WorldWideScience

Sample records for coastal water samples

  1. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

  2. Evaluation of sampling devices for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface microlayer coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, C; García-Flor, N; Dachs, J; Bayona, J M; Albaigés, J

    2004-05-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) may play an important role on the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. In order to evaluate the appropriateness of a number of sampling devices for the analysis of 14 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3-5 aromatic rings), marine SML waters were sampled using a glass plate, a rotating drum/roller, a metal screen and a surface slick sampler. The underlying waters were also sampled for the determination of the corresponding enrichment factors (EF = [C](microlayer)/[C](underlying water)). The EFs were phase dependent, ranging from 1 to 3 for the dissolved phase and between 4 and 7 for the particulate phase. In order to better assess the performance of the different sampling methods, in terms of phase partitioning, the truly dissolved and colloidal phases were also estimated. Generally, no significant differences were found for the enrichment factors provided by the different methods, due to the observed large variability in concentrations that can be attributed to small-scale coastal processes. However, the metal screen is recommended as the most efficient sampling method for the study of PAHs taking into account the amount of water collected versus time.

  3. Sampling effort of periphytic diatoms for bioassessment research using taxonomic distinctness in marine ecosystems: A case study in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Zhongwen; Xu, Guanjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-11-15

    The sampling effort for detecting taxonomic distinctness of periphytic diatom communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June 2014. Samples with different sizes (microscopy glass slides) were collected at two depths of 1m and 3m. To obtain the communities with dissimilarities of <10%, 2 slide replicates were sufficient for sampling at a depth of 1m, while 4 were required for the those at a depth of 3m. The values of four taxonomic distinctness indices represented a low sensitivity to sample sizes over all exposure period ages: at a coefficient of variation of <10%, 2 and 9 slide replicates were required at a depth of 1m and 3m, respectively. We suggest that the sampling strategy of the diatoms for detecting taxonomic distinctness might be better at 1m than at a deeper layer in coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  5. Effect of Sampling Depth on Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates in River-Stratified Arctic Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. A.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In summer-time Arctic coastal waters that are strongly influenced by river run-off, extreme stratification severely limits wind mixing, making it difficult to effectively sample the surface 'mixed layer', which can be as shallow as 1 m, from a ship. During two expeditions in southwestern Hudson Bay, off the Nelson, Hayes, and Churchill River estuaries, we confirmed that sampling depth has a strong impact on estimates of 'surface' pCO2 and calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes. We determined pCO2 in samples collected from 5 m, using a typical underway system on the ship's seawater supply; from the 'surface' rosette bottle, which was generally between 1 and 3 m; and using a niskin bottle deployed at 1 m and just below the surface from a small boat away from the ship. Our samples confirmed that the error in pCO2 derived from typical ship-board versus small-boat sampling at a single station could be nearly 90 μatm, leading to errors in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux of more than 0.1 mmol/(m2s). Attempting to extrapolate such fluxes over the 6,000,000 km2 area of the Arctic shelves would generate an error approaching a gigamol CO2/s. Averaging the station data over a cruise still resulted in an error of nearly 50% in the total flux estimate. Our results have implications not only for the design and execution of expedition-based sampling, but also for placement of in-situ sensors. Particularly in polar waters, sensors are usually deployed on moorings, well below the surface, to avoid damage and destruction from drifting ice. However, to obtain accurate information on air-sea fluxes in these areas, it is necessary to deploy sensors on ice-capable buoys that can position the sensors in true 'surface' waters.

  6. The Spatial-sampling Charcteristics of Global Optical Imagers: Implications on Product Interconsistency over Land And Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, N.; Sarkar, S.; Wolfe, R. E.; Franz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing need to construct long-term climate-quality data records to understand, monitor, and predict climate variability and change, it is vital to continue systematic satellite measurements along with the development of new technology for more quantitative and accurate observations. The Suomi-NPP mission provides continuity in monitoring the Earth's surface and its atmosphere in a similar fashion as the heritage MODIS instruments onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The reflective properties of the Earth surface, including land surface reflectance (LSR) and remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) in costal waters, are among the essential climate variables from which higher-level products relevant to biological and biogeochemical activities can be explored. In this study, we aim at quantifying consistency amongst Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MODS, and the Suomi-NPP VIIRS LSRs as well as Rrs in coastal waters (Level-2). To avoid interferences from sources of measurement and/or processing errors other than spatial sampling, including calibration, atmospheric correction, and the effects of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), the MODIS and VIIRS Level-2 products are simulated using the Landsat-8's Operational Land Imager (OLI) Level-2 products. The simulations are performed using the instruments' point spread functions on a daily basis for various OLI scenes over a 16-day revisit cycle. Preliminary results over land targets show that the daily mean biases (computed over the entire OLI area) in LSRs due to spatial sampling remain below 0.0015 (1%) in absolute surface reflectance. Overall, the disparity increases when VIIRS viewing zenith angle is larger than that of MODIS. Similar trends were observed for the simulated NDVI products. Depending on the spatial heterogeneity of the OLI scenes, per-grid-cell differences can reach up to . Further spatial analysis of the NDVI and LSR products revealed that depending on the user requirements for product

  7. Development Strategy for Effective Sampling to Detect Possible Nutrient Fluxes in Oligotrophic Coastal Reef Waters in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Non-detectability of nutrients in the upper 50m is a reflection of poor sampling frequency or the absence of a highly...global warming, sea level rise, drought , freshening, eutrophication and pollution - affect the susceptibility of coastal areas to natural...northeast Caribbean Sea.18 Also, the southern region of PR is intermittently influenced by plumes from two major rivers, the Orinoco and Amazon . Thus

  8. Total- and monomethyl-mercury and major ions in coastal California fog water: Results from two years of sampling on land and at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Weiss-Penzias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine fog water samples were collected over two summers (2014–2015 with active strand collectors (CASCC at eight coastal sites from Humboldt to Monterey counties in California, USA, and on four ocean cruises along the California coastline in order to investigate mercury (Hg cycling at the ocean-atmosphere-land interface. The mean concentration of monomethylmercury (MMHg in fog water across terrestrial sites for both years was 1.6 ± 1.9 ng L-1 (<0.01–10.4 ng L-1, N = 149, which corresponds to 5.7% (2.0–10.8% of total Hg (HgT in fog. Rain water samples from three sites had mean MMHg concentrations of 0.20 ± 0.12 ng L-1 (N = 5 corresponding to 1.4% of HgT. Fog water samples collected at sea had MMHg concentrations of 0.08 ± 0.15 ng L-1 (N = 14 corresponding to 0.4% of HgT. Significantly higher MMHg concentrations in fog were observed at terrestrial sites next to the ocean relative to a site 40 kilometers inland, and the mean difference was 1.6 ng L-1. Using a rate constant for photo-demethylation of MMHg of -0.022 h-1 based on previous demethylation experiments and a coastal-inland fog transport time of 12 hours, a mean difference of only 0.5 ng L-1 of MMHg was predicted between coastal and inland sites, indicating other unknown source and/or sink pathways are important for MMHg in fog. Fog water deposition to a standard passive 1.00 m2 fog collector at six terrestrial sites averaged 0.10 ± 0.07 L m-2 d-1, which was ∼2% of typical rainwater deposition in this area. Mean air-surface fog water fluxes of MMHg and HgT were then calculated to be 34 ± 40 ng m-2 y-1 and 546 ± 581 ng m-2 y-1, respectively. These correspond to 33% and 13% of the rain fluxes, respectively.

  9. Developmental Strategy For Effective Sampling To Detect Possible Nutrient Fluxes In Oligotrophic Coastal Reef Waters In The Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, W. G.; Corredor, J. E.; Ko, D.; Zika, R. G.; Mooers, C. N.

    2008-05-01

    The increasing effort to develop the coastal ocean observing system (COOS) in various institutions has gained momentum due to its high value to climate, environmental, economic, and health issues. The stress contributed by nutrients to the coral reef ecosystem is among many problems that are targeted to be resolved using this system. Traditional nutrient sampling has been inadequate to resolve issues on episodic nutrient fluxes in reef regions due to temporal and spatial variability. This paper illustrates sampling strategy using the COOS information to identify areas that need critical investigation. The area investigated is within the Puerto Rico subdomain (60-70oW, 15-20oN), and Caribbean Time Series (CaTS), World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Intra-America Sea (IAS) ocean nowcast/forecast system (IASNFS), and other COOS-related online datasets are utilized. Nutrient profile results indicate nitrate is undetectable in the upper 50 m apparently due to high biological consumption. Nutrients are delivered in Puerto Rico particularly in the CaTS station either via a meridional jet formed from opposing cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies or wind-driven upwelling. The strong vertical fluctuation in the upper 50 m demonstrates a high anomaly in temperature and salinity and a strong cross correlation signal. High chlorophyll a concentration corresponding to seasonal high nutrient influx coincides with higher precipitation accumulation rates and apparent riverine input from the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers during summer (August) than during winter (February) seasons. Non-detectability of nutrients in the upper 50 m is a reflection of poor sampling frequency or the absence of a highly sensitive nutrient analysis method to capture episodic events. Thus, this paper was able to determine the range of depths and concentrations that need to be critically investigated to determine nutrient fluxes, nutrient sources, and climatological factors that can affect nutrient delivery

  10. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within + or - 21% of operational forest survey figures and for all counties the difference was only one percent. Correlations of airborne terrain reflectance measurements with LANDSAT radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients of determination for 28 of the 32 modeling attempts, not adverseley affected by rain shower occurring between the times of LANDSAT passage and aircraft overflights, exceeded 0.83.

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ENDEAVOUR, JOHN P. TULLY and PARIZEAU in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 1985-02-12 to 2010-06-18 (NODC Accession 0110260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110260 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ENDEAVOUR, JOHN P. TULLY and PARIZEAU in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  12. Water Column Variability in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    offshore waters of energy, mass, and biota. OBJECTIVES Our objective is to determine the processes that cause water column variations in coastal regions...meteorological conditions (solar radiation, wind velocity, and heat fluxes), (iv) tidal mixing, stratification, water mass variations, (v) runoff from land...air-sea gas exchange and biological activity in these offshore waters. Two papers are being submitted to Limnology and Oceanography on the annual

  13. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, John A; Danz, Nicholas P; Regal, Ronald R; Kelly, John R; Niemi, Gerald J; Reavie, Euan D; Hollenhorst, Tom; Axler, Richard P; Trebitz, Anett S; Cotter, Anne M; Peterson, Gregory S

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of relationships between human activities and water chemistry is needed to identify and manage sources of anthropogenic stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize relationships between water chemistry and multiple classes of human activity (agriculture, population and development, point source pollution, and atmospheric deposition). We also evaluated the influence of geomorphology and biogeographic factors on stressor-water quality relationships. We collected water chemistry data from 98 coastal wetlands distributed along the United States shoreline of the Laurentian Great Lakes and GIS-based stressor data from the associated drainage basin to examine stressor-water quality relationships. The sampling captured broad ranges (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) in total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and chloride; concentrations were strongly correlated with stressor metrics. Hierarchical partitioning and all-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent influence of different stressor classes on water quality and to identify best predictive models. Results showed that all categories of stress influenced water quality and that the relative influence of different classes of disturbance varied among water quality parameters. Chloride exhibited the strongest relationships with stressors followed in order by TN, Chl a, TP, TSS, and DIN. In general, coarse scale classification of wetlands by morphology (three wetland classes: riverine, protected, open coastal) and biogeography (two ecoprovinces: Eastern Broadleaf Forest [EBF] and Laurentian Mixed Forest [LMF]) did not improve predictive models. This study provides strong evidence of the link between water chemistry and human stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands and can be used to inform management efforts to improve water

  14. Air-Water Gas Transfer in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    OBJECTIVES In interdisciplinary field experiments the influence of wind forcing, short wind waves, and surfactants on the air-sea gas transfer in coastal...Physicochemical surface conditions ranged from coastal waters with high surfactant concentrations to very clean, deep blue waters close to the Bermuda islands...research project are only the beginning of a new interdisciplinary research area that merges chemistry , applied optics, fluid mechanics, and image

  15. Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom.

    The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production.

    Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.

  16. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  17. Occurrence and concentration of caffeine in Oregon coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez del Rey, Zoe; Granek, Elise F; Sylvester, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Caffeine, a biologically active drug, is recognized as a contaminant of freshwater and marine systems. We quantified caffeine concentrations in Oregon's coastal ocean to determine whether levels correlated with proximity to caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine was analyzed at 14 coastal locations, stratified between populated areas with sources of caffeine pollution and sparsely populated areas with no major caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine concentrations were measured in major water bodies discharging near sampling locations. Caffeine in seawater ranged from below the reporting limit (8.5 ng/L) to 44.7 ng/L. Caffeine occurrence and concentrations in seawater did not correspond with pollution threats from population density and point and non-point sources, but did correspond with storm event occurrence. Caffeine concentrations in rivers and estuaries draining to the coast ranged from below the reporting limit to 152.2 ng/L. This study establishes the occurrence of caffeine in Oregon's coastal waters, yet relative importance of sources, seasonal variability, and processes affecting caffeine transport into the coastal ocean require further research.

  18. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  19. Particulate Trace Metal Composition in Coastal Waters Surrounding Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiann, K. T.; Huang, K. C.; Hsieh, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal zones are dynamic environments where materials are transported from the land and where biomass is the most abundant, feeding on the terrestrial nutrients supplied. Therefore, compositions of particulate matter in coastal waters are complex. We collected size-fractionated particulate matter from Taiwan's coastal waters and determine trace metal concentrations, along with some key parameters that allow for the assessment of contribution of particulate matter from different sources. Al content in the particles is used to derive a mineralogical contribution (largely terrestrial) in the particle samples, based on the fact that Al concentrations in common clay minerals and in biota are 2-3 orders of magnitude different. Thereafter, trace metal concentrations in biotic particles can be derived after subtracting contribution from mineral particles (using a reference trace metal concentration in mineral phase), and the results can be compared directly. In the four size classes of particulate matter we collected (0.4-10 µm, 10-60 µm, 60-153 µm, and >153 µm), Al concentration, i.e. mineralogical contribution, decreased with increasing size. The derived biotic trace metal concentrations in near-shore coastal waters showed large variations in different size fractions. Biotic Cd concentrations increased with increasing particle size, implying bioaccumulation along the food chain. For Pb, higher concentrations were mostly associated with smaller size fractions. This may suggest the particle-reactive characteristics applied here for biotic particles. For other elements of biological and environmental significance, such as Cu, Ni, and Zn, their bulk particulate concentrations were relatively constant regardless sample locations and size fraction, but large variations in the biotic contents were found among different size fractions, as well as among samples collected from different locations with various extent of anthropogenic influence.

  20. Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.

  1. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  2. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters.

  3. Investigation on Water Pollution of Four Rivers in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing water pollution of four rivers in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary. [Method] Taking four seriously polluted rivers (Guangli River, Shenxian Ditch, Tiao River and Chao River) in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary as study objects, water samples were collected from the four rivers in May (dry period), August (wet period) and November (normal period) in 2009 and 2010 respectively, then pollution indices like nutritive salts, COD, chlorophyll-a, petroleum, et...

  4. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  5. Immediate effect of simulated sand mining on the variation of bacterial parameters in coastal waters of Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Naik, S.S.; Sharma, R.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The variation in bacterial parameters of coastal waters and sediments of Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India was examined for immediate response after simulated mining. Sampling was carried out at suction and disturbance points in the water...

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water of the Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Ator, Scott W.

    2006-01-01

    Selected pesticides are detectable at low levels (generally less than 0.1 microgram per liter) in unconfined ground water in many parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain. Samples were recently collected (2001-04) from 47 wells in the Coastal Plain and analyzed for selected pesticides and degradate compounds (products of pesticide degradation). Most pesticide degradation occurs in the soil zone before infiltration to the water table, and degradates of selected pesticides were commonly detected in ground water, often at higher concentrations than their respective parent compounds. Pesticides and their degradates often occur in ground water in mixtures of multiple compounds, reflecting similar patterns in usage. All measured concentrations in ground water were below established standards for drinking water, and nearly all were below other health-based guidelines. Although drinking-water standards and guidelines are typically much higher than observed concentrations in ground water, they do not exist for many detected compounds (particularly degradates), or for mixtures of multiple compounds. The distribution of observed pesticide compounds reflects known usage patterns, as well as chemical properties and environmental factors that affect the fate and transport of these compounds in the environment. Many commonly used pesticides, such as glyphosate, pendimethalin, and 2,4-D were not detected in ground water, likely because they were sorbed onto organic matter or degraded in the soil zone. Others that are more soluble and (or) persistent, like atrazine, metolachlor, and several of their degradates, were commonly detected in ground water where they have been used. Atrazine, for example, an herbicide used primarily on corn, was most commonly detected in ground water on the Eastern Shore (where agriculture is common), particularly where soils are well drained. Conversely, dieldrin, an insecticide previously used heavily for termite control, was detected only on the Western

  7. An approach to developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters using the SeaWiFS Satellite Data Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Blake A; Hagy, James D; Conmy, Robyn N; Lehrter, John C; Stumpf, Richard P

    2012-01-17

    Human activities on land increase nutrient loads to coastal waters, which can increase phytoplankton production and biomass and associated ecological impacts. Numeric nutrient water quality standards are needed to protect coastal waters from eutrophication impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency determined that numeric nutrient criteria were necessary to protect designated uses of Florida's waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate a reference condition approach for developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters, using data from Florida. Florida's coastal waters have not been monitored comprehensively via field sampling to support numeric criteria development. However, satellite remote sensing had the potential to provide adequate data. Spatial and temporal measures of SeaWiFS OC4 chlorophyll-a (Chl(RS)-a, mg m(-3)) were resolved across Florida's coastal waters between 1997 and 2010 and compared with in situ measurements. Statistical distributions of Chl(RS)-a were evaluated to determine a quantitative reference baseline. A binomial approach was implemented to consider how new data could be assessed against the criteria. The proposed satellite remote sensing approach to derive numeric criteria may be generally applicable to other coastal waters.

  8. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  9. The Biogeochemistry of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    The Biogeochemistry of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters Robert F. Chen Environmental , Coastal and Ocean Sciences University of...properties to governing physical processes in high energy environments such as coastal seas. In addition, large spatial coverage over a wide range of...optical measurements of CDOM. In order to reliably predict the important photochemical, biological, and chemical processes governing CDOM, and hence its

  10. Pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and pesticides in Mediterranean coastal waters: Results from a pilot survey using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaron, Dominique; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Andral, Bruno; Gonzalez, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-01

    21 pharmaceuticals, 6 alkylphenols and 27 hydrophilic pesticides and biocides were investigated using polar organic contaminant integrative samplers (POCIS) during a large-scale study of contamination of French Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine and transitional water-bodies, defined under the EU Water Framework Directive were monitored. Our results show that the French Mediterranean coastal waters were contaminated with a large range of emerging contaminants, detected at low concentrations during the summer season. Caffeine, carbamazepine, theophilline and terbutaline were detected with a detection frequency higher than 83% in the coastal waters sampled, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were detected in all coastal waters sampled, and diuron, terbuthylazine, atrazine, irgarol and simazine were detected in more than 77% of samples. For pharmaceuticals, highest time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were measured for caffeine and carbamazepine (32 and 12 ng L-1, respectively). For alkylphenols, highest TWA concentrations were measured for 4-nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate and 4-nonylphenol (41 and 33 ng L-1, respectively), and for herbicides and biocides, they were measured for diuron and irgarol (33 and 2.5 ng L-1, respectively). Except for Diana lagoon, lagoons and semi-enclosed bays were the most contaminated areas for herbicides and pharmaceuticals, whilst, for alkylphenols, levels of contamination were similar in lagoons and coastal waters. This study demonstrates the relevance and utility of POCIS as quantitative tool for measuring low concentrations of emerging contaminants in marine waters.

  11. Following the water: a controlled study of drinking water storage in northern coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2008-11-01

    To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important.

  12. Retrieving Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Levy, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    We present an approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over turbid coastal water where operational MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Dark Target (DT) aerosol retrieval algorithm is not applied due to high water leaving radiance. Filling the coastal water AOD gap is significant because 60% of human population lives in the coastal zone. In this study, the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at 2.1 μm observed from MODIS is used to retrieve AOD over turbid coastal water through look up table method as water leaving radiance is negligible at the band. During the retrieval process, aerosol model is substituted by the counterpart of the closest pixel retrieved through MODIS ocean DT algorithm. AOD retrievals over turbid coastal water are validated against observations from six AERONET sites at coastal region in one month. The monthly mean AERONET 440-870 nm Ångström exponent ranges from 0.597 to 1.842 for the six sites, thus they can represent from coarse-mode dominated to fine-mode dominated scenes. AOD retrievals in this study are more in agreement with AERONET observations than operational MODIS AOD (over land or clean coastal water) in terms of bias, and root-mean-square error.

  13. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    representative hydrological conditions in both the sample watershed case and an initial test case that utilized base data from a watershed with minimal land disturbance. Results from this study provide valuable insight into the effects of water use through a variety of climactic conditions and provide potential strategies for policy makers, regulators, and stakeholders to strengthen adaptive capacity to achieve sustainable water use within coastal watersheds.

  14. Harmful Algal in Banyuasin Coastal Waters, South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riris Aryawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton have important as food-chain major component and primary production of marine environment. However, high abundance of phytoplankton could give harmful effects toward water ecosystem. Moreover, they could produce toxic substances that will be accumulated within their consumer. This accumulation could be dangerous for human or animals.This research were aimed to determine and calculatespecies of harmful algae in Banyuasin coastal waters. The study was conducted on April, June, August, October and December of 2013, and in February 2014, at ten stations. Phytoplankton samples were taken vertically using plankton nets. In the form of cone-shaped with a diameter of 30 cm, length 100 cm and mesh size 30 μm.The result showed that there are 35 genera of phytoplankton. That have been found and consisted of four groups; Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae. 13 species were identified as Harmful Algal (Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Nitzschia, Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Alexandrium, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Noctiluca, Protoperidinium, Prorocentrum, Anabaena dan Oscillatoria, with seven of them were known for having toxin (Nitzschia, Alexandrium, Dinophysis, Protoperidinium Prorocentrum, Anabaena and Oscillatoria. Monitoring result showed that the highest number of species of potential harmful algal blooms (HABs occured in June and the highest abundance occured in August, especially Chaetoceros and Skeletonema.How to CiteAryawati, R., Bengen, D. G., Prartono, T., & Zulkifli, H. (2016. Harmful Algal in Banyuasin Coastal Waters, South Sumatera. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 231-239.

  15. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the river and coastal waters in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Majid; Hajiesmaili, Reza; Talebjannat, Maryam; Yahyapour, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    As fecal streptococci commonly inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals, and daily detection of all pathogenic bacteria in coastal water is not practical, thus these bacteria are used to detect the fecal contamination of water. The present study examined the presence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the Babolrud River in Babol and coastal waters in Babolsar. Seventy samples of water were collected in various regions of the Babolrud and coastal waters. Isolated bacteria were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and PCR technique. In total, 70 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the Babolrud River and coastal waters of Babolsar. Enterococcus faecalis (68.6%) and Enterococcus faecium (20%) were the most prevalent species. Resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin was prevalent. The presence of resistant Enterococcus spp. in coastal waters may transmit resistant genes to other bacteria; therefore, swimming in such environments is not suitable.

  16. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Spp. Isolated from the River and Coastal Waters in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As fecal streptococci commonly inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals, and daily detection of all pathogenic bacteria in coastal water is not practical, thus these bacteria are used to detect the fecal contamination of water. The present study examined the presence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the Babolrud River in Babol and coastal waters in Babolsar. Seventy samples of water were collected in various regions of the Babolrud and coastal waters. Isolated bacteria were identified to the species level using standard biochemical tests and PCR technique. In total, 70 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from the Babolrud River and coastal waters of Babolsar. Enterococcus faecalis (68.6% and Enterococcus faecium (20% were the most prevalent species. Resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin was prevalent. The presence of resistant Enterococcus spp. in coastal waters may transmit resistant genes to other bacteria; therefore, swimming in such environments is not suitable.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons in northwest coastal waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Bhangale, V.P.

    Impact of domestic and industrial wastewaters on coastal waters was studiEd. by monitoring petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) up to 25 km distance from shore, along Okha-Ratnagiri Coast, Maharashtra, India during 1989-92. Average PHC levels...

  18. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  19. Radionuclide adsorption characteristics around coastal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Il; Chung, Yang Geun; Hong, Sung Yul; Lee, Gab Bock [KEPCO, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The adsorption capacity of radionuclides onto suspended sediment was experimented on each of the coastal seawater sampled around the Kori and the Wolsung nuclear power plant. During the experiment the quantity and size fraction of suspended sediment were adjusted and the seawater and sediment chemistry is approximated to the expected field condition. Because the sorption capacity depends on the specific minerals, ocean chemistry and radionuclide involved, it is necessary to analyze sediment mineralogy. Clay mineral is dominant in seabed mineral and suspended sediment as the result of x-ray diffraction. Radionuclide sorbed to silty-clay mineral can be rather transported to ocean than scavenged to seabed because of low quantity and fine grained suspended sediment in the coast around the Kori and the Wolsung. The result of adsorption examinations shows that {sup 139}Ce and {sup 51}Cr and {sup 110m}Ag are strongly sorbed to suspended particle, while {sup 137}Cs is less sorbed and {sup 60}Co uptake is varied with experiment condition, which can be inferred from various biological factors. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability in the δ18Ow and salinity compositions of Gulf of Maine coastal surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Nina M.; Wanamaker, Alan D.; Kreutz, Karl J.; Introne, Douglas S.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrographic variability and dynamics in the Gulf of Maine are examined through the investigation of δ18Ow and salinity properties of coastal surface waters. Data from Gulf of Maine waters sampled over a decade, from 2003 to 2015, including a suite of samples that were collected monthly from April 2014 to March 2015, are presented. These water samples fall on a mixing line between Maine River Water (MRW) and Scotian Shelf Water (SSW). However, slope waters likely also contribute to these surface waters. The seasonal variability in water samples collected during 2014 and 2015 indicates the strong influence of river runoff on coastal Gulf of Maine surface water properties. The coastal Gulf of Maine mixing line presented in this paper is a needed baseline for reconstructing hydrographic variability in bicarbonates using oxygen isotopes.

  1. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  2. Coastal Water Quality Assessment by Self-Organizing Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhiguang; ZHANG Hongwei; ZHANG Ying

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to coastal water quality assessment was put forward through study on self-organizing map (SOM). Firstly, the water quality data of Bohai Bay from 1999 to 2002 were prepared. Then, a set of software for coastal water quality assessment was developed based on the batch version algorithm of SOM and SOM toolbox in MATLAB environment. Furthermore, the training results of SOM could be analyzed with single water quality indexes, the value of N: P( atomic ratio) and the eutrophication index E so that the data were clustered into five different pollution types using k-means clustering method. Finally, it was realized that the monitoring data serial trajectory could be tracked and the new data be classified and assessed automatically. Through application it is found that this study helps to analyze and assess the coastal water quality by several kinds of graphics, which offers an easy decision support for recognizing pollution status and taking corresponding measures.

  3. Percentage of microbeads in pelagic microplastics within Japanese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Atsuhiko

    2016-09-15

    To compare the quantity of microbeads with the quantity of pelagic microplastics potentially degraded in the marine environment, samples were collected in coastal waters of Japan using neuston nets. Pelagic spherical microbeads were collected in the size range below 0.8mm at 9 of the 26 stations surveyed. The number of pelagic microbeads smaller than 0.8mm accounted for 9.7% of all microplastics collected at these 9 stations. This relatively large percentage results from a decrease in the abundance of microplastics smaller than 0.8mm in the upper ocean, as well as the regular loading of new microbeads from land areas, in this size range. In general, microbeads in personal care and cosmetic products are not always spherical, but rather are often a variety of irregular shapes. It is thus likely that this percentage is a conservative estimate, because of the irregular shapes of the remaining pelagic microbeads.

  4. A statistical model for water quality predictions from a river discharge using coastal observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Terrill, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding and predicting coastal ocean water quality has benefits for reducing human health risks, protecting the environment, and improving local economies which depend on clean beaches. Continuous observations of coastal physical oceanography increase the understanding of the processes which control the fate and transport of a riverine plume which potentially contains high levels of contaminants from the upstream watershed. A data-driven model of the fate and transport of river plume water from the Tijuana River has been developed using surface current observations provided by a network of HF radar operated as part of a local coastal observatory that has been in place since 2002. The model outputs are compared with water quality sampling of shoreline indicator bacteria, and the skill of an alarm for low water quality is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, statistical analysis of beach closures in comparison with environmental variables is also discussed.

  5. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  6. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  7. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): Implications for the Water Framework Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment–water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007–08 for ...

  8. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT STATE OF COASTAL MARINE WATER OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We analysed current environmental state of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources. Location. Dagestan coastal area of the Caspian SeaMethods. Concentration analysis of background contamination of chemical agents in the Dagestan coastal water from northern districts (Lopatin to southern (Sulak coastal land during the period between 2004 and 2007.Results. Data on the spatial variability of contaminants in the coastal areas of the Dagestan segment of the Caspian Sea from the northern districts (Lopatin to the central (Sulak coastal land and, further, to the southern district (within Russian subsoil management confirm that it is caused by irregular contamination of the sea by above-ground sources.Main conclusions. The envisaged large-scale hydrocarbon resource development requires regular monitoring of sea currents on Makhachkala, Izberbash and Derbent roads.

  9. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas.

  10. Chattonella and Fibrocapsa (Raphidophyceae) : First Observation of, Potentially Harmful, Red Tide Organisms in Dutch Coastal Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, E.G.; Koeman, R.P.T.; Nagasaki, K.; Ishida, Y.; Peperzak, L.; Gieskes, W.W.C.; Veenhuis, M.

    1995-01-01

    Species of the potentially toxic and red-tide-forming marine-phytoplankton genera Chattonella and Fibrocapsa (Raphidophyceae) were observed for the first time in 1991 in samples taken in Dutch coastal waters; they were again recorded and enumerated in the following years. Chattonella spp. cell numbe

  11. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ temporall

  12. Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, And Their Environmental Correlates In Southern California Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    1 Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, and Their Environmental Correlates in Southern California Coastal Waters David Lapota...2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, And Their Environmental Correlates In Southern California... dinoflagellates were identified to the species level when possible. Chlorophyll a was extracted from the seawater samples using standard methods (APHA 1981) and

  13. Chattonella and Fibrocapsa (Raphidophyceae) : First Observation of, Potentially Harmful, Red Tide Organisms in Dutch Coastal Waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, E.G.; Koeman, R.P.T.; Nagasaki, K.; Ishida, Y.; Peperzak, L.; Gieskes, W.W.C.; Veenhuis, M.

    Species of the potentially toxic and red-tide-forming marine-phytoplankton genera Chattonella and Fibrocapsa (Raphidophyceae) were observed for the first time in 1991 in samples taken in Dutch coastal waters; they were again recorded and enumerated in the following years. Chattonella spp. cell

  14. Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Gago, J; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from fragmentation of larger plastic items. Due to their long chemical chains, they can remain in the environment for long periods of time. It is estimated that the vast majority (80%) of marine litter derives from land sources and that 70% will sink and remain at the bottom of the ocean. Microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic are common to be found in beaches and in the water surface. The most common microplastics are pellets, fragments and fibres. This work provides original data of the presence of microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters, reporting on microplastic concentration and polymer types. Microplastic particles were found in nearly 56% of sediment samples, accounting a total of 31 particles in 27 samples. The vast majority were microfibers (25), identified as rayon fibres, and fragments (6) identified as polypropylene, through infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR). The concentration and polymer type data is consistent with other relevant studies and reports worldwide.

  15. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-05-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl- and Br- by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters.

  16. Coastal water quality estimation from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data using machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jungho; Ha, Sunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Ha, Hokyung; Choi, Jongkuk; Kim, Miae

    2014-05-01

    It is important to monitor coastal water quality using key parameters such as chlorophyll-a concentration and suspended sediment to better manage coastal areas as well as to better understand the nature of biophysical processes in coastal seawater. Remote sensing technology has been commonly used to monitor coastal water quality due to its ability of covering vast areas at high temporal resolution. While it is relatively straightforward to estimate water quality in open ocean (i.e., Case I water) using remote sensing, coastal water quality estimation is still challenging as many factors can influence water quality, including various materials coming from inland water systems and tidal circulation. There are continued efforts to accurately estimate water quality parameters in coastal seawater from remote sensing data in a timely manner. In this study, two major water quality indicators, chlorophyll-a concentration and the amount of suspended sediment, were estimated using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data. GOCI, launched in June 2010, is the first geostationary ocean color observation satellite in the world. GOCI collects data hourly for 8 hours a day at 6 visible and 2 near-infrared bands at a 500 m resolution with 2,500 x 2,500 km square around Korean peninsula. Along with conventional statistical methods (i.e., various linear and non-linear regression), three machine learning approaches such as random forest, Cubist, and support vector regression were evaluated for coastal water quality estimation. In situ measurements (63 samples; including location, two water quality parameters, and the spectra of surface water using a hand-held spectroradiometer) collected during four days between 2011 and 2012 were used as reference data. Due to the small sample size, leave-one-out cross validation was used to assess the performance of the water quality estimation models. Atmospherically corrected radiance data and selected band-ratioed images were used

  17. Application of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality in Turbid Coastal Waters of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, K. A.; Ryan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. Existing remote sensing ocean color products, such as the water quality proxy chlorophyll-a, are based on ocean derived bio-optical models that are primarily calibrated in Case 1 type waters. These traditional models fail to work when applied in turbid (Case 2 type), coastal waters due to spectral interference from other associated color producing agents such as colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the predictive modeling of chlorophyll-a using a multivariate-based approach applied to in situ hyperspectral radiometric data collected from the coastal waters of Long Bay, South Carolina. This method uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify prominent wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated color-producing agents. The new model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 μg/L. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from current and future hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight to point-sources and problem areas that may contribute to a decline in water quality. The utility of this tool is in its versatility to a diverse set of coastal waters and its use by coastal and fisheries managers with regard to recreation, regulation, economic and public health purposes.

  18. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  20. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT FOCUS ON AQUATIC STRESSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially productive habitats that are experiencing significant impacts associated with accelerated population growth in coastal zones. The Clean Water Act requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the causes ...

  1. Hydrographic features of the coastal waters of Kakinada

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RamaRaju, V.S.

    The physical characteristics of coastal waters - temperature, salinity and currents at the surface and subsurface levels - off Kakinada in the Bay of Bengal at 4 stations (bottom depth 5, 12, 22 and 42 m) along 17 degrees N latitude during January...

  2. Drinking water insecurity: water quality and access in coastal south-western Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneyworth, Laura; Gilligan, Jonathan; Ayers, John C; Goodbred, Steven; George, Gregory; Carrico, Amanda; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Fry, David; Donato, Katherine; Piya, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    National drinking water assessments for Bangladesh do not reflect local variability, or temporal differences. This paper reports on the findings of an interdisciplinary investigation of drinking water insecurity in a rural coastal south-western Bangladesh. Drinking water quality is assessed by comparison of locally measured concentrations to national levels and water quality criteria; resident's access to potable water and their perceptions are based on local social surveys. Residents in the study area use groundwater far less than the national average; salinity and local rainwater scarcity necessitates the use of multiple water sources throughout the year. Groundwater concentrations of arsenic and specific conductivity (SpC) were greater than surface water (pond) concentrations; there was no statistically significant seasonal difference in mean concentrations in groundwater, but there was for ponds, with arsenic higher in the dry season. Average arsenic concentrations in local water drinking were 2-4 times times the national average. All of the local groundwater samples exceeded the Bangladesh guidance for SpC, although the majority of residents surveyed did not perceive their water as having a 'bad' or 'salty' taste.

  3. Coastal California's Fog as a Unique Habitable Niche: Design for Autonomous Sampling and Preliminary Aerobiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Cynthia Ouandji; Arismendi, Dillon; Guarro, Marcello; Demachkie, Isabella; Crosbie, Ewan; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alex B.; Wang, Zhen; Sorooshian, Armin; hide

    2017-01-01

    Just as on the land or in the ocean, atmospheric regions may be more or less hospitable to life. The aerobiosphere, or collection of living things in Earth's atmosphere, is poorly understood due to the small number and ad hoc nature of samples studied. However, we know viable airborne microbes play important roles, such as providing cloud condensation nuclei. Knowing the distribution of such microorganisms and how their activity can alter water, carbon, and other geochemical cycles is key to developing criteria for planetary habitability, particularly for potential habitats with wet atmospheres but little stable surface water. Coastal California has regular, dense fog known to play a major transport role in the local ecosystem. In addition to the significant local (1 km) geographical variation in typical fog, previous studies have found that changes in height above surface of as little as a few meters can yield significant differences in typical concentrations, populations and residence times. No single current sampling platform (ground-based impactors, towers, balloons, aircraft) is capable of accessing all of these regions of interest.A novel passive fog and cloud water sampler, consisting of a lightweight passive impactor suspended from autonomous aerial vehicles (UAVs), is being developed to allow 4D point sampling within a single fog bank, allowing closer study of small-scale (100 m) system dynamics. Fog and cloud droplet water samples from low-altitude aircraft flights in nearby coastal waters were collected and assayed to estimate the required sample volumes, flight times, and sensitivity thresholds of the system under design.125 cloud water samples were collected from 16 flights of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) instrumented Twin Otter, equipped with a sampling tube collector, occurring between 18 July and 12 August 2016 below 1 km altitude off the central coast. The collector was flushed first with 70 ethanol

  4. Application of Inverse Path Distance Weighting for high-density spatial mapping of coastal water quality patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Stachelek, Joseph; Madden, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary goals of coastal water quality monitoring is to characterize spatial variation. Generally, this monitoring takes place at a limited number of fixed sampling points. The alternative sampling methodology explored in this paper involves high density sampling from an onboard flow-through water analysis system (Dataflow). Dataflow has the potential to provide better spatial resolution of water quality features because it generates many closely spaced (< 10 m) measurements. Regar...

  5. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  6. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  7. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  8. Coastal waters monitoring data: frequency distributions of the principal water quality variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca DI LORENZO

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Examining the results of the Italian national programme of marine coastal monitoring, the old problem has arisen about the choice of the most appropriate procedures and methods to validate data and screen preliminary data. Therefore, statistical distributions of water quality parameters have been taken into consideration, in order to assign appropriate frequency distributions to all the routinely measured variables. Each sample distribution has been analysed and defined by a probability density function (p.d.f., by means of a powerful method of data analysis (Johnson 1949 that allows for the computation of statistical parameters of a wide variety of non-normal distributions. The resulting Johnson distributions are then classified depending on four fundamental categories of frequency distributions: normal, log-normal, bounded and unbounded. Theoretical aspects of the method are explained and discussed in an adequate way, so as to allow for practical applications. The shape and nature of these curves require further consideration, in order to understand the behaviour of water quality variables and to make comparison among different coastal zones. To this end, two coastal systems were considered in this work: the Emilia-Romagna coastal area of the NW Adriatic Sea and the Tuscany littoral of the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. There are notable advantages to the adopted approach. First it offers the possibility to overcome severe constraints requested by the normality assumption, and avoids the troublesome search for the most appropriate transformation function (i.e. for ensuring normality. Second, it avoids searching for other kinds of theoretical distributions that are appropriate for the data. In our approach, the density functions are opportunely integrated, in such a way that, for whatever value assumed by a given variable, the corresponding expected percentage point value under the respective frequency curve, can be calculated, and vice versa. We

  9. Wetland Paleoecological Study of Coastal Louisiana: Sediment Cores and Diatom Samples Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Wetland sediment data was collected from coastal Louisiana as part of a pilot study to develop a diatom-based proxy for past wetland water chemistry and the...

  10. Wetland Paleoecological Study of Coastal Louisiana: Sediment Cores and Diatom Samples Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Wetland sediment data was collected from coastal Louisiana as part of a pilot study to develop a diatom-based proxy for past wetland water chemistry and the...

  11. Evaluation of Trace Metal Levels in Tissues of Two Commercial Fish Species in Kapar and Mersing Coastal Waters, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Alhashmi Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on evaluating the trace metal levels in water and tissues of two commercial fish species Arius thalassinus and Pennahia anea that were collected from Kapar and Mersing coastal waters. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Al, As, Cd and Pb in these coastal waters and muscle, liver and gills tissues of the fishes were quantified. The relationship among the metal concentrations and the height and weight of the two species were also examined. Generally, the iron has the highest concentrations in both water and the fish species. However, Cd in both coastal waters showed high levels exceeding the international standards. The metal level concentration in the sample fishes are in the descending order livers > gills > muscles. A positive association between the trace metal concentrations and weight and length of the sample fishes was investigated. Fortunately the level of these metal concentrations in fish has not exceeded the permitted level of Malaysian and international standards.

  12. Estimating dissolved organic carbon concentration in turbid coastal waters using optical remote sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Ford, Phillip W.; Matear, Richard J.; Oubelkheir, Kadija; Clementson, Lesley A.; Suber, Ken; Steven, Andrew D. L.

    2016-10-01

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) is an important component in the global carbon cycle. It also plays an important role in influencing the coastal ocean biogeochemical (BGC) cycles and light environment. Studies focussing on DOC dynamics in coastal waters are data constrained due to the high costs associated with in situ water sampling campaigns. Satellite optical remote sensing has the potential to provide continuous, cost-effective DOC estimates. In this study we used a bio-optics dataset collected in turbid coastal waters of Moreton Bay (MB), Australia, during 2011 to develop a remote sensing algorithm to estimate DOC. This dataset includes data from flood and non-flood conditions. In MB, DOC concentration varied over a wide range (20-520 μM C) and had a good correlation (R2 = 0.78) with absorption due to coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and remote sensing reflectance. Using this data set we developed an empirical algorithm to derive DOC concentrations from the ratio of Rrs(412)/Rrs(488) and tested it with independent datasets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to estimate DOC using remotely sensed optical observations in turbid coastal waters.

  13. Bio-optical variability in coastal waters of southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampel, Milton; Gaeta, Salvador A.; Lorenzzetti, Joao A.; Pompeu, Mayza; Rudorff, Frederico M.; Frouin, Robert J.

    2007-09-01

    The coastal zone is of enormous importance to the environmental, economic, and social well being of nations. It is subject to increasing pressures from many sources, including industrial development, urban expansion, the exploitation of marine resources, and tourism. In order to understand and address the effects of natural and anthropogenic forces in the Southeastern coastal zone of Brazil, time-series of in-situ and satellite-based environmental observations are being developed to account for the interconnectivity of processes within the system. In this work, data collected during December 2004-January 2006 at the ANTARES time series station near Ubatuba, Southeast Brazil (23°44'S and 45°00'W) are analyzed. The data set includes measurements of near-surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL), absorption by particles, detritus, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and above-water hyperspectral reflectance. A triangular diagram, based on the relative contribution to spectral absorption of the optically active constituents, is used to classify the waters, revealing CDOM-dominated Case 2 waters. Seasonal changes in water composition and optical properties are examined. Applying the OC2v4, OC4v4, and OC3M algorithms to the radiometric data, after proper spectral integration, the CHL estimates are generally too high compared with fluorometric determinations, which might be caused by relatively large CDOM absorption at the coastal site.

  14. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  15. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  16. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure.

  17. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manjusha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia were tested from the sampling site with highest antibiotic resistance. Of the total 119 Vibrio isolates, 16. 8% were susceptible to all antibiotics. Of the resistant (83.19% Vibrio strains, 30.3% were resistant against three antibiotics, 55.5% were resistant against 4-10 antibiotics, 14.14% were resistant against more than 10 antibiotics and 54% have shown multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR. Antibiotic resistance index was higher in Coastal 3, 6, Aqua farm 2 in isolates from water samples and all the tissues tested. Interestingly, incidence of antibiotic resistance in isolates from water samples was comparatively lower in aquaculture farms than that observed in coastal areas. Highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was evident against Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Carbencillin and Cefuroxime followed by Rifampicin and Streptomycin and lowest against Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Furazolidone, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin Sulphafurazole, Trimethoprim, Neomycin and Amikacin irrespective of the sampling sites. Results from various tissue samples collected from the sites of highest antibiotic resistance indicated that antibiotic resistance Vibrio spp. collected from fish and tissue samples were higher than that of water samples. Overall results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against diseases in human beings and other life forms may pollute the aquatic system and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp. may be a serious threat in addition to the use of

  18. Water Mongoose Atilax Paludinosus in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M Crawford

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available In a catalogue of 38 mammals recorded from the Tsitsikamma Coastal and Forest National Parks, Robinson (1976, Koedoe 19: 145-152 mentions only one type of mongoose, the Cape grey mongoose Herpestes pulverulentus. However, Stuart (1981, Bontebok 1: 1-58 also includes the water mongoose Atila-x paludinosus. His list of mammalian carnivores occurring in the Tsitsikamma National Parks other- wise agrees with that of Robinson.

  19. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  20. Development of a coastal information system for the management of Jeddah coastal waters in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerle, R.; Al-Subhi, A.; Fernández Jaramillo, J.; Salama, A.; Bruss, G.; Zubier, K.; Runte, K.; Turki, A.; Hesse, K.; Jastania, H.; Ladwig, N.; Mudarris, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a web-based information system, Jeddah CIS, for assisting decision makers in the management of Jeddah coastal waters, in Saudi Arabia. The system will support coastal planning, management of navigation and tackle pollution due to accidents. The system was developed primarily to nowcast in quasi-real time and to deliver short-term forecasts of water levels, current velocities and waves with high spatial and temporal resolution for the area near Jeddah. Therefor it will hasten response when adverse weather conditions prevail. The Jeddah-CIS integrates sensors transmitting in real time, meteorological, oceanographic and water quality parameters and operational models for flow and waves. It also provides interactive tools using advanced visualization techniques to facilitate dissemination of information. The system relies on open source software and has been designed to facilitate the integration of additional components for enhanced information processing, data evaluation and generation of higher water level, current velocity and wave for the general public. Jeddah-CIS has been operational since 2013. Extensions of the system to speed operations and improving the accuracy of the predictions to the public are currently underway.

  1. Recommendations for representative ballast water sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2017-05-01

    Until now, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in ballast water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in ballast water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of ballast water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of ballast water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative ballast water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in ballast water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a ballast water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative ballast water sampling.

  2. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies.

  3. Using Coastal Fog to Support Sustainable Water Use in a California Agricultural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Loik, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of climate change threaten California farmers in a number of ways, most importantly through a decline in freshwater availability, concurrent with a rise in water demand. The future of California's multibillion-dollar agricultural industry depends on increasing water use efficiency on farms. In coastal California, the growing season of economically important crops overlaps with the occurrence of coastal fog, which buffers the summer dry season through shading effects and direct water inputs. While the impacts of coastal fog on plant biology have been extensively studied in natural ecosystems, very few studies have evaluated its direct effects on the water and energy budgets of agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to develop a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between coastal fog and the water and energy budgets of croplands in order to improve estimates of crop-scale evapotranspiration rates, which has potential to curtail groundwater use based on local cloud meteorology. We established three sites on strawberry farms along a coastal-inland gradient in the Salinas Valley, California. At each site, we installed a passive fog collector and a micrometeorological station to monitor variation in microclimate conditions. Flow meters were installed in drip lines to quantify irrigation amount and timing. To assess plant response to foggy and non-foggy conditions, we collected measurements of photosynthesis and transpiration rates at the leaf and canopy-scale between June-September 2015. We found that canopy-level transpiration rates on foggy days were reduced by half compared to sunny, clear days (1.5 and 3 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, respectively). Whereas the amount of direct fog water inputs to the soil did not differ significantly between foggy and clear days, average photosynthetically active radiation between 0900-1100 hr. was reduced from 1500 to 500 μmol photons m-2 s-1 between these sampling periods. Our results provide convincing

  4. Toward a better guard of coastal water safety-Microbial distribution in coastal water and their facile detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunxuan; Qiu, Ning; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-05-15

    Prosperous development in marine-based tourism has raised increasing concerns over the sanitary quality of coastal waters with potential microbial contamination. The World Health Organization has set stringent standards over a list of pathogenic microorganisms posing potential threats to people with frequent coastal water exposure and has asked for efficient detection procedures for pathogen facile identification. Inspection of survey events regarding the occurrence of marine pathogens in recreational beaches in recent years has reinforced the need for the development of a rapid identification procedure. In this review, we examine the possibility of recruiting uniform molecular assays to identify different marine pathogens and the feasibility of appropriate biomarkers, including enterochelin biosynthetic genes, for general toxicity assays. The focus is not only on bacterial pathogens but also on other groups of infectious pathogens. The ultimate goal is the development of a handy method to more efficiently and rapidly detect marine pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Summer water use by California coastal prairie grasses: fog, drought, and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jeffrey D; Thomsen, Meredith A; Dawson, Todd E; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2005-10-01

    Plants in the Mediterranean climate region of California typically experience summer drought conditions, but correlations between zones of frequent coastal fog inundation and certain species' distributions suggest that water inputs from fog may influence species composition in coastal habitats. We sampled the stable H and O isotope ratios of water in non-photosynthetic plant tissue from a variety of perennial grass species and soil in four sites in northern California in order to determine the proportion of water deriving from winter rains and fog during the summer. The relationship between H and O stable isotopes from our sample sites fell to the right of the local meteoric water line (LMWL) during the summer drought, providing evidence that evaporation of water from the soil had taken place prior to the uptake of water by vegetation. We developed a novel method to infer the isotope values of water before it was subjected to evaporation in which we used experimental data to calculate the slope of the deltaH versus deltaO line versus the LMWL. After accounting for evaporation, we then used a two-source mixing model to evaluate plant usage of fog water. The model indicated that 28-66% of the water taken up by plants via roots during the summer drought came from fog rather than residual soil water from winter rain. Fog use decreased as distance from the coast increased, and there were significant differences among species in the use of fog. Rather than consistent differences in fog use by species whose distributions are limited to the coast versus those with broader distributions, species responded individualistically to summer fog. We conclude that fogwater inputs can mitigate the summer drought in coastal California for many species, likely giving an advantage to species that can use it over species that cannot.

  6. Quantitative hyperspectral analysis for characterization of the coastal water from Damietta to Port Said, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Abou El-Magd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of the Nile Delta is wealthy of natural resources that currently accommodate and support not less than one third of the population. However, it is still a promising area for energy resources and industrial activities that initiated the country to develop new action plans for industrial estates and services; it is under extreme environmental pressure. The newly developed techniques of remote sensing offer effective tool to monitor such environment on a near-real time basis at minimum in situ sampling. Detection of water quality conditions and parameters is one of the major advantages of hyperspectral remote sensing technologies; which has been widely used to assess water quality conditions of many open water mass and aquatic ecosystems. This research looked at characterization of the water quality using the different functions of in situ measurements of hyperspectral sensors in conjunction with water quality multi-probe sensor. The spectral behaviour of the water at the outlets is quite different from the other sampling sites of the coastal water. Turbidity was recorded at high level of 65 (NTU and chlorophyll was up to 147 mg/l at the outlets, which were positively correlated with the hyperspectral curve of the spectroradiometer and Hyperion data. The archived Hyperion data showed some similarities and differences with the in situ data that were mostly due to the timing differences between both datasets; it, however, enabled for understanding of the hyperspectral application in water quality.

  7. Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

  8. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Cebrian, Just; Lehrter, John; Christiaen, Bart; Stutes, Jason; Goff, Josh

    2017-09-15

    A twelve year (2000-2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially in the degree of watershed urban development and nutrient loading rates. In total the lagoons experienced 22 storm events during the period studied. Specifically, we examine (1) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from watershed development, (2) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from storm activity, and (3) whether water quality is affected to a greater degree by watershed development versus storm activity. The two urbanized lagoons typically showed higher water-column nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, and phosphate compared with the non-urbanized lagoon. One of the urbanized lagoons had higher water-column chlorophyll a concentrations than the other two lagoons on most sampling dates, and higher light extinction coefficients on some sampling dates. The non-urbanized lagoon had higher water-column dissolved oxygen concentrations than other lagoons on many sampling dates. Our results suggest long-term influences of watershed development on coastal water quality. We also found some evidence of significant storm effects on water quality, such as increased nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, and decreased salinity and water temperature. However, the influences of watershed development on water quality were greater. These results suggest that changes in water quality induced by human watershed development pervade despite the storm effects. These findings may be useful for environmental management since they suggest that storms do not profoundly alter long-term changes in water quality that resulted from human development of watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Anton Miller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbour porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using this frequency band for biosonar signals.

  10. Characterizing storm water dispersion and dilution from small coastal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Leonel; Siegel, David A.; McWilliams, James C.; Uchiyama, Yusuke; Jones, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Characterizing the dispersion and dilution of storm water from small coastal creeks is important for understanding the importance of land-derived subsidies to nearby ecosystems and the management of anthropogenic pollutants. In Southern California, creek runoff is episodic, intense, and short-lived while the plumes are buoyant, all of which make the field sampling of freshwater plumes challenging. Numerical modeling offers a viable way to characterize these systems. The dilution and dispersion of freshwater from two creeks that discharge into the Santa Barbara Channel, California is investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations with a horizontal resolution of 100 m. Tight coupling is found among precipitation, hydrologic discharge, wind forcing, and submesoscale flow structures which all contribute to plume evolution. During flooding, plumes are narrow and attached to the coast, due to downwelling/onshore wind forcing and intense vorticity filaments lying parallel to the shelf. As the storm passes, the winds typically shift to offshore/upwelling favorable conditions and the plume is advected offshore which enhances its dilution. Plumes reach the bottom nearshore while they form thin layers a few meters thick offshore. Dilution field of passive tracers released with the runoff is strongly anisotropic with stronger cross-shelf gradients than along-shelf. Dispersion analysis of statistical moments of the passive tracer distribution results in scale-dependent diffusivities consistent with the particle-pair analysis of Romero et al. Model validation, the roles of submesoscale processes, and wind forcing on plume evolution and application to ecological issues and marine resource management are discussed.

  11. Atmospheric correction for China's coastal water color remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The space satellite programs, such as CZCS/Nimbus- 7, VHRSR/FY - 1, OCTS/ADEOS and SeaWiFS/SeaStar, have demonstrated and proven that remote sensing is a powerful tool for understanding the spatial and temporal ocean color distribution. In general, there are two main techni cal keys in the processing ocean color satellite data. They are the atmospheric correction and the inver sion of water-leaving radiance into water constituents (such as chlorophyll, suspended material and yel low substance) quantitatively. The SeaWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) atmospheric correc tion algorithm for China's coastal waters is discussed.First, the major advantages of SeaWiFS are introduced. Second, in view of the problems of the SeaDAS algorithm applying in China' s coastal waters, the local atmospheric correction algorithms are discussed and developed. Finally, the advantages of the loc al algorithms are presented by the compari son of the results from two different algorithms.

  12. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  13. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg(-1) dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L(-1), and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L(-1). The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the coastal lagoons of Sinaloa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Lopez-Aguiar, L. K.; Del Río-Chuljak, A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Mexican state of Sinaloa has 656 km of coastline and 221,600 ha of coastal lagoons, and is characterized by a high fishing and agriculture activity. It is well known that agricultural activities constitute a major factor affecting the water quality in the coastal waters. The current study focused on the 6 more important coastal lagoons of Sinaloa (Topolobampo-Ohuira-Santa María, Navachiste-San Ignacio-Macapule, Santa María-La Reforma, Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón, Ceuta and Teacapán-Agua Brava) with the aim to evaluate the water quality spatial and temporal variation at the lagoons (physico-chemical parameters, nutrients (N, P and Si), dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids and chlorophyll a) and to assess its eutrophication status. The water samples were collected in several stations at each lagoon (between 9 and 23 stations depending on the lagoon area) at low and high tides, during three different weather periods (dry-warm, rainy and dry-cold seasons) between May 2004 and April 2005. Mean concentrations of nutrients (μM), dissolved oxygen (mg/L) and chlorophyll a (mg/m3) obtained for each variable were comparable between lagoons (total N=51±45; total P= 2.5±1.5; Si=23±31; DO=6.7±1.8; Chll=1.7±1.9) although seasonal and spatial differences were observed at each lagoon. The nutrient concentrations measured fell in the typical concentration intervals for coastal lagoons; however, critical sampling points were identified and related to direct discharges of untreated effluents from municipal wastes, aquaculture farms and agriculture drain ditches.

  15. Hydrodynamic modeling of Singapore's coastal waters: Nesting and model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, G. M. Jahid; van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Ooi, Seng Keat

    2016-01-01

    The tidal variation in Singapore's coastal waters is influenced by large-scale, complex tidal dynamics (by interaction of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea) as well as monsoon-driven low frequency variations, requiring a model with large spatial coverage. Close to the shores, the complex topography, influenced by headlands and small islands, requires a high resolution model to simulate tidal dynamics. This can be achieved through direct nesting or multi-scale nesting, involving multiple model grids. In this paper, we investigate the effect of grid resolution and multi-scale nesting on the tidal dynamics in Singapore's coastal waters, by comparing model results with observations using different statistical techniques. The results reveal that the intermediate-scale model is generally sufficiently accurate (equal to or better than the most refined model), but also that the most refined model is only more accurate when nested in the intermediate scale model (requiring multi-scale nesting). This latter is the result of the complex tidal dynamics around Singapore, where the dominantly diurnal tidal currents are decoupled from the semi-diurnal water level variations. Furthermore, different techniques to quantify model accuracy (harmonic analysis, basic statistics and more complex statistics) are inconsistent in determining which model is more accurate.

  16. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P C C; Alvarez, C; Schetini, C A F; Souza, R O; Vieira, R H S F

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (a state capital in Northeastern Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources of contamination (local rivers, storm drains and submarine outfall) was analyzed. The models took into account variations in bacterial decay due to solar radiation and other environmental factors. Fecal pollution discharged from rivers and storm drains is transported westward by coastal currents, contaminating strips of beach water to the left of each storm drain or river. Exception to this condition only occurs on beaches protected by the breakwater of the harbor, where counterclockwise vortexes reverse this behavior. The results of the models were consistent with field measurements taken during the dry and the rainy season. Our results show that the submarine outfall plume was over 2 km from the nearest beach. The storm drains and the Maceió stream are the main factors responsible for the poor water quality on the waterfront of Fortaleza. The depollution of these sources would generate considerable social, health and economic gains for the region.

  17. Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Fine sediment (silt and clay) plays an important role in the physical, ecological, and environmental conditions of coastal systems, yet little is known about the dispersal and fate of fine sediment across coastal margin settings outside of river mouths. Here I provide simple physical scaling and detailed monitoring of a beach nourishment project near Imperial Beach, California, with a high portion of fines (40% silt and clay by weight). These results provide insights into the pathways and residence times of fine sediment transport across a wave-dominated coastal margin. Monitoring of the project used physical, optical, acoustic, and remote sensing techniques to track the fine portion of the nourishment sediment. The initial transport of fine sediment from the beach was influenced strongly by longshore currents of the surf zone that were established in response to the approach angles of the waves. The mean residence time of fine sediment in the surf zone—once it was suspended—was approximately 1 hour, and rapid decreases in surf zone fine sediment concentrations along the beach resulted from mixing and offshore transport in turbid rip heads. For example, during a day with oblique wave directions and surf zone longshore currents of approximately 25 cm/s, the offshore losses of fine sediment in rips resulted in a 95% reduction in alongshore surf zone fine sediment flux within 1 km of the nourishment site. However, because of the direct placement of nourishment sediment on the beach, fine suspended-sediment concentrations in the swash zone remained elevated for several days after nourishment, while fine sediment was winnowed from the beach. Once offshore of the surf zone, fine sediment settled downward in the water column and was observed to transport along and across the inner shelf. Vertically sheared currents influenced the directions and rates of fine sediment transport on the shelf. Sedimentation of fine sediment was greatest on the seafloor directly offshore

  18. ADCP application for long-term monitoring of coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIOKA Hiroshi; TAKAYAMA Tomotsuka; SERIZAWA Shigeatsu

    2005-01-01

    Three kind of application of ADCP is reported for long-term monitoring in coastal sea.(1)The rourine monitoring of water qualities.The water quality and ADCP echo data (600 kHz) observed in the long-term are analgzed at MT (Marine Tower) Station of Kansai International Airport in the Osaka Bay, Japan. The correlation between the turbidity and echo intensity in the surface layer is not good because air bubbles generated by breaking wave are not detected by the turbidity meter, but detected well by ADCP. When estimating the turbidity consists of plankton population from echo intensity, the effect ofbubbles have to be eliminated. (2) Monitoring stirring up of bottom sediment. The special observation was carded out by using following two ADCP in the Osaka Bay, One ADCP was installed upward on the sea. The other ADCP was hanged downward at the gate type stand about 3 m above from the bottom. At the spring tide, high echo intensities indicating the stirring up of bottom sediment were observed. (3) The monitoring for the boundary condition of water mixing at an estuary. In summer season, the ADCP was set at the mouth of Tanabe Bay in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.During the observation, water temperature near the bottom showed remarkable falls with interval of about 5~7 d. When the bottom temperature fell, the inflow current with low echo intensity water appears at the bottom layer in the ADCP record. It is concluded that when occasional weak northeast wind makes weak coastal upwelling at the mouth of the bay, the combination of upwelling with internal tidal flow causes remarkable water exchange and dispels the red tide.

  19. Magnificent Ground Water Connection. [Sample Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Water conservation and usage is an important concept in science. This document, geared specifically to New England, provides many activities for protecting and discussing ground water situations. Sample activities for grades K-6 include: (1) All the Water in the World; (2) The Case of the Disappearing Water; (3) Deep Subjects--Wells and Ground…

  20. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  1. Environmental monitoring of the Zhujiang Estuary and its coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. C. Chen(陈介中); L. Dong; L. A. Wong; G. W. Heinke

    2002-01-01

    The Zhujiang (Pearl River ) Estuary is a complex water system whose catchments basin coveers a very large part of southern China. The large quantity of fresh water carried by the river system flows into the northern coast of the South China Sea through its eight inlets. The Zhujiang River Delta has experienced the fastest economic growth in China during the past two decades. Rapid population expansion and increased industrial development coupled with insufficient waste management turned the Zhujiang Estuary into waste disposal channels just before entering the coastal waters. The water quality of the estuaries and the coastal oceans has become polluted. Dttfing the past two years, an intensive study and monitoring efforts of the pollutions of these waters have been made. A systematic and integrated monitoring task including shore-based measurements, shipboard in-situ measurements, and satellite and radar remote sensing surveys has been completed. Conprehensive collection of physical,chemical and biological parameters has been accomplished and a database has been established. Unlike the previous large scale-monitoring task in which the various pollutant concentrations were the objective,the present study aims to understand the process of the pollution from their initial disposal to their final states. The understanding of the processes makes it possible to evaluate the severity of the pollution with respect to the sustainability. Also the objective is to incorporate these processes into the mathematical models from which a predictive capability of the pollution situation can be realized. The present presentation will describe the planning, methodology and the results of this effort.

  2. [Water Sample Results : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum, from sample collector (organization unknown) Cathy H. to Rocky Mountain Arsenal staff, prefaces tabular water sample results collected from various...

  3. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  4. Sediment and water nutrients and microalgae in a coastal shallow lagoon, Ria Formosa (Portugal): implications for the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana; Newton, Alice; Tett, Paul; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-01-01

    Coastal shallow lagoons are considered to be highly important systems, which have specific biogeochemical cycles and characteristics. The assessment of sediment-water interfaces is essential to understand nutrient dynamics and to evaluate the vulnerability to eutrophication, especially in regions of restricted water exchange (RRE), such as the Ria Formosa, which have natural conditions for the accumulation of nutrients. Water samples were collected during the years of 2006 and 2007-08 for nutrients, chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were also collected for pore water nutrients and microphytobenthic chlorophyll a. Measurements of temperature, salinity and photosynthetic active radiation were also taken. The lagoon salinity is affected by occasional strong rainfall events. From comparison with previous work, a decrease in the nitrogen concentration in the water column can be observed, which may indicate an improvement of the water quality. Pore water nutrient concentrations were significantly larger than in the water column. Sediment-water exchanges are considered to be the most important processes in nutrient dynamics of the lagoon. Benthic microalgal biomass was also large compared with that of the phytoplankton. It represents about 99% of the total microalgal chlorophyll biomass of the system. The lagoon also contains (discontinuous) meadows of intertidal seagrass, but we did not study these. Due to the importance of sediments, the standard monitoring plans required by the Water Framework Directive may fail to track changes in the nutrient conditions and the microalgal responses to them.

  5. Prevalence of multiple pollutants in selected Tamil Nadu coastal waters, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdul Muthalif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea water samples from five different coastal cities (Chennai S1, Cuddalore S2, Nagappattinam S3, Tuticorin S4 and Kanyakumari S5 in Tamil Nadu were collected during premonsoon 2015 for physiochemical, microbiological and trace metal studies. The high bacterial load in the study sites indicated that which received enormous waste materials from different sources like land materials, municipal discharges, agricultural and industrial discharges, and more visits. The higher pollution index (PI ratio (>1 were observed in all sampling sites which indicated the human fecal matters were responsible for sea water pollution. The statistical approach (correlation explained that the physiochemical and trace metal parameters are not supporting the microbial growth in large extend. Based on the report, this study was suggesting that throughout impoundment is needed to protect fresh water sources.

  6. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the enumeration of brown tide algae Aureococcusanophagefferens in coastal waters of Qinhuangdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; LIU Yongjian; ZHANG Qi; YUAN Xiutang; ZHANG Weiwei; ZHANG Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Aureococcus anophagefferens, a small pelagophyte algae, has caused brown tide blooms in coastal waters of Qinhua-ngdao in recent years, presenting significant negative impacts on the shellfish mariculture industry. Under standard light microscopy, it is visually indistinguishable from other small algae in field samples due to its extremely small size. In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on 18S rDNA sequences was developed and used to detect and enumerate A. anophagefferens. A linear regression (R2=0.91) was generated based on cycle thr-esholds value (Ct) versus known concentrations of A. anophagefferens. Twenty-two field samples collected in coastal waters of Qinhuangdao were subjected to DNA extraction and then analyzed using qPCR. Results showed that A. anophagefferens had a wide distribution in coastal waters along Qinhuangdao. Elevated A. anophagefferens abun-dance, category 3 brown tide blooms (>200 000 cells/mL) occurred at Dongshan Beach and Tiger-stone Beach in August in 2013. In shellfish mariculture areas along coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, 4 stations had category 3 blooms, and 6 stations had category 2 blooms (35 000–200 000 cells/mL) in August and all stations had category 1 blooms (>0 to ≤35 000 cells/mL) in October. Quantitative PCR allows for detection of A. anophagefferens cells at low levels in filed samples, which is essential to effective management and prediction of brown tide blooms.

  7. Geographical distribution of non-PBDE-brominated flame retardants in mussels from Asian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei P; Ramu, Karri; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-09-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) used as alternatives for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are also persistent in the environment as PBDEs. Limited information on these non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is available; in particular, there are only few publications on environmental pollution by these contaminants in the coastal waters of Asia. In this regard, we investigated the contamination status of HBCDs, BTBPE, and DBDPE in the coastal waters of Asia using mussels as a bioindicator. Concentrations of HBCDs, BTBPE, and DBDPE were determined in green (Perna viridis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from the coastal areas in Cambodia, China (mainland), SAR China (Hong Kong), India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam on 2003-2008. BTBPE and DBDPE were analyzed using GC-MS, whereas HBCDs were determined by LC-MS/MS. HBCDs, BTBPE, and DBDPE were found in mussels at levels ranging from <0.01 to 1,400, <0.1 to 13, and <0.3 to 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Among the three HBCD diastereoisomers, α-HBCD was the dominant isomer followed by γ- and β-HBCDs. Concentrations of HBCDs and DBDPE in mussels from Japan and Korea were higher compared to those from the other Asian countries, indicating extensive usage of these non-PBDE BFRs in Japan and Korea. Higher levels of HBCDs and DBDPE than PBDEs were detected in some mussel samples from Japan. The results suggest that environmental pollution by non-PBDE BFRs, especially HBCDs in Japan, is ubiquitous. This study provides baseline information on the contamination status of these non-PBDE BFRs in the coastal waters of Asia.

  8. Data access and decision tools for coastal water resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA has supported the development of numerous models and tools to support implementation of environmental regulations. However, transfer of knowledge and methods from detailed technical models to support practical problem solving by local communities and watershed or coastal management organizations remains a challenge. We have developed the Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to facilitate data discovery, visualization and access to support environmental problem solving for coastal watersheds and estuaries. EDM is a stand-alone application based on open-source software which requires only internet access for operation. Initially, development of EDM focused on delivery of raw data streams from distributed web services, ranging from atmospheric deposition to hydrologic, tidal, and water quality time series, estuarine habitat characteristics, and remote sensing products. We have transitioned to include access to value-added products which provide end-users with results of future scenario analysis, facilitate extension of models across geographic regions, and/or promote model interoperability. Here we present three examples: 1) the delivery of input data for the development of seagrass models across estuaries, 2) scenarios illustrating the implications of riparian buffer management (loss or restoration) for stream thermal regimes and fish communities, and 3) access to hydrology model outputs to foster connections across models at different scales, ultimately feeding

  9. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  10. Application of Inverse Path Distance Weighting for high-density spatial mapping of coastal water quality patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Stachelek, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    One of the primary goals of coastal water quality monitoring is to characterize spatial variation. Generally, this monitoring takes place at a limited number of fixed sampling points. The alternative sampling methodology explored in this paper involves high density sampling from an onboard flow-through water analysis system (Dataflow). Dataflow has the potential to provide better spatial resolution of water quality features because it generates many closely spaced (< 10 m) measurements. Regardless of the measurement technique, parameter values at unsampled locations must be interpolated from nearby measurement points in order to generate a comprehensive picture of spatial variations. Standard Euclidean interpolations in coastal settings tend to yield inaccurate results because they extend through barriers in the landscape such as peninsulas, islands, and submerged banks. We recently developed a method for non-Euclidean interpolation by inverse path distance weighting (IPDW) in order to account for these ba...

  11. Hg concentrations in fish from coastal waters of California and Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jay; Ross, John; Bezalel, Shira; Sim, Lawrence; Bonnema, Autumn; Ichikawa, Gary; Heim, Wes; Schiff, Kenneth C; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The State of California conducted an extensive and systematic survey of mercury (Hg) in fish from the California coast in 2009 and 2010. The California survey sampled 3483 fish representing 46 species at 68 locations, and demonstrated that methylHg in fish presents a widespread exposure risk to fish consumers. Most of the locations sampled (37 of 68) had a species with an average concentration above 0.3 μg/g wet weight (ww), and 10 locations an average above 1.0 μg/g ww. The recent and robust dataset from California provided a basis for a broader examination of spatial and temporal patterns in fish Hg in coastal waters of Western North America. There is a striking lack of data in publicly accessible databases on Hg and other contaminants in coastal fish. An assessment of the raw data from these databases suggested the presence of relatively high concentrations along the California coast and in Puget Sound, and relatively low concentrations along the coasts of Alaska and Oregon, and the outer coast of Washington. The dataset suggests that Hg concentrations of public health concern can be observed at any location on the coast of Western North America where long-lived predator species are sampled. Output from a linear mixed-effects model resembled the spatial pattern observed for the raw data and suggested, based on the limited dataset, a lack of trend in fish Hg over the nearly 30-year period covered by the dataset. Expanded and continued monitoring, accompanied by rigorous data management procedures, would be of great value in characterizing methylHg exposure, and tracking changes in contamination of coastal fish in response to possible increases in atmospheric Hg emissions in Asia, climate change, and terrestrial Hg control efforts in coastal watersheds.

  12. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide in size-fractionated Southern California coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Catherine D; De Bruyn, Warren J; Jones, Joshua G

    2009-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) photochemical production was measured in bulk and size-fractionated surf zone and source waters (Orange County, California, USA). Post-irradiation (60 min; 300 W ozone-free xenon lamp), maximum H(2)O(2) concentrations were approximately 10000 nM (source) and approximately 1500 nM (surf zone). Average initial hydrogen peroxide production rates (HPPR) were higher in bulk source waters (11+/-7.0 nM s(-1)) than the surf zone (2.5+/-1 nM s(-1)). A linear relationship was observed between non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon and absorbance coefficient (m(-1) (300 nm)). HPPR increased with increasing absorbance coefficient for bulk and size-fractionated source waters, consistent with photochemical production from CDOM. However, HPPR varied significantly (5x) for surf zone samples with the same absorbance coefficients, even though optical properties suggested CDOM from salt marsh source waters dominates the surf zone. To compare samples with varying CDOM levels, apparent quantum yields (Phi) for H(2)O(2) photochemical production were calculated. Source waters showed no significant difference in Phi between bulk, large (>1000 Da (>1 kDa)) and small (production efficiency is homogeneously distributed across CDOM size. However, surf zone waters had significantly higher Phi than source (bulk 0.086+/-0.04 vs. 0.034+/-0.013; 1 kDa 0.151+/-0.090 vs. 0.016+/-0.009), suggesting additional production from non-CDOM sources. H(2)O(2) photochemical production was significant for intertidal beach sand and senescent kelp (sunlight; approximately 42 nM h(-1) vs. approximately 5 nM h(-1)), on the order of CDOM production rates previously measured in coastal and oceanic waters. This is the first study of H(2)O(2) photochemical production in size-fractionated coastal waters showing significant production from non-CDOM sources in the surf zone.

  13. Health status of the coastal waters of Mumbai and regions around

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Govindan, K.

    marginally. The degraded water quality of coastal waters is also reflected in very high counts of pathogenic bacteria with their populations markedly decrease as the flood tide progresses. Adsorption and tranfer of pollutants to bed sediments by suspended...

  14. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...... acceptance of floods has decreased from a “this is a natural consequence of living by the sea” to an explicit: Water Not Wanted! This paper provides a brief overview of floods and flooding protection issues in Denmark (Ch. 2 & Ch. 3), the current legislation (Ch. 4), and discusses challenges in relation...... to climate change adaptation, risk reduction, and to potential ways of rethinking flooding protection in strategies that also incorporate other uses (Ch. 5)....

  15. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    Author version: Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.169(1-4); 2010; 639-645 Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India). C.Mohandass *, S. Jaya Kumar, N. Ramaiah...; Brookings et al. 1985), affect ambient nutrient concentrations as well as water quality. Understanding their influence is critical to both basic ecology of tidal creeks and for evolving sampling protocols and pollutant-mitigation advisories. Lindquist...

  16. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouillon, Sylvain; Douillet, Pascal; Petrenko, Anne; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, Cécile; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Andréfouët, Serge; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba), and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji). In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations). The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU). This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach. PMID:27879929

  17. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba, and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji. In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations. The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU. This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  18. Case Studies on Coastal Wetlands and Water Resources in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Nwankwoala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a very important role in the sustenance of both the surface andgroundwater resources of the country. It is sad to observe that the country is fast losingher wetlands, as the rich wetlands are being seriously threatened by a number ofanthropogenic and biophysical factors. Some of the notable human actions includepopulation pressure, rapid urbanization, mining, oil and industrial waste pollution,overgrazing, logging, dam construction, transportation routes and other physicalinfrastructure. Others factors are uncontrolled tilling for crop production andunprecedented/unregulated land reclamation. Subsidence, saltwater intrusion, sandstorm, desertification and droughts, invasion by alien floral and faunal species as well asmarine and coastal erosion are natural threats to wetlands in Nigeria. Wetlandsdestruction affects negatively water supply and water resources management. This studyexamines in great detail the fate of wetlands in the face of climate change andrecommends that efforts should be made to accurately document the country’s wetland.The paper therefore suggested sustainable options for wetlands and water resourcesmanagement in Nigeria. This, the paper opined, can be done through the strengtheningof wetlands preservation and conservation regulation, mitigating the effects of climatechange as well as the development of deliberate restoration programmes and policiesaimed at sustaining degraded wetlands in Nigeria.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Temporal Variation in the Cyanophage Community Infecting Marine Synechococcus Species in Rhode Island's Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, Marcia F.; Sallee, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    The cyanophage community in Rhode Island's coastal waters is genetically diverse and dynamic. Cyanophage abundance ranged from over 104 phage ml−1 in the summer months to less then 102 phage ml−1 during the winter months. Thirty-six distinct cyanomyovirus g20 genotypes were identified over a 3-year sampling period; however, only one to nine g20 genotypes were detected at any one sampling date. Phylogenetic analyses of g20 sequences revealed that the Rhode Island cyanomyoviral isolates fall in...

  20. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  1. Overview of investigations into mercury in ground water, soils, and septage, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, investigations by health departments of eight counties in southern New Jersey, by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), and subsequently by the US Geological Survey (USGS), have shown that Hg concentrations in water tapped by about 600 domestic wells exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 ??g/L. The wells are finished in the areally extensive unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of New Jersey's Coastal Plain; background concentrations of Hg in water from this system are point sources of Hg, such as landfills or commercial and industrial hazardous-waste sites, is lacking. During 1996-2003, the USGS collected water samples from 203 domestic, irrigation, observation, and production wells using ultraclean techniques; septage, leach-field effluent, soils, and aquifer sediments also were sampled. Elevated concentrations of NH4, B, Cl, NO3, and Na and presence of surfactants in domestic-well water indicate that septic-system effluent can affect water quality in unsewered residential areas, but neither septage nor effluent appears to be a major Hg source. Detections of hydrogen sulfide in ground water at a residential area indicate localized reducing conditions; undetectable SO4 concentrations in water from other residential areas indicate that reducing conditions, which could be conducive to Hg methylation, may be common locally. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly chlorinated solvents, also are found in ground water at the affected areas, but statistically significant associations between presence of Hg and VOCs were absent for most areas evaluated. Hg concentrations are lower in some filtered water samples than in paired unfiltered samples, likely indicating that some Hg is associated with particles or colloids. The source of colloids may be soils, which, when undisturbed, contain higher concentrations of Hg than do disturbed soils and aquifer sediments. Soil disturbance during residential development and

  2. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  3. CRUMP 2003 Selected Water Sample Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point locations and water sampling results performed in 2003 by the Church Rock Uranium Monitoring Project (CRUMP) a consortium of organizations (Navajo Nation...

  4. Water quality variability and eutrophic trends in karstic tropical coastal lagoons of the Yucatán Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia González, Fedro U.; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.; Aguirre-Macedo, Maria L.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal lagoon ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to eutrophication due to often restricted water exchange with the adjacent ocean, leading to an accumulation of nutrients from the surrounding watershed. The coastal areas of the northern Yucatán (SE Mexico) show similar geological characteristics: carbonate soils, and strong groundwater discharges (SGD), which are a source of fresh water and dissolved inorganic nutrients. However, due to differences in land use and human impact, these coastal lagoons have different water quality characteristics. To determine the variables and processes that influence water quality and eutrophic status of these tropical coastal lagoons with different hydrological regimes and human impacts, bimonthly samplings were carried for a year at 11 stations in Celestún and Chelem lagoons. The results indicate that Celestún is influenced by bioturbation (resuspension and nutrients inputs from waterfowl) and SGD with high concentrations of nitrate and silicate, leading to oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Chelem had high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, reflecting impacts by wastewaters from the surrounding urban area, resulting in meso-eutrophic conditions. Forcing functions such as climatic patterns, water residence time and local aquifer pollution are probably the main variables that explain the observed patterns.

  5. Drinking Water Salinity and Maternal Health in Coastal Bangladesh: Implications of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aneire Ehmar; Ireson, Andrew; Kovats, Sari; Mojumder, Sontosh Kumar; Khusru, Amirul; Rahman, Atiq; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-04-12

    Background: Drinking water from natural sources in coastal Bangladesh has become contaminated by varying degrees of salinity due to saltwater intrusion from rising sea levels, cyclone and storm surges and upstream withdrawal of freshwater. Objective: Our objective was to estimate salt intake from drinking water sources and examine environmental factors that may explain a seasonal excess of hypertension in pregnancy. Methods: Water salinity data (1998-2000) for Dacope, in rural coastal Bangladesh, were obtained from the Centre for Environment and Geographic Information System. Information on drinking water sources, 24-hour urine samples and blood pressure were obtained from 343 pregnant Dacope women during the dry season (October 2009 - March 2010). The hospital-based prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was determined for 969 pregnant women (July 2008 - March 2010). Results: Average estimated sodium intakes from drinking water ranged from 5 to 16 g/day in the dry season, compared to 0.6 - 1.2 g/day in the rainy season. Average daily sodium excretion in urine was 3.4 g/day (range 0.4 - 7.7 g/d). Women who drank shallow tubewell water were more likely to have urine sodium > 100 mmol/d than women who drank rainwater (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.11 - 3.80). The annual hospital prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy was higher in the dry season (12.2%, 95% CI: 9.5 - 14.8) than the rainy season (5.1%, 95% CI: 2.91 - 7.26). Conclusions: The estimated salt intake from drinking water in this population exceeded recommended limits. The problem of saline intrusion into drinking water has multiple causes and is likely to be exacerbated by climate change induced sea-level rise.

  6. High frequency water quality and flow observations of a hypereutrophic Coastal Plain millpond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, S.; Ullman, W. J.; Voynova, Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Eutrophication due to runoff of N and P occurs in many impoundments in agricultural areas around the world with deleterious impacts on fisheries, drinking water, and recreational resources. Coursey Pond, a hypereutrophic, shallow, Coastal Plain mill pond located on the Murderkill River in central Delaware has seasonal algal blooms between May and October. High frequency automated water quality, meteorlogical, and flow observations initiated in June 2014 as part of the NEWRNet project provide insights into the relationships between hydrologic events, changes in water quality, and primary productivity. During blooms the pond becomes stratified, allowing for dissolved oxygen (DO) levels at the surface to exceed 150% saturation, while DO within 2 m of the surface to falls below 50% saturation. During fair weather turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also gradually rise. Turbidity, DOC, and DO quickly decrease in response to storms and increased flow, indicating that storms are important regulators of water column stratification. Decreases in primary productivity due to decreased sunlight, dilution by addition of rain and runoff, and mixing in response to storm winds and flows abruptly end blooms, although they often return within a few days of storm events. Analysis of hourly meterological data will help determine the importance of solar insolation, winds, and rainfall intensity to the timing, rate, and magnitude of these water quality changes. Groundwater is the primary source of water to the streams that feed the pond and delivers nitrogen as nitrate. Historical grab sample nitrate concentration data from summer months (water quality in downstream areas. There is no clear relationship between storms, flow and nitrate in the short period of high frequency observations, when nitrate concentrations rarely exceed 1 mg/L. In contrast, a negative correlation between flow and nitrate is typically observed in Coastal Plain streams where groundwater is the dominant

  7. Drivers of water quality variability in northern coastal Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Hubbard, Alan E; Nelson, Kara L; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2009-03-15

    Microbiological safety of water is commonly measured using indicator organisms, but the spatiotemporal variability of these indicators can make interpretation of data difficult. Here, we systematically explore the variability in Escherichia coil concentrations in surface source and household drinking water in a rural Ecuadorian village over one year. We observed more variability in water quality on an hourly basis (up to 2.4 log difference) than on a daily (2.2 log difference) or weekly basis (up to 1.8 log difference). E. coli counts were higher in the wet season than in the dry season for source (0.42 log difference, p < 0.0001) and household (0.11 log difference, p = 0.077) samples. In the wet season, a 1 cm increase in weekly rainfall was associated with a 3% decrease (p = 0.006) in E. coli counts in source samples and a 6% decrease (p = 0.012) in household samples. Each additional person in the river when source samples were collected was associated with a 4% increase (p = 0.026) in E. coil counts in the wet season. Factors affecting household water quality included rainfall, water source, and covering the container. The variability can be understood as a combination of environmental (e.g., seasonal and soil processes) and other drivers (e.g., human river use, water practices, and sanitation), each working at different time scales.

  8. Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in coastal recreational waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezzi, Lara Feital; Campana, Eloiza Helena; Corrêa, Laís Lisboa; Justo, Livia Helena; Paschoal, Raphael Paiva; da Silva, Isabel Lemos Vieira Dias; Souza, Maria do Carmo Maciel; Drolshagen, Marcia; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. Although most infections due to carbapenemase producers are limited to healthcare institutions, reports of the occurrence of clinically relevant carbapenemase producers in sewage and polluted rivers are increasingly frequent. Polluted rivers flowing to oceans may contaminate coastal waters with multidrug-resistant bacteria, potentially threatening the safety of recreational activities in these locations. Here we assessed the occurrence of carbapenemase producers in water from touristic beaches located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing distinct pollution patterns. The presence of enterobacteria was noted, including the predominantly environmental genus Kluyvera spp., producing either Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or Guyana extended-spectrum (GES)-type carbapenemases and often associated with quinolone resistance determinants. An Aeromonas sp. harbouring blaKPC and qnrS was also observed. These findings strengthen the role of aquatic matrices as reservoirs and vectors of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, with potential to favour the spread of these resistance threats throughout the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  10. Comparison of the trace metal concentration of drinking water supply options in southwest coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Atikul; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Higuchi, Takaya; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as the fresh water aquifers at reasonable depths are not available and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filter (PSF), and rain-fed pond water for drinking purposes. To ascertain the water quality for human consumption, chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, chromium, cadmium, nickel and arsenic were evaluated in the alternative drinking water supply options employed in the southwest coastal areas of Bangladesh. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy was used for determination of trace metal concentrations. pH and conductivity were measured using HANNA Instrument. The mean iron and manganese concentrations for rain-fed pond and PSF water were much higher than harvested rainwater. The iron concentrations for 41 % of the pond water samples were higher than the Bangladesh guideline value. Iron and manganese removal by PSFs was found to be 74 and 51 %, respectively. Scarcity of calcium and magnesium were found in harvested rainwater. Furthermore, one pond water sample showed arsenic concentration above the 10 μg/l WHO drinking water guideline. The presence of an elevated iron and manganese and low calcium and magnesium concentrations in the drinking water could be a matter of public health concern.

  11. Comparing Stable Water Isotope Variation in Atmospheric Moisture Observed over Coastal Water and Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Welp, L. R.; Bible, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopologues of atmospheric moisture are strongly influenced by large-scale synoptic weather cycles, surface evapotranspiration and boundary layer mixing. Atmospheric water isotope variation has been shown to empirically relate to relative humidity (Rh) of near surface moisture, and to a less degree, air temperature. Continuous δ18O and δD measurements are becoming more available, providing new opportunities to investigate processes that control isotope variability. This study shows the comparison of δ18O and δD measured at a continental location and over coastal waters for 3 seasons (spring to fall, 2014). The surface moisture isotope measurements were made using two LGR spectroscopy water vapor isotope analyzers (Los Gatos Research Inc.), one operated in an old-growth coniferous forest at Wind River field station, WA (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W), and another sampling marine air over seawater at the Scripps Pier in San Diego, CA (32.8654°N, 117.2536°W), USA. Isotope variations were measured at 1Hz and data were reported as hourly averages with an overall accuracy of ±0.1‰ for δ18O, ±0.5‰ for δ2H. Day-to-day variations in δ18O and δD are shown strongly influenced by synoptic weather events at both locations. Boundary layer mixing between surface moisture and the dry air entrained from the free troposphere exerts a midday maximum and a consistent diel pattern in deuterium excess (dx). At the forest site, surface moisture also interacts with leaf water through transpiration during the day and re-equilibration at night. The latter occurs by retro-diffusion of atmospheric H2O molecules into leaf intercellular space, which becomes intensified as Rh increaes after nightfall, and continues until sunrise, to counter-balance the evaporative isotopic enrichment in leaf water on a daily basis. These vegetation effects lead to negative dx values consistently observed at nighttime in this continental location that were not

  12. Development and application of a shipboard method for spectrophotometric determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sichao; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong; Zhou, Tingjin

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard method for the determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters was developed using a technique of reverse flow injection analysis, which adopted a 1-m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection of manganese derivation with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The design of dual-sample-carrier speeded up the sample throughput and eliminated the Schlieren effect. The salinity of estuarine and coastal waters caused a huge increase in the blank absorption value at the maximum absorption wavelength; therefore, a less sensitive detection wavelength was selected to achieve a low blank value while the method sensitivity was not significantly decreased. Method parameters were optimized. The salinity effect from estuarine and coastal waters was carefully investigated, and interference from iron was evaluated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with a detection limit of 3.0 nmol L-1 and a wide linear range of 10-1500 nmol L-1 for dissolved manganese in seawater (S=35). The analytical results of five water samples with different salinities obtained using the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference ICP-MS method. The sample throughput of the proposed method was 120 h-1, which was capable of obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution data in shipboard analysis. The proposed method had the advantages of convenient application in estuarine and coastal waters with different salinities, low detection limit, as well as high sample throughput. The proposed method was successfully applied to a 24 h on-line analysis and a shipboard underway analysis of dissolved manganese in the Jiulongjiang Estuary.

  13. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanetra, Karen M; Bano, Nasreen; Hollibaugh, James T

    2009-09-01

    We compared abundance, distributions and phylogenetic composition of Crenarchaeota and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in samples collected from coastal waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the summers of 2005 and 2006, with samples from the central Arctic Ocean collected during the summer of 1997. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Crenarchaeota abundances were estimated from quantitative PCR measurements of amoA and 16S rRNA gene abundances. Crenarchaeota and AOA were approximately fivefold more abundant at comparable depths in the Antarctic versus the Arctic Ocean. Crenarchaeota and AOA were essentially absent from the Antarctic Summer Surface Water (SSW) water mass (0-45 m depth). The ratio of Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA to archaeal amoA gene abundance in the Winter Water (WW) water mass (45-105 m depth) of the Southern Ocean was much lower (0.15) than expected and in sharp contrast to the ratio (2.0) in the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) water mass (105-3500 m depth) immediately below it. We did not observe comparable segregation of this ratio by depth or water mass in Arctic Ocean samples. A ubiquitous, abundant and polar-specific crenarchaeote was the dominant ribotype in the WW and important in the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean. Our data suggest that this organism does not contain an ammonia monooxygenase gene. In contrast to other studies where Crenarchaeota populations apparently lacking amoA genes are found in bathypelagic waters, this organism appears to dominate in well-defined, ammonium-rich, near-surface water masses in polar oceans.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY IN MUKKAM, CHEPALAKANCHERU AND DALLIPETA: COASTAL VILLAGES OF VIZIANAGARAM DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ram Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was under taken to analyze the various water quality parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and to assess the water quality in bore well and well water samples of three coastal villages Mukkam, Chepalakancheru and Dallipeta of Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. From each of the village, different sampling stations were identified and by composite sampling methods water samples were collected and analyzed for the various parameters. The results were compared with the values stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO, and ARE: 10500 for drinking water quality. In the present investigation the authors found that the overall quality of the three villages is poor and not recommended as potable.

  15. Mesozooplankton biomass and abundance in Cyprus coastal waters and comparison with the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C.S. HANNIDES

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we conduct the first comprehensive assessment of mesozooplankton abundance, biomass, and taxa composition in Cyprus coastal waters (Levantine Sea.  Mesozooplankton abundance and biomass sampled at several locations around the island ranged from 153 – 498 individuals m-3 and 0.7 – 5.2 mg dry weight m-3, respectively, with significantly larger biomass observed in winter-early spring (March than in summer (September.  The community was dominated by calanoid and cyclopoid copepods throughout the year (80% of total numbers, with higher abundances of predatory taxa (chaetognaths and medusae in winter and cladocerans in summer.  Overall, we find that coastal mesozooplankton communities around Cyprus appear to be more similar to communities in offshore waters or those around the island of Rhodes than to communities along the mainland Levantine coast.  We further highlight regional differences in the eastern Mediterranean by comparing our data with mesozooplankton in the western Aegean (Saronikos Gulf and northeastern Aegean Sea (NEA.  Distinct spatial differences were observed, for example anthropogenic influences in the Saronikos Gulf and the outflow of Modified Black Sea Water in the NEA drove generally greater biomass and abundance in these regions.  Overall, our comparison supports the concept of a latitudinal gradient in oligotrophy in the eastern Mediterranean, with ultra-oligotrophic conditions found in the Levantine Sea.

  16. Spatial scales of optical variability in the coastal ocean: Implications for remote sensing and in situ sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Wesley J.; Ackleson, Steven G.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Miller, W. David

    2016-06-01

    Use of ocean color remote sensing to understand the effects of environmental changes and anthropogenic activities on estuarine and coastal waters requires the capability to measure and track optically detectable complex biogeochemical processes. An important remote sensor design consideration is the minimum spatial resolution required to resolve key ocean features of physical and biological significance. The spatial scale of variability in optical properties of coastal waters has been investigated using continuous, along-track measurements collected using instruments deployed from ships, aircraft, and satellites. We defined the average coefficient of variance, CV¯a, within an image pixel as the primary statistical measure of subpixel variability and investigated how CV¯a changes as a function of the Ground Sampling Distance (GSD). In general, dCV¯a/dGSD is positive, indicating that the subpixel variability increases with GSD. The relationship between CV¯a and GSD is generally nonlinear and the greatest rate of change occurs at small spatial scales. Points of distinct transition in the relationship between CV¯a and GSD are evident between 75 and 600 m, varying depending on the location and the optical parameter, and representing the GSD above which most of the spatial variability due to small-scale features is subsumed within a pixel. At GSDs greater than the transition point, most of the small-scale variability occurs at subpixel scales and, therefore, cannot be resolved. On average, the transition GSD is around 200 m. The results have application in both sensor design and in situ sampling strategy in support of coastal remote sensing operations.

  17. Occurrence of priority pollutants in WWTP effluents and Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, N; Aguado, D; Segovia-Martínez, L; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study aimed at evaluating the occurrence, significance of concentrations and spatial distribution of priority pollutants (PPs) along the Comunidad Valenciana coastal waters (Spain) was carried out in order to fulfil the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Additionally, PP concentrations were also analysed in the effluent of 28 WWTPs distributed along the studied area. In coastal waters 36 organic pollutants of the 71 analysed, including 26 PPs were detected although many of them with low frequency of occurrence. Only 13 compounds, which belong to four different classes (VOCs, organochlorinated pesticides, phthalates and tributyltin compounds (TBT)) showed a frequency of occurrence above 20% in coastal waters. In the results obtained until now, octylphenol, pentachlorobenzene, DEHP and TBT exceeded the annual average concentration (EQS-AAC), and only TBT surpassed the maximum allowable concentration (EQS-MAC). The most frequent contaminants determined in coastal waters were also present in WWTP effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ASSESSING COASTAL WATERS OF AMERICAN SAMOA: TERRITORY-WIDE WATER QUALITY DATA PROVIDE A CRITICAL 'BIG-PICTURE' VIEW FOR THIS TROPICAL ARCHIPELAGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal waters of American Samoa’s 5 high islands (Tutuila, Aunu’u, Ofu, Olosega,and Ta’u) were surveyed in 2004 using a probabilistic design. Water quality data were collected from the near-shore coastal habitat, defined as all near-shore coastal waters including embayments,...

  19. PRIMARILY RESULTS OF PHYTOPLANKTON DNA AND VARIATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DURRES`S BAY COASTAL WATERS (ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gjyli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After isolation of phytoplankton DNA in coastal waters of Durres Bay, Albania, quantification and analysis of quality were investigated with spectrophotometric analysis. Analysis of UV absorption by the nucleotides provides a simple and accurate estimation of the concentration of nucleic acids in a sample. This method is however limited by the quantity of DNA and the purity of the preparation. Also biotic environment factors as Chlorophyll a and abiotic environment factors as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate were investigated to assess DNA quantities in different environment conditions. The Chlorophyll a was studied also to access the level of trophy. The sample stations were: Golem Beach (GB, Channel of Plepa (ChP, Hekurudha Beach (HB, Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour (EFQ, Water Channel of Durres City (WChDC and Currila Beach (CB. Samples are taken in one meter depth from the water surface. Water samples were collected monthly from April to October 2011. The most abundant stations with phytoplankton DNA are Channel of Plepa and Water Channel of Durres City. This confirms that there are spills of fresh waters, sewage or agricultural water spills, often discharge in coastal waters. Referring Mutliple Regression Analysis and single regression analysis, the association between phytoplankton DNA and environment factors was strong (R2 = 0.75. Basing in single correlation and statistically significance (p-value ≤ 0.05, the enviroment factors that correlated to phytoplankton DNA were pH, salinity and phosphate; explaining thus the variation of total phytoplankton in Durres Bay coastal waters.

  20. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in snow, lake, surface runoff water and coastal seawater in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minghong; Yang, Haizhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Lu, Zhibo; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-03-30

    The multi-matrices samples from snow (n=4), lake water (n=4), surface runoff water (SRW) (n=1) and coastal seawater (n=10) were collected to investigate the spatial distribution and the composition profiles of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica in 2011. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). 14 PFASs in snow, 12 PFASs in lake water, 9 PFASs in SRW and 13 PFASs in coastal seawater were quantified, including C(4), C(7), C(8), C(10) PFSAs, C(4)-C(9), C(11)-C(14), C(16) PFCAs, and FOSA. PFOA was detected in all samples with the highest concentration (15,096 pg/L) in coastal seawater indicating a possible influence of local sewage effluent. High concentration and mostly frequency of PFBA occurred in snow (up to 1112 pg/L), lake water (up to 2670 pg/L) and SRW (1431 pg/L) while detected in the range of method detection limited (MDL) in the coastal seawaters indicate that PFBA is mainly originated from atmospheric dust contamination and also affected by the degradation of their precursors. No geographical differences in PFOS concentrations (n=8, 18 ± 3 pg/L) were measured in all snow and lake water samples also suggests that PFOS could be originated from the degradation of their precursors which can transported by long-range atmospheric route, but in a very low level.

  1. EPA Releases Scientific Report Showing U.S. Coastal Waters a Mix of Good and Fair Health/Contaminants Post Threat to Fish, Birds, and Wildlife in Most Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released the 2010 National Coastal Condition Assessment showing that more than half of the nation's coastal and Great Lakes nearshore waters are rated good for biological and sediment

  2. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Goa coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    Average hydrocarbon concentrations in water, plankton and sediment samples collected from the central west coast of India between 14 degrees 40'N and 15 degrees 50'N were 30.9 mu g/litre, 46.9 mu g/g dry wt and 7.1 degrees kg/g dry wt respectively...

  3. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  4. Coastal water quality near to desalination project in Cyprus using Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsa, Christiana; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.

    2011-11-01

    Remote sensing can become a very useful tool in order to monitor coastal water quality. Economically benefits of using remote sensing techniques are obviously comparatively to the field-based monitoring because water quality can be checked daily or weekly depended on satellite overpass frequency rather than monthly as done by traditional methods which involve expensive sampling campaigns. Moreover remote sensing allows the spatial and temporal assessment of various physical, biological and ecological parameters of water bodies giving the opportunity to examine a large area by applying the suitable algorithm. This paper describes the overall methodology in order to retrieve a coastal water monitoring tool for a high risk area in Cyprus. This project is funded by the Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus and is been developed by the Department of Civil Engineering & Geomatics, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Cyprus University of Technology in corporation with the Department of Fisheries and Marine Research in Cyprus. Firstly a time series of pigments will be done in order to determine the concentrations of the expedient parameters such as Chlorophyll, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), temperature etc at the same time of satellite overpass. At the same time in situ spectroradiometric measurements will be taken in order to retrieve the best fitted algorithm. Statistical analysis of the data will be done for the correlation of each parameter to the in situ spectroradiometric measures. Several algorithms retrieved from the in situ data are then applied to the satellite images e.g. Landsat TM/ETM+, MODIS in order to verify the suitable algorithm for each parameter. In conclusion, the overall approach is to develop regression models in which each water quality parameter will be retrieved using image, field spectroscopy, and water quality data.

  5. Effects of water wave motion on pollutant transport in shallow coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶建华; 韩光

    2002-01-01

    Based on the study of the wave propagation, breaking, longshore current and the effect of wave on current structure in the near shore area with a mild bottom slope, the wave is considered to be an important dynamic factor for pollutant transportation in the coastal water. Numerical simulation shows that the pollutant will transfer along shore when the incident wave is at an angle to the shoreline. This phenomenon is very significant if the outfall is located in the surfzone. Therefore, in the design of sea outfall, to improve near shore environment, the water wave should be considered as an important hydrodynamic factor.

  6. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment.

  7. Reflected GPS Power for the Detection of Surface Roughness Patterns in Coastal Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, George, F.; Allen, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Coastal bays formed by the barrier islands of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia are parts of a coastal region known as a "Coastal Compartment". The coastal compartment between the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays is actually the mosaic of landscapes on the headland of the interfluve that separates these large drainage basins. The coastal compartments form a variety of different-shaped waterways landward of the coastline. Shape differences along the boundaries produce differences in exposure to wind and waves. Different shoreface topographies seaward of the coastline also influence surface roughness by changing wave-refraction patterns. Surface-water roughness (caused by waves) is controlled by a number of parameters, including fetch, shielding, exposure corridors, water-mass boundary conditions, wetland vegetation and water depth in coastal bays. In the coastal ocean, surface roughness patterns are controlled by shoreface shoaling and inlet refraction patterns in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of wave phenomena in the nearshore and backbarrier areas is needed to understand how wave climate influences important ecosystems in estuaries and bays.

  8. Optimization of Eosine Analyses in Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Liljana

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescence ability of Eosine enables its using as artificial tracer in the water system studies. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dyes in water samples depends on their physical and chemical properties, such as pH, temperature, presence of oxidants, etc. This paper presents the experience of the Center of Applied Nuclear Physics, Tirana, in this field. The problem is dealt with in relation to applying Eosine to trace and determine water movements within the karstic system and underground waters. We have used for this study the standard solutions of Eosine. The method we have elaborated to this purpose made it possible to optimize procedures we use to analyze samples for the presence of Eosine and measure its content, even in trace levels, by the means of a Perkin Elmer LS 55 Luminescence Spectrometer.

  9. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  10. Remote measurement of water color in coastal waters. [spectral radiance data used to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop procedure to obtain quantitative values for chlorophyll and turbidity in coastal waters by observing the changes in spectral radiance of the backscattered spectrum. The technique under consideration consists of Examining Exotech model 20-D spectral radiometer data and determining which radiance ratios best correlated with chlorophyll and turbidity measurements as obtained from analyses of water samples and sechi visibility readings. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between backscattered light and chlorophyll concentration and secchi visibility. The tests were conducted with the spectrometer mounted in a light aircraft over the Mississippi Sound at altitudes of 2.5K, 2.8K and 10K feet.

  11. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle-water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiyi; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Seunghee

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle-water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a]marine food chains.

  12. Calibration of a low background gas-flow proportional counter to estimate (234)Th activity in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, E; Lozano, R L; Miguel, E G San; Casas-Ruiz, M; Bolívar, J P

    2016-12-01

    This paper relates the calibration of a low background gas-flow proportional counter. This calibration has been used to determine low activity of (234)Th in coastal water samples. Two methods were used to prepare calibration samples: Evaporation and Electrodeposition. First method was rejected due to the lack of reproducibility because the different geometry adopted by the drops of tracer once dried on the disk. On the contrary, through the second method, similar efficiencies were obtained in all detectors with an average of 0.401±0.004. In this paper, the whole procedure to obtain (234)Th activity in dissolution as well as in particulate matter has been detailed, and all the algorithms needed to calculate activities and efficiencies are shown. Finally, two experiments have been designed in order to validate the calibration of the beta counter and the method to determine (234)Th in coastal waters with high concentration of particulate matter.

  13. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle–water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiyi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Global Bioresources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunji [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seunghee, E-mail: shan@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle–water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a] < 0.6 μg L{sup −1}, the bacterial number, instead of chlorophyll-a concentration in particle, showed a positive correlation with the particle–water partition coefficient of Hg. Overall, microbial abundance seems to play a critical role in particle scavenging of Hg in coastal water. Taking this result in light of Hg in pristine coastal zones, we predict that increases in algal biomass amplify the potential for algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. - Highlights: • Abundance of phytoplankton and bacteria influenced particle–water partitioning of Hg. • More Hg partitioned toward particles when microorganism biomass in particle is large. • Increases of algal biomass may enhance Hg bioaccumulation in coastal ecosystem.

  14. Seasonality, Water Quality Variability and Diarrheal Disease in Northern Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, K.; Hubbard, A. E.; Nelson, K. L.; Eisenberg, J. N.

    2008-12-01

    Objective Seasonality plays a key role in determining incidence of infectious diseases. Diarrheal diseases in particular show seasonal trends, with bacterial pathogens usually peaking in warmer months and viral pathogens peaking in cooler, dryer months. However, studies of the impacts of water quality on diarrheal disease are usually undertaken cross-sectionally, over a short period of time. In this study, we explore how seasonality affects diarrheal disease incidence in a rural area of northern coastal Ecuador, using longer-term datasets. Materials and Methods We use water quality data (as measured by E.coli counts) for both source and in-home water samples collected on a weekly basis over the course of one year in one village. We test the relationship between weekly variability in water quality and diarrheal disease incidence, water treatment and water storage practices in the home. Results We find that peaks in geometric mean values of microbial contamination of source waters often correspond to peaks in weekly village diarrhea incidence in the wet season, but not in the dry season. We also find that perceptions of villagers about water cleanliness do not correspond to levels of microbial contamination; people are more likely to treat their water in the dry season, whereas microbial contamination of source waters peaks in the wet season. We relate these findings to a broader analysis of the relationship between weekly rainfall and diarrheal disease incidence in 21 villages across a larger region over the course of five years. Conclusions Our findings suggest that seasonal variability plays a role in the relationship between water quality and waterborne disease. A consideration of seasonality can help guide public health interventions, by targeting messages about water treatment at times when people are most at risk for waterborne disease. These data can also help inform projections of the impact of climate change on waterborne disease.

  15. A system dynamics mode-based exploratory analysis of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Slinger, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities dependent upon groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation are vulnerable to salinization of the groundwater reserve. The increasing uncertainty associated with changing climatic conditions, population and economic development, and technological advances poses signifi

  16. Pollutant dispersion studies - An update on the problems in Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    Pollutant dispersion problems along the Indian coastal waters are characterisEd. by site-specificity, as a result of seasonal and physiographic variabilities. Presence of large rivers, estuaries and backwaters add to the problems of waste disposal...

  17. bioSearch : A glimpse into marine biodiversity of Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kakodkar, A; Alornekar, A; DSouza, R.; Thomas, T.R.A; Divekar, R.; Nath, I.V.A; Kavlekar, D.P.; Ingole, B.S.; Bharathi, P.A

    bioSearch is a database application developed to digitize marine biodiversity of Indian coastal waters. A user can obtain information on organism’s binomial and common names, synonyms, taxonomy, morphology, ecology, economic importance, geographical...

  18. Dispersion processes in coastal waters - Some outstanding practical issues for monitoring and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    This paper highlights on the issues of dispersion processes in coastal waters like space-time description of field parameters, limitation of physical models, limitations of numerical formulations, Eulerian-Lagrangian transformations, shear...

  19. Zooplankton production, composition and diversity in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Padmavati, G.

    Spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton production, composition and diversity in the coastal waters of Goa were studied. Zooplankton production was bimodal with primary peak during September-October and secondary peak during March...

  20. Seasonal and diurnal variability of thermal structure in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Chandramohan, P.

    Seasonal and diurnal variability of thermal structure in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam has been examined in relation to the flow field and surface winds utilizing the hourly data of temperature and currents taken at a fixed location over a...

  1. Plankton composition in the coastal waters between Jaigarh and Rajapur along west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, V.R.; Devassy, V.P.

    Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton population in the Konkan coastal waters. Rhizosolenia spp., Ceratulinia sp., Ditylum spp., Navicula sp. and Thalassiothrix spp. were the dominant diatoms observed in this area. Blue-green algae and flagellates...

  2. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols.

  3. Remote estimation of in water constituents in coastal waters using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Gilerson, Alexander; Ondrusek, Michael E.; Hlaing, Soe; Foster, Robert; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Bastani, Kaveh; Ahmed, Samir

    2014-10-01

    Remote estimations of oceanic constituents from optical reflectance spectra in coastal waters are challenging because of the complexity of the water composition as well as difficulties in estimation of water leaving radiance in several bands possibly due to inadequacy of current atmospheric correction schemes. This work focuses on development of a multiband inversion algorithm that combines remote sensing reflectance measurements at several wavelengths in the blue, green and red for retrievals of the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, color dissolved organic matter and nonalgal particulates at 443nm as well as the particulate backscatter coefficient at 443nm. The algorithm was developed, using neural networks (NN), and was designed to use as input measurements on ocean color bands matching those of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The NN is trained on a simulated data set generated through a biooptical model for a broad range of typical coastal water parameters. The NN was evaluated using several statistical indicators, initially on the simulated data-set, as well as on field data from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Data set, NOMAD, and data from our own field campaigns in the Chesapeake Bay which represent well the range of water optical properties as well as chlorophyll concentrations in coastal regions. The algorithm was also finally applied on a satellite - in situ databases that were assembled for the Chesapeake Bay region using MODIS and VIIRS satellite data. These databases were created using in-situ chlorophyll concentrations routinely measured in different locations throughout Chesapeake Bay and satellite reflectance overpass data that coexist in time with these in-situ measurements. NN application on this data-sets suggests that the blue (412 and 443nm) satellite bands are erroneous. The NN which was assessed for retrievals from VIIRS using only the 486, 551 and 671 bands showed that retrievals that omitted the 671 nm

  4. Particle backscattering variability in the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal: A case study along off Kakinada and Yanam Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Latha, P.T.; Nagamani, P.V.; Rao, B.S.; Amarendra, P.; Rao, K.H.; Choudhury, S.B.; Dash, S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    The distribution and variability of particulate back scattering coefficient (bbp) in the Godavari basin are reported for the first time using in situ measurements. A coastal cruise was conducted in the coastal waters Off Kakinada...

  5. Seasonal variability of coastal water quality in bay of Bengal and Palk Strait, Tamilnadu, Southeast Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical parameters of water quality collected from 12 sampling stations from Topputhurai to Muthupet in Vedaranyam located on the southeast coast of India from January to December 2008. Results showed that the DO and nutrients were the maximum in the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon period. High concentration of the nutrients in summer season was obtained near the Muthupet mangroves compared to the Palk Strait, which showed that this acted as a source of nutrients to the adjacent coastal waters. Low concentrations of the nutrients observed in the monsoon could be attributed to the terrestrial runoff from Muthupet lagoon. The physicochemical characteristics of coastal waters between the Point Calimere and Muthupet could be used as a baseline data for the monitoring, conservation and management of Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird sanctuary, Great Vedaranyam swamp and Muthupet mangrove ecosystem.

  6. The modelling of optimal visual pigments of dichromatic teleosts in green coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, J N; Partridge, J C

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a computer model that attempts to predict which pairs of rhodopsins are most suitable for making various luminosity and chromaticity discriminations in green coastal water. The model, which is based on the statistics of photon capture by retinal photoreceptors, predicts the optimal visual pigment pairs for different visual tasks. The results obtained from the model compare well with the rhodopsins possessed by dichromatic fish living at moderate depth in green coastal water.

  7. Aerosol optical thickness and spatial variability along coastal and offshore waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, H.B.; Sangekar, N.; Lotliker, A.; Moorthy, K.K.; Vethamony, P.

    quantity required for determining aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The role of aerosols in climate change remains uncertain. Although the theory behind their effect on outgoing terrestrial and incoming solar radiations is well... waters. The current study aims to formulate a technique to derive AOT from OCM 3 over coastal waters and to demonstrate the method’s potential for analysing aerosol distribution along the eastern coastal Arabian Sea. In the fisheries context, these AOT...

  8. Exploring Techniques for Improving Retrievals of Bio-optical Properties of Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Exploring Techniques for Improving Retrievals of Bio ...Exploring Techniques for Improving Retrievals of Bio -optical Properties of Coastal Waters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...retrieval of bio -optical properties, benefits from the leveraging of funding by NOAA CREST in which remote sensing of coastal waters is an important

  9. Instrumentation in Support of Research on Bio-optical Thin Layers in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    INSTRUMENTATION IN SUPPORT OF RESEARCH ON BIO -OPTICAL THIN LAYERS IN COASTAL WATERS Dian J. Gifford Graduate School of Oceanography University of...SUBTITLE Instrumentation in Support of Research on Bio -optical Thin Layers in Coastal Waters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Because the layers scatter both sound and light, they are important in a number of other disciplinary areas in ocean including bio -optics and acoustics

  10. Optical Properties of Mineral Particles and Their Effect on Remote-Sensing Reflectance in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-30

    1997. Photometric immersion refractometry : A method for determining the refractive index of marine microbial particles from beam attenuation...light is collected by the absorption meter due to geometry of instrument. In the previous report we described our effort to develop a method for...bulk optical properties in coastal waters, (2) develop reliable remote sensing algorithms for coastal waters, (3) develop improved methods for optical

  11. Recent hydrographic measurements in the Lake Issyk Kul: Coastal currents, thermohaline structure, water quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter; Osadchiev, Alexander; Pelevin, Vadim; Konovalov, Boris; Goncharenko, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Issyk Kul is a deep (670 m) terminal lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume, and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. The lake is a Ramsar site of globally significant biodiversity. We report preliminary results of a field survey undertaken in the northern coastal part of the lake, off Cholpon-Ata township, on September 10-13, 2014. A fishery boat was used to carry out CTD profiling and water sampling at 16 stations. An UV fluorescent lidar working continuosly throughout the survey yielded surface concentrations of chlorophyll-a, suspended matter, and dissolved organic substances. In addition, we deployed 3 mooring stations equipped with current meters, all at approximately 15 m isobath, recording the velocity and direction of the near-bottom currents with 10 min sampling intervals. During the experiment, the coastal waters of the lake were fully mixed down to the depth of 15-20 m and nearly uniform vertically at salinity about 5 g/kg. The only exception referred to the areas adjacent to the mouths of small river and creeks, where stable salinity stratification developed at 0.01-0.03 g/kg per 1 m of depth. The temperature stratification generally followed the diurnal pattern. The dominant coastal currents were directed westward, which agrees with the established notion about the cyclonic character of the basin-scale circulation. Superimposed on this general cyclonic pattern, there was a persistent variability of currents at the periods of 17 to 24 hours, likely associated with the interplay between the inertial oscillation and signal of breeze in the wind forcing. There was an evidence of mesoscale eddies, possibly, associated with topographic features of the shoreline. The observed velocity in the near-bottom layer was about 9 cm/s on the average, with the maximum values exceeding 25 cm/s. The Issyk Kul lake is ultra-oligotrophic - the concentrations of chlorophyll-a were

  12. Visualizing Water Quality Sampling-Events in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bolt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water quality sampling in Florida is acknowledged to be spatially and temporally variable. The rotational monitoring program that was created to capture data within the state’s thousands of miles of coastline and streams, and millions of acres of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds may be partly responsible for inducing the variability as an artifact. Florida’s new dissolved-oxygen-standard methodology will require more data to calculate a percent saturation. This additional data requirement’s impact can be seen when the new methodology is applied retrospectively to the historical collection. To understand how, where, and when the methodological change could alter the environmental quality narrative of state waters requires addressing induced bias from prior sampling events and behaviors. Here stream and coastal water quality data is explored through several modalities to maximize understanding and communication of the spatiotemporal relationships. Previous methodology and expected-retrospective calculations outside the regulatory framework are found to be significantly different, but dependent on the spatiotemporal perspective. Data visualization is leveraged to demonstrate these differences, their potential impacts on environmental narratives, and to direct further review and analysis.

  13. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the Index...

  14. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  15. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  16. Methane in coastal and offshore waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, D.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Narvekar, P.V.; George, M.D.

    , revealed high spatial and temporal variability in surface saturation (110-2521%). The highest values were observed during the SWM in the inner shelf where coastal upwelling combined with freshwater runoff to produce very strong near-surface stratification...

  17. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters as of May 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  18. Tank Access for Ballast Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. ~~r R~ obert C. chards "Director of Technical Development United States Coast Guard Research...Water Sampling Protocols (Technical Report No. 18). Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests. U.S. Department of

  19. An Assessment of Metals (Pb and Cu Contamination in Bottom Sediment from South China Sea Coastal Waters, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The accumulation of metal contaminants in sediments can pose serious environmental problems to the surrounding areas. Trace metal contamination in sediment could affect the water quality and the bio-assimilation and bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic organisms, resulting in potential long-term implications on human health and ecosystem. Approach: About 154 bottom sediment samples were collected using Smith McIntyre in a transect pattern from South China Sea East Coast coastal water (Terengganu, Pahang and Johor coastal area. The study focused on the levels of Pb and Cu in order to assess the extent of environment pollution and to discuss the origin of these contaminants in the sediment. Results: Results showed that the average concentration of Pb and Cu was 33.70 µg g-1 dry weights and 22.40 µg g-1 dry weights, respectively. Pb and Cu have relatively lower Enrichment Factors (EF value and geo-accumulation (Igeo indices in study area and these analysis validated that elevated heavy metals concentration in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Conclusion: Overall, geochemistry of the samples showed the effect of both natural and anthropogenic inputs to the catchment, however, natural processes were more dominant than anthropogenic inputs in concentrating metals. Results obtained would help to develop strategies for pollution control and sediment remediation of coastal waters in the South China Sea.

  20. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. A survey of fish viruses isolated from wild marine fishes from the coastal waters of southern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Choi, Shin-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2013-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate viral infection in 253 wild marine fishes harvested in the southern coastal area of Korea from 2010 to 2012. The fish that were captured by local anglers were randomly bought and sampled for virus examination. The samples were tested for presence of virus by virus isolation with FHM, FSP, and BF-2 cells and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Of the 253 fish sampled, 9 fish were infected with virus. Aquabirnaviruses (ABVs), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) were detected in 7, 1, and 1 fish, respectively. Molecular phylogenies demonstrated the detected viruses (ABV, VHSV, and RSIV) were more closely related to viruses reported of the same type from Korea and Japan than from other countries, suggesting these viruses may be indigenous to Korean and Japanese coastal waters.

  2. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  3. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardon, R.

    1989-11-01

    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  4. A survey of benthic assemblages of foraminifera in tropical coastal waters of pulau pinang, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhat, Fatin Izzati; Yahya, Khairun; Talib, Anita; Ahmad, Omar

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of benthic Foraminifera throughout the coastal waters of Taman Negara Pulau Pinang (Penang National Park), Malaysia was studied to assess the impact of various anthropogenic activities, such as fishing, ecotourism and floating cage culture. Samples were obtained at 200 m intervals within the subtidal zone, extending up to 1200 m offshore at Teluk Bahang, Teluk Aling, Teluk Ketapang and Pantai Acheh. The depth within coastal waters ranged between 1.5 m and 10.0 m, with predominantly muddy substrate at most stations. Water quality analysis showed little variation in micronutrient (nitrite, NO2; nitrate, NO3; ammonia, NH4 and orthophosphate, PO4) concentrations between sampling stations. Temperature (29.6±0.48°C), salinity (29.4±0.28 ppt), dissolved oxygen content (5.4±0.95 mg/l) and pH (8.5± 0.13) also showed little fluctuation between stations. A total of nine genera of foraminifera were identified in the study (i.e., Ammonia, Elphidium, Ammobaculites, Bigenerina, Quinqueloculina, Reopax, Globigerina, Textularia and Nonion). The distribution of benthic foraminifera was dominated by opportunistic groups that have a high tolerance to anthropogenic stressors. Ammonia had the highest frequency of occurrence (84.7%), followed by Bigenerina (50%), Ammobaculites (44.2%) and Elphidium (38.9%). The Ammonia-Elphidium Index (AEI) was used to describe the hypoxic condition of benthic communities at all sites. Teluk Bahang had the highest AEI value. The foraminiferal assemblages and distribution in Teluk Bahang, Teluk Aling, Teluk Ketapang and Pantai Acheh showed no correlation with physical or chemical environmental parameters.

  5. Excess nitrate loads to coastal waters reduces nitrate removal efficiency: mechanism and implications for coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Mirko; Voss, Maren; Erickson, Matthew; Dziallas, Claudia; Casciotti, Karen; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated due to anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural loading with artificial fertilizer. Thus, more and more reactive nitrogen is entering streams and rivers, primarily as nitrate, where it is eventually transported towards the coastal zone. The assimilation of nitrate by coastal phytoplankton and its conversion into organic matter is an important feature of the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Dissolved reactive nitrogen is converted into a particulate form, which eventually undergoes nitrogen removal via microbial denitrification. High and unbalanced nitrate loads to the coastal zone may alter planktonic nitrate assimilation efficiency, due to the narrow stochiometric requirements for nutrients typically shown by these organisms. This implies a cascade of changes for the cycling of other elements, such as carbon, with unknown consequences at the ecosystem level. Here, we report that the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of a natural phytoplankton community decreased under high, unbalanced nitrate loads, due to the enhanced recycling of organic nitrogen and subsequent production and microbial transformation of excess ammonium. NRE was inversely correlated with the amount of nitrate present, and mechanistically controlled by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and organic carbon (Corg) availability. These findings have important implications for the management of nutrient runoff to coastal zones.

  6. Shifts in coastal Antarctic marine microbial communities during and after melt water-related surface stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piquet, Anouk M. -T.; Bolhuis, Henk; Meredith, Michael P.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Antarctic coastal waters undergo major physical alterations during summer. Increased temperatures induce sea-ice melting and glacial melt water input, leading to strong stratification of the upper water column. We investigated the composition of micro-eukaryotic and bacterial communities in Ryder Ba

  7. Numerical study on water waves and wave-induced longshore currents in Obaköy coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; LYU Yigang; SHEN Yongming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the water waves and wave-induced longshore currents in Obaköy coastal water which is lo-cated at the Mediterranean coast of Turkey were numerically studied. The numerical model is based on the parabolic mild-slope equation for coastal water waves and the nonlinear shallow water equation for the wave-induced currents. The wave transformation under the effects of shoaling, refraction, diffraction and breaking is considered, and the wave provides radiation stresses for driving currents in the model. The numerical results for the water wave-induced longshore currents were validated by the measured data to demonstrate the efficiency of the numerical model. Then the water waves and longshore currents induced by the waves from main directions were numerically simulated and analyzed based on the numerical re-sults. The numerical results show that the movement of the longshore currents was different while the wave propagated to a coastal zone from different directions.

  8. Spatio-temporal variability in hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong along the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Talukder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse seasonal characteristics of hydro-chemical parameters in the coastal zone are significantly related to aquaculture development. In this paper, general water quality condition derived from laboratory analysis from the coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong is presented. Samples were collected from onshore and offshore site of two adjacent coastal locations named as North Salimpur (experimental location and South Kattoli (control during a monsoon and a dry season spanning 2013-14. The spatio-temporal variability of studied parameters were found as air temperature 26.5-32.5 ˚C, water temperature 23-33 °C, pH 7.1-7.9, DO 4.29-7.11 mg/L, BOD 1.10-3.25 mg/L, salinity 1.6-21 ppt, EC 3.40-35.68 mS/cm, TDS 2.02-21.99 g/L, TSS 0.62-2.76 g/L, transparency 4.5-14 cm, precipitation 64-1992 mm, NO2-N 1.94-2.58 µg/L, PO4-P 0.45-1.84 µg/L, SiO3-Si 130.46-956.31 µg/L during investigation period. Average values of physicochemical parameters were found to be in compliance with standard guidelines. The ship breaking activities near experimental location possess negative impacts on local geomorphology, freshwater inputs, precipitation and aquatic environment as well. Moreover, wind driven forces, tidal action, wave characteristics and changes in monsoon pattern regulate the coastal processes. This research suggests the importance of regular monitoring to assess present status of water quality and future prospect of aquaculture in the Chittagong coastal zone.

  9. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  10. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  11. Use of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS in developing water quality numeric criteria for Florida’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities on land often increase nutrient loads to coastal waters and may cause increased phytoplankton production, algal biomass, and eutrophication. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency determined that numeric criteria were necessary to protect Florida's coastal wa...

  12. Development of MODIS data-based algorithm for retrieving sea surface temperature in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    A new algorithm was developed for retrieving sea surface temperature (SST) in coastal waters using satellite remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Aqua platform. The new SST algorithm was trained using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method and tested using 8 years of remote sensing data from MODIS Aqua sensor and in situ sensing data from the US coastal waters in Louisiana, Texas, Florida, California, and New Jersey. The ANN algorithm could be utilized to map SST in both deep offshore and particularly shallow nearshore waters at the high spatial resolution of 1 km, greatly expanding the coverage of remote sensing-based SST data from offshore waters to nearshore waters. Applications of the ANN algorithm require only the remotely sensed reflectance values from the two MODIS Aqua thermal bands 31 and 32 as input data. Application results indicated that the ANN algorithm was able to explaining 82-90% variations in observed SST in US coastal waters. While the algorithm is generally applicable to the retrieval of SST, it works best for nearshore waters where important coastal resources are located and existing algorithms are either not applicable or do not work well, making the new ANN-based SST algorithm unique and particularly useful to coastal resource management.

  13. The role of gametes of the macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis and Fucus vesiculosus L. (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in summer nanoplankton of the White Sea coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, O. V.; Sazhin, A. F.

    2010-04-01

    Studies of macrophytes in the coastal zone of the Artic Seas, including the White Sea, have shown the essential role of these algae in the activity of the coastal half-latitude ecosystems. In summer, during the macrophyte reproduction period, a great number of reproduction products are released into the water. For a short time, this considerably affects the ratio of the nanoplankton in the populations that inhibit the vast and shallow coastal areas. At different coastal sites in Chernorechenskaya Inlet, Kadalaksha Bay, during the period of intensive reproduction of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, 42 plankton samples were collected in 2005. During this period the concentration of antherozoids in the water reached 55000 cells/ml (216 mg C/m3). The number of eggs was within the range of 0.05-0.7 cells/ml. The proportion of antherozoids in the total biomass of nanoplankton varied at different coastal sites from 0.37 to 99%, with a mean of 46% for the reproduction period of A. nodosum, and only 7% for the reproduction period of F. vesiculosus. As was shown by counts of F. vesiculosus female gametes in sedimentation traps, 1 m2 of the macrophyte bed (assuming 100% coverage) produces 18000-108000 eggs per day (0.33-2 mg C). The calculated flux of the reproductive material from the brown algae beds to the coastal water shows good agreement with the sample counts.

  14. Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2000-01-01

    The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

  15. A water quality model applied for the rivers into the Qinhuangdao coastal water in the Bohai Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾杰; 胡成飞; 匡翠萍; 邵亥冰; 张甲波; 刘会欣

    2016-01-01

    The water quality of all rivers into the Qinhuangdao coastal water was below the grade V in 2013. In this study, an inte- grated MIKE 11 water quality model is applied to deal with the water environment in the rivers into the Qinhuangdao coastal water. The model is first calibrated with the field measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. Then the transport of the COD in the rivers into the Qinhuangdao coastal water is computed based on the model in the water environmental monitoring process. Numerical results show that the COD concentration decreases dramatically in the estuaries, from which we can determine the positions of long-term monitoring stations to monitor the river pollutions into the coastal water. Furthermore, different scenarios about the inputs of the point sources and the non-point sources are simulated to discuss the model application in the water enviro- nmental control, and simplified formula are derived for assessing the water quality and the environmental management of rivers.

  16. Suspended matter concentrations in coastal waters: Methodological improvements to quantify individual measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; Heymann, Kerstin; Krasemann, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of total suspended matter (TSM) concentration and the discrimination of the particulate inorganic (PIM) and organic matter fraction by the loss on ignition methods are susceptible to significant and contradictory bias errors by: (a) retention of sea salt in the filter (despite washing with deionized water), and (b) filter material loss during washing and combustion procedures. Several methodological procedures are described to avoid or correct errors associated with these biases but no analysis of the final uncertainty for the overall mass concentration determination has yet been performed. Typically, the exact values of these errors are unknown and can only be estimated. Measurements were performed in coastal and estuarine waters of the German Bight that allowed the individual error for each sample to be determined with respect to a systematic mass offset. This was achieved by using different volumes of the sample and analyzing the mass over volume relationship by linear regression. The results showed that the variation in the mass offset is much larger than expected (mean mass offset: 0.85 ± 0.84 mg, range: -2.4 - 7.5 mg) and that it often leads to rather large relative errors even when TSM concentrations were high. Similarly large variations were found for the mass offset for PIM measurements. Correction with a mean offset determined with procedural control filters reduced the maximum error to errors for the TSM concentration was error was error was always errors of only a few percent were obtained. The approach proposed here can determine the individual determination error for each sample, is independent of bias errors, can be used for TSM and PIM determination, and allows individual quality control for samples from coastal and estuarine waters. It should be possible to use the approach in oceanic or fresh water environments as well. The possibility of individual quality control will allow mass-specific optical properties to be determined with

  17. Detection of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish and shellfish from the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothy, A.A.; Huschenbeth, E.; Harms, U.

    1983-04-01

    A baseline survey of the levels of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected species of fish and shellfish was conducted from 1975 to 1978. The area of study covered the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia, in the northern stretch of the Straits of Malacca. The results showed that contaminant levels at most sampling locations were low, i.e. far below the limits of acceptability for human consumption. However, the analytical data obtained clearly indicate the impact of man's activities of the Malaysian coastal marine environment. Relatively high concentrations of cadmium detected in the mollusc, Anadara granosa (cockle), from sampling sites off Perak and Penang probably reflect negative environmental influence on localized areas. Further reliable analytical chemical measurements are essential to ensure the health of the consumer against detrimental effects and to control in time any deteriorating trends in the area of study.

  18. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  19. Statistical characteristics of chlorophyll-a concentration in Hong Kong′s coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper seven of the ten Water Control Zones (WCZs) in Hong Kong′s coastal waters with monthly or bi-weekly sampling data of 17 parameters collected at 37 monitoring stations from 1988 to 1999 were selected to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of chlorophyll-a and its influencing factors. Cluster analysis was employed to group the monitoring stations based on the structure of the data set. Multiple step regression was employed to determine the significant influencing factors of chlorophyll-a level. The results suggest that all the monitoring stations could be grouped into two clusters. Cluster I with frequent red tide incidents comprises two WCZs which aresemi-enclosed bays. Cluster II with less red tide occurrence comprises the other five WCZs in an estuarine environment in the west. For both clusters, the organic contents indicator, BOD5, was a common significant influencing factor of the chlorophyll-a level. Nitrogen and light penetration condition related to turbidity, total volatile solids and suspended solids had more influence on the cholophyll-a level in Cluster I than in Cluster II, while phosphorus and oceanographic conditions associated with salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were more important in Cluster II than in Cluster 1. Generally, there was a higher average chlorophyll-a level in winter and autumn in a year.The chlorophyll-a level was much higher in Cluster I than in Cluster II among all seasons. Although the chlorophyll-a concentration had great variations from place to place in Hong Kong′s coastal waters, it seemed to have a common long term fluctuation period of 8-10 years with a high-low-high variation in the period in the whole region, which might be influenced by other factors of global scale.

  20. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uptake of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has acidified the surface ocean by ~0.1 pH units and driven down the carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems and may alter key biogeochemical cycles. Coastal oceans have also b...

  1. A three-dimensional prediction system for water qualitypolluction in coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The hydrodynamics and water quality in Hakata Bay, Japan are strongly affected by the seasonal variations in both the gravitational circulation and the stratification in the bay. The three-dimensional hydrodynamics and water quality model has been developed to simulate the long-term transport and fate of pollutants in the system. The model is unique in that it completely integrates the refined modelling of the hydrodynamics, biochemical reactions and the ecosystem in the coastal waters. It is a 3-dimensional segmented model which is capable of resolving mean daily variations in all the parameters relevant to pollution control. It predicts daily fluctuations in the oxygen content at different depths in water throughout the year. It takes into account transport and settling of pollutant particles. It predicts light penetration from computed turbidity variations. It includes interactions between the ecosystem and water quality through nutrient cycling and photosynthesis. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water quality observations in Hakata Bay.

  2. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  3. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  4. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  5. Dissolved organic nutrients and phytoplankton production in the Mandovi estuary and coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    Total organic nitrogen (TON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa, India varied from 0.6 to 47.1 mu g-at N 1-1 and 0.12 to 3.49 mu g-at P l-1 respectively. The chlorophyll content of these waters...

  6. Nutrient export by rivers to the coastal waters of China: management strategies and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Hong Juan; Kroeze, C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed past and future trends in river export of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China, for a selection of rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Over the period 1970–2000, river export of dissolved nutrients

  7. Past and Future Trends in Nutrient Export by Nineteen Rivers to the Coastal Waters of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, A.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes past and future trends in nutrient export of dissolved and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus by rivers into the coastal waters of Indonesia. The focus is on 19 rivers included in the Global Nutrients Export from WaterSheds model. In the past, export of dissolved inorganic nit

  8. Urea as nitrogen source for phytoplankton production in coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    Annual variation of urea in coastal waters off Goa, India is 0 to 2.92 mu g-at N.1/1 and 0 to 4.69 mu g-at N.1/1 in adjacent estuarine waters of Mandovi. Peaks of phytoplankton production accompanied with the decrease in urea in June and October...

  9. Nutrient export by rivers to the coastal waters of China: management strategies and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Hong Juan; Kroeze, C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed past and future trends in river export of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China, for a selection of rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Over the period 1970–2000, river export of dissolved nutrients increas

  10. Quest for water in coastal Georgia: assessment of alternative water sources at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.

    2011-01-01

    To meet growing demands for water in the coastal Georgia area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, conducted detailed site investigations and modeling studies at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the water-bearing potential of ponds and wells completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  12. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, W. M. G. M.; Boon, A. R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D. J. J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Verschoor, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI, as in the multivariate m-AMBI. The latter MMI has been adopted by several European countries in the context of WFD implementation. In contrast to m-AMBI, the BEQI2 calculation procedure has been strongly simplified and consists of two steps, i.e. the separate indicator values are normalized using their long-term reference values resulting in three Ecological Quality Ratios (EQRs), which are subsequently averaged to give one BEQI2 value. Using this method only small numbers of samples need to be analysed by Dutch benthos laboratories annually, without the necessity to co-analyse a larger historical dataset. BEQI2 EQR values appeared to correlate quantitatively very well with m-AMBI EQR values. In addition, a data pooling procedure has been added to the BEQI2 tool which enables the pooling of small core samples (0.01-0.025 m2) into larger standardized data pools of 0.1 m2 in order to meet the data requirements of the AMBI indicator and to obtain comparable reference values. Furthermore, the BEQI2 tool automatically and efficiently converts species synonym names into standardized species names. The BEQI2 tool has been applied to all Dutch benthos data monitored by Rijkswaterstaat in the period of 1991-2010 in the transitional and coastal waters and salt lakes and these results are reported here for the first time. Reference values for species richness and Shannon index (99 percentile values) and AMBI reference values (1 percentile values) were estimated for all water body-ecotopes and are discussed. BEQI2 results for all these water bodies are discussed in view of natural and human pressures. The pressure sensitivity of the BEQI2 for sewage and dredging/dumping, via the

  13. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, there has also been an increased recognition of the radiological significance of non-nuclear process of natural radioactivity in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb produced, for example by Phosphate processing plants, offshore oil and gas installations and ceramic industries etc. Keeping this in mind, special distribution of radium was carried out to generate region specific values of Radium. The Indian Ocean differs from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in its limited northward extent, to only 25 deg. N. Indian subcontinent divides the Indian ocean in the north into two tropical basin namely Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal both being located within same latitude and being under the direct influence of monsoon. For measurements of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration in the coastal marine waters of India, MnO{sub 2} impregnated cartridge based in-situ pre-concentration technique was applied by passing 1000 liters of seawater at thirty locations covering Arabian Sea in the west of India and Bay of Bengal in the east. {sup 226}Ra was estimated using gamma ray peak of its daughter radionuclides {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb while {sup 228}Ra was estimated from its daughter {sup 228}Ac. {sup 214}Pb emissions occur at 295 and 352 keV; {sup 214}Bi has an emission at 609 keV. For {sup 228}Ac gamma emissions at 911 keV, 968 keV and 338 keV were used. In the coastal waters, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentration was observed to be in the range of 0.69 to 4.10 mBql{sup -1} and 0.70 to 8 Bq m{sup -3} respectively with an average of 1.52 and 4.53 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra was observed to be more than {sup 226}Ra in all the locations. The activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in coastal marine water from the Bay of Bengal showed a ratio varying from 0.8 to 2.4 with a mean of 2.1.In the present study, activity ratio varies from 1.9 to 2.4 at Karaikkal. But the regions of Rameswaram and

  14. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  15. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season.

  16. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  17. Relation between Enterococcus concentrations and turbidity in fresh and saline recreational waters, coastal Horry County, South Carolina, 2003–04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Garigen, Thomas J.

    2016-06-24

    Bacteria related to the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals have been detected in fresh and saline surface waters used for recreational purposes in coastal areas of Horry County, South Carolina, since the early 2000s. Specifically, concentrations of the facultative anaerobic organism, Enterococcus, have been observed to exceed the single-sample regulatory limit of 104 colony forming units per 100 milliliters of water. Water bodies characterized by these concentrations are identified on the 303(d) list for impaired water in South Carolina; moreover, because current analytical methods used to monitor Enterococcus concentrations take up to 1 day for results to become available, water-quality advisories are not reflective of the actual health risk.

  18. CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER IN SRIKAKULAM COASTAL BELT DUE TO SALT WATER INTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandra Mouli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many urban centers of the country are located on the coastal tract apart from thousands of villages and industrial settlements. Water resources in coastal areas assume a special significance since anydevelopmental activity will largely depend upon availability of fresh water to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural requirements.Thisincreases the dependency upon groundwater for meeting the freshwater demand. As the region is close to the coast, the variations in the levels of water table due to excess withdrawals from wells and bore wells will cause the intrusion of seawater into the groundwater. In the present paper deals with the study of saltwater intrusion in the coastal tract of Srikakulam district, on an areal basis. From the results obtained the variation in the effect of contamination with respect to distance from shore is studied and a comparison of the contamination in open wells and bore wells is also carried out.

  19. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability.

  20. Assessment of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Correction of Above-Water and Satellite Water-Leaving Radiance in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Harmal, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances, retrieved from in situ or satellite measurements, need to be corrected for the bidirectional properties of the measured light in order to standardize the data and make them comparable with each other. The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multispectral and hyperspectral radiometers, which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths, with average improvement of 2.4% over the spectral range. LISCO's time series data have also been used to evaluate improvements in match-up comparisons of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data when the proposed BRDF correction is used in lieu of the current algorithm. It is shown that the discrepancies between coincident in-situ sea-based and satellite data decreased by 3.15% with the use of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Mapping saline water intrusion into the coastal aquifer with geophysical and geochemical techniques: the University of Lagos campus case (Nigeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayolabi, Elijah A; Folorunso, Adetayo F; Odukoya, Abiodun M; Adeniran, Adelere E

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer, a phenomenon brought by the flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers originally caused by groundwater extraction near the coast, has long been recognised as a major concern around the world. In this study, we employed geophysical and geochemical techniques to map and provide evidences that the coastal aquifers in the study area have been intruded by saltwater from the adjacent Lagos lagoon. The resistivity data were acquired with an electrode spacing (a) that vary between 1.6 to 8 m, and expansion factor n of 30. The depth inverted models obtained from inversion of the fifteen resistivity data obtained in the area revealed significant impact of the lagoon water on the aquifers indicated as low resistivity usually below 7 Ωm. A combination of four different electrode arrays - Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipole-dipole and pole-dipole, with at least three deployed at each site ( except for three traverses - traverses 13, 14 and 15), yield better horizontal and vertical resolution, having depth range of 36-226 m with 1.6-8 m electrode spacing used. The delineated geoelectric layers were juxtaposed with logs from both boreholes located within the campus. Evidence from geochemical study of borehole and the lagoon water samples corroborated the ERT result. Progressive decrease in total dissolved solute (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) from the lagoon to the coastal aquifer buttresses gradual encroachment of the inland aquifers by the intruding lagoon water. In addition, similar trend was observed in heavy metal distribution Pollution Index (PI) plot suggesting possible underground flow of water from the lagoon to the aquifers. From this study, we deduced that excessive groundwater extraction and possibly the reduction of groundwater gradients which allows saline-water to displace fresh water in the aquifer of the investigated area are responsible for the saline water intrusion observed.

  2. FerryMon: Using ferries as hydrochemical observatories in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H.; Guajardo, R.; Peierls, B.; Rossignol, K.; Braddy, J.

    2007-12-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and resourceful aquatic ecosystems on Earth. They are strongly influenced by hydrochemical stressors, including nutrient enrichment and climatic factors such as droughts, storms and floods. Clarifying how estuaries respond to these stresses will provide an understanding of how hydrologic and chemical processes control ecological condition and change of these ecosystems. This understanding will greatly benefit from a spatially and temporally-intensive observational program, which, when coupled to modeling will help predict future responses to external anthropogenic (nutrient) and climatic (hydrologic) perturbations. North Carolina's Pamlico Sound System (PSS) is the Nation's second largest estuary. It exemplifies the impacts of human development (eutrophication) and large climatic perturbations (hurricanes). We are using 3 NC DOT ferries to conduct unattended hydrochemical monitoring of water quality, habitat and ecological condition of the PSS. This program, FerryMon (www.ferrymon.org), uses temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and chlorophyll a sensors coupled to discrete sampling of nutrients, organics, photopigment and molecular indicators to assess water quality in a near real-time manner over a range of relevant physical, chemical and biological time scales. An autonomous vertical profiler (AVP), equipped with sensors similar to those on the ferries, provides complementary vertical profile data. This capability is timely given unprecedented human development and a period of elevated tropical storm and hurricane activity affecting coastal water quality and habitat conditions and fisheries resources. FerryMon is used to calibrate remotely sensed indicators of water quality (photopigments, turbidity), facilitating scaling up to the ecosystem level. It is integrated with complementary observational programs (LTERs, NEON, ORION, WATERS, SEACOOS), and it supports interdisciplinary research aimed at

  3. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  4. Coastal inshore waters in the NW Mediterranean: Physicochemical and biological characterization and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flo, Eva; Garcés, Esther; Manzanera, Marta; Camp, Jordi

    2011-07-01

    The physicochemical and biological characteristics of coastal waters form a gradient extending from land to ocean. In the Mediterranean this gradient is particularly large, due to the sea's weak tides. Within coastal waters, those waters in contact with land are called coastal inshore waters (CIW), defined herein as between 0 and 200 m from the shoreline. Here we present the first physicochemical and biological characterization of CIW of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This case study is based on 19 years of data collected from coastal inshore (CIW; 0-200 m), nearshore (CNW; 200-1500 m), and offshore (COW; >1500 m) waters of the Catalan coast. Analyses of these data showed that the physicochemical and biological characteristics of CIW differ significantly from those of CNW and COW due to: (1) significantly higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate = 11.07 μM, nitrite = 0.52 μM, ammonium = 6.43 μM, phosphate = 0.92 μM, silicates = 5.99 μM) and chlorophyll- a (=2.42 μg/L) in CIW than in either CNW or COW (in some cases up to one order of magnitude); (2) a greater variability of dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll- a in CIW than in CNW and COW, and (3) the presence of a mostly urban population and the effects of river inflows as a primary source of CIW variability but with minimal impact on CNW or COW. In addition, the risk of eutrophication was found to be highest in CIW, placing human and environmental interests at greater risk than in the outermost coastal waters. The results highlight the importance of considering the distinctive physicochemical and biological properties of CIW in future coastal waters studies. This is of major importance in assessments of eutrophication and coastal water quality, not only to identify the pressure-impact relationships but also to allow the timely detection of local environmental problems and thus avoid endangering the unique communities of CIW and ensuring the sustainability of human activities. In

  5. Approach to developing numeric water quality criteria for coastal waters: a transition from SeaWiFS to MODIS and MERIS satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities on land increase nutrient loads to coastal waters, which can increase phytoplankton production and biomass and potentially cause harmful ecological effects. States can adopt numeric water quality criteria into their water quality standards to protect the designa...

  6. Benthic diatoms as monitoring organisms for radionuclides in a brackish-water coastal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Notter, M. (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Drottningholm (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The gamma-spectra of 421 algal samples (diatoms and filamentous macroalgae) taken in 1983-1989 from a brackish coastal area (northern Baltic Sea) were determined. The sources of radionuclide input in the ecosystem were (1) continuous discharge from the Forsmark nuclear power plant and (2) distinct discharge from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. Discharge from Forsmark and concentrations in diatom samples were significantly related; distance from the discharge point and hydrographical conditions determined the level of radionuclides in the diatoms. After the Chernobyl accident very high radionuclide concentrations were found in diatom samples, especially at sites with little water exchange. The short-lived radionuclides from Chernobyl were below the detection limit after 1 year, but the caesium-isotopes were still found recycling in the diatom communities after 3 years. The use of benthic diatoms as monitoring organisms for radioactive discharges was compared with the use of macroalgae, and is discussed in connection with the present field study and general algal ecology. (author).

  7. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi

    2017-04-21

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3\\'s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  8. Species composition and abundance of dinoflagellates from the coastal waters of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Munir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the community structure, seasonal dynamics of dinoflagellates population with environmental conditions in the nutrient-rich and polluted coastal waters off, Karachi. Methods: Sampling sites were located from Karachi harbour (Station A and Mouth of Manora Channel (Station B. Total 180 replicate samples were collected at 1-m depth through Niskin bottle sampler (1.7 L and fixed with 2% lugol’s preservative then examined under light inverted microscopy, scanning electron and epiflourescence microscope. Results: The environmental conditions, such as temperature [(20–27 °C], salinity [(35–40 psu], chlorophyll a [(1–103 µg/L], pH (6.03–8.13 and dissolve oxygen [(0.7–5.5 mg/L] were recorded from both stations. A total of 96 species were identified into potential harmful toxic/ non-toxic bloom forming species and cysts producer. Total dinoflagellate cells between two coastal sites were much concentrated at the adjacent area of mouth of Manora Channel compare to harbor site. The dinoflagellate cell concentration ranging from 20 to ~55000 cells/L and the maximum values observed in two season, (~55000 cells/L in autumn and (~ 3000 cells/L in winter season. Gyrodinium sp. was the predominant taxa with the maximum abundance (48166 cells/L observed in autumn season following by Scrippsiella trochoidea (1200 cells/L, Alexandrium ostenfeldii (3000 cells/L in winter season, and Ceratium furca (640 cells/L, Protoperidinium steinii (780 cells/L, Ceratium fusus (906 cells/L, Pyrophacus steinii (840 cells/L, Gonyaulax spinifera (666 cells/L, Alexandrium tamarense (520 cells/L and Dinophysis caudata (393 cells/L in summer and spring season. Statistically, abundance of dinoflagellates correlated significant to chlorophyll a with chlorophyll a and temperature but inverse relation to salinity and pH observed from both sites. Conclusions: The present study reports on the prevalence and significance of harmful algae bloom forming taxa in

  9. Species composition and abundance of dinoflagellates from the coastal waters of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonia Munir; Tahira Naz; Zaib-un-nisa Burhan; Pirzada JamalAhmed Siddiqui; Steve Larry Morton

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the community structure, seasonal dynamics of dinoflagellates population with environmental conditions in the nutrient-rich and polluted coastal waters off, Karachi. Methods: Sampling sites were located from Karachi harbour (Station A) and Mouth of Manora Channel (Station B). Total 180 replicate samples were collected at 1-m depth through Niskin bottle sampler (1.7 L) and fixed with 2% lugol’s preservative then examined under light inverted microscopy, scanning electron and epiflourescence microscope. Results: The environmental conditions, such as temperature [(20–27) °C], salinity [(35–40) psu], chlorophyll a [(1–103) µg/L], pH (6.03–8.13) and dissolve oxygen [(0.7–5.5) mg/L] were recorded from both stations. A total of 96 species were identified into potential harmful toxic/ non-toxic bloom forming species and cysts producer. Total dinoflagellate cells between two coastal sites were much concentrated at the adjacent area of mouth of Manora Channel compare to harbor site. The dinoflagellate cell concentration ranging from 20 to ~55000 cells/L and the maximum values observed in two season, (~55000 cells/L) in autumn and (~ 3000 cells/L) in winter season. Gyrodinium sp. was the predominant taxa with the maximum abundance (48166 cells/L) observed in autumn season following by Scrippsiella trochoidea (1200 cells/L), Alexandrium ostenfeldii (3000 cells/L) in winter season, and Ceratium furca (640 cells/L), Protoperidinium steinii (780 cells/L), Ceratium fusus (906 cells/L), Pyrophacus steinii (840 cells/L), Gonyaulax spinifera (666 cells/L), Alexandrium tamarense (520 cells/L) and Dinophysis caudata (393 cells/L) in summer and spring season. Statistically, abundance of dinoflagellates correlated significant to chlorophyll a with chlorophyll a and temperature but inverse relation to salinity and pH observed from both sites. Conclusions: The present study reports on the prevalence and significance of harmful algae bloom forming taxa in

  10. Detection of 36 antibiotics in coastal waters using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NA Guangshui; GU Jia; GE Linke; ZHANG Peng; WANG Zhen; LIU Chunyang; ZHANG Lin

    2011-01-01

    Among pharmaceuticals and personal care products released into the aquatic environment,antibiotics are of particular concern,because of their ubiquity and health effects.Although scientists have recently paid more attention to the threat of antibiotics to coastal ecosystems,researchers have often focused on relatively few antibiotics,because of the absence of suitable analytical methods.We have therefore developed a method for the rapid detection of 36 antibiotic residues in coastal waters,including tetracyclines (TCs),sulfanilamides (SAs),and quinolones (QLs).The method consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis,using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode.The SPE was performed with Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges.Chromatographic separation on a C18 column was achieved using a binary eluent containing methanol and water with 0.1% formic acid.Typical recoveries of the analytes ranged from 67.4% to 109.3% at a fortification level of 100 ng/L.The precision of the method,calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD),was below 14.6% for all the compounds.The limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.45 pg to 7.97 pg.The method was applied to determine the target analytes in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea in Liaoning,China.Among the tested antibiotics,31 were found in coastal waters,with their concentrations between the LOD and 212.5 ng/L.These data indicate that this method is valid for analysis of antibiotics in coastal waters.The study first reports such a large number of antibiotics along the Yellow Sea coast of Liaoning,and should facilitate future comprehensive evaluation of antibiotics in coastal ecosystems.

  11. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  12. Spatial an temporal analysis of chloride concentrations in underground water in the coastal wetland of l'Albufera, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Evelina; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean coastal wetlands are of great interest for their richness in biodiversity. They are also fragile systems because they are exposed to various human pressures, such as farming systems and urban sprawl. Most Mediterranean coastal wetlands have a transient underground inter phase of continental and marine water. In many cases, the variations of the rain regime towards an increasing dryness and the overexploitation of aquiphers in these zones could favour the marine water intrusion, being a source of continental water salinisation and loss of its quality. This process can directly affect the ecosystems and produce loss of biodiversity. Thus, studies to assess the dynamics in time and space of the possible marine intrusion are necessary to evaluate coastal environment health and quality. The study has been applied to L'Albufera Natural Park, the largest Coastal Wetland in eastern Spain. Due to its importance, it has been included in the list of Wetlands of the RAMSAR Convention. In the area there is a complex relationship between the intrinsic natural importance (endemicity and biodiversity) and the human activities (traditional agriculture and hinterland industrial and settlement development). The methodological approach is based in the analysis of chloride concentrations time series of thirteen sample water points distributed in and around the boundaries of the Natural Park. All time series, between 1982 and 2008, have been analysed to establish trends both in time and space. Results show that in samples close to the see (between 1500 and 2000 metres) chloride concentrations are not too high, with values between 37 mg/l and 213 mg/l. Nonetheless, the shorter is the distance to the see the higher are the chloride levels, with values between 58 mg/l and 1131 mg/l. For longer distances, more than 2000 from the coast line, values are quite similar in most sample points, from 52 mg/l to 691 mg/l. Among all the thirteen time series analysed trends are detected

  13. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in effluent-dominated Saudi Arabian coastal waters of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aasim M; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Alarif, Walied; Kallenborn, Roland; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and the pesticide atrazine were investigated in seawater samples collected from stations located at effluent dominated sites in the Saudi Arabian coastal waters of the Red Sea. PPCPs were analysed using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). A multi component method for the ultra-trace level quantification of 13 target PPCPs in Seawater was developed and validated for the here performed study. The method procedure is described in detail in the supplementary material section. 26 samples from 7 distinct locations (2 directly influenced by continuous sewage release) were chosen for the sampling of surface seawater. Based upon local sales information, 25 target substances (20 PPCPs, 4 pesticides and 1 stimulant) were chosen for the here reported method development. Thirteen PPCPs were detected and quantified in a total of 26 seawater samples. Metformin, diclofenac, acetaminophen, and caffeine were identified as the most abundant PPCPs, detected in maximum concentration higher than 3 μg/L (upper quantification limit for the here developed method). Concentrations were in the range of 7- >3000 (metformin), 3000 ng/L (caffeine). The contribution of direct sewage release on the PPCP levels detected was obvious, the target PPCPs were detected in the Al-Arbaeen and Al-Shabab coastal lagoons in high concentrations due to the low water exchange with the open sea and still ongoing sewage releases in the lagoons. Also, substantial amounts of antibiotics were detected in all samples. Levels and distribution profile of the detected PPCPs revealed high level release rates and give raise to concern on potential environmental risks associated with the here document long term exposure on the fragile coastal marine environment of the region but particularly in the nearby protected coral reef environment outside the harbour

  14. Physicochemical parameters and seasonal variation of coastal water from Balochistan coast, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeema Elahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine common physico-chemical parameters of coastal water. Methods: Physicochemical properties of water were determined according to the standards of the American Public Health Association. Generally, all those parameters were recorded a small variation between stations. The variation in physico-chemical parameters like salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH at Gwadar (Coastal water of Balochistan were recorded. Results: The range of air temperature of coastal water of Balochistan during 2004 and 2006 varies from 25 ºC to 37 ºC, water temperature ranged from 15.00 ºC to 33.00 ºC, pH ranged from 7.08 to 8.95, salinity ranged from 37.4‰ to 41.3‰ and dissolved oxygen ranged from 5.32 to 8.67 mg/L. Conclusions: Results showed that these parameters of Balochistan coast of Pakistan is not dangerous for marine habitat and the use of these parameters in monitoring programs to assess ecosystem health has the potential to inform the general public and decision-makers about the state of the coastal ecosystems. To save this vital important habitat, the government agencies and scientists should work with proper attention.

  15. Physicochemical parameters and seasonal variation of coastal water from Balochistan coast, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naeema Elahi; Quratulan Ahmed; Levent Bat; Farzana Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine common physico-chemical parameters of coastal water. Methods:Physicochemical properties of water were determined according to the standards of the American Public Health Association. Generally, all those parameters were recorded a small variation between stations. The variation in physico-chemical parameters like salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH at Gwadar (Coastal water of Balochistan) were recorded. Results:The range of air temperature of coastal water of Balochistan during 2004 and 2006 varies from 25ºCto 37ºC, water temperature ranged from 15.00ºC to 33.00ºC, pH ranged from 7.08 to 8.95, salinity ranged from 37.4‰ to 41.3‰and dissolved oxygen ranged from 5.32 to 8.67 mg/L. Conclusions:Results showed that these parameters of Balochistan coast of Pakistan is not dangerous for marine habitat and the use of these parameters in monitoring programs to assess ecosystem health has the potential to inform the general public and decision-makers about the state of the coastal ecosystems. To save this vital important habitat, the government agencies and scientists should work with proper attention.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by a...

  17. Absorption properties of high-latitude Norwegian coastal water: The impact of CDOM and particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Sørensen, Kai; Norli, Marit; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2016-09-01

    We present data from measurements and analyses of the spectral absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), total suspended matter (TSM), phytoplankton, and non-algal particles (NAP) in high-latitude northern Norwegian coastal water based on samples taken in spring, summer, and autumn. The Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was found to vary significantly with season, whereas regardless of season CDOM was found to be the dominant absorber for wavelengths shorter than 600 nm. The absorption spectral slope S350-500 for CDOM varied between 0.011 and 0.022 nm-1 with mean value and standard deviation given by (0.015 ± 0.002) nm-1. The absorption spectral slope was found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength interval used for fitting. On average, S280-500 was found to be 43% higher than S350-500. A linear relationship was found between the base 10 logarithm of the absorption coefficient at 440 nm [log(ag(440))] and S350-500. Regardless of season, phytoplankton were the dominant component of the TSM absorption indicating little influence from land drainage. The mean values of the Chl-a specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton aph*(λ) at 440 nm and 676 nm were 0.052 m2 mg-1 and 0.023 m2 mg-1, respectively, and aph*(λ) was found to vary with season, being higher in summer and autumn than in spring. The absorption spectral slope SNAP, which is the spectral slope of absorption spectrum for non-algal particles, was lower than that for European coastal water in general. It varied between 0.0048 and 0.022 nm-1 with mean value and standard deviation given by (0.0083-1 ± 0.003) nm-1. Comparisons of absorption coefficients measured in situ using an ac-9 instrument with those measured in the laboratory from water samples show a good agreement.

  18. AN INSTRUCTURAL SYSTEM MODEL OF COASTAL MANAGEMENT TO THE WATER RELATED HAZARDS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Coastal lowlands have large areas of hazard impact and relativelylow capacity of prevention to the water related hazards,which have been indicated by the wide-spread flood hazards,high percentages of land with high flood vulnerability.Increasing population pressure and the shift of resources exploitation from land to sea will force more and more coastal lowlands to be developed in the future,further enhancing the danger of water-related hazards.In this paper,the coastal lowlands in the northern Jiangsu province,China,were selected as a case study.The Interpretation Structural Model (ISM) was employed to analyze the direct and indirect impacts among the elements within the system,and thereby,to identify the causal elements,middle linkages,their expressions,and relations.

  19. Asian Mussel Watch Program: contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorines in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ueno, Daisuke; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Viet, Pham Hung; Prudente, Maricar; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-07-01

    Mussel samples were used in this study to measure the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) in the coastal waters of Asian countries like Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. PBDEs were detected in all the samples analyzed, and the concentrations ranged from 0.66 to 440 ng/g lipid wt. Apparently higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in mussels from the coastal waters of Korea, Hong Kong, China, and the Philippines, which suggests that significant sources of these chemicals exist in and around this region. With regard to the composition of PBDE congeners, BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100 were the dominant congeners in most of the samples. Among the OCs analyzed, concentrations of DDTs were the highest followed by PCBs > CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Total concentrations of DDTs, PCBs, CHLs, and HCHs in mussel samples ranged from 21 to 58 000, 3.8 to 2000, 0.93 to 900, and 0.90 to 230 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. High levels of DDTs were found in mussels from Hong Kong, Vietnam, and China; PCBs were found in Japan, Hong Kong, and industrialized/urbanized locations in Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India; CHLs were found in Japan and Hong Kong; HCHs were found in India and China. These countries seem to play a role as probable emission sources of corresponding contaminants in Asia and, in turn, may influence their global distribution.

  20. Impact of sewage discharges on coastal water quality of Mumbai, India: present and future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Mardikar, Trupti; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    The simulation study assesses the impact of sewage discharges on the present and predicted water quality of the Mumbai coast using MIKE 21. Water quality parameters in terms of dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and faecal coliform (FC) are checked against specified standards. The simulation is validated for the present coastal hydrodynamics and observed water quality parameters. The validated model is further used for predicting scenarios in terms of upgradation in a pumping station and improvement in wastewater collection, treatment level and disposal systems. The water quality of the existing coastal environment does not conform to the stipulated standards but improves considerably in the prediction scenarios. However, despite a marked improvement in FC, it is not as per desired standards as no treatment for bacteria removal is considered. The simulation study emphasizes the need for exploring options like the reuse or recycle of treated effluent, as an effort for water conservation.

  1. Study on interaction between the coastal water,shelf water and Kuroshio water in the Huanghai Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binghuo Guo; Xiaomin Hu; Xuejun Xiong; Renfeng Ge

    2003-01-01

    The main processes of interaction between the coastal water, shelf water and Kuroshiowater in the Huanghai Sea (HS) and East China Sea (ECS) are analyzed based on the observation andstudy results in recent years. These processes include the intrusion of the Kuroshio water into the shelfarea of the ECS, the entrainment of the shelf water into the Kuroshio, the seasonal process in the south-em shelf area of the ECS controlled alternatively by the Taiwan Strait water and the Kuroshio water in-truding into the shelf area, the interaction between the Kuroshio branch water, shelf mixed water andmodified coastal water in the northeastern ECS, the water-exchange between the HS and ECS and thespread of the Changjiang diluted water.

  2. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  3. Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the future from an optimistic perspective. We present two optimistic scenarios for 2050 (OPT-1 and OPT-2) for China. Maximized recycling of manure on land in OPT-1 and OPT-2, and strict sewage control in OPT-2 (e.g., all sewage is collected and treated efficiently) are essential nutrient strategies in these scenarios. We also analyzed the effect of the current policy plans aiming at "Zero Growth in Synthetic Fertilizers after 2020" (the CP scenario). We used the MARINA (a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs) model to quantify dissolved N and P export by Chinese rivers to the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea and the associated coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The Global Orchestration (GO) scenario of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was used as a basis. GO projects increases in river export of dissolved N and P (up to 90%) between 2000 and 2050 and thus a high potential for coastal eutrophication (ICEP>0). In contrast, the potential for coastal eutrophication is low in optimistic scenarios (ICEPexport by rivers from urbanized areas. The CP scenario, on the other hand, shows that current policy plans may not be sufficient to avoid coastal eutrophication in the future. Our study may help policy makers in formulating strategies to ensure clean coastal waters in China in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Taxonomic and genetic status of lancelet in Weihai coastal waters based on mitochondrial DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Lancelets (subphylum Cephalochordata) are a transitional species between invertebrates and vertebrates. They are currently listed in the Second Order of Protected Animals in China. Lancelets were first documented in the waters around the city of Weihai (Shandong, China) in 2002. However, little is known about the phylogeny of this population. We analyzed the sequences of cytochrome b (Cyt b) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (CO I) genes from samples collected from coastal waters in the cities of Weihai and Qingdao (˜150 km to the south). We analyzed 176 sequences, of which 150 were novel sequences and 26 were obtained from GenBank. Our results suggest that (1) lancelets in the two cities belong to the species Branchiostoma japonicus and have a high level of genetic diversity; (2) there is a high level of gene flow and low level of genetic differentiation between lancelets from the two cities; (3) demographic expansion occurred an estimated 1.1 million years (Ma) ago (mid Pleistocene) for lancelets in Weihai-Qingdao; and (4) the divergence between B. belcheri and B. japonicus was estimated at between 37.75 Ma (early Oligocene)-46.5 Ma (late Eocene).

  5. Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, David A.; Gellene, Alyssa G.; Smith, Jayme; Seubert, Erica L.; Campbell, Victoria; Sukhatme, Gaurav S.; Seegers, Bridget; Jones, Burton H.; Lie, Alle A. Y.; Terrado, Ramon; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Hayashi, Kendra; Ryan, John; Birch, James; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Yamahara, Kevan; Scholin, Chris; Mengel, Michael; Robertson, George

    2017-02-01

    A 3-week diversion of the Orange County Sanitation District effluent discharge into nearshore waters off Newport Beach, CA constituted a considerable injection of secondarily-treated effluent into the coastal ecosystem. The location ≈1.6 km from shore, shallow water depth (≈16 m), volume and nutrient content of the discharge (≈5.3 × 108 L day-1 of effluent with inorganic nitrogen concentration >2 mM) during the diversion raised concerns regarding the potential for stimulating phytoplankton blooms and, in particular, blooms of toxic species. Remarkably, phytoplankton standing stocks during the event and shortly thereafter did not reach values associated even with minor blooms historically observed in the region (generally algae increased mid-diversion, and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus) increased near the end of the diversion. Concentrations of domoic acid (a phycotoxin commonly present in the area) remained near or below detection throughout the diversion, and abundances of potentially-harmful algal species were unresponsive. Bacterial biomass increased during the diversion, and equaled or exceeded total phytoplankton biomass in most samples. Abundances of microbial grazers were also elevated during the diversion. We speculate that nutrient uptake by the bacterial biomass, acting in concert with or a response to a negative effect of disinfection byproducts associated with chlorination on phytoplankton physiology, played a significant role in muting the response of the phytoplankton to nutrients released in the effluent.

  6. NOAA Water Level Predictions Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  7. Physical characteristics of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat, West coast of India. Part 3. Stability and dispersion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Vijayakumar, C.V.

    Vertical profiles of currents of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat were analysed. Dynamic stability as well as the diffusion capacity of the water columns were estimated from the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity...

  8. NOAA Water Level (Tidal) Data of 205 Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  9. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Notice of Study Findings. Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    GRAND ISLE - PLAN 2 Seawater Desalinization 73 11 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 3 Brackish Water Desalinization 75 12 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 4 Recycle Wastewater 76 13...32 CAYERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 20 Import Water from Intracoastal Waterway 127 33 CAMERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 21 Brackish Water Desalinization 129 34...becomes salty and an alternate source, Bayou Black, must be used. However, Bayou Black is also connected to the GIWW so its use for fre~h water is

  10. A numerical study on flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Chua, Vivien P

    2016-10-15

    Intensive economic and shipping activities in Singapore Strait have caused Singapore coastal waters to be under high risk of water pollution. A nested three-dimensional unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is applied to Singapore coastal waters to simulate flow and pollutant transport. The small domain (~50m resolution) Singapore coastal model is nested within a large domain (~200m resolution) regional model. The nested model is able to predict water surface elevations and velocities with high R(2) values of 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Model results delineate the characteristics of circulation pattern in Singapore coastal waters during the Northeast and Southwest monsoons. The pollutants are modeled as passive tracers, and are released at six key sailing locations Points 1-6 in Singapore coastal waters and are named as Passive Tracers 1-6, respectively. Our results show that the rate of dispersion is twice as large for the Northeast monsoon compared to the Southwest monsoon due to differences in large-scale monsoons and small-scale local winds. The volume averaged concentration (VAC) diminishes faster and the local flushing time is shorter during the Northeast monsoon than the Southwest monsoon. Dispersion coefficients K and the VAC decreasing rate are maximum for Tracers 2 and 3 with shortest local flushing time due to the strong surrounding currents and abrupt bathymetry changes near Senang and St. John Islands. Dispersion coefficients K and the VAC decreasing rate are minimum for Tracer 1 due to weak currents induced by the semi-enclosed coastline near Tuas. It is found that both the lateral dispersion coefficient Ky and the compound dispersion coefficient K obey a "4/3-law", which defines a linear correlation between dispersion coefficients and 4/3-power of selected length scale.

  11. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  12. CDOM PRODUCTION BY MANGROVE LEAF LITTER AND SARGASSUM COLONIES IN FLORIDA KEYS COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have investigated the importance of leaf litter from red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and living Sargassum plants as sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to the coastal ocean waters and coral reef system of the Florida Keys. The magnitude of UVB exposure t...

  13. Distribution of nutrients in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the coastal waters of Goa varied from 0 to 2.4 mu g at 1-1 and from 0.1 to 2.4 mu g at 1-1 respectively, during post and premonsoon periods. In the estuarine region the nutrients like nitrate and ammonia...

  14. Sediment Quality in Near Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Mexico: Influence of Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from this study represent a synoptic analysis of sediment quality in coastal waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound two months after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Post-hurricane conditions were compared to pre-hurricane (2000-2004) conditions, for se...

  15. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P; Sjollema, S.B.; van der Geest, H.G.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.; de Voogt, W.P.; Admiraal, W.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and c

  16. Method 365.5 Determination of Orthophosphate in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Automated Colorimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of low-level orthophosphate concentrations normally found in estuarine and/or coastal waters. It is based upon the method of Murphy and Riley1 adapted for automated segmented flow analysis2 in which the two reagent solutions ...

  17. Swarming of Creseis acicula Rang (Pteropoda) in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Swarms of Creseis acicula Rang (Pteropoda) were observed in the coastal waters of Goa regularly in October, from 1976 to 1980. The highest biomass value obtained for this species was 494 ml/100 m@u3@@, forming 96% of zooplankton population...

  18. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  19. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  20. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  1. Elevated Accumulation of Parabens and their Metabolites in Marine Mammals from the United States Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Sasaki, Nozomi; Elangovan, Madhavan; Diamond, Guthrie; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-20

    The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well-known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p environment.

  2. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 μmol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 μmol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  3. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Shiliang; Cao, Xuezhi; Cao, Yuanxin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

  4. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  5. Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Piwosz

    Full Text Available Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02 to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea. Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment, or prefiltered and subsequently 1∶10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

  6. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  7. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  8. Study on detection of coastal water environment of China by ocean color remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Coastal water environment is essentially enhanced by ocean color which is basically decided by substances concentration in water such as chlorophyll, suspended material and yellow substance. It is very difficult, even not possible, to detect water color by expensive ship routing, because of its temporal and spatial variety of feature and scales in the very complicated dynamical system of coastal water. With the development of satellite technique in the last 20 a, space sensors can be applied to detect ocean color by measuring the spectra of water-leaving radiance. It is proven that ocean color remote sensing is a powerful tool for understanding the process of oceanic biology and physics. Since the 1980s, great attention has been paid to the advanced remote sensing technique in China, especially to development of satellite programs for the coastal water environment. On 7 September 1988, China launched her first polar orbit satellite FY- 1A for meteorological and oceanographic application (water color and temperature) and the second satellite FY- 1B two years later. In May 1999, China launched her second generation environment satellite FY- 1C with higher sensitivies,more channels and stable operation. The special ocean color satellite HY - 1 is planned to be in the orbit in 2001, whose main purpose is to detect the coastal water environment of China seas. China is also developing a very advantageous sensor termed as Chinese moderate imaging spectra radiometer (CMODIS) with 91 channels, which will be a good candidate of the third generation satellite FY-3in 2003.The technical system of ocean color rermote sensing was developed by the Second Institute of Oceanography (SIO), State Oceanic Administration (SOA) in 1997. The system included data receiving, processing, distribution, calibration, validation and application units. The Hangzhou Station of SIO, SOA has the capability to receive FY- 1 and AVHRR data since 1989. It was also a SeaWiFS scientific research station

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Wan Tong You, Kenneth; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname. Data were collected on a (bi)monthly basis in 2012-2013 at 15 locations in the shallow (<40 m) coastal area, revealing three spatially distinct species assemblages, related to clear gradients in some environmental parameters. A species-poor coastal assemblage was discerned within the muddy, turbid-water zone (6-20 m depth), dominated by Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Crustacea: Penaeoidea). Near the 30 m isobath, sediments were much coarser (median grain size on average 345±103 μm vs. 128±53 μm in the coastal assemblage) and water transparency was much higher (on average 7.6±3.5 m vs. 2.4±2.1 m in the coastal assemblage). In this zone, a diverse offshore assemblage was found, characterized by brittle stars (mainly Ophioderma brevispina and Ophiolepis elegans) and a variety of crabs, sea stars and hermit crabs. In between both zones, a transition assemblage was noted, with epibenthic species typically found in either the coastal or offshore assemblages, but mainly characterized by the absence of X. kroyeri. Although the epibenthic community was primarily structured in an on-offshore gradient related to depth, sediment grain size and sediment total organic carbon content, a longitudinal (west-east) gradient was apparent as well. The zones in the eastern part of the Suriname coastal shelf seemed to be more widely stretched along the on-offshore gradient. Although clear seasonal differences were noted in the environmental characteristics (e.g. dry vs. rainy season), this was not reflected in the epibenthic community structure. X. kroyeri reached very high densities (up to 1383 ind 1000 m-²) in the shallow coastal waters of Suriname. As X. kroyeri is increasingly exploited throughout its range, the current study provides the ecological context for its presence and abundance, which is crucial for an ecosystem approach and the

  10. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-07-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19-25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings.

  11. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  12. Development of a Coupled Ocean-Hydrologic Model to Simulate Pollutant Transport in Singapore Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive agricultural, economic and industrial activities in Singapore and Malaysia have made our coastal areas under high risk of water pollution. A coupled ocean-hydrologic model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters. The hydrologic SWAT model is coupled with the coastal ocean SUNTANS model by outputting streamflow and pollutant concentrations from the SWAT model and using them as inputs for the SUNTANS model at common boundary points. The coupled model is calibrated with observed sea surface elevations and velocities, and high correlation coefficients that exceed 0.97 and 0.91 are found for sea surface elevations and velocities, respectively. The pollutants are modeled as Gaussian passive tracers, and are released at five upstream locations in Singapore coastal waters. During the Northeast monsoon, pollutants released in Source 1 (Johor River), Source 2 (Tiram River), Source 3 (Layang River) and Source 4 (Layau River) enter the Singapore Strait after 4 days of release and reach Sentosa Island within 9 days. Meanwhile, pollutants released in Source 5 (Kallang River) reach Sentosa Island after 4 days. During the Southwest monsoon, the dispersion time is roughly doubled, with pollutants from Sources 1 - 4 entering the Singapore Strait only after 12 days of release due to weak currents.

  13. Styela plicata: a new promising bioindicator of heavy metal pollution for eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın-Önen, S

    2016-11-01

    As part of a research project, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn in the tissues of Styela plicata were investigated for the first time to determine if S. plicata is a suitable biological indicator for biomonitoring of heavy metals in eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters. To examine the relationships, heavy metal levels in suspended particulate matters (SPMs) and sediments were also determined. According to the results, the mean metal levels in SPM, sediments, and S. plicata samples could be arranged in the following order of abundance: Zn > Cu > Pb > V > Cd. As for heavy metal levels, significant positive correlations were noted between Cd-Pb, Cd-V, Cd-Zn, Cu-V, and Pb-V in SPM; Cd-Zn, Cu-Zn, Pb-Cd, Pb-Cu, and Pb-Zn in sediment; and Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, and Pb-Zn in S. plicata samples. Positive relationships between these metals showed that they were originated from same sources and that they were associated with each other. Based on the findings, Zn, Cu, and Pb concentrations in suspended particulate matters, sediments, and S. plicata samples were generally represented with higher levels at stations that were used for boating, shipping, and related activities. As S. plicata is a strongest accumulator of V, the relatively low V levels observed in this study may indicate the lack of anthropogenic sources of this metal in the sampling stations. In conclusion, suspended particulate matter and sediment can be useful tool to detect the pollution status of the marine environment. Furthermore, the findings of this study highlighted that S. plicata is a promising alternative for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution for eastern Aegean Sea coasts.

  14. Review of metal concentrations in Southern African coastal waters, sediments and organisms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hennig, HF-KO

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Programme and also serves as reference document for future studies. It demonstrates that in South Africa samples are usually taken from polluted areas ("hot spots") and huge gaps exist in the monitoring of coastal areas. Furthermore, the accumulation...

  15. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER SAMPLES IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Man's assessment of the value surface drainage, catchments protection to ... turbidity and pH at the point at which the consumption, water must be aesthetically .... on the skin and nostril of humans (9). ... and Measurements Standards (Water).

  16. Biologically labile photoproducts from riverine non-labile dissolved organic carbon in the coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasurinen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the production of biologically labile photoproducts (BLPs from non-labile riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC, we collected water samples from ten major rivers, removed labile DOC and mixed the residual non-labile DOC with artificial seawater for microbial and photochemical experiments. Bacteria grew on non-labile DOC with a growth efficiency of 11.5% (mean; range from 3.6 to 15.3%. Simulated solar radiation transformed a part of non-labile DOC into BLPs, which stimulated bacterial respiration and production, but did not change bacterial growth efficiency (BGE compared to the non-irradiated dark controls. In the irradiated water samples, the amount of BLPs stimulating bacterial production depended on the photochemical bleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. The apparent quantum yields for BLPs supporting bacterial production ranged from 9.5 to 76 (mean 39 (μmol C mol photons−1 at 330 nm. The corresponding values for BLPs supporting bacterial respiration ranged from 57 to 1204 (mean 320 (μmol C mol photons−1. According to the calculations based on spectral apparent quantum yields and local solar radiation, the annual production of BLPs ranged from 21 (St. Lawrence to 584 (Yangtze mmol C m−2 yr−1 in the plumes of the examined rivers. Complete photobleaching of riverine CDOM in the coastal ocean was estimated to produce 10.7 Mt C BLPs yr−1 from the rivers examined in this study and globally 38 Mt yr−1 (15% of riverine DOC flux from all rivers, which support 4.1 Mt yr−1 of bacterial production and 33.9 Mt yr−1 bacterial respiration.

  17. Grey mullet (Mugilidae) as possible indicators of global warming in South African estuaries and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicola C; Whitfield, Alan K; Harrison, Trevor D

    2016-12-01

    The grey mullet usually occur in large numbers and biomass in the estuaries of all three South African biogeographic regions, thus making it an ideal family to use in terms of possibly acting as an environmental indicator of global warming. In this analysis the relative estuarine abundance of the dominant three groups of mugilids, namely tropical, warm-water and cool-water endemics, were related to sea surface coastal temperatures. The study suggests a strong link between temperature and the distribution and abundance of the three mullet groups within estuaries and indicates the potential of this family to act as an indicator for future climate change within these systems and adjacent coastal waters.

  18. Degradation of starch-poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastic in tropical coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S H; Gordon, S H; Shogren, R L; Tosteson, T R; Govind, N S; Greene, R V

    1999-02-01

    Extruded bioplastic was prepared from cornstarch or poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) or blends of cornstarch and PHBV. The blended formulations contained 30 or 50% starch in the presence or absence of polyethylene oxide (PEO), which enhances adherence of starch granules to PHBV. Degradation of these formulations was monitored for 1 year at four stations in coastal water southwest of Puerto Rico. Two stations were within a mangrove stand. The other two were offshore; one of these stations was on a shallow shoulder of a reef, and the other was at a location in deeper water. Microbial enumeration at the four stations revealed considerable flux in the populations over the course of the year. However, in general, the overall population densities were 1 order of magnitude less at the deeper-water station than at the other stations. Starch degraders were 10- to 50-fold more prevalent than PHBV degraders at all of the stations. Accordingly, degradation of the bioplastic, as determined by weight loss and deterioration of tensile properties, correlated with the amount of starch present (100% starch >50% starch > 30% starch > 100% PHBV). Incorporation of PEO into blends slightly retarded the rate of degradation. The rate of loss of starch from the 100% starch samples was about 2%/day, while the rate of loss of PHBV from the 100% PHBV samples was about 0.1%/day. Biphasic weight loss was observed for the starch-PHBV blends at all of the stations. A predictive mathematical model for loss of individual polymers from a 30% starch-70% PHBV formulation was developed and experimentally validated. The model showed that PHBV degradation was delayed 50 days until more than 80% of the starch was consumed and predicted that starch and PHBV in the blend had half-lives of 19 and 158 days, respectively. Consistent with the relatively low microbial populations, bioplastic degradation at the deeper-water station exhibited an initial lag period, after which degradation

  19. Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINU P; SHAJU S S; MUHAMED ASHRAF P; MEENAKUMARI B

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing applications are important in the fisheries sector and efforts were on to improve the predic-tions of potential fishing zones using ocean color. The present study was aimed to investigate the phyto-plankton dynamics and their absorption properties in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea in different seasons during the year 2010 to 2011. The region exhibited 73 genera of phytoplankton from 19 orders and 41 families. The numerical abundance of phytoplankton varied from 14.235×103 to 55.075×106 cells/L. Centric diatoms dominated in the region and the largest family identified was Thalassiosiraceae with main genera asSkeletonemaspp.,Planktionellaspp.andThalassiosiraspp. Annual variations in abun-dance of phytoplankton showed a typical one-peak cycle, with the highest recorded during premonsoon season and the lowest during monsoon season. The species diversity index of phytoplankton exhibited low diversity during monsoon season. Phytoplankton with pigments Chlorophylla, Chlorophyllb, Chlorophyll c, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin,β-carotene and phycoerythrobilin dominated in these waters. The knowledge on phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea forms a key parameter in bio-optical models of pigments and productivity and for the interpretation of remotely sensed ocean color data.

  20. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  1. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  2. A comparison of {sup 210}Po in Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus in French and Irish coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.M.; Pollard, D. [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Germain, P.; Leclerc, G. [CEA Centre de La Hague, 50 - Cherbourg-Octeville (France). Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-12-31

    The geographical variations of {sup 210}Po in Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus in French and Irish coastal waters have been measured. Possible sources of variation including environmental parameters, anthropogenic input and mussel condition have been considered. The effect of different sampling regimes on the comparability of measurements is discussed and the results of a joint sampling exercise are examined. The ranges of {sup 210}Po concentrations found in Mytilus edulis and Fucus vesiculosus were 80 - 700 Bq.kg{sup -1} (dry wt.) and 3 - 39 Bq.kg{sup -1} (dry wt.) respectively. Any enhancement due to anthropogenic input is masked by natural variation. While much of this natural variation remains unexplained, Mytilus edulis physiology and polonium physico-chemical form are clearly significant. Furthermore, different approaches to sample collection and processing can effect the comparability of measured concentrations. (author) 11 refs.

  3. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  4. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  5. Trace metal variability in coastal waters of San Jorge Bay, Antofagasta, Chile: An environmental evaluation and statistical approach to propose local background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, J; Román, D; Guiñez, M; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P; Castillo, A

    2015-11-15

    Between 2008 and 2011, twelve metals from 384 coastal waters samples from San Jorge Bay (Antofagasta, northern Chile) were collected and analyzed. The goal was to evaluate the quality of the bay's water bodies according to the current Chilean Quality Guideline and to establish background levels for these metals. The result suggests that the coastal waters of San Jorge Bay are of very good quality suitable for recreational activities involving human body contact. The natural background thresholds established for this bay were significantly lower than primary and secondary water quality guidelines. The distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb, along the bay's coastline provides evidence of the effects of industrial activity. Both situations suggest that the threshold indicated in the environmental guidelines of the Chilean legislation may be overestimated and do not represent pollution-free environments.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants PCNs and PBDEs in sediments from coastal waters of Qingdao,Shandong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yongliang; PAN Jing; LI Yue; YIN Xiaocai; SHI Lei

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one congeners of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and 21 congeners of polybrominated diphenylethers(PBDEs)in surface sediments at 5 stations and one mussel sample from Qingdao coastal waters were analyzed. The maximum contents occur at the station near the Haibo River mouth. The total PCNs contents are in the range of 212- 1209 pg/g dw, dominated by tri-Cl CN. The total PBDEs contents are in the range of 117-5510 pg/g dw, dominated by tri- to hexa-BrBDEs. The local sources of PCNs are likely from combustion processes such as incinerations and coal burnings. The sources of PBDEs are molecular diffusion from the materials containing them. Except for the area near the river mouth where is affected by the sewage sludges, an important source of PCNs and PBDEs in this area is believed to be the atmospheric deposition. Mussels enrich PCNs and PBDEs relative to the sediments. The total TEQs of PCNs in mussels are lower than the total TEQs of PCBs.

  7. Reproductive biology of largescale tonguesole Cynoglossus arel in coastal waters of Bandar Abbas, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H; Engelhard, G H; Mekhanik Babaei, M

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the reproductive cycle of largescale tonguesole Cynoglossus arel, a commercially valuable flatfish species, in coastal waters of Bandar Abbas, along the south coast of Iran in the Persian Gulf. From October 2009 to September 2010, 905 fish were collected in monthly samples, and their length, weight, sex, gonad weight, and maturity status recorded. These data revealed that ovary weight in females is low from July to September, then increases to a peak in February followed by a decrease, indicating that the peak spawning season is from February to March with some spawning lasting until June. Males showed a corresponding seasonal pattern in testis weight, although with much less pronounced seasonal differences than gonad weight in females. Five maturity classes were described based on ovarian and testicular histology, corresponding with macroscopic analysis of gonads. The spawning season in C. arel is prolonged, similar to several other tropical flatfish species, and larger adult females tended to have an even more prolonged spawning period than smaller, presumably younger adult females. Combined, our results indicated that C. arel is a winter-to-spring batch spawner with an asynchronous type of ovarian development.

  8. MOCASSIM - an operational forecast system for the Portuguese coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, J.; Soares, C.; Almeida, S.; Rusu, E.; Pinto, J.

    2003-04-01

    An operational system for the forecast of oceanographic conditions off the Portuguese coast is presently being implemented at Instituto Hidrográfico (IH), in the framework of project MOCASSIM. The system is planned to use a broad range of observations provided both from IH observational networks (wave buoys, tidal gauges) and programs (hydrographic surveys, moorings) as well as from external sources. The MOCASSIM system integrates several numerical models which, combined, are intended to cover the relevant physical processes observed in the geographical areas of interest. At the present stage of development the system integrates a circulation module and a wave module. The circulation module is based on the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS), a primitive equation model formulated under the rigid lid assumption, which includes a data assimilation module. The wave module is based on the WaveWatch3 (WW3) model, which provides wave conditions in the North Atlantic basin, and on the SWAN model which is used to improve the wave forecasts on coastal or other specific areas of interest. The models use the meteorological forcing fields of a limited area model (ALADIN model) covering the Portuguese area, which are being provided in the framework of a close colaboration with Instituto de Meteorologia. Although still under devellopment, the MOCASSIM system has already been used in several operationnal contexts. These included the operational environmental assessment during both national and NATO navy exercises and, more recently, the monitoring of the oceanographic conditions in the NW Iberian area affected by the oil spill of MV "Prestige". The system is also a key component of ongoing research on the oceanography of the Portuguese continental margin, which is presently being conducted at IH in the framework of national and European funded projects.

  9. Sustainable and integrated water resources management for the coastal areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Zhang, B; Kaden, S; Geiger, W F

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are severe problems in the Northern part of China, strongly affecting socio-economic development and standards of living and environment. The Shandong province is specifically plagued by water scarcity. In the coastal catchments of the Shandong province the water scarcity is even increased due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. The pressing water problems in the costal catchments in the Shandong province and resulting socio-economic troubles forced the Chinese authorities to implement a variety of measures to relieve water scarcity and abate saltwater intrusion. But not much has been achieved so far as the measures are not coordinated in their effects and cost-benefit relations have not been considered sufficiently. Such a situation calls for good, which means integrated, sustainable water management. The assessment of this situation in the project "Flood Control and Groundwater Recharge in Coastal Catchments" financed by the German Ministry of Research and Education is presented. Further objectives and first ideas for an IWRM-concept are explained. These ideas are based on concepts developed in Germany in the context of the fulfilment of the European Water Framework Directive.

  10. Relationship between organic pollution and the occurrence of toxic Phytoplankton species in the Lebanese coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rahman Hassoun, Abed

    2017-04-01

    Aiming to evaluate the effects of organic pollution, environmental parameters and phytoplankton community were monitored during a two-year period (from April 2010 till March 2012) in the central coast of Lebanon in the Levantine Sub-basin. Data were collected for hydrological (temperature and salinity), chemical (nitrites, nitrates and phosphates), and biological (chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton populations) parameters. Our results show that temperature follows its normal seasonal and annual cycles, usually noted in the Lebanese coastal waters. Salinity presents spatial and temporal variations with low values (19.07 - 39.6) in the areas affected by continental inputs. Significant fluctuations (P total phytoplanktonic cells were observed between the sites and through the years. Moreover, a perturbation of the natural phytoplanktonic succession and an occurrence of toxic or potentially harmful algae were noticed in the polluted sites, reflecting the influence of wastewater effluents on the coastal seawater equilibrium and thus on the Lebanese marine biodiversity. This study sheds the light on the current environmental condition of few coastal areas which could facilitate the management of their pollution sources. Keywords: Organic pollution, phytoplankton community, toxic algae, coastal water quality, Lebanon, Mediterranean Sea.

  11. The links between global carbon, water and nutrient cycles in an urbanizing world — the case of coastal eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Hofstra, N.; Ivens, W.; Löhr, A.; Strokal, M.; Wijnen, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and water have been disturbed substantially by human activities. Urbanizing coastal drainage basins and large river deltas are located at the interface of freshwater and coastal components of the larger earth system and the process of ur

  12. Assessment of PAHs levels in some fish and seafood from different coastal waters in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Nwaichi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 30 edible tissues of selected frequently-consumed fish and seafood collected from three coastal waters of Niger Delta, namely, Sime, Kporghor and Iko were investigated in 2014. Gas chromatographic analysis were employed for PAHs determination. Observed mean PAHs levels in the samples ranged from below detection limit (BD of analytical instrument to 22.400 ± 0.050 μg kg−1 wet wt. in Littorina littorea, BD to 87.400 ± 0.030 μg kg−1 wet wt. in Crassostrea virginica and from BD to 171.000 ± 0.430 μg kg−1 wet wt. in Periophthalmus koeleuteri. The highest average concentration of 171.000 ± 0.430 μg kg−1 wet wt. was recorded for Indeno [1,2,3-cd]pyrene from Sime water. High molecular weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs were generally predominant compared to low molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs. The LMW- PAH/HMW-PAH ratio was <1 for all species, indicating anthropogenic origin of PAHs in the coastal waters of Niger Delta environment. Moreover, the study of the PAHs fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for observed PAHs.

  13. A methodological approach to rapid assessment of a river flood in coastal waters. First test in the Po River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Bensi, Manuel; Bignami, Francesco; Caccamo, Giuseppe; Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola; Ferrarin, Christian; Marini, Mauro; Paschini, Elio; Zaggia, Luca

    2014-05-01

    As part of the actions of the flagship project RITMARE (Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE) a daily oceanographic survey was performed on 29th November 2013 in front of the Po River delta (Northern Adriatic Sea). The Po river affects a large part of the Northern Adriatic Sea with strong implications on the circulation and functionality of the basin. Physical-chemical and biological properties of coastal waters were investigated after a moderate flood occurred around 25th-27th November. The cruise activities, carried out using a small research boat, were mainly focused on the test of a methodological approach to investigate the environment variability after a flood event in the framework of rapid assessment. The effects of the flood on the coastal waters, have been evaluated in the field using operational forecasts and real-time satellite imagery to assist field measurements and samplings. Surface satellite chlorophyll maps and surface salinity and current maps obtained from a numerical model forced by meteorological forecast and river data were analyzed to better identify the Po plume dispersion during and after the event in order to better locate offshore monitoring stations at the sea. Profiles of Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, Fluorescence and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) throughout the water column were collected at 7 stations in front of the Po River delta. Sea surface water samples were also collected for the analysis of nutrients, Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and CDOM (surface and bottom). The CDOM regulates the penetration of UV light throughout the water column and mediates photochemical reactions, playing an important role in many marine biogeochemical processes. Satellite images showed a strong color front that separates the higher-chlorophyll coastal water from the more oligotrophic mid-basin and eastern boundary Adriatic waters. In front of the river mouth, the surface layer was characterized by low salinity (14-15), high turbidity (8-11 NTU

  14. Studies on water quality and pathogenic bacteria in coastal water Langkawi, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, K C A; Faizul, H N Noor; Naim, M Azrul; John, B Akbar; Kamaruzzaman, B Y

    2012-07-01

    A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi.

  15. Erythrocyte fatty acid status in a convenience sample of residents of the Guatemalan Pacific coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Bailey, Eileen; Soto Méndéz, María José; Campos, Raquel; Kraemer, Klaus; Salem, Norman

    2015-07-01

    We report the fatty acid composition, and in particular, the n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in erythrocytes from a convenience sample of 158 women and 135 schoolchildren residing in the southern Pacific Coast of Guatemala. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection and the profiles were expressed as a weight percent; the Omega-3 Index values were also determined. Schoolchildren had significantly higher mean ARA and total n-6 fatty acid levels than the women. Women had significantly higher EPA fatty acid levels than schoolchildren, but the reverse was true for DHA. For mean total n-3 fatty acid concentration, women and schoolchildren had similar values. The red cell weight percentages of selected fatty acids were also similar in women and schoolchildren. As compared with erythrocyte fatty acid data from developed countries, Guatemalan women and schoolchildren had consistently lower LCPUFA values. The traditional diet of Guatemalans living in the Pacific coastal region provided a worse erythrocyte fatty acid profile than that typically obtained from a Western diet. Additional fatty acid composition studies with associated dietary intake data in other inland locations may be useful for the interpretation of the nutritional status of Guatemalan children and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  17. Assessment of acidification and eutrophication in the coastal waters of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagumen, M. C. T.; San Diego-McGlone, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean acidification is becoming a global concern due to its potential effects on marine resources. In coastal areas, an emerging problem is ocean acidicification due to eutrophication resulting from human activities. The coastal water of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines has become eutrophic due to increased nutrient loading from unconsumed fish feeds in fish cages. Mariculture is a big industry in Bolinao. In over a decade, the area has experienced decreased oxygen levels leading to hypoxia, fish kills, and algal blooms. The decomposition of organic matter from unconsumed fish feeds results not only to high nutrient buildup but also increased CO2 and acidity in the area. Nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate), total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), aragonite saturation state (Ωarg) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) were measured to determine the combined effect of acidification and eutrophication in Bolinao. Monitoring results have shown an increase in nutrients by 30% to 70% in over a decade. Stratified water during rainy season have resulted in low DO (level (>900 μatm). Shallow stations with poor water circulation have shown undersaturated aragonite state (levels of 800 matm. The eutrophic and acidified coastal waters of Bolinao are already affecting the seagrass and coral reef ecosystems in the area.

  18. Predicting spectral and PAR light attenuation in Greenlandic coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Markager, Stiig; Stedmon, Colin

    The spectral quality and penetration of light are key parameters controlling the productivity of Greenlandic fjords. Solar elevation and sea ice play an important role, but during the increasing ice free period and summer months in particular, light is also regulated by water constituents. We pre...

  19. Predicting Spectral and PAR Light Attenuation in Greenlandic Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Stedmon, Colin A.; Markager, Stiig

    The spectral quality and penetration of light are key parameters controlling the productivity of Greenlandic fjords. Solar elevation and sea ice play an important role, but during the increasing ice free period and summer months in particular, light is also regulated by water constituents. We pre...

  20. Modelling the effects of drifting macroalgae in coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Flindt, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    creating sediment resuspension. Thresholds of sediment stability are very depending on light availability, due to most of the stability is created by benthic diatom production (Lundkvist et al. 2007). Depending on light and nutrient avaliability the sediment stability thresholds may increase by a factor...... obtained by flume experiments and field observations in protected and semi-protected shallow estuarine waters....

  1. Coastal circulation off Bombay in relation to waste water disposal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.

    1976 to 78. The water movements were mainly tide-induced and elliptical in nature, with the major axis more or less parallel to the coast. The currents were mainly towards the northeast at a bearing of approximately at 30 degrees during flood...

  2. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized...... basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates...... by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling...

  3. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Kai Håkon; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from 8 selected stations. There is a s...

  4. Mercury concentration in hair samples from Chinese people in coastal cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojie; CHENG Jinping; Song Yuling; HONDA Shun'ichi; WANG Li; LIU Zheng; SAKAMOTO Mineshi; LIU Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was made to estimate current normal concentrations of total mercury in the hair of Chinese coastal people. Hairsamples were collected from 659 healthy inhabitants in the areas along the coast and the rivers (such as Shanghai, Ningbo, Dalian,Xiamen, and Zhoushan) of China from Feb. 2005 to June 2006. Total mercury concentrations in the samples were analyzed by the coldvapor atomic adsorption spectrometry method (CVAAS). The results showed the geometric mean concentration of total mercury in thehair of the total population (N=659) was 0.83 μg/g, and the geometric mean of the concentrations of total mercury in the hair of themale (0.94 μg/g, 338 inhabitants with an average age of 35.2, age 2-93) was higher than that of the female (0.72 μg/g, 321 inhabitantswith an average age of 39.1, age 1-90). In both the male and female, the mean concentrations of total mercury in hair increased withage, and then gradually decreased. There was a significant correlation between the total hair mercury and the place of residence (p<0.01), and total hair mercury was the highest in volunteers who lived in Zhoushan. Over half of all sample concentrations were belowthe USEPA-recommended 1 μg/g. In Zhoushan (males, 2.44 μg/g; females, 1.94 [μg/g) and Ningbo (males, 1.06 μg/g; females, 1.02μg/g), it exceeded the recommended level. Very little females (0.3%) of reproductive age showed hair mercury levels close to 10 μg/g.It was thus concluded that fish consumption was a major current route for mercury exposure in China.

  5. Modeling dense water production and salt transport from Alaskan coastal polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2002-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to assess the effects of dense water formation from winter (1996/1997) polynyas on the ambient stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon. The model, which includes ambient stratification and bottom topography, is forced by time-varying surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and coastal flow. The influence of sea ice drift on the circulation and salt transport is also analyzed by prescribing ice water stress at the sea surface. The surface fluxes and ice drift are derived from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) sensors). The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model by using a wind-transport regression. One set of experiments was forced by strong and persistent polynyas, simulated by 20-day averaged heat and salt fluxes originating from the largest events. In this set of experiments both strong and weak steady coastal currents were imposed. The amount of salt exported from the generation area depended on the strength of the current. Another set of experiments was forced by weaker and less persistent polynyas using time-varying forcing. The experiments with time-varying polynya forcing were conducted with two ambient vertical stratifications, one representing fall conditions and one representing winter conditions. The amount of salt retained on the shelf was found to be quite sensitive to the initial stratification. Weaker vertical stratification promotes a deeper mixed layer, which develops 20 times faster than the horizontal advective timescale of the coastal current, thus increasing the residence time of the salt generated by the polynya on the shelf. The time-varying northeastward coastal current, combined with the offshore Ekman transport, can export 29-73% of the salt produced by polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon, depending upon the

  6. Influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the water quality of the coastal waters around the South Andaman in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishnuRadhan, R.; Thresyamma, D.D.; Sarma, K.; George, G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Vethamony, P.

    in the urbanized and industrialized areas. The discharged pollutants spread to different regions in the coast as domestic and industrial discharges open into the sea. Human habitats in the Pacific, Indian, and Caribbean Oceans substantially altered the island... program on Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS) for water quality monitoring and related issues have been operated along Indian coastal areas since 1991 under the programme on Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM...

  7. Tidal Marsh Outwelling of Dissolved Organic Matter and Resulting Temporal Variability in Coastal Water Optical and Biogeochemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Neale, Patrick J.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Butterworth, Megan; Jaffe, Rudolf; Yamashita, Youhei

    2010-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are highly dynamic environments at the land-ocean interface where human activities, short-term physical forcings and intense episodic events result in high biological and chemical variability. Long being recognized as among the most productive ecosystems in the world, tidally-influenced coastal marshes are hot spots of biogeochemical transformation and exchange. High temporal resolution observations that we performed in several marsh-estuarine systems of the Chesapeake Bay revealed significant variability in water optical and biogeochemical characteristics at hourly time scales, associated with tidally-driven hydrology. Water in the tidal creek draining each marsh was sampled every hour during several semi-diurnal tidal cycles using ISCO automated samplers. Measurements showed that water leaving the marsh during ebbing tide was consistently enriched in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), frequently by more than a factor of two, compared to water entering the marsh during flooding tide. Estimates of DOC fluxes showed a net DOC export from the marsh to the estuary during seasons of both low and high biomass of marsh vegetation. Chlorophyll amounts were typically lower in the water draining the marsh, compared to that entering the marsh during flooding tide, suggesting that marshes act as transformers of particulate to dissolved organic matter. Moreover, detailed optical and compositional analyses demonstrated that marshes are important sources of optically and chemically distinctive, relatively complex, high molecular weight, aromatic-rich and highly colored dissolved organic compounds. Compared to adjacent estuarine waters, marsh-exported colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was characterized by considerably stronger absorption (more than a factor of three in some cases), larger DOC-specific absorption, lower exponential spectral slope, larger fluorescence signal, lower fluorescence per unit absorbance, and higher fluorescence at visible wavelengths

  8. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (psampled), however concentrations were typically low (water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler

    Full Text Available Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  10. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Papenfus, Michael; Byrd, Kristin; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE) models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  11. Decline in biodiversity of copepods in coastal waters of Mumbai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, V.R.

    and diversity of copepods increased in Makupa creek, Mombasa where dumping of domestic and industrial waste was rampant. ]2'49'E s.e: s.r N + O.S 1.0 1.S .N, KAMATHH' 4 •• •N, KHIM .DP .N, o· o· .M, .M, CUNDERI oM, 0' 42' .5, .5, .5, 41' 1 N '70 7S 80 ss Fig. 1... per day (mId) of industrial waste. The projected daily domestic waste water flow for greater Mumbai for 1985 and 2005 are respectively 1350 and 2000 mid. Copepods were studied during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods along with relevant water...

  12. Key parameters and processes affecting the re-establishment of eelgrass in estuaries and coastal water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula

    of field activities and laboratory experiments around seed and seedling survival fitting and success rates were planned. Initially, there were performed pre-screening activities, in a pre-selected study area, Odense fjord (Fyn, Denmark). From the pre-screening basic data on fauna, benthic vegetation...... and sediment trapping. In the last decades seagrass, in general and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in particular, have been heavily reduced, primarily due to a generalized euthrophication of the coastal waters. In Denmark, a numerous efforts on nutrient reduction and improvement on coastal water quality have been...... of the objectives were to gain a further and deeper understanding on eelgrass recolonization processes and to gather all the collected data into a modelling tool which allowing to predict eelgrass reestablishment. Eelgrass re-establishment in Denmark has to be based on seed and seedling success, therefore a series...

  13. Morphology and phylogeny of Triadinium polyedricum (Pouchet) Dodge (Dinophyceae) from Korean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Li, Zhun; Kim, Eun Song; Youn, Joo Yeon; Jeon, Seul Gi; Oh, Seok Jin; Lim, Weol-Ae

    2016-12-01

    To identify features that can be used to differentiate Triadinium polyedricum from other related species, such as Fukuyoa paulensis and Alexandrium species, the detailed morphology and phylogeny of T. polyedricum collected from Korean coastal waters were investigated. The cells had a plate formula of Po, 3', 7″, 5‴, 1p and 2″″, which is consistent with morphological descriptions in previous reports. Large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences also revealed that T. polyedricum from Korean coastal waters is identical to previously recorded isolates. T. polyedricum is morphologically characterized by a ventral pore in the 1″ plate that is comparable to F. paulensis and Alexandrium species. This result indicates that the location and presence of this ventral pore seems suitable for differentiating T. polyedricum from other related species.

  14. Selective transport of microplastics and mesoplastics by drifting in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Kenta; Tamura, Yuka; Kako, Shin'ichio; Nakashima, Etsuko; Fujii, Naoki

    2014-12-15

    The quantity and size distributions of small plastic fragments in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan were investigated using field surveys and a numerical particle-tracking model. The model was used to interpret the distributions of small plastic fragments and the possible transport processes in coastal waters. Of note, the size and quantity of mesoplastics (approximately >5mm) gradually increased close to the coast irrespective of the existence of river mouths, which probably act as a major source of anthropogenic marine debris. Additionally, microplastics were more dominant as we moved further offshore. The numerical model reproduced the near-shore trapping of mesoplastics, suggesting that mesoplastics are selectively conveyed onshore by a combination of Stokes drift and terminal velocity, dependent on fragment sizes. It is suggested that mesoplastics washed ashore on beaches degrade into microplastics, and that the microplastics, which are free from near-shore trapping, are thereafter spread offshore in coastal waters.

  15. Morphology and phylogeny of Triadinium polyedricum (Pouchet) Dodge (Dinophyceae) from Korean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Li, Zhun; Kim, Eun Song; Youn, Joo Yeon; Jeon, Seul Gi; Oh, Seok Jin; Lim, Weol-Ae

    2016-11-01

    To identify features that can be used to differentiate Triadinium polyedricum from other related species, such as Fukuyoa paulensis and Alexandrium species, the detailed morphology and phylogeny of T. polyedricum collected from Korean coastal waters were investigated. The cells had a plate formula of Po, 3', 7″, 5‴, 1p and 2″″, which is consistent with morphological descriptions in previous reports. Large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences also revealed that T. polyedricum from Korean coastal waters is identical to previously recorded isolates. T. polyedricum is morphologically characterized by a ventral pore in the 1″ plate that is comparable to F. paulensis and Alexandrium species. This result indicates that the location and presence of this ventral pore seems suitable for differentiating T. polyedricum from other related species.

  16. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  17. Blood clams community (Anadara granoasa in The Eastern Coastal Waters of Banyuasin Regency South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Setianingsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aimed to study existence of blood clams population and the environmental factors that affect them. This research was conducted in the coastal waters of Banyuasin in February 2015. The blood clamp sample was collected using Ekman Grab at low tide. From the observation in the research site, the highest population density was 60 ind/m2 with clay substrate texture, while the lowest density was 20 ind/m2 on the dusty clay substrate. Blood clams population was not found on the sand substrate texture station. Morphometric data showed that the blood clam population in the research site, including the medium category with b < 3 growth pattern (allometric negative. The results of PCA analysis proved that the habitat texture and sediment organic habitats were dominant factors besides the chemical physics environmental factors of the waters (temperature, salinity, pH. Keywords: Blood clams, density, morphometric, PCA Abstrak (Indonesian: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari keberadaan populasi kerang-darah dan faktor lingkungan yang mempengaruhinya. Penelitian ini dilakukan di perairan pesisir Banyuasin pada bulan Februari 2015. Sampel kerang-darah diambil dengan mengunakan Ekman Grab pada saat air surut. Dari hasil pengamatan pada lokasi penelitian, kepadatan populasi kerang-darah tertinggi adalah 60 ind/m2 dengan tekstur substrat lempung, sedangkan kepadatan terendah adalah 20 ind/m2 pada substrat lempung berdebu. Populasi kerang-darah tidak ditemukan pada stasiun dengan tekstur substrat pasir. Data morfometrik menunjukan bahwa populasi kerang-darah di lokasi penelitian termasuk kategori sedang dengan pola pertumbuhan b < 3 (allometrik negatif. Hasil analisis PCA membuktikan bahwa tekstur habitat dan bahan organik sedimen merupakan faktor dominan disamping faktor lingkungan fisika kimia perairan (suhu, salinitas, pH. Kata kunci: Kerang-darah, kepadatan, morfometrik, PCA

  18. Phytoplankton distribution in the coastal waters off Porbandar (Saurashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam; Gajbhiye, S.N; Desai, B.N

    of equitability which was used to find species diversity, indicated that sample community has a species diversity "appropriate" to a community of only 40%, 20%, 27% of the species actually observed in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd station respectively...

  19. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement.

  20. Coastal hypoxia diminished by intrusion of open ocean water after long El Nino Events: Case study of Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, H. K.; Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal regions suffer from increasing terrestrial inputs of nutrients and organic matter. Consequently, hypoxia (dissolved oxygen (DO) WPS) seawater. For instance, at station SM18 located south of Hong Kong, the summer DO minimum has generally decreased from a saturation state of about 60% to as low as 5% from 1990 to 2013. The almost anoxic condition occurred in 2011 after a La Nina event. On the other hand, the summer DO minimum reached a high value of 79% in 2004 after a long El Nino event. Meanwhile, seawater at the SEATS site also contained the highest proportion of the WPS water, reflecting the large intrusion of the WPS seawater into the SCS. Such a result illustrates a situation that coastal eutrophication and hypoxia could be worsened when the intrusion of open ocean water decreases, and vice versa.

  1. A New Method of Profiling Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tongji; CHEN Qing lian; WANG Xiao yong; YANG An'an

    2005-01-01

    The profiling method is the first method to select in measuring the remotesensing reflectance. In the light of the characteristics of China's coastal waters, we develop a new method to compensate the environment's effects with the downwelling irradiance's profile and to estimate the underwater remote-sensing reflectance rrs(λ).The result indicates that the relative deviation of repetitious rrs(λ) in one station is around 10 %.

  2. Bubbles & Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer & Topographic Interactions in Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    key factors we identify as crucial to an understanding of near surface turbulence and mixing in a wind driven sea : wave breaking frequency, bubble ... Bubbles & Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Layer & Topographic Interactions in Coastal Waters David Farmer Institute of Ocean Sciences 9860 West...near surface of the ocean, including the role of bubbles in mediating and serving as tracers of such processes; (ii) To elucidate the fluid dynamical

  3. Bacterial growth efficiency in the tropical estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    ] explained the negative cor relation between BGE and generation time as increase in maintenance metabolism and a physiological shift toward more refractory substrates, a situation normally seen in coastal waters. Another factor that can influence BGE... rates may allocate a relatively higher fraction of their energy uptake to maintenance functions than those having high growth rates, assuming that maintenance requirements are con stant and independent of growth rate [27]. The low BGE, low specific...

  4. Evaluation of polar organic micropollutants as indicators for wastewater-related coastal water quality impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nödler, Karsten; Tsakiri, Maria; Aloupi, Maria; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Licha, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Results from coastal water pollution monitoring (Lesvos Island, Greece) are presented. In total, 53 samples were analyzed for 58 polar organic micropollutants such as selected herbicides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, stimulants, artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals. Main focus is the application of a proposed wastewater indicator quartet (acesulfame, caffeine, valsartan, and valsartan acid) to detect point sources and contamination hot-spots with untreated and treated wastewater. The derived conclusions are compared with the state of knowledge regarding local land use and infrastructure. The artificial sweetener acesulfame and the stimulant caffeine were used as indicators for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. In case of a contamination with untreated wastewater the concentration ratio of the antihypertensive valsartan and its transformation product valsartan acid was used to further refine the estimation of the residence time of the contamination. The median/maximum concentrations of acesulfame and caffeine were 5.3/178 ng L(-1) and 6.1/522 ng L(-1), respectively. Their detection frequency was 100%. Highest concentrations were detected within the urban area of the capital of the island (Mytilene). The indicator quartet in the gulfs of Gera and Kalloni (two semi-enclosed embayments on the island) demonstrated different concentration patterns. A comparatively higher proportion of untreated wastewater was detected in the gulf of Gera, which is in agreement with data on the wastewater infrastructure. The indicator quality of the micropollutants to detect wastewater was compared with electrical conductivity (EC) data. Due to their anthropogenic nature and low detection limits, the micropollutants are superior to EC regarding both sensitivity and selectivity. The concentrations of atrazine, diuron, and isoproturon did not exceed the annual average of their environmental quality standards (EQS) defined by the European Commission. At two sampling

  5. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Fourqurean, James W; Drake, Jeana L; Mead, Ralph N; Heil, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 10(6) cells L(-1) through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 10(4) cells L(-1) in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11-15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)(-1) in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6-18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)(-1). The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)(-1). In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent.

  6. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests and salt marshes dominate the landscape of the coastal Everglades (Odum and McIvor, 1990). However, the ecological effects from potential sea-level rise and increased water flows from planned freshwater Everglades restoration on these coastal systems are poorly understood. The National Park Service (NPS) proposed the South Florida Global Climate Change Project (SOFL-GCC) in 1990 to evaluate climate change and the effect from rising sea levels on the coastal Everglades, particularly at the marsh/mangrove interface or ecotone (Soukup and others, 1990). A primary objective of SOFL-GCC project was to monitor and synthesize the hydrodynamics of the coastal Everglades from the upstream freshwater marsh to the downstream estuary mangrove. Two related hypotheses were set forward (Nuttle and Cosby, 1993): 1. There exists hydrologic conditions (tide, local rainfall, and upstream water deliveries), which characterize the location of the marsh/mangrove ecotone along the marine and terrestrial hydrologic gradient; and 2. The marsh/mangrove ecotone is sensitive to fluctuations in sea level and freshwater inflow from inland areas. Hydrologic monitoring of the SOFL-GCC network began in 1995 after startup delays from Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) and organizational transfers from the NPS to the National Biological Survey (October 1993) and the merger with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Research Division in 1996 (Smith, 2004). As the SOFL-GCC project progressed, concern by environmental scientists and land managers over how the diversion of water from Everglades National Park would affect the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem. Everglades restoration scenarios were based on hydrodynamic models, none of which included the coastal zone (Fennema and others, 1994). Modeling efforts were expanded to include the Everglades coastal zone (Schaffranek and others, 2001) with SOFL-GCC hydrologic data assisting the ecological modeling needs. In 2002

  8. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  9. Diurnal variability of heat fluxes over the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam during post-monsoon and winter seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramu, Ch V.; Bharathi, G.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Diurnal variability of heat fluxes in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam has been studied during post-monsoon (Oct, 2006) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2007) seasons utilizing the surface meteorological data and radiation measurements on-board CRV Sagar...

  10. SEDIMENT PROPERTIES and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of California from 19780411 to 19781203 (NODC Accession 8000315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment properties and other data from FIXED PLATFORM From Coastal Waters of California from April 11 to December 3, 1978. This data set consists of the results of...

  11. Sea truth validation of sea WiFS ocean colour sensor in the coastal waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.

    In this paper we report bio-optical measurements made during an ocean colour validation cruise SK 149C in November 1999 of the research vessel Sagar Kanya in the coastal waters of the Eastern Arabian Sea. The chlorophyll concentration...

  12. Occurrence of swarms of Sagitta enflata (Chaetognatha) and Pleurobrachia globosa (Ctenophora) in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Swarms of Chaetognatha @iSagitta enflata@@ Grassi and Ctenophore @iPleurobrachia globosa@@. Moser were studied in coastal waters of Goa. These two forms together constituted 90 to 94% of total biomass. Medusae and Siphonophora were the other main...

  13. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002. This...

  14. Physical characteristics of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat, West coast of India. Part 1. Current pattern

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Surface and bottom current patterns of the coastal waters between Navapur and Umbharat (Maharashtra-Gujarat Industrial Belt) are described in relation to tides and other environmental parameters. The results of the analysis of the frequency...

  15. Method 349.0 Determination of Ammonia in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for the determination of ammonia in estuarine and coastal waters. The method is based upon the indophenol reaction,1-5 here adapted to automated gas-segmented continuous flow analysis.

  16. Water quality criteria for the South African coastal zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lusher, JA

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available by the Foundation for Research Development Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P 0 Box 395 PRETORIA 0001 from whom copies of reports in this series are available on request ISBN 0 7988 3254 1 Text, typeset by the National Research Institute... APPENDIX II: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CUMULATIVE MATERIALSA5 APPENDIX III: EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO WATER QUALITY CRITERIA A8 APPENDIX IV: ZONES OF MIXING All AD HOC WORKING COMMITTEE TITLES IN THIS SERIES In South Africa, man...

  17. Seismic Interface Waves in Coastal Waters: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-15

    water. In 1976 McLeroy and his co-workers [1861 again performed a very extensive real-world experiment in the Gulf of Mexico . Using a receiving array of...York, Academic Press, 1967. 4. SOMMERFELD, A. Uber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie. Annalen der Physik, 28, 1909. 665-736. 5...Rayleigh waves on the confines of two solid elastic media. Doklady Akademii Nauk, SSSR, 33, 1947: 15-17. 30. KOPPE, H. Uber Rayleigh-Wellen an der

  18. Assessment of the effect of the climate variations of coastal surface water and study of Sepia officinalis spawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giansante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish whether climate change affected migratory behaviour of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758, which is an important resource for small-scale fishermen of Abruzzo region (Italy. Starting at the beginning of March until the end of April, the cuttlefish in this area migrates from deep cold water towards warmer coastal waters, where they spawn. Small-scale fishing of cuttlefish is permitted in costal waters from March to September. During the study period, between March and September 2008, both cuttlefish traps and trammel nets were used in 5 sampling areas along the Abruzzo coast to test their relative efficiency in catching cuttlefish. Trapped specimens were counted, weighed and measured, their gender and sexual maturity were also determined. The data obtained from the sampling were correlated to surface water temperature to assess possible changes in migration behaviours. The obtained data show that during the first months of migration (March and April, a greater percentage of large males was caught, while females and smaller males predominated later in the year. The study also showed that surface water temperature did not reveal any significant shifts from the trend over the last 10 years. As for the efficiency of the fishing methods, traps were found to be more effective than trammel nets.

  19. Nutrient composition and distributions in coastal waters impacted by the Changjiang plume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiulin; WANG Baodong; ZHANG Chuansong; SHI Xiaoyong; ZHU Chenjian; XIE Linping; HAN Xiurong; XIN Yu; WANG Jiangtao

    2008-01-01

    Four cruises were conducted during 2002-2003 in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal areas. The data presented show a clear coast to open sea gradient in nutrients related to the river inputs. Maximum values of chlorophyll a were typically observed at intermediate salinities at surface water and coincided with non-conservative decreases in nutrients along the salinity gradient, indicating that removal of nutrients was related to phytoplankton uptake. The seasonal variations of nutrient concentrations were just opposite to those of chlorophyll a, indicating that the seasonal variations of nutrients were mainly controlled by phytoplankton uptake, whereas riverine inputs merely weakened or balanced its extent. During the estuarinc mixing, phosphate demonstrated some remobilization during all the four cruises; whereas both conservative and non-conservative behaviors for dissolved inorganic nitrogen and silicate were observed in the study area, indicating that both biotic and abiotic events may affect their behaviors during the estuarine mixing. Under the influence of freshwater inputs with high value of ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus, the estuarine and coastal waters impacted by the Changjiang plume were high (>30) in ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus, but rates of primary production were apparently not constrained by any kind of nutrient elements. However, the low ( < 1 ) ratio of silicate to nitrogen in most of the study area might be linked with the rapidly increasing frequency of harmful algal bloom (HAB) incidents in recent years in the coastal waters impacted by the Changjiang plume.

  20. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  1. Petroleum oil and mercury pollution from shipwrecks in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria; Beylich, Björnar A; Staalstrøm, André; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Berge, John A; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Schaanning, Morten; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2017-03-28

    Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100g/kgd.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1mg/kgd.w. at 100m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks.

  2. Summer circulation dynamics within the Perth coastal waters of southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montoya, L.; Lowe, R. J.

    2014-04-01

    The dynamics of the summer circulation in the coastal waters off Perth in Western Australia were investigated during a two-month field experiment. The study included the deployment of an array of moorings spanning the outer shelf, the inner shelf, within the inshore Perth coastal lagoon, and in the large coastal embayment of Cockburn Sound. The results revealed highly transient coastal circulation patterns that responded to variability in both the locally- and remotely-generated forcing. Local wind forcing played a primary role in driving much of the alongshore current variability at the shallower (Perth, which propagated down the Western Australia coast. On the outer shelf, local wind forcing played a minor (but still not a negligible) role in driving alongshore current variability, with this momentum balance instead dominated by the alongshore pressure gradient variability. Due to the unusually large alongshore pressure gradient that persists year round along the Western Australia coast, currents on the shelf were on average southward. However, large-scale northward reversals of the shelf flow were also observed when northward wind stresses were sufficiently large and/or the local alongshore pressure gradient became episodically weak.

  3. Optical Proxies for Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Estuaries and Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Osburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical proxies, especially DOM fluorescence, were used to track terrestrial DOM fluxes through estuaries and coastal waters by comparing models developed for several coastal ecosystems. Key to using optical properties is validating and calibrating them with chemical measurements, such as lignin-derived phenols - a proxy to quantify terrestrial DOM. Utilizing parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC, and comparing models statistically using the OpenFluor database (http://www.openfluor.org we have found common, ubiquitous fluorescing components which correlate most strongly with lignin phenol concentrations in several estuarine and coastal environments. Optical proxies for lignin were computed for the following regions: Mackenzie River Estuary, Atchafalaya River Estuary, Charleston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, and Neuse River Estuary. The slope of linear regression models relating CDOM absorption at 350 nm (a350 to DOC and to lignin, varied 5 to 10 fold among systems. Where seasonal observations were available from a region, there were distinct seasonal differences in equation parameters for these optical proxies. Despite variability, overall models using single linear regression were developed that related dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration to CDOM (DOC = 40×a350+138; R2 = 0.77; N = 130 and lignin (Σ8 to CDOM (Σ8 = 2.03×a350-0.5; R2 = 0.87; N = 130. This wide variability suggested that local or regional optical models should be developed for predicting terrestrial DOM flux into coastal oceans and taken into account when upscaling to remote sensing observations and calibrations.

  4. Behaviour and fate of urban particles in coastal waters: Settling rate, size distribution and metals contamination characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oursel, B.; Garnier, C.; Pairaud, I.; Omanović, D.; Durrieu, G.; Syakti, A. D.; Le Poupon, C.; Thouvenin, B.; Lucas, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The evaluation of contaminant net fluxes from the coast to the open sea requires the study of terrigeneous particles behaviour and fate. We studied the particles issued from two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) coming from the Marseille wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) just before discharge to the Mediterranean Sea. An experimental device was developed and used to investigate particles settling rates, size distribution and metallic contamination when mixing with seawater. The particles were sampled in flood deposits of rivers and outlets during rainy periods and in the outlet water during dry periods. The flood deposits were mainly composed of 50-200 μm-sized particles, higher metals content being observed in the finest fractions. Dry period particles showed the stronger influence of wastewater inputs. Al, Ca, Cs, Li, Rb, Ti, and Tl were mainly of terrigeneous origin, whereas Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, POC, Sb, Sn and Zn were of anthropogenic origin, issued from non-treated sewage, TWW or industrial waste. In seafloor sediments, all metals exhibited a continuous increase of concentration from the outlet to, at least, 800 m offshore. Implementation of settling particles characteristics in a 3D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model reproduced well the observed deposition of polluted particles in the coastal zone and indicated a non-negligible offshore export of the finest particles and their accompanying pollutants.

  5. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  6. Drinking Water Salinity and Raised Blood Pressure: Evidence from a Cohort Study in Coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline FD; Chowdhury, Muhammad A H; Haines, Andy; Alam, Dewan S; Hoque, Mohammad A; Butler, Adrian P; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh K; Blangiardo, Marta A G; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2017-05-30

    Millions of coastal inhabitants in Southeast Asia have been experiencing increasing sodium concentrations in their drinking-water sources, likely partially due to climate change. High (dietary) sodium intake has convincingly been proven to increase risk of hypertension; it remains unknown, however, whether consumption of sodium in drinking water could have similar effects on health. We present the results of a cohort study in which we assessed the effects of drinking-water sodium (DWS) on blood pressure (BP) in coastal populations in Bangladesh. DWS, BP, and information on personal, lifestyle, and environmental factors were collected from 581 participants. We used generalized linear latent and mixed methods to model the effects of DWS on BP and assessed the associations between changes in DWS and BP when participants experienced changing sodium levels in water, switched from "conventional" ponds or tube wells to alternatives [managed aquifer recharge (MAR) and rainwater harvesting] that aimed to reduce sodium levels, or experienced a combination of these changes. DWS concentrations were highly associated with BP after adjustments for confounding factors. Furthermore, for each 100 mg/L reduction in sodium in drinking water, systolic/diastolic BP was lower on average by 0.95/0.57 mmHg, and odds of hypertension were lower by 14%. However, MAR did not consistently lower sodium levels. DWS is an important source of daily sodium intake in salinity-affected areas and is a risk factor for hypertension. Considering the likely increasing trend in coastal salinity, prompt action is required. Because MAR showed variable effects, alternative technologies for providing reliable, safe, low-sodium fresh water should be developed alongside improvements in MAR and evaluated in "real-life" salinity-affected settings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP659.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol in coastal waters of China based on species sensitivity distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei; Li, Zhengyan; Gibson, Mark; Gao, Huiwang

    2014-06-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor and causes feminization and carcinogenesis in various organisms. Consequently, the environmental distribution and ecological risks of NP have received wide concern. China accounts for approximately 10% of the total NP usage in the world, but the water quality criteria of NP have not been established in China and the ecological risks of this pollutant cannot be properly assessed. This study thus aims to determine the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of NP and to assess the ecological risks of NP in coastal waters of China with the PNEC as water quality criteria. To obtain the HC5 (hazardous concentration for 5% of biological species) and PNEC estimates, the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) models were built with chronic toxicity data of NP on aquatic organisms screened from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ECOTOX database. The results showed that the PNEC for NP in freshwater and seawater was 0.48 μg L(-1) and 0.28 μg L(-1), respectively. The RQ (risk quotient) values of NP in coastal waters of China ranged from 0.01 to 69.7. About 60% of the reported areas showed a high ecological risk with an RQ value ≥ 1.00. NP therefore exists ubiquitously in coastal waters of China and it poses various risks to aquatic ecosystems in the country. This study demonstrates that the SSD methodology can provide a feasible tool for the establishment of water quality criteria for emergent new pollutants when sufficient toxicity data is available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: seasonal patterns and key species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  9. Exploitation survey of sea water in agriculture of coastal deserts in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nasar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possibility of exploitation sea water in the agriculture of coastal deserts in Libya, some of which salt-tolerant plants (Halophyte, especially that used to feed animals, and convert marshes coastal useless life to nature reserves attract many kinds of migratory birds and marine lives after the cultivation of these marshes by type of plants, which grow in saltwater. In other words this paper will present a study of how to use the seawater as a renewable resource for agriculture in Libya and how this will contribute in sustainable development in this sprawling country. The advantage of this resource can be taken to fill up the gap of natural grassland and the growing demand for animal feed which has caused rising prices of livestock and meats, not to mention the tribal conflicts that occur because of the dispute over grasslands. The most significant reasons that force us to exploit the seawater are: (1 Lack of inventory of underground water in the coastal areas and overlapping with seawater in several areas. In contrast, Libya has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean with a length of more than 1,900 kilometers; (2 Fluctuation rate of the amount of rainfall, which has affected negatively on the natural grassland; (3 More than 90% of the country's population in the coastal areas, that causing a large drain of groundwater which already meager in this region, for this reason the government has worked to establish Artificial River project, which delivers water from the south to the northern areas to reduce this problem, and (4 Depletion and degradation of natural grassland is largely due to overgrazing.

  10. Bloom forming species of phytoplankton in two coastal waters in the Southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillai Rajasekar, K.; Rajkumar, M.; Sun, Jun; Ashok Prabu, V.; Perumal, P.

    2010-09-01

    The results of an investigation carried out during June 2005 to May 2007 on bloom-forming phytoplankton species composition and abundance in the Parangipettai and Coleroon coastal waters (Southeast coast of India) are reported. Air and surface water temperatures (°C) varied from 25.1 to 30.1 and 24.5 to 28.5, respectively, in the former waters and from 25.5 to 31.2 and 25.0 to 29.3 in the latter waters. The respective salinities varied from 6.0 to 28.5 and 5.0 to 33.1 and the respective pH ranged between 7.0 and 8.3 and 7.2 and 8.3. Correspondingly, the dissolved oxygen content varied from 3.1 to 7.5 and 3.1 to 7.9 mgL-1 while the light extinction coefficient (LEC) values ranged between 3.1 and 10.1 and 1.8 and 11.0. The content ranges of inorganic nutrients, i.e., nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate (μmolL-1), in the Parangipettai and Coleroon coastal waters were: 6.5-27.0; 1.0-8.9; 0.1-3.0 and 15.0-140 and 10.1-23.4; 1.2-8.9; 0.2-3.1 and 55-125 respectively. The chlorophyll a contents in both waters ranged from 2.0-7.5 μgL-1. Presently, 124 phytoplankton species representing different classes were recorded in the Coleroon coast, viz, Bacillariophyceae (77); Dinophyceae (19); Cyanophyceae (15); Chlorophyceae (10) and Chrysophyceae (3), whereas 117 phytoplankton species were recorded in the Parangipettai coast, viz, Bacillariophyceae (66); Dinophyceae (22); Cyanophyceae (19); Chlorophyceae (7) and Chrysophyceae (3). The phytoplankton cell abundance in the Parangipettai and Coleroon coastal waters varied from 290 to 111662 and 140 to 132 757 cells L-1, respectively, with peak diversity (3.38 and 3.52 bits ind-1.) recorded in summer. The maximum abundance occurred in summer coinciding with the stable hydrographical conditions. The seasonal distribution and abundance of phytoplankton are discussed in relation to hydrographical parameters. Totally 31 and 24 species of phytoplankton were found to be bloom-forming in the Parangipettai and Coleroon coastal waters

  11. Mangrove coservation in coastal areas Samas beach lagoon for controlling sea water abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati, A.P.; Siwi, B.R.F. Raka; Muzoffar, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lagoon is a puddle of water (like a lake/pond) near the beach that was once a part of the (united with) the sea, but because of geological events, apart from the sea and coastal wetland ecosystems forming new ones. Samas beach lagoon is one of the lagoons are located in Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. From the perspective of the Environment, lagoon is a unique ecosystem that consists of a body of water (lagoon) is brackish, mangrove forests and land affected low tide. Ecosyste...

  12. A Review on Toxic and Harmful Algae in Greek Coastal Waters (E. Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiades, Lydia; Gotsis-Skretas, Olympia

    2010-01-01

    The Greek coastal waters are subjected to harmful algal bloom (HAB) phenomena due to the occurrence of species characterized as toxic (TX), potentially toxic (PT), and non-toxic, high biomass (HB) producers causing harm at multiple levels. The total number of (TX), (PT) and (HB) algae reported in this work are 61, but only 16 species have been associated with the occurrence of important HABs causing damage in the marine biota and the water quality. These phenomena are sporadic in time, space and recurrence of the causative species, and are related to the anthropogenically-induced eutrophication conditions prevailing in the investigated areas. PMID:22069623

  13. Improvement of the spatial resolution of MODIS coastal waters thermal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, S.; Despini, F.; Ghermandi, G.; Serafini, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thermal mapping is an highly relevant tool for the assessment of the quality of coastal waters. Remote sensing is an useful technique for monitoring large surfaces in near real time, nevertheless, spatial resolution represents an important limiting factor. In this work it the spatial improvement, from 1km to 250m, of MODIS thermal imagery on coastal water obtained with the SWTI (SharpeningWater Thermal Imagery) is shown. This algorithm is applied, for the first time, to MODIS images acquired on the lagoon of Venice and on the delta of the Po River. The performances of SWTI are evaluated taking as a reference a couple of ASTER images acquired simultaneously to the MODIS images and on the same areas. Moreover, the water temperatures obtained with a simple bilinear interpolation of the MODIS images is also considered. Several statistical parameters, as bias and root mean square difference, are used to quantify the the difference between ASTER and MODIS/SWTI water temperatures along coastlines. In all the the cases these differences are lower than 1K.

  14. Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xianqiang; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    A practical algorithm of atmospheric correction for turbid coastal and inland waters is provided. The present algorithm uses the property that the water-leaving radiance at 412 nm increases very little with the increasing of water turbidity. Thus, in very turbid coastal and inland waters, the radiance at 412 nm can be used to estimate the aerosol scattering radiance at 865 nm. The performance of the new algorithm is validated with simulation for several cases. It is found that the retrieved remotely sensed reflectance is usually with error less than 10% for the first six bands of SeaWiFS. This new algorithm is also tested under various atmospheric conditions in the Changjiang River Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay where the sediment concentration is very high and the standard SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm creates a mask due to atmospheric correction failure. The result proves the efficiency of this simple algorithm in reducing the errors of the water-leaving radiance retrieving using SeaWiFS satellite data.

  15. Variability of soil-water quality due to Tsunami-2004 in the coastal belt of Nagapattinam district, Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, H; Sarangi, A; Nagarajan, M; Singh, V P; Rao, D U M; Stalin, P; Natarajan, K; Chandrasekaran, B; Anbazhagan, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study, the Tsunami-caused deterioration of soil and groundwater quality in the agricultural fields of coastal Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu state in India is presented by analyzing their salinity and sodicity parameters. To accomplish this, three sets of soil samples up to a depth of 30 cm from the land surface were collected for the first six months of the year 2005 from 28 locations and the ground water samples were monitored from seven existing dug wells and hand pumps covering the study region at intervals of 3 months. The EC and pH values of both the soil and ground water samples were estimated and the spatial and temporal variability mappings of these parameters were performed using the geostatistical analysis module of ArcGIS((R)). It was observed that the spherical semivariogram fitted well with the data set of both EC and pH and the generated kriged maps explained the spatial and temporal variability under different ranges of EC and pH values. Further, the recorded EC and pH data of soil and ground water during pre-Tsunami periods were compared with the collected data and generated variability soil maps of EC and pH of the post-Tsunami period. It was revealed from this analysis that the soil quality six months after the Tsunami was nearing the pre-Tsunami scenario (ECcauses for such changes and the remedial measures for taking up regular agricultural practices are also discussed.

  16. Global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability respect to Sea Water Intrusion. Application to several Mediterranean Coastal Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Leticia; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Renau-Pruñonosa, Arianna; Morell, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    In this research we propose a method for a global assessment of coastal aquifer state and its vulnerability to Sea Water Intrusion (SWI). It is based on two indices, the MART index, which summarize the global significance of the SWI phenomenon, and the L_GALDIT for a lumped assessment of the vulnerability to SWI. Both of them can be useful as a tool to assess coastal groundwater bodies in risk of not achieving good status in accordance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000) and to identify possible management alternative to reduce existing impacts. They can be obtained even from a reduced number of data (in the MART case only depend on the geometry and available aquifer state data) with simple calculations, which have been implemented in a general GIS tool that can be easily applied to other case studies. The MART index in an aquifer is related with the total mass of chloride in the aquifer due to sea water intrusion and can be obtained by simple linear operations of volume and concentrations that can be deduced from a schematic conceptual cross-section approach (orthogonal to the shore line) defined to summarize the intrusion volume in the aquifer. At a certain historical time, this representative aquifer cross-section can be defined in a systhematic way from the aquifer geometry, the specific yield, and the hydraulic head and chloride concentration fields that can be deduced from the available information by using appropriate interpolation methods. Following the proposed procedure we will finally obtain a summary of the historical significance of the SWI in an aquifer at different spatial resolution: 3D salinity concentration maps, 2D representative conceptual cross-section of intrusion and the MART lumped significance index. The historical evolution of the MART can be employed to perform a global assessment of the resilience and trends of global significance of the SWI in an aquifer. It can be useful to compare the significance of intrusion problems in

  17. Influences of riverine and upwelling waters on the coastal carbonate system off Central Chile and their ocean acidification implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Contreras, Paulina Y.; Pérez, Claudia A.; Sobarzo, Marcus; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Salisbury, Joe

    2016-06-01

    A combined data set, combining data from field campaigns and oceanographic cruises, was used to ascertain the influence of both river discharges and upwelling processes, covering spatial and temporal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and aragonite saturation state. This work was conducted in one of the most productive river-influenced upwelling areas in the South Pacific coasts (36°S). Additionally, further work was also conducted to ascertain the contribution of different DIC sources, influencing the dynamics of DIC along the land-ocean range. Six sampling campaigns were conducted across seven stations at the Biobío River basin, covering approximately 200 km. Three research cruises were undertaken simultaneously, covering the adjacent continental shelf, including 12 sampling stations for hydrographic measurements. Additionally, six stations were also sampled for chemical analyses, covering summer, winter, and spring conditions over 2010 and 2011. Our results evidenced that seaward extent of the river plume was more evident during the winter field campaign, when highest riverine DIC fluxes were observed. The carbonate system along the river-ocean continuum was very heterogeneous varying over spatial and temporal scales. High DIC and pCO2 were observed in river areas with larger anthropogenic effects. CO2 supersaturation at the river plume was observed during all campaigns due to the influence of low pH river waters in winter/spring and high-pCO2 upwelling waters in summer. δ13CDIC evidenced that main DIC sources along the river and river plume corresponded to the respiration of terrestrial organic matter. We have linked this natural process to the carbonate saturation on the adjacent river-influenced coastal area, suggesting that Ωaragonite undersaturation in surface/subsurface waters is largely modulated by the influence of both river discharge and coastal upwelling events in this productive coastal area. Conditions of low Ωaragonite might impact

  18. Permafrost Thaw and Vegetation Cover Change May Alter Silicon Exports to Arctic Coastal Receiving Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R.; Carey, J.; Tang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon (Si) availability in Arctic coastal waters is a critical factor dictating phytoplankton species composition, as diatoms require as much Si as nitrogen (N) on a molar basis to survive. Riverine exports are the main source of Si to Arctic coastal waters annually and thus, the timing and magnitude of river Si fluxes have direct implications for marine ecology and global carbon dynamics. Although geochemical factors exert large controls on Si exports to marine waters, watershed land cover has recently been shown to alter the retention and transport of Si along the land-ocean continuum in lower latitudes, due in large part to the ability of terrestrial vegetation to store large quantities of Si in its tissue. However, it is unclear how shifts in basin land cover and climatic warming will alter Si exports in the Arctic, as increasing shrubiness and northward migration of treeline may increase Si retention on land, but permafrost thaw and elevated weathering rates may stimulate Si exports towards coastal waters. In this study we investigate how permafrost thaw and vegetation cover shifts are altering Arctic riverine Si export using the geochemical signatures of ten rivers draining a 700 km north-south gradient across the Yukon and Arctic North Slope basins in Alaska. Across the 2016 spring freshet, average dissolved Si (DSi) concentrations across sites ranged from 22 to 115 µM, with a significant negative relationship observed between average DSi concentration and latitude (r=-0.95, ptotal suspended solids (TSS), and Ge (Germanium)/Si ratios, to determine the drivers of these patterns in Si behavior. In turn, our results will be used to create the first predictive framework to assess how future warming will alter fluvial Si exports to Arctic receiving waters.

  19. Deriving optical properties of Mahakam Delta coastal waters, Indonesia using in situ measurements and ocean color model inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhiman, S.; Salama, M.S.; Vekerdy, Z.; Verhoef, W.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an operational water quality monitoring method based on remote sensing data requires information on the apparent and inherent optical properties of water (AOP and IOP respectively). This study was performed to determine the apparent and inherent optical properties of coastal water

  20. Deriving optical properties of Mahakam Delta coastal waters, Indonesia using in situ measurements and ocean color model inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhiman, S.; Salama, M.S.; Vekerdy, Z.; Verhoef, W.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an operational water quality monitoring method based on remote sensing data requires information on the apparent and inherent optical properties of water (AOP and IOP respectively). This study was performed to determine the apparent and inherent optical properties of coastal water

  1. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  2. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W; Ali, Malik H; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-03-06

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km(2) large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today.

  3. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  4. Association of Colloidal Organic Matter and Metals in Coastal Waters (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faganeli, J.; Klun, K.; Falnoga, I.; Mazej, D.; Kovač, N.

    2016-12-01

    Large volumes of seawater were sampled in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) in order to study the seasonal changes of interactions between colloidal organic matter (COM) and metals/metalloids (Me) in coastal waters. Isolation of COM (>5 kDa) was performed by ultrafiltration and final desalinization by dialysis. COM was characterized using 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, and C and N elemental, and 13C and 15N isotope analyses. COM represents about 1/4 of DOC and appears to be mainly of marine origin. COM is composed of polysaccharides (30-45%), lipids (30-55%), proteins (15-20%) and humics (OH (carbohydrates and lipids), COOH (proteins and lipids) and NH (proteins) functional groups. In the late spring - early summer, an accumulation of COM was observed, demostrated by HPSEC, indicating the possible path of macroaggregate formation. The polysaccharide and lipid fractions increased and the protein fraction decreased. COM isolated from phytoplankton cultures (Tetraselmis marina, Chaetoceros socialis, Prorocentrum minimum) from the gulf indicated that phytoplankton mostly contributes to the polysaccharide COM pool. Analyses of Me, performed by ICPMS and CVAFS (Hg), showed that Hg (>90%), V (35%), Cu (20%), Cr (10%) and Se (10%) have the highest Me affinity to COM. Similarly to COM, Hg and Cu rapidly decreased in summer due to their sequestration in aggregates (transfer into particulate phase) and increased microbial degradation. The observed Me/Corg. ratios (Co, Cd, Hg, < U, Cr, Ni, Mn < As, Zn, Cu, V < Fe) somewhat differ from those of Irving-Williams series and can be explained by composition of COM and variable background concentrations of studied Me. Data from the salinity gradient in the gulf showed flocculation of Al and Cu and desorption of V, Mn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Tl, U and Hg from the riverine particles with increasing ionic strength while Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb did not correlate with salinity.

  5. Numerical model of the circulation and dispersion in the east Adriatic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Dzoic, Tomislav; Koracin, Darko; Matijevic, Slavica; Grbec, Branka; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2017-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented to reproduce physical properties of the area around submarine outlet Stobrec in the middle Adriatic coastal area. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and dynamics of the surrounding area imposed at the open boundaries. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Simulated fields from the Adriatic and shelf scale models were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for fine resolution coastal domain. Model results were compared with available CTD measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the middle Adriatic coastal area. Variability in the circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the open boundaries. Basic features of the coastal circulation are well reproduced by the ROMS model, as well as temperatures and salinities which are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although with lower stratification than measured ones. In order to reproduce dispersion of the passive tracer the ROMS model was coupled with Lagrangian dispersion model. Multiyear monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters around the sewage outlet was used to assess the quality of the dispersion model results. Among measured parameters, redox potential of the surface sediment layer was selected to be compared with model results as its negative values are direct consequence of increased organic matter input that can be attributed to the sewage system inflow.

  6. Radiocarbon in otoliths of yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus): a reference time series for the coastal waters of southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr-Ferrey, L A; Andrews, A H; Frantz, B R; Coale, K H; Brown, T A; Cailliet, G M

    2003-10-14

    Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices during the 1950s and 1960s created a global radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) signal in the environment that has provided a useful tracer and chronological marker in oceanic systems and organisms. The bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal retained in fish otoliths can be used as a permanent, time-specific recorder of the 14C present in ambient seawater, making it a useful tool in age validation of fishes. The goal of this study was to determine {sup 14}C levels in otoliths of the age-validated yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) to establish a reference time series for the coastal waters of southeast Alaska. Radiocarbon values from the first year's growth of 43 yelloweye rockfish otoliths were plotted against estimated birth year to produce a 14C time series for these waters spanning 1940 to 1990. The time series shows the initial rise of bomb 14C occurred in 1958 in coastal southeast Alaskan waters and {sup 14}C levels rose relatively rapidly to peak {Delta}{sup 14}C values (60-70%) between 1966 and 1971, with a subsequent declining trend through the end of the record in 1990 (-3.2%). In addition, the radiocarbon data, independent of the radiometric study, confirms the longevity of the yelloweye rockfish up to a minimum of 44 years and strongly supports higher age estimates. The yelloweye rockfish record provides a {sup 14}C chronology that will be useful for the interpretation of {sup 14}C accreted in biological samples from these waters and in future rockfish age validation studies.

  7. Determination of Ra natural isotopes in marine samples from Itamaraca coastal regions; Determinacao de isotopos naturais de Ra em amostras costeiras da regiao de Itamaraca (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Valentim, Eliane; Lima, Ricardo A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br; Medeiros, Carmem [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia; Oliveira, Joselene [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in the transport of nutrients and pollutants to the coastal marine environment s and other surfaces water. Concentrations of {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in marine water of the Itamaraca coastal region, PE, were measured during the winter of 2004, aiming to investigate the presence of radionuclides as a tracer of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) in the environment studied. Measurements of temperature, salinity and nutrients were also carried out. (author)

  8. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  9. The use of Landsat for monitoring water parameters in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Landsats 1 and 2 have been successful in detecting and quantifying suspended sediment and several other important parameters in the coastal zone, including chlorophyll, particles, alpha (light transmission), tidal conditions, acid and sewage dumps, and in some instances oil spills. When chlorophyll a is present in detectable quantities, however, it is shown to interfere with the measurement of sediment. The Landsat banding problem impairs the instrument resolution and places a requirement on the sampling program to collect surface data from a sufficiently large area. A sampling method which satisfies this condition is demonstrated.

  10. Mapping the Fresh-Salt Water Interaction in the Coastal Zone Using High Resolution Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auken, E.; Pedersen, J. B. B.; Christiansen, A. V.; Foged, N.; Schaars, F.; Rolf, H.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade airborne electromagnetics (AEM) and the accompanying data processing and inversion algorithms have undergone huge developments in terms of technology, costs, and reliability. This has expanded the scope of AEM from mainly mineral exploration to geotechnical applications and groundwater resource mapping. In this abstract we present a case with generally applicable results where AEM is used to map saltwater intrusion as well as outflow of fresh water to the sea. The survey took place on the Dutch coast in 2011 and is composed of a detailed inland coastal mapping as well as lines extending kilometres into the North Sea. It adds further complications that the area has a dense infrastructure and rapid varying dune topography causing the need for cautious data processing. We use the high resolution AEM system SkyTEM and data processing and inversion in the Aarhus Workbench. On the inland side, the results show a high resolution image of the fresh water interface and the interaction with clay layers acting as barriers. On the sea side they show a picture of freshwater plumes being pushed several hundred meters under the sea. The last mentioned information was actually the main purpose of the survey as this information could hardly be obtained by other methods and it is decisive for the total water balance of the system. The case shows an example of an AEM survey resulting in a high resolution image of the entire coastal zone. The technology is applicable in all coastal zones in the world and if applied it would lead to much improved management of the water resources in these landscapes.

  11. Representation, dispersion, and variation of bacterial indicators in the coastal waters of Nagore (east coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Coastal Waters. Bacteriological Mortality. Part i; Technical Report WRC 201; Water Research Centre: Stevenage, United King dom: p 41. Gannon, J. J.; Busse. M. K. (19R9) E. coli and Ellterococci Levels in Urban Storm Water. River Water and Chlorinated... on the respective selective media (Hi media, Mumbai, India) at 35 ± 2 0c. The counts were expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 mL. Water Environment Research, Volume 75, Number 1 Mohandass and Bharathi...

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marine sediments along Nagapattinam - Pondicherry coastal waters, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, K; Balakrishnan, S; Sampathkumar, P

    2017-04-15

    In this present study, petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analyzed in three different coastal sediment cores viz., (N1, P1 and P2) from the Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, India to examine the viability of PHCs. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt+clay+sand) and PHC unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of PHCs. Cluster analysis was used to discriminate the sediment samples based on their degree of contamination. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of PHC in marine sediments. This baseline PHCs data can be used for regular ecological monitoring and effective management for the mining and tourism related activities in the coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  14. Different Bacterial Communities Involved in Peptide Decomposition between Normoxic and Hypoxic Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuting; Wawrik, Boris; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-01-01

    Proteins and peptides are key components of the labile dissolved organic matter pool in marine environments. Knowing which types of bacteria metabolize peptides can inform the factors that govern peptide decomposition and further carbon and nitrogen remineralization in marine environments. A 13C-labeled tetrapeptide, alanine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (AVFA), was added to both surface (normoxic) and bottom (hypoxic) seawater from a coastal station in the northern Gulf of Mexico for a 2-day incubation experiment, and bacteria that incorporated the peptide were identified using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). The decomposition rate of AVFA in the bottom hypoxic seawater (0.018–0.035 μM h-1) was twice as fast as that in the surface normoxic seawater (0.011–0.017 μM h-1). SIP experiments indicated that incorporation of 13C was highest among the Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidimicrobiia, Verrucomicrobiae, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria in surface waters. In contrast, highest 13C-enrichment was mainly observed in several Alphaproteobacteria (Thalassococcus, Rhodobacteraceae, Ruegeria) and Gammaproteobacteria genera (Colwellia, Balneatrix, Thalassomonas) in the bottom water. These data suggest that a more diverse group of both oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria may be involved in metabolizing labile organic matter such as peptides in normoxic coastal waters, and several copiotrophic genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and known to be widely distributed may contribute to faster peptide decomposition in the hypoxic waters. PMID:28326069

  15. Development of sampling for quantification of glyphosate in natural waters

    OpenAIRE

    Tzaskos,Danilla Fernanda; Marcovicz,Crislaine; Dias,Nivea Maria Piccolomini; Rosso,Neiva Deliberali

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is a systemic, post-emergent, non-selective herbicide widely used in agriculture. The objective of this study was to develop a method for sample preparation, to partially purified natural water samples contaminated with residues of glyphosate, and to quantify them by derivation and spectroscopically. To assess the accuracy of the method, samples of water from an artesian well and from a stream were fortified with known amounts of glyphosate. The concentration of glyphosate was dete...

  16. Optical assessment of colored dissolved organic matter and its related parameters in dynamic coastal water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Varunan, Theenathayalan; Nagendra Jaiganesh, S. N.; Sahay, Arvind; Chauhan, Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of the curve of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and differentiation between marine and terrestrially derived CDOM pools in coastal environments are hampered by a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of CDOM, uncertainties in retrieved remote sensing reflectance and the weak signal-to-noise ratio of space-borne instruments. In the present study, a hybrid model is presented along with empirical methods to remotely determine the amount and type of CDOM in coastal and inland water environments. A large set of in-situ data collected on several oceanographic cruises and field campaigns from different regional waters was used to develop empirical methods for studying the distribution and dynamics of CDOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity. Our validation analyses demonstrated that the hybrid model is a better descriptor of CDOM absorption spectra compared to the existing models. Additional spectral slope parameters included in the present model to differentiate between terrestrially derived and marine CDOM pools make a substantial improvement over those existing models. Empirical algorithms to derive CDOM, DOC and salinity from remote sensing reflectance data demonstrated success in retrieval of these products with significantly low mean relative percent differences from large in-situ measurements. The performance of these algorithms was further assessed using three hyperspectral HICO images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements in productive coastal and lagoon waters on the southeast part of India. The validation match-ups of CDOM and salinity showed good agreement between HICO retrievals and field observations. Further analyses of these data showed significant temporal changes in CDOM and phytoplankton absorption coefficients with a distinct phase shift between these two products. Healthy phytoplankton cells and macrophytes were recognized to directly contribute to the

  17. Prevalance and pathology of gastric tumours in Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) from Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan; RamalingamVijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To carry out the survey of prevalence of gastric tumour in Sardinella longiceps of Parangipettai coastal waters, south east coast of India for a period of one year. Methods: Fish samples were directly collected from fishermen and also from auction yard. The prevalence of gastric tumour, gross pathology, radiography, histopathology, morphometric and meristic characters were investigated. Results: A total of 31 stomach tumour infected individuals were collected during the study period. The gross morphology showed distended abdomen and the radiograph exhibited enlargement of stomach. Autopsy of the infected fish exhibited reddish multilobed tumourous growth on the stomach. Histologically, the tumour lesions were characterized by the differential rate of glandular epitheloid and mesenchymal cells, polymorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei and mitotic activity. No evidence of local invasion and distinct metastases were observed in these cases. Conclusions: The tumours were diagnosed as gastric adenoma, myofibroblastoma, lipoma and fibrosarcoma. Among them myofibroblastoma is highly prevalent.

  18. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  19. Importance of the Viral Shunt in Nitrogen Cycling in Synechococcus Spp. Growth in Subtropical Western Pacific Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses play an important role in aquatic environments in bacteria and phytoplankton mortality and also in carbon and nutrient recycling through the lysis of living cells. However, the effects of nitrogen regenerated by viral lysis on the growth of picophytoplankton are rarely studied. This study investigated whether the presence of viruses has a positive effect on the daytime frequency of cell division in Synechococcus spp. in the coastal waters of the western subtropical Pacific Ocean. Using cell incubation with natural viral loads and reduced virus treatments, we characterized the abundance and frequency of cell division in Synechococcus spp. over time. Our results clearly showed that during the daytime as much as 30% of Synechococcus spp. were dividing in natural virus-containing samples, a proportion six times that found in the virus-diluted treatment groups (5%. These results suggest that viruses can exert significant effects on nutrient regeneration, enhancing daytime cell division rates in Synechococcus spp.

  20. GoM Coastal Biopsy Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys were conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters of Barataria Bay, LA and Mississippi Sound, MS to collect tissue biopsy samples...

  1. Assessment of the colored dissolved organic matter in coastal waters from ocean color remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Hubert; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Dessailly, David; Mériaux, Xavier

    2014-06-02

    Knowledge on absorption by colored dissolved organic matter, a(cdom), spatio-temporal variability in coastal areas is of fundamental importance in many field of researches related to biogeochemical cycles studies, coastal areas management, as well as land and water interactions in the coastal domain. A new method, based on the theoretical link between the vertical attenuation coefficient, K(d), and the absorption coefficient, has been developed to assess a(cdom). This method, confirmed from radiative transfer simulations and in situ measurements, and tested on an independent in situ data set (N = 126), allows a(cdom) to be assessed with a Mean Relative Absolute Difference, MRAD, of 33% over two order of magnitude (from 0.01 to 1.16 m(-1)). In the frame of ocean color observation, K(d) is not directly measured but estimated from the remote sensing reflectance, R(rs). Based on 109 satellite (SeaWiFS) and in situ coincident (i.e. match-up) data points a(cdom) is retrieved with a MRAD value of 37%. This simple model generally presents slightly better performances than recently developed empirical or semi-analytical algorithms.

  2. Isotope exchange between natural and anthropogenic Pb in the coastal waters of Singapore: exchange experiment, Kd model, and implications for the interpretation of coastal 210Pb data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. A.; Chen, M.; Zurbrick, C.; Carrasco, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from annually-banded corals and seawater samples show that marine lead (Pb) in the coastal waters of Singapore has an isotopic composition that does not match that of the anthropogenic aerosols in this region, unlike what is seen in most parts of the open ocean. The 206Pb/207Pb composition of Singaporean marine Pb is 1.18-1.20 whereas the local aerosols are 1.14-1.16. In order to explore this discrepancy further, we collected a large volume water from the Johor River estuary (flowing from Malaysia to the northern border of Singapore), added a distinct isotope spike (NBS981, 206Pb/207Pb =1.093) to an unfiltered sample, and followed the dissolved isotope composition of the mixture during the following two months. The initial dissolved Pb concentration was 18.3 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.200. "Total dissolvable" Pb released after acidification of the in the unfiltered sample was 373 pmol/kg with 206Pb/207Pb of 1.199, indicating that there is a large particulate Pb reservoir with an isotopic composition comparable to regional crustal natural Pb. The isotope spike should have brought the dissolved 206Pb/207Pb to 1.162, but less than a day after isotope spiking, the dissolved Pb had risen to 1.181 and continued a slow increase to 1.197 over the next two months. This experiment demonstrates that Johor estuary particulate matter contains a large reservoir of exchangeable Pb that will modify the isotopic composition of deposited aeolian aerosol anthropogenic Pb. We have modeled the evolution of Pb and Pb isotopes in this experiment with a single Kd -type model that assumes that there are two or three different Pb reservoirs with different exchange time constants. This observation has implications for isotope equilibrium between high Pb/210Pb continental particles and low Pb/210Pb ocean waters - what is merely isotope equilibration may appear to be 210Pb scavenging.

  3. KERENTANAN PENYUSUPAN AIR LAUT DI PESISIR UTARA PULAU TERNATE (Vulnerability of Sea Water Intrusion in Northern Coastal of Ternate Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Achmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah pesisir bagian utara Pulau Ternate, dengan tujuan mengetahui kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dan menganalisis akuifer serta cara pengambilan airtanah sehingga tidak terjadi penyusupan air laut ke dalam tubuh airtanah. Sampel air sumur diukur untuk mengetahui kadar salinitas dan daya hantar listrik (DHL. Kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dukur dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik. Hasil pengukuran DHL dan salinitas airtanah di wilayah pesisir utara menunjukkan, terdapat penyusupan air laut di Desa Tobolo dan Sulamadaha, dengan rentang nilai masing-masing antara 0,5-3,3 mS/cm dan 0,2-1,7 ppt. Hasil pengukuran geolistrik menunjukkan batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut rata-rata antara 12-15 m dari permukaan. Nilai resistivitas air laut berkisar antara 0,01-20 Ωm. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan peringatan untuk tidak melakukan pengeboran sumur di wilayah pesisir. Sebagai contoh kasus, pengeboran sumur hingga 80 m dengan jarak sekitar 250 m dari garis pantai di Desa Takome, di mana batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut pada kedalaman 15 m. Pengukuran nilai DHL dan salinatas air dari sumur ini menunjukkan masing-masing 6,1 mS/cm dan 3,3 ppt. Nilai ini menunjukkan kedalaman sumur bor telah melewati zona pencampuran antara airtanah dengan air laut (interface.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the coastal areas of northern part of Ternate island, in order to know the depth of interface and to analyze the aquifers and to avoid seawater intrusion caused of groundwater extraction. Well water samples were measured to determine levels of salinity and DHL. The depth of interface was measured using geoelectric method. The results of electrical conductivity (EC and salinity of groundwater measurement in the northern coastal area showed that, there is infiltration of sea water in Tobolo and Sulamadaha. The EC and salinity values ranging between 0.5-3.3 mS/cm and 0.2-1.7 ppt

  4. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Trace Metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Coastal Waters off the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Tung Jiann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water samples were collected along the west coast of Taiwan during two expedition cruises which represent periods of different regional climatic patterns. Information on hydrochemical parameters such as salinity, nutrients, suspended particulate matter (SPM, and Chlorophyll a concentrations were obtained, and dissolved and particulate trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined. Spatial variations were observed and the differences were attributed to (1 influence of varying extents of terrestrial inputs from the mountainous rivers of Taiwan to the coast, and (2 urbanization and industrialization in different parts of the island. Geochemical processes such as desorption (Cd and adsorption to sinking particles (Pb also contributed to the variability of trace metal distributions in coastal waters. Results showed temporal variations in chemical characteristics in coastal waters as a consequence of prevailing monsoons. During the wet season when river discharges were higher, the transport of particulate metals was elevated due to increased sediment loads. During the dry season, lower river discharges resulted in a lesser extent of estuarine dilution effect for chemicals of anthropogenic sources, indicated by higher dissolved concentrations present in coastal waters associated with slightly higher salinity.

  5. Crystalline style and tissue redistribution in Perna viridis as indicators of Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Cheng, W H; Tan, S G

    2006-03-01

    The concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the crystalline style (CS) and in the remaining soft tissues (ST) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 10 geographical sites along the coastal waters off peninsular Malaysia were determined. The CS, compared with the remaining ST, accumulated higher levels of Cu in both contaminated and uncontaminated samples, indicating that the style has a higher affinity for the essential Cu to bind with metallothioneins. The similar pattern of Cu accumulation in the different ST of mussels collected from clean and Cu-contaminated sites indicated that the detoxification capacity of the metallothioneins had not been overloaded. For Pb, higher levels of the metal in the CS than in the remaining ST were found only in mussels collected from a contaminated site at Kg. Pasir Puteh. This indicated a tissue redistribution of Pb due to its binding to metallothioneins for Pb detoxification and the potential of the CS as an indicator organ of Pb bioavailability and contamination. For Zn, the above two phenomena were not found since no obvious patterns were observed (lower levels of Zn in the CS than in the remaining ST) in contaminated and uncontaminated samples due to the mechanism of partial regulation. Generally, all the different STs studied (foot, mantle, gonad, CS, gill, muscle, and byssus) are good biomonitoring tissues for Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination. Among these organs, the CS was found to be the best organ for biomonitoring Cu. The present data also suggest the use of the tissue redistribution of Pb in P. viridis as an indicator of Pb bioavailability and contamination in coastal waters.

  6. An optical water type framework for selecting and blending retrievals from bio-optical algorithms in lakes and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy S; Dowell, Mark D; Bradt, Shane; Verdu, Antonio Ruiz

    2014-03-05

    Bio-optical models are based on relationships between the spectral remote sensing reflectance and optical properties of in-water constituents. The wavelength range where this information can be exploited changes depending on the water characteristics. In low chlorophyll-a waters, the blue/green region of the spectrum is more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll-a concentration, whereas the red/NIR region becomes more important in turbid and/or eutrophic waters. In this work we present an approach to manage the shift from blue/green ratios to red/NIR-based chlorophyll-a algorithms for optically complex waters. Based on a combined in situ data set of coastal and inland waters, measures of overall algorithm uncertainty were roughly equal for two chlorophyll-a algorithms-the standard NASA OC4 algorithm based on blue/green bands and a MERIS 3-band algorithm based on red/NIR bands-with RMS error of 0.416 and 0.437 for each in log chlorophyll-a units, respectively. However, it is clear that each algorithm performs better at different chlorophyll-a ranges. When a blending approach is used based on an optical water type classification, the overall RMS error was reduced to 0.320. Bias and relative error were also reduced when evaluating the blended chlorophyll-a product compared to either of the single algorithm products. As a demonstration for ocean color applications, the algorithm blending approach was applied to MERIS imagery over Lake Erie. We also examined the use of this approach in several coastal marine environments, and examined the long-term frequency of the OWTs to MODIS-Aqua imagery over Lake Erie.

  7. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  8. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for Yellow Argisol and Yellow Latosol from the Brazilian Coastal Plains region. The Coastal Plains soils are mostly developed from Barreiras formation (pre-weathered sediments and their main uses are sugarcane, livestock, forestry and fruticulture. The database to generate the PTFs was composed from the selection of information derived from scientific works and soil survey reports of the region. Specific PTFs were generated for each soil class, in their respective A and B horizons and for solum, through multiple regression by stepwise package of R language programming. Due to the small pedological variability (small number of soil classes containing great geographical expression and mineralogical uniformity, usually observed in this environment, non-stratification of soil classes to create general PTFs presented similar or superior results compared to equations for each soil class. The adjustment of data demonstrated that water retention values at -33 kPa and -1500 kPa potentials can be estimated with adequate accuracy for the main soils of the Brazilian Coastal Plains through PTFs mainly from particle size distribution and secondarily from organic matter data.

  9. Hydrochemical and isotopic (2H, 18O and 37Cl) constraints on evolution of geothermal water in coastal plain of Southwestern Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuzhu; Ma, Teng; Du, Yao; Xiao, Cong; Chen, Xinming; Liu, Cunfu; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-05-01

    Geothermal energy is abundant in Guangdong Province of China, however, majority of it is still unexploited. To take full advantage of this energy, it is essential to know the information of geothermal system. Here, physical parameters such as pH and temperature, major ion (Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Cl-, SO42 - and HCO3-), trace elements (Br-, Sr2 +, Li+ and B3 +) and stable isotopes (2H, 18O and 37Cl) in geothermal water, non-geothermal water (river water, cold groundwater) and seawater were used to identify the origin and evolution of geothermal water in coastal plain of Southwest of Guangdong. Two separate groups of geothermal water have been identified in study area. Group A, located in inland of study area, is characterized by Na+ and HCO3-. Group B, located in coastal area, is characterized by Na+ and Cl-. The relationships of components vs. Cl for different water samples clearly suggest the hydrochemical differences caused by mixing with seawater and water-rock interactions. It's evident that water-rock interactions under high temperature make a significant contribution to hydrochemistry of geothermal water for both Group A and Group B. Besides, seawater also plays an important role during geothermal water evolution for Group B. Mixing ratios of seawater with geothermal water for Group B are calculated by Cl and Br binary diagram, the estimated results show that about geothermal water, and seawater might get into the geothermal system by deep faults. Molar Na/Cl ratios also support these two processes. Geothermal and non-geothermal water samples plot around GMWL in the δ2H vs. δ18O diagram, indicating that these samples have a predominant origin from meteoric water. Most of geothermal water samples display δ37Cl values between those of the non-geothermal water and seawater samples, further reveals three sources of elements supply for geothermal water, including atmospheric deposition, bedrocks and seawater, which show a great potential to trace source of

  10. A model study of influence of circulation on the pollutant transport in the Zhujiang River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Lai Ah; GUAN Weibing; CHEN Jay-Chung; SU Jilan

    2004-01-01

    A tracer model with random diffusion coupled to the hydrodynamic model for the Zhujiang River Estuary (Pearl River Estuary, PRE) is to examine the effect of circulations on the transport of completely conservative pollutants. It is focused on answering the following questions: (1) What role does the estuarine plume front in the winter play in affecting the pollutants transport and its distribution in the PRE ? (2) What effect do the coastal currents driven by the monsoon have on the pollutants transport? The tracer experiment results show that: (1) the pollutant transport paths strongly depend on the circulation structures and plume frontal dynamics of the PRE and coastal waters; (2) during the summer when a southwesterly monsoon prevails, the pollutants from the four easterly river inlets and those from the bottom layer of offshore stations will greatly influence the water quality in Hong Kong waters, however, the pollutants released from the four westerly river-inlets will seldom affect the water quality of Hong Kong waters due to their transport away from Hong Kong; (3) during the winter when a northeasterly monsoon prevails, all pollutants released from the eight river gates will be laterally transported seaward inside the estuary and transport westward in the coastal waters along the river plume frontal zone. However, pollutants released from the surface layer of offshore stations near or east of the Dangan Channel will be carried into the coastal waters of Hong Kong by the landward component of the westward coastal current driven by the winter northeasterly monsoon. But the pollutants from the bottom layer of the offshore stations will be carried away from the offshore by the bottom flow driven by the northeasterly monsoon. This implies that only surface-released matter from offshore stations will affect the water quality of the coastal waters around Hong Kong during the winter when a northeasterly monsoon prevails.

  11. Monitoring trace metal contaminants in green mussel, Perna viridis from the coastal waters of Karnataka, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Geetha; Krishnakumar, P K; Bhat, G S

    2006-08-01

    The green mussel (Perna viridis) is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia and is used in mussel watch programmes for monitoring environmental contaminants throughout the region. Green mussels representing different size groups and habitats were sampled from their natural beds at 28 locations in the inshore waters of Karnataka (southwest coast of India) to analyze the tissue concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in smaller mussels than in the larger size group. Significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni were observed in mussels sampled from intertidal beds when compared to mussels from the subtidal beds. The sampling sites were categorized into industrial sites (IS), urban sites (US), and nonurban sites (NS) based on principal component analysis of metal concentrations in mussel. Spatial variations in tissue concentrations of all metals were observed except for Zn. Generally, the levels of toxic trace metals like Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr in the whole tissue of P. viridis were within safe limits throughout the coast of Karnataka. However, relatively high concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb were observed in the whole tissue of green mussels collected from the industrial sites (IS), which may be derived from a variety of anthropogenic activities.

  12. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  13. Disinfection byproduct precursor dynamics and water treatability during an extreme flooding event in a coastal blackwater river in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, A; Uzun, H; Karanfil, T; Tsui, M T K; Chow, A T

    2017-12-01

    Coastal blackwater rivers, characterized by high concentrations of natural organic matter, are source water for millions of people in the southeastern US. In October 2015, large areas of coastal South Carolina were flooded by Hurricane Joaquin. This so-called "thousand-year" rainfall mobilized and flushed large amounts of terrestrial organic matter and associated pollutants (e.g. mercury) into source water, affecting water quality and safety of municipal water supply. To understand the dynamics of water quality and water treatability during this extreme flood, water samples were collected from Waccamaw River (a typical blackwater river in the southeastern US) during rising limb, peak discharge, falling limb, and base flow. Despite decreasing water flow after peak discharge, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels (increased by up to 125%), and formation potentials of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (increased by up to 150%) remained high for an extended period of time (>eight weeks after peak discharge), while variation in the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) FP was negligible. Coagulation with alum and ferric at optimal dosage significantly reduced concentrations of DOC by 51-76%, but up to 10 mg/L of DOC still remained in treated waters. For an extended period of time, elevated levels of THMs (71-448 μg/L) and HAAs (88-406 μg/L) were quantified in laboratory chlorination experiments under uniform formation conditions (UFC), exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) maximum contaminant level of 80 and 60 μg/L, respectively. Results demonstrated that populations in coastal cities are at high risk with disinfection by-products (DBPs) under the changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  15. Abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates from coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea During Autumn 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Myung, Geumog; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of harmful epiphytic dinoflagellates is of concern to scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government due to their toxicity not only to marine organisms but also to humans. There have been no studies on the abundance of the epiphytic dinoflagellates in Korean waters. We explored the presence of epiphytic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, southwestern Korea. Furthermore, we measured the abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates on the thalli of 24 different macroalgae, collected from five different locations in October 2009. Five epiphytic dinoflagellate genera Amphidinium, Coolia, Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum were found. These five genera were observed on the thalli of the macroalgae Chordaria flagelliformis, Martensia sp., Padina arborescens, and Sargassum sp., while none were observed exceptionally on Codium fragile. The abundance of Ostreopsis spp. was highest on Derbesia sp. (8,660 cells/g wet weight), while that of Gambierdiscus spp. was highest on Martensia sp. (4,870 cells/g-ww). The maximum abundances of Amphidinium spp., Coolia spp., and Prorocentrum spp. were 410, 710, and 300 cells/g-ww, respectively. The maximum abundance of Coolia spp., Gambierdiscus spp., and Ostreopsis spp. obtained in the present study was lower than for other locations reported in literature. The results of the present study suggest that the presence and abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates may be related to the macroalgal species of the coastal waters of Jeju Island.

  16. Impact of the aerosol type on HICO™ atmospheric correction in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, C.; Manzo, C.; Braga, F.; Bresciani, M.; Giardino, C.; Alberotanza, L.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the radiative impact of the aerosol type on the results of the atmospheric correction of HICO™ (Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean) hyperspectral data. The reflectance was obtained by using the HICO@CRI (HICO ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) algorithm, a physically-based atmospheric correction algorithm developed specifically for HICO™ data by adapting the vector version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV) radiative transfer code. The HICO@CRI algorithm was applied on six HICO™ images acquired in the Northern part of the Mediterranean Basin, using the micro-physical properties measured with a CIMEL sun sky-radiometer at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) AERONET site and the optical properties of the maritime, continental, and urban aerosol types provided by default by the 6SV. The results highlight that the aerosol type can improve the accuracy of the atmospheric correction. Indeed, the accuracy of the water reflectance retrieved from the available HICO™ data decreases in the sensor spectral domain, considering the AERONET micro-physical properties, of 30% using the urban aerosol type, of 20% using the continental type, and finally of less than 10% assuming a maritime type. Thus, the aerosol type has to be taken into consideration in the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data over coastal environment, if water quality analysis has to be performed, because of the influence of aerosol type on the water reflectance.

  17. Heterotrophic Bacteria Show Weak Competition for Nitrogen in Mediterranean Coastal Waters (Thau Lagoon) in Autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottet, Aurore; Leboulanger, Christophe; Vidussi, Francesca; Pete, Romain; Bouvy, Marc; Fouilland, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The importance of heterotrophic bacteria relative to phytoplankton in the uptake of ammonium and nitrate was studied in Mediterranean coastal waters (Thau Lagoon) during autumn, when the Mediterranean Sea received the greatest allochthonous nutrient loads. Specific inhibitors and size-fractionation methods were used in combination with isotopic (15)N tracers. NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) uptake was dominated by phytoplankton (60 % on average) during the study period, which included a flood event. Despite lower biomass specific NH4 (+) and NO3 uptake rates, free-living heterotrophic bacteria contributed significantly (>30 %) to total microbial NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) uptake rates in low chlorophyll waters. Under these conditions, heterotrophic bacteria may be responsible for more than 50 % of primary production, using very little freshly produced phytoplankton exudates. In low chlorophyll coastal waters as reported during the present 3-month study, the heterotrophic bacteria seemed to depend to a greater extent on allochthonous N and C substrates than on autochthonous substrates derived from phytoplankton.

  18. Impact of the aerosol type on HICO™ atmospheric correction in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bassani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the radiative impact of the aerosol type on the results of the atmospheric correction of HICO™ (Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean hyperspectral data. The reflectance was obtained by using the HICO@CRI (HICO ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery algorithm, a physically-based atmospheric correction algorithm developed specifically for HICO™ data by adapting the vector version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV radiative transfer code. The HICO@CRI algorithm was applied on six HICO™ images acquired in the Northern part of the Mediterranean Basin, using the micro-physical properties measured with a CIMEL sun sky-radiometer at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT AERONET site and the optical properties of the maritime, continental, and urban aerosol types provided by default by the 6SV. The results highlight that the aerosol type can improve the accuracy of the atmospheric correction. Indeed, the accuracy of the water reflectance retrieved from the available HICO™ data decreases in the sensor spectral domain, considering the AERONET micro-physical properties, of 30% using the urban aerosol type, of 20% using the continental type, and finally of less than 10% assuming a maritime type. Thus, the aerosol type has to be taken into consideration in the atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data over coastal environment, if water quality analysis has to be performed, because of the influence of aerosol type on the water reflectance.

  19. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with copepods in coastal waters of the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavotto, Rosemary E; Dziallas, Claudia; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Moisander, Pia H

    2015-10-01

    The community composition of N2 -fixing microorganisms (diazotrophs) was investigated in copepods (primarily Acartia spp.) in parallel to that of seawater in coastal waters off Denmark (Øresund) and New England, USA. The unicellular cyanobacterial diazotroph UCYN-A was detected from seawater and full-gut copepods, suggesting that the new N contributed by UCYN-A is directly transferred to higher trophic levels in these waters. Deltaproteobacterial and Cluster 3 nifH sequences were detected in > 1 μm seawater particles and full-gut copepods, suggesting that they associate with copepods primarily via feeding. The dominant communities in starved copepods were Vibrio spp. and related Gammaproteobacteria, suggesting they represent the most permanent diazotroph associations in the copepods. N2 fixation rates were up to 3.02 pmol N copepod(-1) day(-1). Although at a typical copepod density in estuarine waters, these volumetric rates are low; considering the small size of a copepod, these mesozooplanktonic crustaceans may serve as hotspots of N2 fixation, at 12.9-71.9 μmol N dm(-3) copepod biomass day(-1). Taken together, diazotroph associations range from more permanent attachments to copepod feeding on some groups. Similar diazotroph groups detected on the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean suggest that these associations are a general phenomenon and play a role in the coastal N cycles. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A LARGE EDDY SIMULATION TURBULENCE MODEL FOR COASTAL SEAS AND SHALLOW WATER PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In large scale motions of circulations in coastal seas and shallow-water problems, different characteristics of flow in the horizontal plane and in the vertical direction are expected. In this paper, a new large eddy simulation model was proposed. There are some differences between the present method and the other LES models. The philosophy of the large eddy simulation and the directional eddy viscosity method were applied in the horizontal plane and in the vertical direction, respectively. Comparied with the other LES models in which there is no difference between horizontal viscosity and vertical viscosity, the proposed method is resonable.

  1. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  2. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  3. Inland and coastal water environment remote sensing monitoring system: rapid construction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Gu, Xingfa; Yin, Qiu; Li, Li; Chen, Qiang; Ren, Yuhuan; Chen, Hong; Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Juan

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims at bridging the gap between the academic research and practical application in water environment monitoring by remote sensing. It mainly focuses on how to rapidly construct the Inland and coastal Water Environment Remote Sensing Monitoring System (IWERSMS) in a software perspective. In this paper, the remote sensed data processing framework, dataflow and product levels are designed based on the retrieval algorithms of water quality parameters. The prototype is four-tier architecture and modules are designed elaborately. The paper subsequently analyzes the strategy and key technology of conglutinating hybrid components, adopting semantic metafiles and tiling image during rapid construction of prototype. Finally, the paper introduces the successful application to 2008 Qingdao enteromorpha prolifra disaster emergency monitoring in Olympics Sailing Match fields. The solution can also fit other domains in remote sensing and especially it provides a clue for researchers who are in an attempt to establish a prototype to apply research fruits to practical applications.

  4. Model predictions of copper speciation in coastal water compared to measurements by analytical voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    2012-07-17

    Trace metal toxicity to aquatic biota is highly dependent on the metaĺs chemical speciation. Accordingly, metal speciation is being incorporated in to water quality criteria and toxicity regulations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) but there are currently no BLM for biota in marine and estuarine waters. In this study, I compare copper speciation measurements in a typical coastal water made using Competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) to model calculations using Visual MINTEQ. Both Visual MINTEQ and BLM use similar programs to model copper interactions with dissolved organic matter-DOM (i.e., the Stockholm Humic Model and WHAM-Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, respectively). The total dissolved (14). The modeled [Cu2+] could be fitted to the experimental values better after the conditional stability constant for copper binding to fulvic acid (FA) complexes in DOM in the SHM was adjusted to account for higher concentration of strong Cu-binding sites in FA.

  5. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery over turbid coastal waters using active and passive remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoling; ZHANG Tinglu; GONG Wei; CHEN Liqiong; LU Jianzhong; ZHAO Xi; ZHANG Wei; YU Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an atmospheric correction method to process MODIS/Aqua (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color imagery over turbid coastal waters with the aid of concurrent CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) aerosol data, assuming that there exists "nonturbid" water in the study area where MODIS aerosol optical properties can be retrieved accurately. Aerosol properties from CALIOP measurements were obtained and related to those from MODIS. This relationship, combined with CALIOP aerosol data, was extended to turbid water to derive MODIS aerosol properties, where atmospheric correction using MODIS data alone often fails. By combining MODIS and CALIOP data, aerosol signals were separated from the total signals at the satellite level, and water-leaving radiances in turbid waters were subsequently derived. This method was tested on several MODIS/Aqua ocean color images over South China turbid waters. Comparison with field data shows that this method was effective in reducing the errors in the retrieved water-leaving radiance values to some extent. In the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Estuary, this method did not overestimate the aerosol effects as severely, and provided far fewer negative water-leaving radiance values than the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) default methods that used MODIS data alone.

  6. Glophymed: an index to establish the ecological status for the Water Framework Directive based on phytoplankton in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; Pachés, M; Martínez-Guijarro, R; Ferrer, J

    2013-10-15

    Phytoplankton and its attributes (biomass, abundance, composition, and frequency and intensity of phytoplankton blooms) are essential to establish the ecological status in the Water Frame Directive. The aim of this study is to develop an index "Glophymed" based on all phytoplankton attributes for coastal water bodies according to the directive requirements. It is also developed an anthropogenic pressure index that takes into account population density, tourism, urbanization, industry, agriculture, fisheries and maritime transport for Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Both indexes (Glophymed and human pressure index) based on a multisampling dataset collected monthly during several years, show a significant statistical correlation (r2 0.75 α<0.01) for typology IIA and (r2 0.93 α<0.01) for typology III-W. The relation between these indexes provides suitable information about the integrated management plans and protection measures of water resources since the Glophymed index is very sensitive to human pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of microsprinkler irrigation amount on water, soil, and pH profiles in a coastal saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Linlin; Kang, Yaohu; Wan, Shuqin

    2014-01-01

    Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  8. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  9. Submarine groundwater discharge of total mercury and monomethylmercury to central California coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Friank J; Paytan, Adina; Knee, Karen L; De Sieyes, Nicholas R; Ganguli, Priya M; Gray, Ellen; Flegal, A Russell

    2009-08-01

    Fluxes of total mercury (Hg(T)) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) associated with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at two sites onthe central California coast were estimated by combining measurements of Hg(T) and MMHg in groundwater with the use of short-lived, naturally occurring radium isotopes as tracers of groundwater inputs. Concentrations of Hg(T) were relatively low, ranging from 1.2 to 28.3 pM in filtered groundwater, 0.8 to 11.6 pM in filtered surface waters, and 2.5 to 12.9 pM in unfiltered surface waters. Concentrations of MMHg ranged from < 0.04 to 3.1 pM in filtered groundwater, < 0.04 to 0.53 pM in filtered surface waters, and 0.07 to 1.2 pM in unfiltered surface waters. Multiple linear regression analysis identified significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between dissolved groundwater concentrations of Hg(T) and those of NH4+ and SiO2, and between dissolved groundwater concentrations of MMHg and those of Hg(T) and NH4+. However, such relationships did not account for the majority of the variability in concentration data for either mercury species in groundwater. Fluxes of Hg(T) via SGD were estimated to be 250 +/- 160 nmol day m(-1) of shoreline at Stinson Beach and 3.0 +/- 2.0 nmol m(-2) day(-1) at Elkhorn Slough. These Hg(T) fluxes are substantially greater than net atmospheric inputs of Hg(T) reported for waters in nearby San Francisco Bay. Calculated fluxes of MMHg to coastal waters via SGD were 10 +/- 12 nmol day(-1) m(-1) of shoreline at Stinson Beach and 0.24 +/- 0.21 nmol m(-2) day at Elkhorn Slough. These MMHg fluxes are similar to benthic fluxes of MMHg out of surface sediments commonly reported for estuarine and coastal environments. Consequently, this work demonstrates that SGD is an important source of both Hg(T) and MMHg to coastal waters along the central California coast.

  10. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO(2) in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Roberta B; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO(2) in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO(2) supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO(2) in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO(2) sources to CO(2) sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO(2) substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO(2) even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO(2) outgassing from inland waters.

  11. Impact of Phosphogypsum waste on the Geochemistry of the coastal water of Ghannouche -Gabes (SE of Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, R.; Fathallah, S.; Gueddari, M.

    2009-04-01

    Impact of Phosphogypsum waste on the Geochemistry of the coastal water of Ghannouche -Gabes (SE of Tunisia). R. Ben Amor, S. Fathallah, M. Gueddari (R.U. of Geochemistry and of Environmental Geology, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Department of Geology, 2092 Manar I) Corresponding author: R. Ben Amor; E-mail:magba_rim@yahoo.fr The littoral Ghannouche - Gabes (SE of Tunisia), has been known since the 1970's, an important industrialization especially after the installation of the chemical complex for the treatment of phosphates. These industries are at the origin of various waste materials, the most significant one is phosphogypsum (PG) which is released into the sea. The aim of this paper is to identify and to analyze the different entropic and natural factors, which govern the chemical composition in major elements, dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature of Ghannouche -Gabes coastal water, while studying, in particular, the impact of PG waste on the spatial distribution of these parameters. The result of the chemical analyses of the samples taken in June 2003, show that Na, K and Cl are conserved in solution and they evolve with constant Na/Cl and K/Cl ratio. The values of these ratios are similar to sea water average. The concentration of the other elements are controlled, first, by processes of precipitation or dissolution of the carbonated (Ca, Mg and HCO3) or sulphated (Ca and SO4) minerals, and second, by dilution or evaporation phenomena and by the phosphogypsum waste. The spatial distribution of these elements, of the pH, the dissolved oxygen and the temperature and the result of the saturation index with respect to calcite, gypsum and fluorite, by using of the PhreeqC program, show that the zone, located at north of the study area, between the commercial and the fishing port, is highly influenced by the PG waste. In this area, where the PG is released and which is relatively sheltered by the dams of the commercial and fishing port, waters are characterised by

  12. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  13. How Subsurface Water Technologies (SWT) can Provide Robust, Effective, and Cost-Efficient Solutions for Freshwater Management in Coastal Zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Raat, K.J.; Paalman, M.; Oosterhof, A.T.; Stuyfzand, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources in coastal zones are limited while demands are high, resulting in problems like seasonal water shortage, overexploitation of freshwater aquifers, and seawater intrusion. Three subsurface water technologies (SWT) that can provide robust, effective, and cost-efficient solutions to

  14. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  15. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  16. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  17. Evaluation of Surface Hydrological Connectivity Between a Forested Coastal Wetland and Regulated Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. D.; Wilcox, B. P.; Jacob, J. S.; Sipocz, A.; Munster, C.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid urbanization, industry, and agriculture have put enormous developmental pressure on coastal forested wetlands along the Texas coast. At least 97,000 acres of freshwater forested wetlands on the Texas coast have been lost since 1955, amid much larger losses of other coastal wetland types (TPWD-Texas Wetlands Conservation Plan, 1996). Some coastal wetlands are protected by federal regulations under the Clean Water Act in an effort to maintain wetland hydrological and ecological services, such as water quality improvement and flood control. However, federal protection of many important coastal wetlands is dependent upon documented proof of a hydrologic connection to federally protected Waters of the United States and reasonable influence on the quality of those waters. This study focuses on a 13 acre catchment of coastal flatwoods wetland with an ambiguous legal status because of a possible , but undocumented, hydrologic connection to regulated Waters of the United States. Documentation of the hydrologic connectivity of this type of wetland is critical because of the geographic extent of similar wetlands and their contributions to water quality. The objective of the study was to determine if a hydrologic connection exists, and if so, to quantify the strength of the connection. A surface connection was established based on runoff and rainfall data collected since April of 2005, with the wetland discharging surface water directly into an adjacent protected wetland. The connection was weak during dry years, but in years with average rainfall, surface runoff accounted for a much more significant portion of the water budget. These results suggest that runoff water from similar wetlands contributes directly to protected wetland waters, and may influence water quality downstream.

  18. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration.

  19. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  20. Evaluation of WRF Planetary Boundary Layer Schemes over the Coastal Waters of Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Matthew J.

    Winds, temperatures and moisture in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are often difficult for operational models to predict given the relatively sparse observations and that most model PBL parameterizations were developed over inland locations. Coastal marine layer forecasts are important for the forecasting of severe storms and wind energy resources in the highly populated coastal marine environment of the Northeast U.S. (NEUS). Mesoscale models are known to have large biases in wind speeds and temperatures at these lower levels over coastal waters. The goal of this project is to evaluate the performance of six PBL schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 3.4.1 in the coastal marine environment of the NEUS. This study region, stretching from the south shore of Long Island out to Cape Cod is an ideal location for an offshore wind energy grid based on such factors as regional energy demand, water depth, and available wind resource. Verification of six WRF PBL schemes (two non-local, first-order schemes and four local, TKE-order schemes) was performed using a dataset of observations at multiple levels from the Cape Wind tower in Nantucket Sound from 2003 to 2011, as well as surrounding NDBC and ASOS stations. A series of 30-hour WRF runs were conducted for 90 randomly selected days between 2003 and 2011, with initial and boundary conditions supplied by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). All schemes generally displayed negative wind speed biases over the water. The cool season displayed the largest negative biases as well as a shear profile indicative of an over-mixed boundary layer. It is hypothesized that errors in the model SST field in Nantucket Sound aided in the too-stable (unstable) model MABL structures during the warm (cool) seasons and the resultant under-mixed (over-mixed) wind shear profiles. Additional model verification from three Long-EZ aircraft flights during the Improving the Mapping and Prediction of

  1. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-29

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0.

  2. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  3. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Beltrán-Abaunza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http://vattenkvalitet.se. The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improves the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors. Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18–26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (−3, data dispersion dominated in the retrievals with the MEGS (MERIS ground segment processor processor. The lowest bias and data dispersion were obtained with MEGS for suspended particulate matter, for which overestimations in the range of 8–16% were found. Only the FUB retrieved CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter correlate with in situ values. However, a large systematic underestimation appears in the estimates that nevertheless may be corrected for by using a local correction factor. The MEGS has the potential to be used as an operational processing algorithm for the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in the presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  4. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsgaard, A; Jacobsen, T; Jacobsen, B; Ørum, J-E

    2007-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling approach applied in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse the effects of specific, localized basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates the potential and limitations of comprehensive, integrated modelling tools.

  5. Water uptake by trees of coastal forested wetlands in Guadeloupe, French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompy, Felix; Lambs, Luc; Dulormne, Maguy; Imbert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    In the Caribbean islands, coastal wetlands comprise two main ecosystems: the mangrove forest and the freshwater swamp forest dominated by the legume Pterocarpus officinalis. These forest ecosystems make an interface between sea and land, providing significant ecological and socioeconomic functions. During the last centuries, human activities have modified the hydrologic connections of these wetlands by digging canals to drain waterlogged soils and by cutting forests to promote cattle grazing and waterfowl hunting. Peat formation is associated to the highest water-table levels. The thickest peat deposits occur seaward as a result of the Holocene marine transgression into Pleistocene coastal plains and estuaries. Landward, soils overlay volcanic or calcareous bedrocks and are mainly clayey. Such differences in soil formation and physical characteristics (especially porosity) confer to the system its hydraulic properties. Furthermore, the dual origin of water (tides and watershed runoff) gives way to a complex pattern of groundwater salinity. In five forest stands of Guadeloupe wetlands, we have traced water uptake using the stable isotopes of water (d18O and dD). Preliminary results reveal that evapo-transpiration process in the swamp forest is compensated by fresh groundwater coming out from springs scattered around and inside the forest. In the mangrove forest, the highest evaporation rates are located in the Avicennia pure stand and the mixed scrub stand; the mixed tall stand is located where fresh and salt water melt. Measurement of xylem sap also suggests that mangrove trees uptake groundwater where salinity is the lowest. The low tidal range and the absence of large watershed, like in most wetlands of Caribbean islands, certainly explain the poor hydro-dynamics and resilience of the system.

  6. physico-chemical properties of well water samples from some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Physico-Chemical Analysis: Water samples collected were analyzed by both classical and .... This and some other factors may be responsible for the ... Diatom (Bacillariophyta) diversity of an open access lagoon in. Lagos, Nigeria. Journal ...

  7. Changes in forcing factors affecting coastal and shallow water erosion in the future Arctic climate change projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Razumov, Sergey; Brovkin, Victor; Ilyina, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Driving factors of seabed and coastal erosion in the Arctic can be classified as thermal and mechanical. Thermal factors such as air and ocean temperatures affect the seabed and coastal ground temperatures. Mechanical factors such as ocean currents and surface gravity waves contribute to the seabed and costal erosion due to shear stress. Due to polar amplification, the Arctic experiences strong increase in air and water temperature, sea-ice loss and changes in the ocean and atmospheric circulation, temperature and wind distribution. These climatic changes lead to changes in factors driving seabed and coastal erosion, which is expected to accelerate in the shallow Arctic regions such as the Laptev sea and East Siberian sea. In these regions, the coastal line to a large extent consists of frozen rocks, sediments and organic soils including ground ice. The increase of erosion rate of the coastal line will increase the release of organic and inorganic matter from thawed permafrost. Dynamics of thermal and mechanical drivers of seabed and coastal erosion in the present and future climate change (RCP8.5 scenario) simulated by the CMIP5 version of the MPI Earth system model and wave model WAM will be presented. Special attention will be given to changes in the air temperature, wind dynamics and development of new waves system in the ``ice-free'' Arctic and its role in the seabed and coastal erosion.

  8. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  9. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, Liangjun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, Fengfu

    2016-09-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb2+, and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb2+ and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb2+. Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb2+, the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future.

  10. Photo-production of dissolved inorganic carbon from dissolved organic matter in contrasting coastal waters in the southwestern Taiwan Strait, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong Guo; Liyang Yang; Xiangxiang Yu; Weidong Zhai; Huasheng Hong

    2012-01-01

    Photo-production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important transformation process in marine carbon cycle,but little is known about this process in Chinese coastal systems.This study investigated an estuarine water sample and a coastal seawater sample from the subtropical waters in southeast of China.Water samples were exposed to natural sunlight and the absorption and fluorescence of CDOM as well as the DIC concentration were measured in the summer of 2009.The estuarine water had higher CDOM level,molecular weight and proportion of humic-like fluorescent components than the seawater that exhibited abundant tryptophan-like fluorescent component.After a 3-day irradiation,the CDOM level decreased by 45% in the estuarine water and 20% in the seawater,accompanied with a decrease in the molecular weight and aromaticity of DOM which was inferred from an incrcase in the absorption spectral slope parameter.The photo-degradation rates of all the five fluorescent components were also notable,in particular two humic-like components (C4 and C5) were removed by 78% and 69% in the estuarine water and by 69% and 56% in the seawater.The estuarine water had a higher photo-production rate of DIC than the seawater (4.4vs.2.5 tmol/(L.day)),in part due to its higher CDOM abundance.The differences in CDOM compositions between the two types of waters might be responsible for the higher susceptibility of the estuarine water to photo-degradation and hence could also affect the photo-production process of DIC.

  11. Photo-production of dissolved inorganic carbon from dissolved organic matter in contrasting coastal waters in the southwestern Taiwan Strait, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weidong; Yang, Liyang; Yu, Xiangxiang; Zhai, Weidong; Hong, Huasheng

    2012-01-01

    Photo-production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important transformation process in marine carbon cycle, but little is known about this process in Chinese coastal systems. This study investigated an estuarine water sample and a coastal seawater sample from the subtropical waters in southeast of China. Water samples were exposed to natural sunlight and the absorption and fluorescence of CDOM as well as the DIC concentration were measured in the summer of 2009. The estuarine water had higher CDOM level, molecular weight and proportion of humic-like fluorescent components than the seawater that exhibited abundant tryptophan-like fluorescent component. After a 3-day irradiation, the CDOM level decreased by 45% in the estuarine water and 20% in the seawater, accompanied with a decrease in the molecular weight and aromaticity of DOM which was inferred from an increase in the absorption spectral slope parameter. The photo-degradation rates of all the five fluorescent components were also notable, in particular two humic-like components (C4 and C5) were removed by 78% and 69% in the estuarine water and by 69% and 56% in the seawater. The estuarine water had a higher photo-production rate of DIC than the seawater (4.4 vs. 2.5 micromol/(L x day)), in part due to its higher CDOM abundance. The differences in CDOM compositions between the two types of waters might be responsible for the higher susceptibility of the estuarine water to photo-degradation and hence could also affect the photo-production process of DIC.

  12. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service(NMDIS).It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis).The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system(POMgcs).The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations.Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational(3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework.Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature(SST),altimetry sea level anomaly(SLA),and temperature/salinity profiles.The reanalysis fields of sea surface height,temperature,salinity,and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature,salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges,temperature profiles,as well as the trajectories of Argo floats.Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations.These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  13. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya C/ J G Salgado s/n, Campus Nord, Modul B-4, E-08034, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: redondo@fa.upc.es

    2009-01-15

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km{sup 2}, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  14. Water Exchange on a Geological Timescale - Examples from Two Coastal Sites in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Christin [DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: christin.eriksson@dhi.se; Engqvist, Anders [Aythya AB, Vaxholm (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    The water turnover of two coastal areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, has been modeled for 13 selected years between 6500 bc and 9000 ad by utilizing information about past, present, and future bathymetry. The Forsmark area can be described as an open-ended funnel, and is analyzed with a 3D-model (MIKE 3-FM); the Laxemar area is partitioned into clusters of sub-basins treated with a discrete coupled basin model (CouBa). In all simulations, the main variation factor is the land uplift. The 3D-model domain is successively modified. For the CouBa approach the successive basin configurations are objectively deduced based on the 3D domain modifications. The average age (AvA) of the resident water relative to the open coast is generally lower for the Forsmark area. A typical progression is that the AvA values increase until a sub-basin ceases to be connected to the coastal zone. This disconnection is often preceded by a lowered AvA.

  15. Processing and Exploitation of Multisensor Optical Data for Coastal Water Applications- The HIGHROC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Kevin; Brockmann, Carsten; Creach, Veronique; De Keukelaere, Liesbeth; Doxaran, David; Forster, Rodney; Jaccard, Pierre; Knaeps, Els; Leberton, Carole; Ledang, Anna Birgitta; Nechad, Bouchra; Norli, Marit; Nova, Stefani; Ody, Anouck; Pringle, Nicholas; Sorensen, Kai; Stelzer, Kerstin; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Vanhellemont, Quinten

    2016-08-01

    The FP7/HIGHROC ("HIGH spatial and temporal Resolution Ocean Colour") Project is developing the next generation of optical products for coastal water services. These products are based on both mainstream ocean colour sensors (Sentinel-3/OLCI, VIIRS) and other satellite missions such as the meteorological MSG/SEVIRI sensors and the land-oriented Landsat-8 (L8) and Sentinel-2 (S2) missions. The geostationary SEVIRI gives data every 15 minutes, offering much better temporal coverage in partially cloudy periods and the possibility to follow diurnal and tidal processes in cloud-free periods. S2 and L8 offer much better spatial resolution, down to 10m (S2), allowing detection of many human impacts invisible at 300m resolution. HIGHROC R&D includes the development of algorithms, acquisition of in situ measurements and programming of image processing chains. The new products and services will be tested during User Service Trials covering a range of applications including coastal water quality monitoring, Environmental Impact Assessment and sediment transport.

  16. The role and distribution of total suspended solids in the macrotidal coastal waters of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung Soo

    2007-12-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of total suspended solids (TSS) in the shallow and macrotidal regions of the Korean peninsula indicated there were significant changes in TSS concentrations. These were seasonally influenced by the wind, river input and tidal cycle. There were high TSS values at estuarine and river mouth stations and during low tide due to the re-suspension of bottom sediment by strong wind action during winter months, in addition the land input through rivers and strong tidal current during ebbing. Monthly mean values of TSS significantly correlated with wind speed and nitrate concentration (p 98% of incident light was absorbed within 2 m and zero photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) under 2 m in the estuarine stations during winter. Removal of heavy metals and nutrients by TSS in the water column was evident. Over 80% of the initial concentration of nutrients was removed within 10 min under various concentrations of TSS and also TSS contained significantly higher concentration of heavy metals than surface sediment. The concentration levels of nutrients and chemical oxygen demand in the west coast were comparable with the East and South Sea, even the major rivers in the Korean peninsula flow into the West Sea with major pollutant loadings into the coastal areas. High concentration of TSS is likely to contribute to the removal process of these pollutants, resulting in relatively lower levels of nutrients and organic materials in these coastal waters.

  17. Ecological evaluation of transitional and coastal waters: A marine benthic macrophytes-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A model to estimate the ecological status and identify restoration targets of transitional and coastal waters was developed. Marine benthic macrophytic species (seaweeds, seagrasses were used to indicate shifts in the aquatic ecosystem from the pristine state with late-successional species (Ecological State Group I to the degraded state with opportunistic (ESG II species. The first group comprises species with a thick or calcareous thallus, low growth rates and long life cycles (perennials, whereas the second group includes sheet-like and filamentous species with high growth rates and short life cycles (annuals. Seagrasses were included in the first group, whereas Cyanophyceae and species with a coarsely branched thallus were included in the second group.The evaluation of ecological status into five categories from high to bad includes a cross comparison in a matrix of the ESGs and a numerical scoring system (Ecological Evaluation Index. The model could allow comparisons, ranking and setting of priorities at regional and national levels fulfilling the requirements of the EU Water Frame Directive. A successful application of the model was realized in selected lagoons of the Macedonian and Thrace region (North Greece and in the Saronic Gulf coastal ecosystems (Central Greece.

  18. An optical model for deriving the spectral particulate backscattering coefficients in clear and turbid coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An optical model is developed based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd to estimate particulate backscattering coefficients bbp(λ in clear and turbid coastal waters. A large in-situ data set is used to establish robust relationships between bbp(530 and bbp(555 and Kd(490 using an efficient nonlinear least square method which uses the Trust-Region algorithm with Bisquare weights scheme to adjust the coefficients. These relationships are obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.786 and 0.790, low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.00076 and 0.00072 and 95% confidence bounds. The new model is tested with two independent data sets such as the NOMAD SeaWiFS Match-ups and OOXIX IOP algorithm workshop evaluation data set (Version 2.0w APLHA. Results show that the new model makes good retrievals of bbp at all key wavelengths (from 412–683 nm, with statistically significant improvements over other inversion models. Thus, the new model has the potential to improve our knowledge of particulate matters and their optical variability in both clear and turbid coastal waters.

  19. Ecotoxicologically based marine acute water quality criteria for metals intended for protection of coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, I; Beiras, R

    2013-10-01

    Acute water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of coastal ecosystems are developed on the basis of short-term ecotoxicological data using the most sensitive life stages of representative species from the main taxa of marine water column organisms. A probabilistic approach based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves has been chosen and compared to the WQC obtained applying an assessment factor to the critical toxicity values, i.e. the 'deterministic' approach. The criteria obtained from HC5 values (5th percentile of the SSD) were 1.01 μg/l for Hg, 1.39 μg/l for Cu, 3.83 μg/l for Cd, 25.3 μg/l for Pb and 8.24 μg/l for Zn. Using sensitive early life stages and very sensitive endpoints allowed calculation of WQC for marine coastal ecosystems. These probabilistic WQC, intended to protect 95% of the species in 95% of the cases, were calculated on the basis of a limited ecotoxicological dataset, avoiding the use of large and uncertain assessment factors.

  20. The relative importance of road density and physical watershed features in determining coastal marsh water quality in Georgian Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decatanzaro, Rachel; Cvetkovic, Maja; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    We used a GIS-based approach to examine the influence of road density and physical watershed features (watershed size, wetland cover, and bedrock type) on water quality in coastal marshes of Georgian Bay, Ontario. We created a GIS that included landscape information and water-quality data from a 9-year synoptic survey of 105 coastal marshes covering 28 quaternary watersheds. Multiple regressions and partial correlations were used to discern confounding effects of human-induced (road density) versus natural physical watershed determinants of water quality. Road density was the dominant factor influencing many water quality variables, showing positive correlations with specific conductivity (COND), total suspended solids (TSS), and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and a negative correlation with overall Water Quality Index scores. Road density also showed positive correlations with total nitrate nitrogen (TNN) and total phosphorus (TP). By comparison, larger watershed area was the main factor leading to elevated TP concentrations. The proportion of the watershed occupied by wetlands explained the largest amount of variation in TNN concentrations (negative correlation) and was also negatively correlated with COND and positively correlated with TSS and ISS when we controlled for road density. Bedrock type did not have a significant effect in any of the models. Our findings suggest that road density is currently the overriding factor governing water quality of coastal marshes in Georgian Bay during the summer low-flow period. We recommend that natural variation in physical watershed characteristics be considered when developing water quality standards and management practices for freshwater coastal areas.

  1. ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis Results for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Wallace William T.; Alverson, James T.; Benoit, Mickie J.; Gillispie, Robert L.; Hunter, David; Kuo, Mike; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Hudson, Edgar K.; Loh, Leslie J.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper continues the annual tradition of summarizing at this conference the results of chemical analyses performed on archival potable water samples returned from the International Space Station (ISS). 2016 represented a banner year for life on board the ISS, including the successful conclusion for two crew members of a record one-year mission. Water reclaimed from urine and/or humidity condensate remained the primary source of potable water for the crew members of ISS Expeditions 46-50. The year 2016 was also marked by the end of a long-standing tradition of U.S. sampling and monitoring of Russian Segment potable water sources. Two water samples taken during Expedition 46 in February 2016 and returned on Soyuz 44, represented the final Russian Segment samples to be collected and analyzed by the U.S. side. Although anticipated for 2016, a rise in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the product water from the U.S. water processor assembly due to breakthrough of organic contaminants from the system did not materialize, as evidenced by the onboard TOC analyzer and archive sample results.

  2. Optimization of enrichment processes of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from water samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; LIU Jun-xin

    2004-01-01

    The method of enriching PCP (pentachlorophenol) from aquatic environment by solid phase extraction (SPE) was studied.Several factors affecting the recoveries of PCP, including sample pH, eluting solvent, eluting volume and flow rate of water sample, were optimized by orthogonal array design(OAD). The optimized results were sample pH 4; eluting solvent, 100% methanol; eluting solvent volume, 2 mi and flow rate of water sample, 4 mi/min. A comparison is made between SPE and liquid-liquid extraction(LLE) method. The recoveries of PCP were in the range of 87.6 % 133.6 % and 79 %- 120.3 % for S PE and LLE, respectively. Important advantages of the SPE compared with the LLE include the short extraction time and reduced consumption of organic solvents. SPE can replace LLE for isolating and concentrating PCP from water samples.

  3. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  4. Water quality of a coastal Louisiana swamp and how dredging is undermining restoration efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert R.; Huang, Haosheng; Day, John W.; Justic, Dubravko; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    The Bayou Boeuf Basin (BBB), a sub-basin of the Barataria Basin estuary in coastal Louisiana, consists of forested and floating wetlands receiving drainage from surrounding agricultural fields and urban watersheds. We characterized surface water quality in the BBB, and determined through hydrologic modeling if a series of levee breaks along major drainage channels would significantly improve water quality by allowing flow into surrounding wetlands. Surface water monitoring found surrounding sugarcane farm fields to be major sources of nutrient and sediment loading. Hydrological modeling indicated that levee breaks would increase N reduction from the current 21.4% to only 29.2%, which is much lower than the anticipated 90-100% removal rate. This was due to several factors, one them being dredging of main drainage channels to such a degree that water levels do not rise much above the surrounding wetland elevation even during severe storms, so only a very small fraction of the stormwater carried in the channel is exposed to wetlands. These unexpected results provide insight into an undoubtedly pervