bq(20 μg/100 μl) or I-BPA-Fructose 9x10 5 Bq(20 μg/fructose 55 μg/100 μl) was injected to B16 melanoma bearing C57 mice. In tumor bearing mice at 30 min, 1, 2, 24 hr after injection of tracers (n-4 per group). In 24hr, radiochemical purity of I-BPA in serum was retained above 90%. In cultured cells the maximum uptake was observed at 60min. In 9L glioma cells, %uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA-Fructose was 2.05, 2.6 at 60min. But in B16 melanoma, %uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA and-Fructose was 2.57, 6.62 at 60 min. In melanoma bearing mice, tumor/muscle ratio of I-BPA in 30 min, 1hr, 2hr, 24hr after injection was 1.48, 2.19, 2.28, 0.29 and %ID/g of tumor was 6.25, 5.17, 3.52, 0.29. Tumor/muscle ratio of I-BPA-Fructose was 1.51, 2.05, 2.1, 2.84 in 30 min, 1hr, 2hr, 24hr post-injection and %ID/g of tumor was 4.61, 3.65, 2.93, 0.71. The radioactivity was excreted mainly via hepatobiliary tract to the intestine. I-BPA was stable in serum upto 24hr. Uptake of I-BPA-Fructose was higher than I-BPA in melanoma cells. I-BPA-Fructose, is a promising tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical in some tumors

  8. Aqueous pathways dominate permeation of solutes across Pisum sativum seed coats and mediate solute transport via diffusion and bulk flow of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Sylvia; Burghardt, Markus; Popp, Christian; Riederer, Markus

    2013-05-01

    The permeability of seed coats to solutes either of biological or anthropogenic origin plays a major role in germination, seedling growth and seed treatment by pesticides. An experimental set-up was designed for investigating the mechanisms of seed coat permeation, which allows steady-state experiments with isolated seed coats of Pisum sativum. Permeances were measured for a set of organic model compounds with different physicochemical properties and sizes. The results show that narrow aqueous pathways dominate the diffusion of solutes across pea seed coats, as indicated by a correlation of permeances with the molecular sizes of the compounds instead of their lipophilicity. Further indicators for an aqueous pathway are small size selectivity and a small effect of temperature on permeation. The application of an osmotic water potential gradient across isolated seed coats leads to an increase in solute transfer, indicating that the aqueous pathways form a water-filled continuum across the seed coat allowing the bulk flow of water. Thus, the uptake of organic solutes across pea testae has two components: (1) by diffusion and (2) by bulk water inflow, which, however, is relevant only during imbibition. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  10. Increase of transport-logistic servicing efficiency of Sverdlovsk region’s agroindustrial complex (on the example of grain cargoes transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Borisovich Petrov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the features of Sverdlovsk region to ensure grain products are reviewed. The dependence of the agricultural sector and the conditions of its transport and logistics are substantiated. It is proven that transport and logistics services have the greatest impact not on harvest and on its processing and storage. The choice of transport and logistics service strategy for enterprises of agriculture depends on productivity, prices for grain and its products and the financial condition of the producer. From the calculations made in the paper it is visible that rail transport has a significant — more than double — advantage over the automobile transport on unit costs for carriage in bulk grain cargo, but, for some reason, road transport is beginning to occupy an increasing share in the carriage of grain cargoes. Based on comparative analysis of costs to import grain cargo using various transport modes, recommendations for improvement of transport and logistics infrastructure are made, as well as measures for improving the payments system between producers, processors and transporters are suggested.

  11. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  12. The problem of complex eigensystems in the semianalytical solution for advancement of time in solute transport simulations: a new method using real arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Amjad M.J.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    In the numerical modeling of groundwater solute transport, explicit solutions may be obtained for the concentration field at any future time without computing concentrations at intermediate times. The spatial variables are discretized and time is left continuous in the governing differential equation. These semianalytical solutions have been presented in the literature and involve the eigensystem of a coefficient matrix. This eigensystem may be complex (i.e., have imaginary components) due to the asymmetry created by the advection term in the governing advection-dispersion equation. Previous investigators have either used complex arithmetic to represent a complex eigensystem or chosen large dispersivity values for which the imaginary components of the complex eigenvalues may be ignored without significant error. It is shown here that the error due to ignoring the imaginary components of complex eigenvalues is large for small dispersivity values. A new algorithm that represents the complex eigensystem by converting it to a real eigensystem is presented. The method requires only real arithmetic.

  13. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Ayoola, A. A.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas.

  14. The specchio unit (northern apennines, Italy): An ancient mass transport complex originated from near-coastal areas in an intra-slope setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, Kei; Tinterri, Roberto; Pini, Gian Andrea; Mutti, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Within the Eocene-Oligocene syn-orogenic deposits of the Epiligurian succession (Northern Apennines of Italy), a field-based study of the Specchio Unit (lower Rupelian) reveals that this complex is made up of three distinct but amalgamated mass-transport deposits (MTDs), the largest of which reaches

  15. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD.

  16. An improved FEM model for computing transport AC loss in coils made of RABiTS YBCO coated conductors for electric machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainslie, Mark D; Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Hong, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    and magnetic field-dependent critical current densities, and the inclusion and exclusion of a magnetic substrate, as found in RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) YBCO coated conductors. The coil model is based on the superconducting stator coils used in the University of Cambridge EPEC...

  17. Activity-dependent formation of a vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gradient in the superior olivary complex of NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Lena; Weber, Maren; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2017-10-26

    In the mammalian superior olivary complex (SOC), synaptic inhibition contributes to the processing of binaural sound cues important for sound localization. Previous analyses demonstrated a tonotopic gradient for postsynaptic proteins mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a major nucleus of the SOC. To probe, whether a presynaptic molecular gradient exists as well, we investigated immunoreactivity against the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in the mouse auditory brainstem. Immunoreactivity against VIAAT revealed a gradient in the LSO and the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) of NMRI mice, with high expression in the lateral, low frequency processing limb and low expression in the medial, high frequency processing limb of both nuclei. This orientation is opposite to the previously reported gradient of glycine receptors in the LSO. Other nuclei of the SOC showed a uniform distribution of VIAAT-immunoreactivity. No gradient was observed for the glycine transporter GlyT2 and the neuronal protein NeuN. Formation of the VIAAT gradient was developmentally regulated and occurred around hearing-onset between postnatal days 8 and 16. Congenital deaf Claudin14 -/- mice bred on an NMRI background showed a uniform VIAAT-immunoreactivity in the LSO, whereas cochlear ablation in NMRI mice after hearing-onset did not affect the gradient. Additional analysis of C57Bl6/J, 129/SvJ and CBA/J mice revealed a strain-specific formation of the gradient. Our results identify an activity-regulated gradient of VIAAT in the SOC of NRMI mice. Its absence in other mouse strains adds a novel layer of strain-specific features in the auditory system, i.e. tonotopic organization of molecular gradients. This calls for caution when comparing data from different mouse strains frequently used in studies involving transgenic animals. The presence of strain-specific differences offers the possibility of genetic mapping to identify molecular

  18. A KDE-Based Random Walk Method for Modeling Reactive Transport With Complex Kinetics in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole-Mari, Guillem; Fernà ndez-Garcia, Daniel; Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, a large body of the literature has been devoted to study reactive transport of solutes in porous media based on pure Lagrangian formulations. Such approaches have also been extended to accommodate second-order bimolecular reactions, in which the reaction rate is proportional to the concentrations of the reactants. Rather, in some cases, chemical reactions involving two reactants follow more complicated rate laws. Some examples are (1) reaction rate laws written in terms of powers of concentrations, (2) redox reactions incorporating a limiting term (e.g., Michaelis-Menten), or (3) any reaction where the activity coefficients vary with the concentration of the reactants, just to name a few. We provide a methodology to account for complex kinetic bimolecular reactions in a fully Lagrangian framework where each particle represents a fraction of the total mass of a specific solute. The method, built as an extension to the second-order case, is based on the concept of optimal Kernel Density Estimator, which allows the concentrations to be written in terms of particle locations, hence transferring the concept of reaction rate to that of particle location distribution. By doing so, we can update the probability of particles reacting without the need to fully reconstruct the concentration maps. The performance and convergence of the method is tested for several illustrative examples that simulate the Advection-Dispersion-Reaction Equation in a 1-D homogeneous column. Finally, a 2-D application example is presented evaluating the need of fully describing non-bilinear chemical kinetics in a randomly heterogeneous porous medium.

  19. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. De Bona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper analyzes the structure of the public transportation system of Curitiba through the theory of complex networks in a static approach of network topology and presents a comparative analysis of the results from Curitiba, three cities from China (Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, and three cities from Poland (GOP, Warszawa, and Łódź. The transportation network was modeled as a complex network with exact geographical coordinates of its bus stops. In all bus lines, the method used was the P-Space. The results show that this bus network has characteristics of both small-world and scale-free networks.

  20. Ion-exchange voltammetry of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) nickel(II), cobalt(II), and Co(salen) at polyestersulfonated ionomer coated electrodes in acetonitrile: Reactivity of the electrogenerated low-valent complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriez, Olivier; Moretto, Ligia M.; Ugo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of [Ni(bpy) 3 (BF 4 ) 2 ], [Co(bpy) 3 (BF 4 ) 2 ], and Co(salen) (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and salen N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine) is studied at a glassy carbon electrode modified with the poly(estersulfonate) ionomer Eastman AQ 55 in acetonitrile (MeCN). It is shown that the nickel complex is strongly incorporated into the polymer. The reduction of the divalent nickel compound features a two-electron process leading to a nickel(0) species which is released from the coating because of the lack of electrostatic attraction with the ionomer. Yet, the neutral zerovalent nickel-bipyridine complex is reactive towards ethyl 4-iodobenzoate and di-bromocyclohexane despite the presence of the polymer. The activation of the aryl halide occurs through an oxidative addition, whereas, an electron transfer is involved in the presence of the alkyl halide making the catalyst regeneration much faster in the latter case. The electrochemical study of [Co(bpy) 3 (BF 4 ) 2 ] shows that incorporation of the cobalt complex into the polymer is efficient, provided excess bpy is used. This excess bpy does not interfere with the electrocatalytic activity of the cobalt complex incorporated in the AQ coating and efficient electrocatalysis is observed towards di-bromocyclohexane and benzyl-bromide as substrates. Finally, replacement of the bpy ligand with the macrocycle N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine, salen, leads to the incorporation of the non-charged Co II (salen) complex into the AQ 55 polymer showing the relevancy of hydrophobic interactions. The reaction between the electrogenerated [Co I (salen)] - with 1,2-dibromocyclohexane exhibits a fast inner sphere electron transfer

  1. Transport of uranium concentrates: low specific activity versus logistic complexity; Transporte de concentrado de uranio: baixa atividade especifica versus complexidade logistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Pedro L.S.; Macedo, Eclesio F; Carvalho, Leonardo B; Carvalho, Renata R., E-mail: pedroluis@inb.gov.b, E-mail: eclesio@inb.gov.b, E-mail: leonardobernadino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: renatarangel@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A., Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the case of radioactive material transport, according to pertinent documentation - nuclear material specifically in the form op ammonium diuranate, produced by Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. - from the mine and physic-chemical processing at Caetite, Bahia, to the port of Salvador, state of Bahia, approaching the radiological protection aspects

  2. Mixing state of regionally transported soot particles and the coating effect on their size and shape at a mountain site in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    Soot particles influence the global climate through interactions with sunlight. A coating on soot particles increases their light absorption by increasing their absorption cross section and cloud condensation nuclei activity when mixed with other hygroscopic aerosol components. Therefore, it is important to understand how soot internally mixes with other materials to accurately simulate its effects in climate models. In this study, we used a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with an auto particle analysis system, which enables more particles to be analyzed than a conventional TEM. Using the TEM, soot particle size and shape (shape factor) were determined with and without coating from samples collected at a remote mountain site in Japan. The results indicate that ~10% of aerosol particles between 60 and 350 nm in aerodynamic diameters contain or consist of soot particles and ~75% of soot particles were internally mixed with nonvolatile ammonium sulfate or other materials. In contrast to an assumption that coatings change soot shape, both internally and externally mixed soot particles had similar shape and size distributions. Larger aerosol particles had higher soot mixing ratios, i.e., more than 40% of aerosol particles with diameters >1 µm had soot inclusions, whereas <20% of aerosol particles with diameters <1 µm included soot. Our results suggest that climate models may use the same size distributions and shapes for both internally and externally mixed soot; however, changing the soot mixing ratios in the different aerosol size bins is necessary.

  3. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  4. 10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

  5. Source tagging modeling study of heavy haze episodes under complex regional transport processes over Wuhan megacity, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Miaomiao; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Liang, Shengwen; Hu, Ke; Wu, Lin; Wu, Huangjian; Huang, Zhen; Shen, Longjiao

    2017-01-01

    Wuhan as a megacity of Central China was suffering from severe particulate matter pollution according to previous observation studies, however, the mechanism behind the pollution formation especially the impact of regional chemical transport is still unclear. This study, carried out on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with an on-line source-tagging module, explores different roles regional transport had in two strong haze episodes over Wuhan in October 2014 and quantitatively assesses the contributions from local and regional sources to PM 2.5 concentration. Validation of predictions based on observations shows modeling system good skills in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. The first short-time haze episode occurred on 12 October under strong northerly winds, with a hourly PM 2.5 peak of 180 μg m −3 , and was found to be caused primarily by the long-range transport from the northern regions, which contributed 60.6% of the episode's PM 2.5 concentration (versus a total of 32.7% from sources in and near Wuhan). The second episode lasted from the 15–20 October under stable regional large-scale synoptic conditions and weak winds, and had an hourly PM 2.5 peak of 231.0 μg m −3 . In this episode, both the long-distance transport from far regions and short-range transport from the Wuhan-cluster were the primary causes of the haze episode and account for 24.8% and 29.2% of the PM 2.5 concentration respectively. Therefore, regional transport acts as a crucial driver of haze pollution over Wuhan through not only long-range transfer of pollutants, but also short-range aerosol movement under specific meteorological conditions. The present findings highlight the important role of regional transport in urban haze formation and indicate that the joint control of multi city-clusters are needed to reduce the particulate pollution level in Wuhan. - Highlights: • Regional transport impacts studied on two haze

  6. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  7. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  8. 3D Structure and Interaction of p24β and p24δ Golgi Dynamics Domains: Implication for p24 Complex Formation and Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Masamichi; Hirata, Tetsuya; Morita-Matsumoto, Kana; Theiler, Romina; Fujita, Morihisa; Kinoshita, Taroh; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2016-10-09

    The p24 family consists of four subfamilies (p24α, p24β, p24γ, and p24δ), and the proteins are thought to form hetero-oligomeric complexes for efficient transport of cargo proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. The proteins possess a conserved luminal Golgi dynamics (GOLD) domain, whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we present structural and biochemical studies of p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains. Use of GOLD domain-deleted mutants revealed that the GOLD domain of p24δ1 is required for proper p24 hetero-oligomeric complex formation and efficient transport of GPI-anchored proteins. The p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains share a common β-sandwich fold with a characteristic intrasheet disulfide bond. The GOLD domain of p24δ1 crystallized as dimers, allowing the analysis of a homophilic interaction site. Surface plasmon resonance and solution NMR analyses revealed that p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains interact weakly (K d = ~10 -4 M). Bi-protein titration provided interaction site maps. We propose that the heterophilic interaction of p24 GOLD domains contributes to the formation of the p24 hetero-oligomeric complex and to efficient cargo transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deploying SHRP2 renewal 10 guidebook for project management strategies for complex projects in the Georgia Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) was selected by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Lead Adopter Incentive Implementation Assistance Grant to deploy the Renewal 10 (R10) Guide...

  10. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  11. Development of AL_2O_3 - ZrO_2 ceramic composite reinforced with rare earth oxides (Y_2O)3) for inert coating of storage and transport systems of crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.C.; Yadava, Y.P.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.; Albuquerque, L.T.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement of the oil sector has generated the need for the use of materials resistant to aggressive environments to oil. Although ceramics have high melting point and high hardness is, on the other hand, more fragile and less tough, which can cause damage to the metal structure. The Al_2O_3 based ceramics reinforced with rare earth oxide can improve tenaciousness and makes the ceramic material more resistant. This article aims to present the production of composite Al_2O_3 - Y_2O_3 stabilized ZrO_2 by uniaxial pressing, following sintering (1200-1350 deg C). Structural and microstructural characterizations as XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and mechanical tests as Vickers hardness, % absorption and % linear shrinkage were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the composite and ceramic coating for storage and transportation of oil tanks. The results indicate that the proportions of 5%, 10% and 30% ZrO_2 make it suitable as a good composite suitable coating. (author)

  12. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  13. Organizing a complex transport while guaranteeing safety and transparency: the example of vitrified wastes sent back to Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krochmaluk, Julie; Lebrun, Marc; Delmestre, Alain; Barbey, Pierre; Bonvalot, Vanessa; Belleville, Didier; Rollinger, Patrice; Alter, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is made of several small articles entitled: - 'Les controles avant le depart du convoi franco-allemand' (Controls before the departure of the French-German convoy); - 'La supervision des transports de matieres radioactives: une approche extensive de la surete des operations' (The supervision of radioactive material transports: an extended approach of operation safety); - 'Le dispositif d'information du public sur le transport des substances radioactives mis en place par l'ASN' (The plan implemented by the ASN for public information on nuclear materials transport); - 'Le recours de l'ASN a l'expertise de l'ACRO sur le convoi de colis de dechets vitrifies vers l'Allemagne' (The appeal of the ASN to the ACRO's expertise on the vitrified parcel convoy to Germany); - 'La participation du collectif STOP-EPR a l'inspection de l'ASN du convoi de colis de dechets vitrifies vers l'Allemagne' (The participation of the STOP-EPR collective to the control by the ASN of the vitrified parcel convoy to Germany); - 'La securite et la surete: des valeurs que le Groupe SNCF partage' (Security and safety: values which are shared by the SNCF Group); - 'Le transport de matieres nucleaires entre la France et l'Allemagne au cours des 40 dernieres annees' (Transport of nuclear materials between France and Germany during the last 40 years). Addressing the case of vitrified wastes transported back to Germany, the articles indicate the controls performed in France before convoy departure, discuss the approach adopted for the safety of radioactive material transport, comment the management of public information by the ASN for such transports, comment the intervention of the ACRO (Association for the control of radioactivity in western France) on the request of the ASN and the participation of a collective group (STOP-EPR) to the inspection of a convoy, outline the commitment of the French Railways (SNCF) in terms of security and safety, and give a qualitative and quantitative

  14. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a structure lacking......We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells...... of ferritin-expressing grains is quite different from that in wild-type grain. This may explain why the raised levels of minerals transported to the developing grain accumulate within the crease region of the transgenic grain....

  15. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion control...

  16. A modeling study of contaminant transport resulting from flooding of Pit 9 at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, S.O.; Sondrup, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    A simulation study was conducted to determine if dissolved-phase transport due to flooding is a viable mechanism for explaining the presence of radionuclides in sedimentary interbeds below the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. In particular, the study focused on 241 Am migration due to flooding of Pit 9 in 1969. A kinetically-controlled source term model was used to estimate the mass of 241 Am that leached as a function of a variable surface infiltration rate. This mass release rate was then used in a numerical simulation of unsaturated flow and transport to estimate the advance due to flooding of the 241 Am front down towards the 110 ft interbed. The simulation included the effect of fractures by superimposing them onto elements that represented the basalt matrix. For the base case, hydraulic and transport parameters were assigned using the best available data. The advance of the 241 Am front due to flooding for this case was minimal, on the order of a few meters. This was due to the strong tendency for 241 Am to sorb onto both basalts and sediments. In addition to the base case simulation, a parametric sensitivity study was conducted which tested the effect of sorption in the fractures, in the kinetic source term, and in the basalt matrix. Of these, the only case which resulted in significant transport was when there was no sorption in the basalt matrix. The indication being that other processes such as transport by radiocolloids or organic complexation may have contributed. However, caution is advised in interpreting these results due to approximations in the numerical method that was used incorporate fractures into the simulation. The approximations are a result of fracture apertures being significantly smaller than the elements over which they are superimposed. The sensitivity of the 241 Am advance to the assumed hydraulic conductivity for the fractures was also tested

  17. COMMD1 is linked to the WASH complex and regulates endosomal trafficking of the copper transporter ATP7A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A.; Singla, Amika; Starokadomskyy, Petro; Deng, Zhihui; Osborne, Douglas G.; Li, Haiying; Dick, Christopher J.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Koenecke, Megan; Zhang, Jin-San; Dai, Haiming; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis F.; Geng, Linda N.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Hein, Marco Y.; Wallis, Mathew; McGaughran, Julie; Gecz, Jozef; De Sluis, Bart van; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1 deficiency results in defective copper homeostasis, but the mechanism for this has remained elusive. Here we report that COMMD1 is directly linked to early endosomes through its interaction with a protein complex containing CCDC22, CCDC93, and C16orf62. This COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex

  18. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruixue [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials and Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Li, Decheng, E-mail: lidecheng@suda.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  19. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g −1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  20. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport in Al/Poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şadan Özden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of poly(4-vinyl phenol insulator layer is carried out by applying the spin coating technique onto p-type GaAs substrate so as to create Al/poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structure. Temperature was set to 80–320 K while the current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the structure were examined in the study. Ideality factor (n and barrier height (ϕb values found in the experiment ranged from 3.13 and 0.616 eV (320 K to 11.56 and 0.147 eV (80 K. Comparing the thermionic field emission theory and thermionic emission theory, the temperature dependent ideality factor behavior displayed that thermionic field emission theory is more valid than the latter. The calculated tunneling energy was 96 meV.

  1. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  2. The Complexities of Interpreting Reversible Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels in Drug Development: Does a Correlation with Inhibition of Renal Transporters Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Bleasby, Kelly; Chan, Grace Hoyee; Nunes, Irene; Evers, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    In humans, creatinine is formed by a multistep process in liver and muscle and eliminated via the kidney by a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Based on current evidence, creatinine can be taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by the basolaterally localized organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and the organic anion transporter 2, and effluxed into the urine by the apically localized multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) and MATE2K. Drug-induced elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance is routinely used as a marker for acute kidney injury. Interpretation of elevated SCr can be complex, because such increases can be reversible and explained by inhibition of renal transporters involved in active secretion of creatinine or other secondary factors, such as diet and disease state. Distinction between these possibilities is important from a drug development perspective, as increases in SCr can result in the termination of otherwise efficacious drug candidates. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with using creatinine as a marker for kidney damage. Furthermore, to evaluate whether reversible changes in SCr can be predicted prospectively based on in vitro transporter inhibition data, an in-depth in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) analysis was conducted for 16 drugs with in-house and literature in vitro transporter inhibition data for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K, as well as total and unbound maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and Cmax,u) data measured in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Source estimation for propagation processes on complex networks with an application to delays in public transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manitz, J. (Juliane); Harbering, J. (Jonas); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); T. Kneib (Thomas); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe correct identification of the source of a propagation process is crucial in many research fields. As a specific application, we consider source estimation of delays in public transportation networks. We propose two approaches: an effective distance median and a backtracking method.

  4. Modeling tourists joint choices of transportation and destination : towards an analytical tool to support the marketing of complex tourism services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to describe tourists’ joint choices of transportation and destination. The proposed modeling approach is based on the principles and methodology of decompositional choice modeling. It represents an extension of the models that have traditionally been applied to single

  5. Predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests at the C-Hole complex. Yucca Mountain site characterization project report milestone 4077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests that are to be conducted at the C-Hole complex at the Nevada Test Site on behalf of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The predictions are used to make specific recommendations about the manner in which the tracer test should be conducted to best satisfy the needs of the Project. The objective of he tracer tests is to study flow and species transport under saturated conditions in the fractured tuffs near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository will be located in the unsaturated zone within Yucca Mountain. The saturated zone beneath and around the mountain represents the final barrier to transport to the accessible environment that radionuclides will encounter if they breach the engineered barriers within the repository and the barriers to flow and transport provided by the unsaturated zone. Background information on the C-Holes is provided in Section 1.1, and the planned tracer testing program is discussed in Section 1.2

  6. Overall Architecture of the Intraflagellar Transport (IFT)-B Complex Containing Cluap1/IFT38 as an Essential Component of the IFT-B Peripheral Subcomplex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yohei; Terada, Masaya; Nishijima, Yuya; Takei, Ryota; Nozaki, Shohei; Hamada, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella as well as ciliary motility and signaling. IFT is mediated by multisubunit complexes, including IFT-A, IFT-B, and the BBSome, in concert with kinesin and dynein motors. Under high salt conditions, purified IFT-B complex dissociates into a core subcomplex composed of at least nine subunits and at least five peripherally associated proteins. Using the visible immunoprecipitation assay, which we recently developed as a convenient protein-protein interaction assay, we determined the overall architecture of the IFT-B complex, which can be divided into core and peripheral subcomplexes composed of 10 and 6 subunits, respectively. In particular, we identified TTC26/IFT56 and Cluap1/IFT38, neither of which was included with certainty in previous models of the IFT-B complex, as integral components of the core and peripheral subcomplexes, respectively. Consistent with this, a ciliogenesis defect of Cluap1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts was rescued by exogenous expression of wild-type Cluap1 but not by mutant Cluap1 lacking the binding ability to other IFT-B components. The detailed interaction map as well as comparison of subcellular localization of IFT-B components between wild-type and Cluap1-deficient cells provides insights into the functional relevance of the architecture of the IFT-B complex. PMID:26980730

  7. Overall Architecture of the Intraflagellar Transport (IFT)-B Complex Containing Cluap1/IFT38 as an Essential Component of the IFT-B Peripheral Subcomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yohei; Terada, Masaya; Nishijima, Yuya; Takei, Ryota; Nozaki, Shohei; Hamada, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2016-05-20

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella as well as ciliary motility and signaling. IFT is mediated by multisubunit complexes, including IFT-A, IFT-B, and the BBSome, in concert with kinesin and dynein motors. Under high salt conditions, purified IFT-B complex dissociates into a core subcomplex composed of at least nine subunits and at least five peripherally associated proteins. Using the visible immunoprecipitation assay, which we recently developed as a convenient protein-protein interaction assay, we determined the overall architecture of the IFT-B complex, which can be divided into core and peripheral subcomplexes composed of 10 and 6 subunits, respectively. In particular, we identified TTC26/IFT56 and Cluap1/IFT38, neither of which was included with certainty in previous models of the IFT-B complex, as integral components of the core and peripheral subcomplexes, respectively. Consistent with this, a ciliogenesis defect of Cluap1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts was rescued by exogenous expression of wild-type Cluap1 but not by mutant Cluap1 lacking the binding ability to other IFT-B components. The detailed interaction map as well as comparison of subcellular localization of IFT-B components between wild-type and Cluap1-deficient cells provides insights into the functional relevance of the architecture of the IFT-B complex. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Dinitrosyl iron complexes and S-nitrosothiols are two possible forms for stabilization and transport of nitric oxide in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, A F

    1998-07-01

    The physicochemical properties, mechanisms of synthesis and decomposition of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) with thiol-containing ligands and of S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), and the potential role of these compounds in storage and transport of NO in biological systems are reviewed. Special attention is given to the phenomenon of mutual transformation of DNIC and RS-NO catalyzed by Fe2+. Each Fe2+ binds two neutral NO molecules in the DNICs, catalyzes their mutual oxidation--reduction with formation of nitrous oxide and nitrosonium ions appearing in the DNICs. These ions S-nitrosate thiol-compounds with RS-NO formation. Fe2+ binds two RS-NO molecules and catalyzes their mutual oxidation--reduction followed by decomposition of the resulting molecules. Mutual conversion of DNICs and RS-NO regulated by iron, thiol, and NO levels is suggested to provide NO transport in cells and tissues.

  9. Synthesis of Goethite-Coated Sand and Analysis of its Interactions with Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay A. Loganathan; Sushil R. Kanel; Mark O. Barnett; T. Prabhakar Clement

    2007-01-01

    Iron(III) oxide coating on soils/sediments is reported to be the most important factor for controlling the sorption of radioactive metals in groundwater systems. Various forms of Fe(III) oxides occur in nature; they exist in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Our review indicated that goethite (α-FeOOH) is one of the most common iron oxides present in subsurface sediments. Therefore, it is important to understand the reactive chemistry of U(VI) with goethite-coated sand (GCS). Our overall objective is to develop scalable reaction models to predict uranium fate and transport in subsurface environment. In this paper, we focus on U(VI) interactions with well-characterized, synthetic goethite-coated sand. The objectives of the present work are to: (1) To identify a standard protocol to synthesize pure goethite-coated sand; (2) To characterize the goethite-coated sand synthesized using various methods; (3) To analyze the interaction of U(VI) with the goethite-coated sand; and (4) To predict the adsorption characteristics using surface complexation models

  10. Diffusional aspects of the high-temperature oxidation of protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The role of diffusional transport associated with the high-temperature oxidation of coatings is examined, with special attention given to the low-pressure plasma spraying MCrAl-type overlay coatings and similar Ni-base alloys which form protective AlO3 scales. The use of diffusional analysis to predict the minimum solute concentration necessary to form and grow a solute oxide scale is illustrated. Modeling procedures designed to simulate the diffusional transport in coatings and substrates are presented to show their use in understanding coating degradation, predicting the protective life of a coating, and evaluating various coating parameters to guide coating development.

  11. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  12. Pep3p/Pep5p complex: a putative docking factor at multiple steps of vesicular transport to the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, A; Woolford, C A; Jones, E W

    2000-01-01

    Pep3p and Pep5p are known to be necessary for trafficking of hydrolase precursors to the vacuole and for vacuolar biogenesis. These proteins are present in a hetero-oligomeric complex that mediates transport at the vacuolar membrane. PEP5 interacts genetically with VPS8, implicating Pep5p in the earlier Golgi to endosome step and/or in recycling from the endosome to the Golgi. To understand further the cellular roles of Pep3p and Pep5p, we isolated and characterized a set of pep3 conditional ...

  13. 49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195.559 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  14. Determination of the mean free path of the thermal neutrons transport by the measure of a complex diffusion length; Determination du libre parcours moyen de transport des neutrons thermiques par la mesure d'une longueur de diffusion complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The further method is the outcome of a technique used in the study of neutrons in scattering and slowing-down environment. In this technique, we replace the constant sources used in the classic experiences by modulated sources with a variable frequency. The object of this article is to describe the extension of the method for the mean free path for transport of thermal neutrons and also to indicate the possible applications for other sizes, as the slowing length, or the absolute value of the cross-section of the boron. (M.B.) [French] La methode qui va etre decrite est l'aboutissement d'une technique utilisee dans l'etude des milieux ou diffusent et se ralentissent des neutrons. Dans cette technique, on remplace les sources constantes utilisees dans les experiences classiques par des sources modulees, a frequence variable. L'objet de cet article est de decrire l'extension de la methode a la mesure du libre parcours moyen de transport des neutrons thermiques et egalement d'indiquer les applications possibles a la mesure d'autres grandeurs, telles que la longueur de ralentissement, ou la valeur absolue de la section de capture du bore. (M.B.)

  15. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of transport current redistribution and normal zone propagation in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Honghai; Schwartz, Justin; Davidson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors carry high critical current density with the potential for low cost and thus have a broad range of potential applications. An unresolved issue that could inhibit implementation, however, is a lack of understanding of the current redistribution and normal zone propagation behavior in the event of a thermal disturbance (quench). In this work, we for the first time present the real-time, dynamic observation of magnetic field redistribution during a thermal disturbance via magneto-optical imaging with a high speed, high resolution CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The optical images are converted to a two-dimensional, time-dependent data set that is then analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the normal zone propagates non-uniformly in two dimensions within the YBCO layer. Two stages of normal zone propagation are observed. During the first stage, the normal zone propagates along the conductor length as the current and magnetic field redistribute within the YBCO layer. During the second stage, current sharing with the Cu begins and the magneto-optical image becomes constant. The normal zone propagation velocity at 45 K, I = 50 A (∼50% I c ), is determined as 22.7 mm s -1 using the time-dependent optical light intensity data. (rapid communication)

  16. Depth profiling of transport properties of in-situ grown YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x films for coated conductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, William; Huh, J.-U.; Hammond, R. H.; Beasley, M. R.

    2003-03-01

    We report depth profiling of the local critical current density and resistivity of YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x (YBCO) films grown by in-situ electron beam evaporation. The method provides important information on the uniformity of the films, and therefore on the commonly observed property that the critical currents of coated conductor high temperature superconductor films do not scale linearly with thickness. Using a methodology of layer-by-layer etching, depth profiling of critical currents and resistivity of the films has been achieved. We use a Bromine methanol mixture to etch down YBCO films with an etch rate of 60 nm/min. At each step, we also observe surface morphology using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. In this talk, we report further study of the results found earlier that YBCO films deposited at high rates are composed of an upper layer of defected YBCO with a local Jc of 5 - 7 MA/cm^2 and a lower more perfect layer with no critical current capacity. The information derived may be useful in the characterization and optimization of superconducting thin films for electrical power and other applications.

  17. Characterizing transport current defects in 1-cm-wide YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-delta] coated conductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Peterson, E. J. (Eric J.); Coulter, J. Y. (James Y.); Dowden, P. C. (Paul C.); Arendt, P. N. (Paul N.); Foltyn, S. R. (Stephen R.); Mueller, F. M. (Fred M.)

    2001-01-01

    We have used a low temperature magnetic imaging system to determine current pathways in 5 cm long 'good' and 'bad' regions of a 1-cm-wide YBa2Cu3O7-{delta} coated conductor. The good and bad regions were identified with 4 point probe measurements taken at 1 cm intervals along the tape length. The current density map from the good region showed the expected edge peaked structure, similar to that seen in previous work on high quality test samples grown on single crystal substrates. The structure was also consistent with theoretical understanding of thin film superconductors where demagnetizing effects are strong. The maps from the bad region showed that the current was primarily confined to the right half of the sample. The left half carried only a small current that reached saturation quickly. Effectively halving the sample width quantitatively explains the critical current measured in that section. Spatially resolved xray analysis with 1 mm resolution was used to further characterize the bad section and suggested an abnormally large amount of a-axis YBCO present. This may be the result of non-uniform heating leading to a low deposition temperature in that area.

  18. The impact of metal transport processes on bioavailability of free and complex metal ions in methanogenic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Fermoso, F.G.; Vergeldt, F.; Gerkema, E.; Maca, J.; As, van H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2012-01-01

    Bioavailability of metals in anaerobic granular sludge has been extensively studied, because it can have a major effect on metal limitation and metal toxicity to microorganisms present in the sludge. Bioavailability of metals can be manipulated by bonding to complexing molecules such as

  19. Complex shaped ZnO nano- and microstructure based polymer composites: mechanically stable and environmentally friendly coatings for potential antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölken, Iris; Hoppe, Mathias; Mishra, Yogendra K; Gorb, Stanislav N; Adelung, Rainer; Baum, Martina J

    2016-03-14

    Since the prohibition of tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints in 2008, the development of environmentally compatible and commercially realizable alternatives is a crucial issue. Cost effective fabrication of antifouling paints with desired physical and biocompatible features is simultaneously required and recent developments in the direction of inorganic nanomaterials could play a major role. In the present work, a solvent free polymer/particle-composite coating based on two component polythiourethane (PTU) and tetrapodal shaped ZnO (t-ZnO) nano- and microstructures has been synthesized and studied with respect to mechanical, chemical and biocompatibility properties. Furthermore, antifouling tests have been carried out in artificial seawater tanks. Four different PTU/t-ZnO composites with various t-ZnO filling fractions (0 wt%, 1 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%) were prepared and the corresponding tensile, hardness, and pull-off test results revealed that the composite filled with 5 wt% t-ZnO exhibits the strongest mechanical properties. Surface free energy (SFE) studies using contact angle measurements showed that the SFE value decreases with an increase in t-ZnO filler amounts. The influence of t-ZnO on the polymerization reaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The immersion tests demonstrated that fouling behavior of the PTU/t-ZnO composite with a 1 wt% t-ZnO filler has been decreased in comparison to pure PTU. The composite with a 5 wt% t-ZnO filler showed almost no biofouling.

  20. Type IX secretion: the generation of bacterial cell surface coatings involved in virulence, gliding motility and the degradation of complex biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Paul D; Glew, Michelle D; Gorasia, Dhana G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is present in over 1000 sequenced species/strains of the Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi-Bacteroidetes superphylum. Proteins secreted by the T9SS have an N-terminal signal peptide for translocation across the inner membrane via the SEC translocon and a C-terminal signal for secretion across the outer membrane via the T9SS. Nineteen protein components of the T9SS have been identified including three, SigP, PorX and PorY that are involved in regulation. The inner membrane proteins PorL and PorM and the outer membrane proteins PorK and PorN interact and a complex comprising PorK and PorN forms a large ring structure of 50 nm in diameter. PorU, PorV, PorQ and PorZ form an attachment complex on the cell surface of the oral pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. P. gingivalis T9SS substrates bind to PorV suggesting that after translocation PorV functions as a shuttle protein to deliver T9SS substrates to the attachment complex. The PorU component of the attachment complex is a novel Gram negative sortase which catalyses the cleavage of the C-terminal signal and conjugation of the protein substrates to lipopolysaccharide, anchoring them to the cell surface. This review presents an overview of the T9SS focusing on the function of T9SS substrates and machinery components. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Uhna; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Link, Andrew J.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2005-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH 2 -terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking

  2. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  3. Excitation energy transfer in molecular complexes: transport processes, optical properties and effects of nearby placed metal nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Volkhard; Megow, Jörg; Zelinskyi, Iaroslav

    2012-04-01

    Excitation energy transfer (EET) in molecular systems is studied theoretically. Chromophore complexes are considered which are formed by a butanediamine dendrimer with four pheophorbide-a molecules. To achieve a description with an atomic resolution and to account for the effect of an ethanol solvent a mixed quantum classical methodology is utilized. Details of the EET and spectra of transient anisotropy showing signatures of EET are presented. A particular control of intermolecular EET is achieved by surface plasmons of nearby placed metal nanoparticles (MNP). To attain a quantum description of the molecule-MNP system a microscopic theory is introduced. As a particular application surface plasmon affected absorption spectra of molecular complexes placed in the proximity of a spherical MNP are discussed.

  4. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min; Lee, Jung Min; Byoen, Sang Doek; Lee, Soen Bong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  5. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young Ki; Lee, Chan Joo; Kim, Byung Min [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Min [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Byoen, Sang Doek [HA Digital Engineering Gr., Seongsan Gu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soen Bong [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications.

  6. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  7. [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiping, Kung [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Stevenson, D A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Ploessl, K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Meegalla, S K [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Beckwith, A [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Essman, W D [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Mu, M [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Lucki, I [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kung, H F [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel {sup 99m}Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, {beta}-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 {mu}g per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. [99mTc[TRODAT-1: a novel technetium-99m complex as a dopamine transporter imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Meiping; Stevenson, D.A.; Ploessl, K.; Meegalla, S.K.; Beckwith, A.; Essman, W.D.; Mu, M.; Lucki, I.; Kung, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide in routine nuclear medicine imaging procedures. Development of 99m Tc-labeled receptor-specific imaging agents for studying the central nervous system is potentially useful for evaluation of brain function in normal and disease states. A novel 99m Tc-labeled tropane derivative, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. After i.v. injection into rats, [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 displayed specific brain uptake in the rat striatal region (striatum-cerebellum/cerebellum ratio 1.8 at 60 min), where dopamine neurons are concentrated. The specific striatal uptake could be blocked by pretreating rats with a dose of competing dopamine transporter ligand, β-CIT (or RTI-55, i.v., 1 mg/kg). However, the specific striatal uptake of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 was not affected by co-injection of excess free ligand (TRODAT-1, up to 200 μg per rat) or by pretreating the rats with haloperidol (i.v., 1 mg/kg). The specific uptake in striatal regions of rats that had prior 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in the substantia nigra area showed a dramatic reduction. The radioactive material recovered from the rat striatal homogenates at 60 min after i.v. injection of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 showed primarily the original compound (>95%), a good indication of in vivo stability in brain tissue. Similar and comparable organ distribution patterns and brain regional uptakes of [ 99m Tc[TRODAT-1 were obtained for male and female rats. (orig./AJ). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Final Report - Elucidating Bioreductive Transformations within Physically Complex Media: Impact on the Fate and Transport of Uranium and Chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In situ stabilization (inclusive of natural attenuation) of toxic metals and radionuclides is an attractive approach for remediating many contaminated DOE sites. By immobilizing toxic metals and radionuclides in place, the removal of contaminated water to the surface for treatment as well as the associated disposal costs are avoided. To enhance in situ remediaton, microbiological reductive stabilization of contaminant metals has been, and continues to be, actively explored. It is likely that surface and subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, either directly or indirectly, so they are rendered immobile. Furthermore, anaerobic bacterial metabolic products will help to buffer pulses of oxidation, typically from fluxes of nitrate or molecular oxygen, and thus may stabilize reduced contaminants from oxidative mobilization. Uranium and chromium are two elements of particular concern within the DOE complex that, owing to their abundance and toxicity, appear well suited for biologically mediated reductive stabilization. Subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, rending them immobile. Imparting an important criterion on the probability that contaminants will undergo reductive stabilization, however, is the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the media. Our research first examined microbially induced transformation of iron (hydr)oxide minerals and their impact on contaminant attenuation. We revealed that in intricate cascade of geochemical reactions is induced by microbially produced Fe(II), and that during transformation contaminants such as U(VI) can be incorporated into the structure, and a set of Fe(II) bearing solids capable of reducing Cr(VI) and stabilizing resulting Cr(III). We also note, however, that common subsurface constituents such as phosphate can modify iron oxide transformation pathways and thus impact contaminant sequestration - 'affecting both Cr and U

  10. Elucidating Bioreductive Transformations within Physically Complex Media: Impact on the Fate and Transport of Uranium and Chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendorf, Scott; Francis, Chris; Jardine, Phil; Benner, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    In situ stabilization (inclusive of natural attenuation) of toxic metals and radionuclides is an attractive approach for remediating many contaminated DOE sites. By immobilizing toxic metals and radionuclides in place, the removal of contaminated water to the surface for treatment as well as the associated disposal costs are avoided. To enhance in situ remediaton, microbiological reductive stabilization of contaminant metals has been, and continues to be, actively explored. It is likely that surface and subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, either directly or indirectly, so they are rendered immobile. Furthermore, anaerobic bacterial metabolic products will help to buffer pulses of oxidation, typically from fluxes of nitrate or molecular oxygen, and thus may stabilize reduced contaminants from oxidative mobilization. Uranium and chromium are two elements of particular concern within the DOE complex that, owing to their abundance and toxicity, appear well suited for biologically mediated reductive stabilization. Subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, rending them immobile. Imparting an important criterion on the probability that contaminants will undergo reductive stabilization, however, is the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the media. Our research first examined microbially induced transformation of iron (hydr)oxide minerals and their impact on contaminant attenuation. We revealed that in intricate cascade of geochemical reactions is induced by microbially produced Fe(II), and that during transformation contaminants such as U(VI) can be incorporated into the structure, and a set of Fe(II) bearing solids capable of reducing Cr(VI) and stabilizing resulting Cr(III). We also note, however, that common subsurface constituents such as phosphate can modify iron oxide transformation pathways and thus impact contaminant sequestration - affecting both Cr and U

  11. Composite reinforced alumina ceramics with titan and lantana for use in coating storage tanks and transport of crude oil; Composito de ceramica alumina reforcada com titania e lantana para a utilizacao em revestimento de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, C.E.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Oliveira, J.C.S.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: cata_esposito@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencia. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to use ceramics to improve the performance of the tanks that store and transport crude oil and which use metallic materials for their manufacture. These tanks in contact with crude oil undergo a process of degradation on their surfaces, since crude oil is a highly corrosive substance. And in turn ceramic materials have good stability in hostile environments. However, they are inherently fragile for display little plastic deformation. Therefore, the choice of a ceramic composite alumina-titania-lantana has high mechanical strength and high toughness which were produced by thermo-mechanical processing. These composites were sintered at 1350 ° C for 36 hours, and it was held Vickers hardness testing and microstructural characterization to assess their surfaces before and after the attack by crude to use such material as ceramic coating. These results will be presented at the congress. (author)

  12. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan

    Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.

  14. Initiation of electron transport chain activity in the embryonic heart coincides with the activation of mitochondrial complex 1 and the formation of supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutner, Gisela; Eliseev, Roman A; Porter, George A

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria provide energy in form of ATP in eukaryotic cells. However, it is not known when, during embryonic cardiac development, mitochondria become able to fulfill this function. To assess this, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption and the activity of the complexes (Cx) 1 and 2 of the electron transport chain (ETC) and used immunoprecipitation to follow the generation of mitochondrial supercomplexes. We show that in the heart of mouse embryos at embryonic day (E) 9.5, mitochondrial ETC activity and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are not coupled, even though the complexes are present. We show that Cx-1 of the ETC is able to accept electrons from the Krebs cycle, but enzyme assays that specifically measure electron flow to ubiquinone or Cx-3 show no activity at this early embryonic stage. At E11.5, mitochondria appear functionally more mature; ETC activity and OXPHOS are coupled and respond to ETC inhibitors. In addition, the assembly of highly efficient respiratory supercomplexes containing Cx-1, -3, and -4, ubiquinone, and cytochrome c begins at E11.5, the exact time when Cx-1 becomes functional activated. At E13.5, ETC activity and OXPHOS of embryonic heart mitochondria are indistinguishable from adult mitochondria. In summary, our data suggest that between E9.5 and E11.5 dramatic changes occur in the mitochondria of the embryonic heart, which result in an increase in OXPHOS due to the activation of complex 1 and the formation of supercomplexes.

  15. Sorafenib targets the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes and ATP synthase to activate the PINK1-Parkin pathway and modulate cellular drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conggang; Liu, Zeyu; Bunker, Eric; Ramirez, Adrian; Lee, Schuyler; Peng, Yinghua; Tan, Aik-Choon; Eckhardt, S Gail; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong

    2017-09-08

    Sorafenib (Nexavar) is a broad-spectrum multikinase inhibitor that proves effective in treating advanced renal-cell carcinoma and liver cancer. Despite its well-characterized mechanism of action on several established cancer-related protein kinases, sorafenib causes variable responses among human tumors, although the cause for this variation is unknown. In an unbiased screening of an oncology drug library, we found that sorafenib activates recruitment of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin to damaged mitochondria. We show that sorafenib inhibits the activity of both complex II/III of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. Dual inhibition of these complexes, but not inhibition of each individual complex, stabilizes the serine-threonine protein kinase PINK1 on the mitochondrial outer membrane and activates Parkin. Unlike the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m -chlorophenylhydrazone, which activates the mitophagy response, sorafenib treatment triggers PINK1/Parkin-dependent cellular apoptosis, which is attenuated upon Bcl-2 overexpression. In summary, our results reveal a new mechanism of action for sorafenib as a mitocan and suggest that high Parkin activity levels could make tumor cells more sensitive to sorafenib's actions, providing one possible explanation why Parkin may be a tumor suppressor gene. These insights could be useful in developing new rationally designed combination therapies with sorafenib. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction between the cytoplasmic domain (CD of MHC-I, Nef, and the clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1. The CD of MHC-I contains a key tyrosine within the sequence YSQA that is required for down-regulation by Nef, but this sequence does not conform to the canonical AP-binding tyrosine-based motif Yxxphi, which mediates binding to the medium (micro subunits of AP complexes. We previously proposed that Nef allows the MHC-I CD to bind the mu subunit of AP-1 (micro1 as if it contained a Yxxphimotif.Here, we show that a direct interaction between the MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 plays a primary role in the down-regulation of MHC-I: GST pulldown assays using recombinant proteins indicated that most of the MHC-I CD and Nef residues that are required for the down-regulation in human cells contribute to direct interactions with a truncated version of micro1. Specifically, the tyrosine residue of the YSQA sequence in the MHC-I CD as well as Nef residues E62-65 and P78 each contributed to the interaction between MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 in vitro, whereas Nef M20 had little to no role. Conversely, residues F172/D174 and V392/L395 of the binding pocket on micro1 for Yxxphi motifs were required for a robust interaction.These data indicate that the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain, Nef, and the C-terminal two thirds of the mu subunit of AP-1 are sufficient to constitute a biologically relevant interaction. The data also reveal an unexpected role for a hydrophobic pocket in micro1 for interaction with MHC-I CD/Nef.

  17. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  18. Electric transport properties study of bulk BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} by complex impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattanayak, R., E-mail: ranjit.p20@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha (India); Panigrahi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha (India); Dash, T. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Muduli, R.; Behera, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha (India)

    2015-10-01

    Polycrystalline M-type hexagonal Barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) was prepared by the solid state reaction method. The single phase and well grain growth of micrometer range was confirmed by XRD pattern and SEM image respectively. The presence of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} states were verified by XPS study. In this report, the electric transport properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) was systematically investigated and analyzed in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature range of 30–200 °C. The relaxation behaviors were examined by considering both impedance and modulus formalism, to differentiate intrinsic (grain) and extrinsic (grain boundary and electrode polarization) conduction process. The co-contribution effect of grain and grain boundary was verified which appeared as a single relaxation process in the chosen frequency and temperature range. However, the sample experienced the early (even at room temperature) arrival of surface conduction which dominates over grain boundary with increasing of temperature.

  19. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  20. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. hCLE/C14orf166 associates with DDX1-HSPC117-FAM98B in a novel transcription-dependent shuttling RNA-transporting complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Pérez-González

    Full Text Available hCLE/C14orf166 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that interacts with the RNAP II, modulates nuclear RNA metabolism and is present in cytoplasmic RNA granules involved in localized translation. Here we have studied whether hCLE shares common interactors in the nucleus and the cytosol, which could shed light on its participation in the sequential phases of RNA metabolism. Nuclear and cytoplasmic purified hCLE-associated factors were identified and proteins involved in mRNA metabolism, motor-related proteins, cytoskeletal and translation-related factors were found. Purified hCLE complexes also contain RNAs and as expected some hCLE-interacting proteins (DDX1, HSPC117, FAM98B were found both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Moreover, endogenous hCLE fractionates in protein complexes together with DDX1, HSPC117 and FAM98B and silencing of hCLE down-regulates their nuclear and cytosolic accumulation levels. Using a photoactivatable hCLE-GFP protein, nuclear import and export of hCLE was observed indicating that hCLE is a shuttling protein. Interestingly, hCLE nuclear import required active transcription, as did the import of DDX1, HSPC117 and FAM98B proteins. The data indicate that hCLE probably as a complex with DDX1, HSPC117 and FAM98B shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm transporting RNAs suggesting that this complex has a prominent role on nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fate.

  2. Application of complex geometrical optics to determination of thermal, transport, and optical parameters of thin films by the photothermal beam deflection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Dorota; Franko, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, complex geometrical optics is, for what we believe is the first time, applied instead of geometrical or wave optics to describe the probe beam interaction with the field of the thermal wave in photothermal beam deflection (photothermal deflection spectroscopy) experiments on thin films. On the basis of this approach the thermal (thermal diffusivity and conductivity), optical (energy band gap), and transport (carrier lifetime) parameters of the semiconductor thin films (pure TiO2, N- and C-doped TiO2, or TiO2/SiO2 composites deposited on a glass or aluminum support) were determined with better accuracy and simultaneously during one measurement. The results are in good agreement with results obtained by the use of other methods and reported in the literature.

  3. Characterization of a Novel 99mTc-Carbonyl Complex as a Functional Probe of MDR1 P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dyszlewski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by overexpression of MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp is one of the best characterized barriers to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Furthermore, the protective function of Pgp-mediated efflux of xenobiotics in various organs has a profound effect on the bioavailability of drugs in general. Thus, there is an expanding requirement to noninvasively interrogate Pgp transport activity in vivo. We herein report the Pgp recognition properties of a novel 99mTc(I-tricarbonyl complex, [99mTc(CO3(MIBI3] + (Tc-CO-MIBI. Tc-CO-MIBI showed 60-fold higher accumulation in drug-sensitive KB 3–1 cells compared to colchicine-selected drug-resistant KB 8-5 cells. In KB 8-5 cells, tracer enhancement was observed with the potent MDR modulator LY335979 (EC50 = 62 nM. Similar behavior was observed using drug-sensitive MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-7/MDR1 stable transfectants, confirming that Tc-CO-MIBI is specifically excluded by overexpression of MDR1 Pgp. By comparison, net accumulation in control H69 lung tumor cells was 9-fold higher than in MDR-associated protein (MRP1-expressing H69AR cells, indicating only modest transport by MRP1. Biodistribution analysis following tail vein injection of Tc-CO-MIBI showed delayed liver clearance as well as enhanced brain uptake and retention in mdr1a/1b(−/− gene deleted mice versus wild-type mice, directly demonstrating that Tc-CO-MIBI is a functional probe of Pgp transport activity in vivo.

  4. Investigating the Role of the Host Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein Transporter Family in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Pathogenicity Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Visone, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato; Ballestriero, Francesco; Santos, Radleigh; Pinilla, Clemencia; Di Schiavi, Elia; Tegos, George; de Pascale, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between host efflux system of the non-vertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) strain virulence. This is the first comprehensive effort to profile host-transporters within the context of Bcc infection. With this aim, two different toxicity tests were performed: a slow killing assay that monitors mortality of the host by intestinal colonization and a fast killing assay that assesses production of toxins. A Virulence Ranking scheme was defined, that expressed the toxicity of the Bcc panel members, based on the percentage of surviving worms. According to this ranking the 18 Bcc strains were divided in 4 distinct groups. Only the Cystic Fibrosis isolated strains possessed profound nematode killing ability to accumulate in worms' intestines. For the transporter analysis a complete set of isogenic nematode single Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) efflux mutants and a number of efflux inhibitors were interrogated in the host toxicity assays. The Bcc pathogenicity profile of the 7 isogenic C. elegans MRP knock-out strains functionality was classified in two distinct groups. Disabling host transporters enhanced nematode mortality more than 50% in 5 out of 7 mutants when compared to wild type. In particular mrp-2 was the most susceptible phenotype with increased mortality for 13 out 18 Bcc strains, whereas mrp-3 and mrp-4 knock-outs had lower mortality rates, suggesting a different role in toxin-substrate recognition. The use of MRP efflux inhibitors in the assays resulted in substantially increased (>40% on average) mortality of wild-type worms.

  5. Application of a complex transport problem for simulating an acid rain episode in Europe. Anwendung eines komplexen Ausbreitungsmodells zur Simulation einer Episode saurer Deposition ueber Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R; Scherer, B

    1989-04-01

    For the first time in Europe, a comprehensive Eulerian regional tropospheric transport, transformation and removal model has been applied to an european wide acid deposition episode. This model, the Transport And Deposition of Acidifying Pollutants (TADAP) model incorporated detailed knowledge of the relevant physicochemical processes which lead to the formation of photochemical oxidants and acidifying pollutants. The EUROPA-model (EUM) of the German Weather Service, a limited area numerical weather prediction model, has been used to derive the total meteorological cloud variables. The application of the EUM/TADAP-modelling system to a 20 day-wintertime acid deposition episode in Europe showed that it is possible to model the principal features of the acid deposition system. In general, there is reasonable agreement between observed and predicted concentration and deposition patterns. Most discrepancies from observed trends can be explained by deviations between the modelled and the actual meteorology. First sensitivity studies with TADAP directed to reveal the influence of emission changes on the acid deposition system showed that there are considerable non-proportionalities between depositions of secondary pollutants and the emissions of the respective precursors. The nonlinearities arise due to the chemical coupling of the SO{sub x}/No{sub x}/VOC-system. This makes the design of control strategies to a highly complex task. Strategies developed to tackle different air pollution problems can therefore not be looked upon independently. (orig.) With 47 refs., 42 figs.

  6. Effects of humic substances on the migration of radionuclides: complexation and transport of actinides. First technical progress report (work period 01.97 - 12.97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckau, G.

    1998-08-01

    The present report describes progress within the first year of the EC-project 'Effects of Humic Substances on the Migration of Radionuclides: Complexation and Transport of Actinides'. The project is conducted within the EC-Cluster 'Radionuclide Transport/Retardation Processes'. Contrary to formal requirements of the Commission, this report with a great deal of detail is established already after one year of project work. It is scheduled to be followed by a second technical progress report covering the second year of the project. In agreement with the contractual obligations a final report of similar technical detail will also be generated. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator (FZK/INE) with strong support from the other three task leaders (BGS, CEA-SGC and RMC-E). More detailed results are given by individual contributions of the project partners in 13 annexes. In the executive summary report the origin of results presented is given, also serving as guidance for finding more detailed results in the annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. (orig.)

  7. Activity transport in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemistry of the primary coolant is such that the general material loss is immeasurably low. However, the generation of radioactive corrosion products in the coolant, their transportation and distribution to different out of core surfaces occur irrevocably through the life cycle of the reactor. This phenomena leading to the build up of radiation field, which is unique to the nuclear reactor systems, is the only major problem of any significance. Minimization of this phenomenon can be done by many ways. The processes involved in the mechanism of activity transport are quite complex and are not at all thoroughly understood. The codes that have been developed so far use many empirical coefficients for some of the rate processes, which are either partially justified by simulated experimental studies or supported theoretically. In a multi-metal system like that of the reactor, the corrosion rates or release rates need not be similar especially in reactors like PHWRs. The mechanisms involved in the formation of protective oxide coating are quite complex to model in a simplified manner. The paper brings out some these features involved in the activity transport modeling and analyses the need for extensive field related experimental work to substantiate the model. (author)

  8. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  9. The putative Agrobacterium transcriptional activator-like virulence protein VirD5 may target T-complex to prevent the degradation of coat proteins in the plant cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Huang, Fei; Shao, Lingyun; Luo, Meizhong

    2014-09-01

    Agrobacterium exports at least five virulence proteins (VirE2, VirE3, VirF, VirD2, VirD5) into host cells and hijacks some host plant factors to facilitate its transformation process. Random DNA binding selection assays (RDSAs), electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and yeast one-hybrid systems were used to identify protein-bound DNA elements. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, glutathione S-transferase pull-down and yeast two-hybrid assays were used to detect protein interactions. Protoplast transformation, coprecipitation, competitive binding and cell-free degradation assays were used to analyze the relationships among proteins. We found that Agrobacterium VirD5 exhibits transcriptional activation activity in yeast, is located in the plant cell nucleus, and forms homodimers. A specific VirD5-bound DNA element designated D5RE (VirD5 response element) was identified. VirD5 interacted directly with Arabidopsis VirE2 Interacting Protein 1 (AtVIP1). However, the ternary complex of VirD5-AtVIP1-VirE2 could be detected, whereas that of VirD5-AtVIP1-VBF (AtVIP1 Binding F-box protein) could not. We demonstrated that VirD5 competes with VBF for binding to AtVIP1 and stabilizes AtVIP1 and VirE2 in the cell-free degradation system. Our results indicated that VirD5 may act as both a transcriptional activator-like effector to regulate host gene expression and a protector preventing the coat proteins of the T-complex from being quickly degraded by the host's ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  11. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  12. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  14. Electrochemical evaluation of corrosion and tribocorrosion behaviour of amorphous and nanocrystalline cobalt–tungsten electrodeposited coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathollahzade, N.; Raeissi, K., E-mail: k_raeissi@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2014-11-14

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline Co–W coatings were electrodeposited on copper substrates from a citrate–ammonia bath. The coatings showed nodular surface morphologies, but a microcrack network was detected in the amorphous coating. However, a better corrosion resistance was achieved for the amorphous coating. During sliding under open circuit potential (OCP) condition, the potential of amorphous coating gradually became more active probably due to the widening of wear scar, and thus expansion of active area. The amorphous coatings showed a higher volume loss at OCP probably due to its lower microhardness. In anodic sliding, a sharp increase in current density was observed due to mass transport and depassivation effects. In all sliding conditions, the proportion of mass transport was higher than wear accelerated corrosion, which implied that the dissolution reaction of the coatings was mainly a mass-transport controlled process. The results also showed that the effect of sliding on degradation is more intense for the nanocrystalline coating. For both coatings, the formation of the superficial microcracks in the vicinity of wear scars indicating on a surface fatigue wear mechanism. - Highlights: • Mass-transport effect had higher proportion in tribocorrosion of Co–W coatings. • The major electrochemical-wear degradation was for the nanocrystalline coating. • The higher proportion of wear accelerated corrosion was for the amorphous coating. • Superficial microcracks were formed near scars due to the coatings brittleness.

  15. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  16. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and

  17. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  18. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16

  19. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life

  20. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  1. Ranking protective coatings: Laboratory vs. field experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Jeffrey A.; Connor, William B.

    1994-12-01

    Environmentally protective coatings are used on a wide range of gas turbine components for survival in the harsh operating conditions of engines. A host of coatings are commercially available to protect hot-section components, ranging from simple aluminides to designer metallic overlays and ceramic thermal barrier coatings. A variety of coating-application processes are available, and they range from simple pack cementation processing to complex physical vapor deposition, which requires multimillion dollar facilities. Detailed databases are available for most coatings and coating/process combinations for a range of laboratory tests. Still, the analysis of components actually used in engines often yields surprises when compared against predicted coating behavior from laboratory testing. This paper highlights recent work to develop new laboratory tests that better simulate engine environments. Comparison of in-flight coating performance as well as industrial and factory engine testing on a range of hardware is presented along with laboratory predictions from standard testing and from recently developed cyclic burner-rig testing.

  2. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  3. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, G A; Wolken, K W

    1981-10-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites.

  4. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, G.A.; Wolken, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites

  5. Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Interact with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT Machinery via Ubiquitination To Facilitate Viral Envelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Barouch-Bentov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses commonly utilize late-domain motifs, sometimes cooperatively with ubiquitin, to hijack the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT machinery for budding at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms underlying budding of viruses lacking defined late-domain motifs and budding into intracellular compartments are poorly characterized. Here, we map a network of hepatitis C virus (HCV protein interactions with the ESCRT machinery using a mammalian-cell-based protein interaction screen and reveal nine novel interactions. We identify HRS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, an ESCRT-0 complex component, as an important entry point for HCV into the ESCRT pathway and validate its interactions with the HCV nonstructural (NS proteins NS2 and NS5A in HCV-infected cells. Infectivity assays indicate that HRS is an important factor for efficient HCV assembly. Specifically, by integrating capsid oligomerization assays, biophysical analysis of intracellular viral particles by continuous gradient centrifugations, proteolytic digestion protection, and RNase digestion protection assays, we show that HCV co-opts HRS to mediate a late assembly step, namely, envelopment. In the absence of defined late-domain motifs, K63-linked polyubiquitinated lysine residues in the HCV NS2 protein bind the HRS ubiquitin-interacting motif to facilitate assembly. Finally, ESCRT-III and VPS/VTA1 components are also recruited by HCV proteins to mediate assembly. These data uncover involvement of ESCRT proteins in intracellular budding of a virus lacking defined late-domain motifs and a novel mechanism by which HCV gains entry into the ESCRT network, with potential implications for other viruses.

  6. Performance comparison of various seal coat grades used in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report documents research efforts to provide comparative quantitative performance information for various grades of seal coat aggregate available in the Texas Department of Transportations standard specifications. Length of service before rep...

  7. Trackless tack coat materials : a laboratory evaluation performance acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, demonstrate, and document laboratory procedures that could be used by the : Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) to evaluate non-tracking tack coat materials. The procedures would be used to : qualify...

  8. Behavior of Epoxy-Coated Textured Reinforcing Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Cracking in bridge decks is a common but difficult problem to control. Both research and experience show that the use of epoxy-coated reinforcement, which is mandated by most state departments of transportation (DOTs) for bridge decks, increases c...

  9. Radiative Transport Modelling of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    of a semi- infinite , isotropically and purely scattering medium; i.e. effects due to absorption, interface reflections, anisotropy, and multilayer...an infinite slab with thickness D. Photons are scattered randomly multiple times and travel a total (integrated) pathlength within the medium of L...developed for this project. Ideal case: infinitely thick slab with scatter only First, we look only at scattering process (i.e., absorption is set to

  10. A Low-Cost Method for Coating of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Manufacturing of Complex High-Precision Components for Spaceflight Applications Using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is intended to perform basic research using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) as a means of coating various substrate materials with a variety of metallic...

  11. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  12. Microstructural evolution of aluminide coatings on Eurofer during heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanumurthy, K.; Krauss, W.; Konys, J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of ceramic coatings are essential for the realization of Demo fusion reactor beyond ITER. These functional coatings have to be stable at high temperatures, provide insulating coatings to reduce MHD effects and also act as corrosion barriers to reduce tritium permeation. Some of important development of high temperature coatings are CVD process, powder slurry coatings, hot-dip aluminization and plasma detonation jet processes. Recently Galvono-Al (ECA) process is being used for depositing Al from organic electrolyte, where Al is existing as an toluol-based Al(C x H y ) complex. The deposit is performed under Ar cover gas at 100 deg C with a deposit rate of 10-12 μm/hr. This process is suitable for coating large and complex shaped assemblies and is a well established industrial process for coating Al for wide range of applications including automobile industry. In order to study the effect of high temperature on these coatings, few Al coated on Eurofer specimens were obtained from M/s. Rasant-Alcotec, Germany. The thickness of these coating is around 20 μm. The objective of the presents studies is to subject these coatings to standard heat treatment schedule of Eurofer and study the evolution of microchemistry and microstructure

  13. Detection of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport in Entamoeba histolytica and Characterization of the EhVps4 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel López-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic endocytosis involves multivesicular bodies formation, which is driven by endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT. Here, we showed the presence and expression of homologous ESCRT genes in Entamoeba histolytica. We cloned and expressed the Ehvps4 gene, an ESCRT member, to obtain the recombinant EhVps4 and generate specific antibodies, which immunodetected EhVps4 in cytoplasm of trophozoites. Bioinformatics and biochemical studies evidenced that rEhVps4 is an ATPase, whose activity depends on the conserved E211 residue. Next, we generated trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4 and mutant EhVps4-E211Q FLAG-tagged proteins. The EhVps4-FLAG was located in cytosol and at plasma membrane, whereas the EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG was detected as abundant cytoplasmic dots in trophozoites. Erythrophagocytosis, cytopathic activity, and hepatic damage in hamsters were not improved in trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4-FLAG. In contrast, EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG protein overexpression impaired these properties. The localization of EhVps4-FLAG around ingested erythrocytes, together with our previous results, strengthens the role for EhVps4 in E. histolytica phagocytosis and virulence.

  14. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim of fabricating efficient mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells, we used tris[2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert- butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)] (FK209) as a p-dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The mixture of spiro-OMeTAD, FK209, lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibited significantly higher performance than mixtures of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, spiro-OMeTAD, and FK209, and spiro-OMeTAD, Li-TFSI, and TBP. Such a synergistic effect between the Co-complex and Li-TFSI in conjunction with spiro-OMeTAD effectively improved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fabricated solar cells. As a result, we achieved PCE of 10.4%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is required for the sensitivity of yeast cells to nickel ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong; Cao, Chunlei; Jiang, Linghuo

    2016-05-01

    Nickel is one of the toxic environment metal pollutants and is linked to various human diseases. In this study, through a functional genomics approach we have identified 16 nickel-sensitive and 22 nickel-tolerant diploid deletion mutants of budding yeast genes, many of which are novel players in the regulation of nickel homeostasis. The 16 nickel-sensitive mutants are of genes mainly involved in the protein folding, modification and destination and the cellular transport processes, while the 22 nickel-tolerant mutants are of genes encoding components of ESCRT complexes as well as protein factors involved in both the cell wall integrity maintenance and the vacuolar protein sorting process. In consistence with their phenotypes, most of these nickel-sensitive mutants show reduced intracellular nickel contents, while the majority of these nickel-tolerant mutants show elevated intracellular nickel contents, as compared to the wild type in response to nickel stress. Our data provides a basis for our understanding the regulation of nickel homeostasis and molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced human pathogenesis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport pathway is not involved in avian metapneumovirus budding in a virus-like-particle expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Harmon, Aaron; Xiang, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Wang, Dan; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng

    2011-05-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that principally causes respiratory disease and egg production drops in turkeys and chickens. Together with its closely related human metapneumovirus (HMPV), they comprise the genus Metapneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Little is currently known about the mechanisms involved in the budding of metapneumovirus. By using AMPV as a model system, we showed that the matrix (M) protein by itself was insufficient to form virus-like-particles (VLPs). The incorporation of M into VLPs was shown to occur only when both the viral nucleoprotein (N) and the fusion (F) proteins were co-expressed. Furthermore, we provided evidence indicating that two YSKL and YAGL segments encoded within the M protein were not a functional late domain, and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery was not involved in metapneumovirus budding, consistent with a recent observation that human respiratory syncytial virus, closely related to HMPV, uses an ESCRT-independent budding mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that metapneumovirus budding is independent of the ESCRT pathway and the minimal budding machinery described here will aid our future understanding of metapneumovirus assembly and egress.

  17. A systemic study of stepwise chlorination-chemical vapor transport characteristics of pure rare earth oxides from Sc2O3 to Lu2O3 mediated by alkaline chlorides as complex former

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yanhui; He Peng; Chen Huani

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study has been carried out for the stepwise chlorination-chemical vapor transport (SC-CVT) characteristics of pure rare earth oxides from Sc 2 O 3 to Lu 2 O 3 mediated by the vapor complexes KLnCl 4 and NaLnCl 4 (Ln = Sc, Y and La-Lu) used NaCl and KCl as complex former, respectively. The results showed that the SC-CVT characteristics are similarly for NaCl and KCl as complex former, the main deposition temperature of the rare earth chlorides LnCl 3 is in the increasing order ScCl 3 3 3 , and then with a systematically decreasing trend from the early lanthanide chlorides to the end one. The results also showed that the total transported amount of the produced chlorides is YCl 3 > ScCl 3 , and they are much higher than that of most lanthanoid chlorides. For lanthanoids, the total transported amount of chloride increases systematically from the early lanthanoid chlorides to the end one except for EuCl 3 and GdCl 3 mediated by KCl and NaCl as complex former, respectively, which showed the divergence effect of Gd in the total transport efficiency. But there are some differences in SC-CVT characteristics of pure rare earth oxide mediated by KCl and NaCl as complex former, that is the main deposition temperature region for the same rare earth element was lower for KCl than that for NaCl as complex former except for LaCl 3 , CeCl 3 , YbCl 3 and LuCl 3 , while the total transport amount of rare earth chloride for KCl as complex former is higher than that for NaCl except for LaCl 3 and EuCl 3 . More over, the discussion was carried out for Sc and Y on the one hand and the lanthanides contain 4f electron as another hand based on the 4f electron hybridization assumption. Further more, the transport characteristics of rare earth oxides with alkaline chlorides as complex former in this study were compared to that with AlCl 3 as complex former

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Proteins Interact with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) Machinery via Ubiquitination To Facilitate Viral Envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Neveu, Gregory; Xiao, Fei; Beer, Melanie; Bekerman, Elena; Schor, Stanford; Campbell, Joseph; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Lindenbach, Brett; Lu, Albert; Jacob, Yves; Einav, Shirit

    2016-11-01

    Enveloped viruses commonly utilize late-domain motifs, sometimes cooperatively with ubiquitin, to hijack the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery for budding at the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms underlying budding of viruses lacking defined late-domain motifs and budding into intracellular compartments are poorly characterized. Here, we map a network of hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein interactions with the ESCRT machinery using a mammalian-cell-based protein interaction screen and reveal nine novel interactions. We identify HRS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate), an ESCRT-0 complex component, as an important entry point for HCV into the ESCRT pathway and validate its interactions with the HCV nonstructural (NS) proteins NS2 and NS5A in HCV-infected cells. Infectivity assays indicate that HRS is an important factor for efficient HCV assembly. Specifically, by integrating capsid oligomerization assays, biophysical analysis of intracellular viral particles by continuous gradient centrifugations, proteolytic digestion protection, and RNase digestion protection assays, we show that HCV co-opts HRS to mediate a late assembly step, namely, envelopment. In the absence of defined late-domain motifs, K63-linked polyubiquitinated lysine residues in the HCV NS2 protein bind the HRS ubiquitin-interacting motif to facilitate assembly. Finally, ESCRT-III and VPS/VTA1 components are also recruited by HCV proteins to mediate assembly. These data uncover involvement of ESCRT proteins in intracellular budding of a virus lacking defined late-domain motifs and a novel mechanism by which HCV gains entry into the ESCRT network, with potential implications for other viruses. Viruses commonly bud at the plasma membrane by recruiting the host ESCRT machinery via conserved motifs termed late domains. The mechanism by which some viruses, such as HCV, bud intracellularly is, however, poorly characterized. Moreover, whether

  19. Cellulose nanofibers use in coated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Finley

    Cellulose Nanofibers (CNF) are materials that can be obtained by the mechanical breakdown of natural fibers. CNF have the potential to be produced at low cost in a paper mill and may provide novel properties to paper, paper coatings, paints, or other products. However, suspensions have a complex rheology even at low solid contents. To be able to coat, pump, or mix CNF at moderate solids, it is critical to understand the rheology of these suspensions and how they flow in process equipment; current papers only report the rheology up to 6% solids. Few publications are available that describe the coating of CNF onto paper or the use of CNF as an additive into a paper coating. The rheology of CNF suspensions and coatings that contain CNF were characterized with parallel-disk geometry in a controlled stress rheometer. The steady shear viscosity, the complex viscosity, the storage modulus, and the yield stress were determined for the range of solids or concentrations (2.5-10.5%). CNF were coated onto paper with a laboratory rod coater, a size press and a high speed cylindrical laboratory coater (CLC). For each case, the coat weights were measures and the properties of the papers were characterized. CNF water base suspension was found to be a shear thinning with a power law index of around 0.1. Oscillatory tests showed a linear viscoelastic region at low strains and significant storage and loss moduli even at low solids. The Cox Merz rule does not hold for CNF suspensions or coating formulations that contain CNF with complex viscosities that are about 100 times larger than the steady shear viscosities. Paper coating formulations that contain CNF were found to have viscosities and storage and loss moduli that are over ten times larger than coatings that contain starch at similar solids. CNF suspensions were coated on papers with low amount transferred on paper either at high solids or high nip loadings. The amount transferred appears to be controlled by an interaction of

  20. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  1. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  2. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  3. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  4. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  5. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  6. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  7. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  8. Fracture of niobium-base silicide coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, A.D.; Zotov, Yu.P.; Ivashchenko, O.V.; Kushnareva, N.P.; Yarosh, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical properties and character of fracture of Nb-W-Mo-Zr-C alloy composition with complex by composition and structure silicide coating under different states of stage-by-stage coating are studied. Structural features, character of fracture from ductile to quasibrittle transcrystalline one and, respectively, the composition plasticity level are defined by interrelation of fracture processes in coating, matrix plastic flow and possibility and way of stress relaxation on their boundary

  9. Studies of decontamination using easy removable coatings technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oglaza, J.; Nowak, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The usefulness of removable coatings for decontamination of steel and epoxy-resin painted surfaces was examined. Natural latex, Revultex, butadiene-styrene latex as well as mixtures of latex with complexing agents and surfactants were used as decontaminating coats. The best decontamination was obtained by removable coatings of natural latex with EDTA additive for all surfaces and radionuclides tested. (author). 16 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Evaluation of the fate and transport of chlorinated ethenes in a complex groundwater system discharging to a stream in Wonju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Kaown, Dugin; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-11-01

    Chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are common and persistent groundwater contaminants. If contaminated groundwater discharges to a stream, then stream water pollution near the contamination site also becomes a problem. In this respect, the fate and transport of chlorinated ethenes around a stream in an industrial complex were evaluated using the concentration of each component, and hydrogeochemical, microbial, and compound-specific carbon isotope data. Temporal and spatial monitoring reveal that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. Groundwater geochemical data indicate that aerobic conditions prevail in the upgradient area of the studied aquifer, whereas conditions become anaerobic in the downgradient. The TCE molar fraction is high at the main and local source zones, ranging from 87.4 to 99.2% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An increasing trend in the molar fraction of cis-1, 2-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) was observed in the downgradient zone of the study area. The enriched δ13C values of TCE and depleted values of cis-DCE in the stream zone, compared to those of the source zone, also suggest biodegradation of VOCs. Microbial community structures in monitoring wells adjacent to the stream zone in the downgradient area were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the microorganisms responsible for biodegradation. This was attributed to the high relative abundance of dechlorinating bacteria in monitoring wells under anaerobic conditions farthest from the stream in the downgradient area. The multilateral approaches adopted in this study, combining hydrogeochemical and biomolecular methods with compound-specific analyses, indicate that contaminants around the stream were naturally attenuated by active anaerobic biotransformation processes.

  11. Identification of Tumor Antigen AF20 as Glycosylated Transferrin Receptor 1 in Complex with Heat Shock Protein 90 and/or Transporting ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Shapiro

    Full Text Available We previously isolated AF20, a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of approximately 90-110 kDa. The AF20 antigen is specifically expressed in human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines, and thus could serve as a cancer biomarker. To uncover the molecular identity of the AF20 antigen, a combination of ion-exchange chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to purify the AF20 antigen followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, three host proteins were thus purified from human hepatoma and colon cancer cell lines: transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, and Na+/K+ ATPase or Mg++ ATPase. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis confirmed interaction among the three proteins. However, only the cDNA encoding TFR1 conferred strong cell surface staining by the AF20 antibody following its transient transfection into a cell line lacking endogenous AF20. In support of the molecular identity of AF20 as TFR1, diferric but not iron-free transferrin could prevent AF20 antigen-antibody interaction during immunoprecipitation. Moreover, very similar patterns of AF20 and TFR1 overexpression was documented in colon cancer tissues. In conclusion, AF20 is glycosylated TFR1. This finding could explain the molecular structure of AF20, its cell surface localization, as well as overexpression in cancer cells. Glycosylated TFR1 should serve as a usefulness target for anti-cancer therapy, or a vehicle for delivery of anti-tumor drugs with high affinity and specificity. The biological significance of the complex formation between TFR1, HSP90, and/or transporting ATPase warrants further investigation.

  12. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a Purported Inhibitor of Chaperone Protein GRP78, as an Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Reyna; Pao, Peng-Wen; Hofman, Florence M.; Chen, Thomas C.; Louie, Stan G.; Pirrung, Michael C.; Schönthal, Axel H.

    2013-01-01

    Verrucosidin (VCD) belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD’s anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose), but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin). However, VCD’s strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin) might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed. PMID:23755268

  13. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmy Thomas

    Full Text Available Verrucosidin (VCD belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78 expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD's anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin. However, VCD's strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the fate and transport of chlorinated ethenes in a complex groundwater system discharging to a stream in Wonju, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Kaown, Dugin; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-11-01

    Chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are common and persistent groundwater contaminants. If contaminated groundwater discharges to a stream, then stream water pollution near the contamination site also becomes a problem. In this respect, the fate and transport of chlorinated ethenes around a stream in an industrial complex were evaluated using the concentration of each component, and hydrogeochemical, microbial, and compound-specific carbon isotope data. Temporal and spatial monitoring reveal that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. Groundwater geochemical data indicate that aerobic conditions prevail in the upgradient area of the studied aquifer, whereas conditions become anaerobic in the downgradient. The TCE molar fraction is high at the main and local source zones, ranging from 87.4 to 99.2% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An increasing trend in the molar fraction of cis-1, 2-Dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) was observed in the downgradient zone of the study area. The enriched δ(13)C values of TCE and depleted values of cis-DCE in the stream zone, compared to those of the source zone, also suggest biodegradation of VOCs. Microbial community structures in monitoring wells adjacent to the stream zone in the downgradient area were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the microorganisms responsible for biodegradation. This was attributed to the high relative abundance of dechlorinating bacteria in monitoring wells under anaerobic conditions farthest from the stream in the downgradient area. The multilateral approaches adopted in this study, combining hydrogeochemical and biomolecular methods with compound-specific analyses, indicate that contaminants around the stream were naturally attenuated by active anaerobic biotransformation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  16. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  17. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  19. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. De Bona; K. V. O. Fonseca; M. O. Rosa; R. Lüders; M. R. B. S. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper an...

  20. Dip coating of sol-gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, P. R.; Hurd, A. J.; Brinker, C. J.

    Dip coating is the primary means of depositing sol-gel films for precision optical coatings. Sols are typically multicomponent systems consisting of an inorganic phase dispersed in a solvent mixture, with each component differing in volatility and surface tension. This, together with slow coating speeds (less than 1cm/s), makes analysis of the coating process complicated; unlike most high-speed coating methods, solvent evaporation, evolving rheology, and surface tension gradients alter significantly the fluid mechanics of the deposition stage. These phenomena were studied with computer-aided predictions of the flow and species transport fields. The underlying theory involves mass, momentum, and species transport on a domain of unknown shape, with models and constitutive equations for vapor-liquid equilibria and surface tension. Due accounting is made for the unknown position of the free surface, which locates according to the capillary hydrodynamic forces and solvent loss by evaporation. Predictions of the effects of mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and surface tension gradients on final film thickness are compared with ellipsometry measurements of film thickness on a laboratory pilot coater. Although quantitative agreement is still lacking, both experiment and theory reveal that the film profile near the drying line takes on a parabolic shape.

  1. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, E. J.; Choquette, A. K.; Huon, A.; Kulesa, S. Z.; Barbash, D.; May, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO3-αFγ (α and γ ≤ 1) perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO2.5 films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  2. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, E. J., E-mail: em582@drexel.edu; Choquette, A. K.; Huon, A.; Kulesa, S. Z.; May, S. J., E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Barbash, D. [Centralized Research Facilities, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO{sub 3−α}F{sub γ} (α and γ ≤ 1) perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride) as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO{sub 2.5} films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  3. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Moon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO3−αFγ (α and γ ≤ 1 perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO2.5 films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  4. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    production of layered periodic microstructures in the coating, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of particle transport in the PVD plume, functional graded layer development, the deposition of all layers to form a complete coating, and materials characterization including thermal testing. Ion beam-assisted deposition, beam sharing through advanced digital rastering, substrate pivoting, hearth calorimetry, infrared imaging, fiber optic-enabled optical emission spectroscopy and careful thermal management were used to achieve all the milestones outlined in the FY02 LDRD proposal.

  5. Manipulation of isolated brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nano-sized particles and assessment of their effects on glutamate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Borуsov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Ostapchenko, Ludmila; Babic, Michal; Horak, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field promises breakthroughs in nano-neurotechnology. D-Mannose-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts followed by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and addition of D-mannose. Effects of D-mannose-coated superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles on key characteristics of the glutamatergic neurotransmission were analysed. Using radiolabeled L-[(14)C]glutamate, it was shown that D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not affect high-affinity Na(+)-dependent uptake, tonic release and the extracellular level of L-[(14)C]glutamate in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Also, the membrane potential of synaptosomes and acidification of synaptic vesicles was not changed as a result of the application of D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. This was demonstrated with the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the pH-sensitive dye acridine orange. The study also focused on the analysis of the potential use of these nanoparticles for manipulation of nerve terminals by an external magnetic field. It was shown that more than 84.3 ± 5.0% of L-[(14)C]glutamate-loaded synaptosomes (1 mg of protein/mL) incubated for 5 min with D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (250 µg/mL) moved to an area, in which the magnet (250 mT, gradient 5.5 Т/m) was applied compared to 33.5 ± 3.0% of the control and 48.6 ± 3.0% of samples that were treated with uncoated nanoparticles. Therefore, isolated brain nerve terminals can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, while the key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission are not affected. In other words, functionally active synaptosomes labeled with D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained.

  6. The influence of ascorbic acid on the oxygen consumption and the heat production by the cells of wheat seedling roots with their mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibited at complexes I and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.K.; Rakhmatullina, D.F.; Ogorodnikova, T.I.; Alyabyev, A.J.; Minibayeva, F.V.; Loseva, N.L.; Mityashina, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of exogenous ascorbic acid (AsA) on oxidative phosphorylation was studied using wheat seedling roots. Treatment of them with AsA stimulated the rates of oxygen consumption and the heat production and caused a decrease of the respiratory coefficient. The increase in respiration was prevented by inhibitors of ascorbate oxidase, diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), and of cytochrome oxidase, cyanide (KCN). Exogenous AsA sharply stimulated the rate of oxygen consumption of roots when complexes I and III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A, respectively, while the rates of heat production did not change significantly. It is concluded that AsA is a potent energy substrate, which can be used in conditions of failing I and III complexes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain

  7. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  8. Formation of nitrosyl non-heme iron-sulphur complexes of a mitrochondria electron-transport chain in a liver and kidneys under prolonged permanent action of radiation contamination in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorik, E.P.; Burlaka, A.P.; Druzhina, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    No-complexes with iron-sulfur protein of the N-type (EPR signal g=2.03 at 77 K) have been revealed in a mitochondria electron transport chain in a liver and kidneys of animals which were hold for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl area under action of low intensity ionizing radiation as a result of incorporated radionuclides. These alterations in protein give evidence of changes in oxidation and phosphorylation in tissues

  9. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  10. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  11. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method

  12. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  13. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Anomalous hydrodynamical dispersion and the Coats-Smith equation: the finite size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Manuel O.

    2003-09-01

    We investigate a family of probability distributions that shows anomalous hydrodynamics dispersion, by solving a particular class of coupled generalized master equations. The Fourier-Laplace solution is obtained analytically in terms of the matrix Green function method; then the Coats-Smith concentration profile is revisited in a particular case. Two models of disorder are worked out explicitly, and the mean current is asymptotically calculated. We present an approximation method to calculate the first passage time distribution for this stochastic transport process, and as an example an exact Markovian result is worked out; scaling results are also shown. We discuss the comparison with other different methods to work out complex diffusion phenomena in the presence of disordered multiple transport paths. Extensions when the models are non diffusive can also be solved in the Fourier-Laplace representation. (author)

  15. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, Satish A.; Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S.; Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish; Gurav, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  16. Development of AL{sub 2}O{sub 3} - ZrO{sub 2} ceramic composite reinforced with rare earth oxides (Y{sub 2}O)3) for inert coating of storage and transport systems of crude petroleum; Desenvolvimento de composito ceramico Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - ZrO{sub 2} reforcada com oxido de terra rara para sistema de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.C.; Yadava, Y.P.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.; Albuquerque, L.T., E-mail: juliana.carvalhosilva@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Jaboatao de Guararapes, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2014-07-01

    The advancement of the oil sector has generated the need for the use of materials resistant to aggressive environments to oil. Although ceramics have high melting point and high hardness is, on the other hand, more fragile and less tough, which can cause damage to the metal structure. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based ceramics reinforced with rare earth oxide can improve tenaciousness and makes the ceramic material more resistant. This article aims to present the production of composite Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} by uniaxial pressing, following sintering (1200-1350 deg C). Structural and microstructural characterizations as XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and mechanical tests as Vickers hardness, % absorption and % linear shrinkage were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the composite and ceramic coating for storage and transportation of oil tanks. The results indicate that the proportions of 5%, 10% and 30% ZrO{sub 2} make it suitable as a good composite suitable coating. (author)

  17. Identification of a multi-protein reductive dehalogenase complex in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1 suggests a protein-dependent respiratory electron transport chain obviating quinone involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublik, Anja; Deobald, Darja; Hartwig, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), gel filtration and ultrafiltration an active dehalogenating protein complex with a molecular mass of 250–270 kDa was identified. The active subunit of reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) colocalised with a complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) subunit (CbdbA195) and an iron-sulfur cluster...... of the dehalogenating complex prior to membrane solubilisation. Taken together, the identification of the respiratory dehalogenase protein complex and the absence of indications for quinone participation in the respiration suggest a quinone-independent protein-based respiratory electron transfer chain in D. mccartyi....

  18. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Coated electroactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  20. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  1. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  2. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  3. Unobtrusive graphene coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    The contact angle of water drops on substrates for which the wettability is dominated by van der Waals forces remains unchanged when the substrates are coated with a monolayer of graphene. Such 'wetting transparency' could lead to superior conducting and hydrophobic graphene-coated surfaces with

  4. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  5. Duplex aluminized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  6. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  7. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkinson, R.D.; Carder, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  8. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  9. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  10. 49 CFR 195.581 - Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material may I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion and what coating material may I use? 195.581 Section 195.581 Transportation Other Regulations... Corrosion Control § 195.581 Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating... atmosphere, except pipelines under paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Coating material must be suitable for...

  11. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  12. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible

  13. Corrosion Protection Performance of Polyester-Melamine Coating with Natural Wood Fiber Using EIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, PyongHwa; Shon, MinYoung [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, DuHwan [POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, polyester-melamine coating systems with natural wood fiber (NWF) were prepared and the effects of NWF on the corrosion protectiveness of the polyester-melamine coating were examined using EIS analysis. From the results, higher average surface roughness was observed with increase of NWF content. Water diffusivity and water uptake into the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF were much higher than that into the pure polyester-melamine coating. The decrease in the impedance modulus |Z| was associated with the localized corrosion on carbon steel, confirming that corrosion protection of the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF well agrees with its water transport behavior.

  14. Absorption in multiple scattering systems of coated spheres: design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, Brian; Andraud, Christine; Stout, Sophie; Lafait, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of some recently derived transfer matrix methods for electromagnetic scattering calculations in systems composed of coated spherical scatterers. Any of the spherical coatings, cores, or host media may be composed of absorbing materials. Our formulae permit the calculation of local absorption in either orientation fixed or orientation averaged situations. We introduce methods for estimating the macroscopic transport properties of such media, and show how our scattering calculations can permit 'design' optimization of macroscopic properties

  15. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of Particulate Reinforced Epoxy Coatings and Zinc-Rich Coatings Under an Erosion and Corrosion Environment for Oil and Gas Industry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dailin

    During oil and gas production and transportation, the presence of an oil-sand slurry, together with the presence of CO2, H2S, oxygen, and seawater, create an erosive/abrasive and corrosive environment for the interior surfaces of undersea pipelines transporting oil and gas from offshore platforms. Erosion/wear and corrosion are often synergic processes leading to a much greater material loss of pipeline cross-section than that caused by each individual process alone. Both organic coatings and metallic sacrificial coatings have been widely employed to provide protection to the pipeline steels against corrosion through barrier protection and cathodic protection, and these protection mechanisms have been well studied. However, coating performance under the synergic processes of erosion/wear and corrosion have been much less researched and coating degradation mechanisms when erosion/wear and corrosion are both going on has not been well elucidated. In the work presented in this dissertation, steel panels coated with filler reinforced epoxy coatings and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced zinc-rich coatings have been evaluated under erosion/wear followed by an exposure to a corrosive environment. Electrochemical tests and material characterization methods have been applied to study the degradation mechanisms of the coatings during the tests and coating degradation mechanisms have been proposed. While organic coatings with a lower amount of filler particles provided better protection in a corrosive environment alone and in solid particle impingement erosion testing alone, organic coatings with a higher amount of filler particles showed better performance during wear testing alone. A higher amount of filler particles was also beneficial in providing protection against wear and corrosion environment, and erosion and corrosion environment. Coating thickness played a significant role in the barrier properties of the coatings under both erosion and corrosion tests. When the

  16. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong; Jeon, Nam Joong; Choi, Yong Chan; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Grä tzel, Michael; Seok, Sang Il

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim

  17. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  18. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Presentation on the NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings project. Project is in response to a Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and ESA Concerning Cooperation in the Field of Space Transportation - signed September 11, 2009. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have expressed mutual interest in pursuing cooperation in the areas of evaluating hexavalent chrome-free coatings, environmentally-preferable coatings for maintenance of launch facilities and ground support equipment, citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  19. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard

    2016-01-01

    The ability of hydrophobic, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings to decelerate frost propagation was investigated. Compared to a bare aluminum surface, the coatings do not significantly reduce the freezing probability of supercooled water drops. On both surfaces, the probability for ice nucleation...... at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...

  20. Investigation of calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohamad Abd Razak; Hyzan Mohd Yusof

    1999-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is the main constituent of our bone and tooth minerals. The use of this bioactive material for coating implant such as artificial joint prosthesis, therefore, can promote biological fixation and enhance biocompatibility. Our initial work has been focused on the evaluation of experimental conditions of coating preparation and the effects of post-deposition calcium phosphate coatings on stainless steel substrates. The coating layers were produced by the precipitation technique and coatings were carried out in sol-gel by the dipping method. For comparison purposes a wet method was used to obtain a fine calcium phosphate ceramic powder for fabrication of microcrystal suspension used as a coating material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS), energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterise the morphology, chemical composition and structure of the coatings. The results showed that the dip coating of stainless steel substrates using viscous solutions lead to the formation of porous calcium phosphate layers. These results suggested that fabrication of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using this route offers significant advantages over the currently used methods due to considerably lower temperature process involved and may produce better result for substrates with complex shapes

  1. High quality aluminide and thermal barrier coatings deposition for new and service exposed parts by CVD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, F.; Tuohy, C.; Whelan, L.; Kennedy, A.D. [SIFCO Turbine Components, Carrigtwohill, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the performance of CVD aluminide coatings is compared to that of coatings deposited by the classical pack cementation technique using standard SIFCO procedures. The CVD coatings always seem to behave better upon exposure to isothermal and cyclic oxidation conditions. This is explained by a longer term stability of CVD coatings, with higher Al amounts in the diffusion zone and less refractory element precipitation in the additive layer. The qualities of Pt/Al coatings by out-of-pack and CVD are also compared as a previous step for further thermal barrier coating deposition. As an example, YSZ thermal barrier coatings are deposited by MO-CVD on Pt/Al CVD bond coats rendering adherent and thick coatings around the surface of turbine blades. This process under development does not require complex manipulation of the component to be coated. (orig.)

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology for formation of thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide has been developed in the paper. The paper investigates structures of phase composition and thermal stability of such developed coatings. Investigation results pertaining to formation of an oxide system ZrO2 – Y2O3, while using plasma spraying and subsequent high-energy processing, which allows to increase resistance of a thermal barrier coating to thermal cycling heat resistance of the coating at temperature of 1100 °C. This leads to longer protection of bottom layer against high-temperature exposure. The methodology is based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy investigations of structural elements in composite plasma coatings of the ZrO2 – Y2O system. Resistance of plasma coatings (Мe – Cr – Al – Y/ZrO2 – Y2O3-type, used as TBC to protect gas turbine engine blades under conditions of frequent thermal cyclings is limited by cleavage of an outer ceramic layer. Structural and electron microprobe investigations have shown that as a result of thermal cycling an outer atmosphere due to porous structure of the ceramic coating layer, migrates to the surface of lower metal coating, causing its oxidation. As a result, the metal-ceramic Al2O3 layer is formed at a metal-ceramic interface and it changes a stress state of the coating that causes a reduction of protective properties. Thus, a high heat resistance of thermal barrier coatings depends on processes occurring at the interface between metal and ceramic coating layers. A laser impact on samples with TBC leads to changes in the structure of the oxide layer of ZrO2 – Y2O3. In this case its initial surface characterized by considerable relief is significantly flattened due to processing and the coating is fractured and it is separated in fragments. As the oxide coating has low thermal conductivity, and the time of laser exposure is about 10–3 sec, a heat flux

  3. Thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces having heat-sensitive coating, comprises restoring coating by thermally coating the coating material after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating

    OpenAIRE

    Riedel, Frank; Winkelmann, Ralf; Puschmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The method for thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces (1), which have a heat-sensitive coating (2), comprises restoring the coating by thermally coating a coating material (3) after thermally joining and/or coating or thermally separating the workpieces. A part of the thermal energy introduced in the workpiece for joining and/or coating or separating or in the workpieces is used for thermally coating the coating material. Two workpieces are welded or soldered ...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Drug-Drug Interactions Between Repaglinide and Cyclosporin A/Gemfibrozil Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models With In Vitro Transporter/Enzyme Inhibition Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Toshimoto, Kota; Yao, Yoshiaki; Yoshikado, Takashi; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of transporter- and enzyme-mediated complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is challenging. Repaglinide (RPG) is transported into the liver by OATP1B1 and then is metabolized by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. The purpose of this study was to describe the complex DDIs of RPG quantitatively based on unified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models using in vitro K i values for OATP1B1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C8. Cyclosporin A (CsA) or gemfibrozil (GEM) increased the blood concentrations of RPG. The time profiles of RPG and the inhibitors were analyzed by PBPK models, considering the inhibition of OATP1B1 and CYP3A4 by CsA or OATP1B1 inhibition by GEM and its glucuronide and the mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by GEM glucuronide. RPG-CsA interaction was closely predicted using a reported in vitro K i,OATP1B1 value in the presence of CsA preincubation. RPG-GEM interaction was underestimated compared with observed data, but the simulation was improved with the increase of f m,CYP2C8 . These results based on in vitro K i values for transport and metabolism suggest the possibility of a bottom-up approach with in vitro inhibition data for the prediction of complex DDIs using unified PBPK models and in vitro f m value of a substrate for multiple enzymes should be considered carefully for the prediction. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing self-cleaning and air purifying transportation infrastructure components to minimize environmental impact of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Creating transportation infrastructure, which can clean up itself and contaminated air surrounding it, can be a : groundbreaking approach in addressing environmental challenges of our time. This project has explored a possibility of : depositing coat...

  6. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  7. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  8. Robust Fiber Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goettler, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The highly desired ceramic matrix composite is the one in which the high strength and strain-to-failure is achieved through judicious selection of a fiber coating that can survive the high-temperature...

  9. Coating of substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.A.; Nelson, R.L.; Woodhead, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The process is concerned with providing substrates with coatings obtainable from sols, for example to protect the substrate (such as in nuclear reactors or hydrocarbon cracking plant) or to provide a carrier for catalytically active material. Hitherto, coatings obtained from sols have had a high porosity and high surface area so that they have not been entirely satisfactory for the above applications. In the process described, dense, low-porosity coatings are provided by contacting the substrate with a sol of refractory material (e.g. CeO 2 or SiO 2 ) convertible to a gel of density at least 40% of the theoretical density of the refractory material, and converting the sol to the gel. Optionally, the gel may be converted to a ceramic coating by firing. (author)

  10. Charge transport in TiO.sub.2./sub. films with complex percolation pathways investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Zajac, Vít; Rychetský, Ivan; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.; Mandlmeier, B.; Bein, T.; Mics, Zoltan; Kužel, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 302-313 ISSN 2156-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * TiO 2 nanoparticles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.342, year: 2013

  11. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  12. Radiation hardening coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.H.; Prucnal, P.J.; DeMajistre, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a radiation hardening coating material. First a resin is prepared by reaction of bisphenol diglycidylic ether with acrylic or methacrylic acids. Then the reactive solvent is prepared by reaction of acrylic or methacrylic acids with epichlorhydrine or epibromhydrine. Then a solution consisting of the resin dissolved in the reactive solvent is prepared. A substrate (wood, paper, polyesters, polyamines etc.) is coated with this composition and exposed to ionizing radiations (electron beams) or ultraviolet radiations [fr

  13. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the coating/substrate interface on the photocatalytic behavior of Al-TiO2 coatings was investigated. The TiO2 coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The nanoscale structure of the coating was analyzed using X-ray diffraction; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron...... transport between the coating and the metallic substrate. The highest photocurrents were indeed obtained when the thickness of interfacial aluminum oxide could be reduced by sputtering a thin Ti layer prior to TiO2 coating. Photocurrent plotted for different photon energy for a TiO2 coating on a Ti...

  14. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  15. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  16. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  17. Thin coatings for heavy industry: Advanced coatings for pipes and valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernhes, Luc

    characteristics suitable for applications such as pipes and valves. From these general objectives, three specific objectives were derived: 1) to select and assess the best candidates for alternatives to hard chromium electroplating, which has been classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an environmentally unfriendly process; 2) to investigate recurrent failures occurring in the field with thermal sprayed HVOF Cr3C 2-NiCr coating applied to Inconel 718 PH when exposed to supercritical steam lines and thermal shocks in supercritical power plants (determining the root causes of coating failures and assessing potential coating alternatives to alleviate these issues); and 3) to develop new coating architectures, including complex microstructures and interfaces, and to better understand and optimize complex tribomechanical properties. The main results are presented in the form of articles in peer-reviewed journals. In the first article, a variety of chromium-free protective coatings were assessed as alternatives to hard chromium (HC) electroplating, such as nanostructured cobalt-phosphor (NCP) deposited by electroplating and tungsten/tungsten carbide (W/WC) applied by chemical vapor deposition. In order to compare performance across the coatings, a series of laboratory tests were performed, including hardness, microscratch, pin-on-disk, and electrochemical polarization measurements. Mechanical and fatigue resistance were also determined using prototype valves with coated ball under severe tribocorrosion conditions. It was found that W/WC coating exhibits superior wear and corrosion resistance due to high hardness and high pitting resistance, respectively, whereas NCP exhibits better wear resistance than HC with alumina ball as well as low corrosion potential, making it suitable for use as sacrificial protective coating. Both nanostructured coatings exhibited superior tribomechanical and functional characteristics compared to HC. The second article presents an

  18. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-07-31

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na+ solutions. However, Ca2+ ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na+ solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactio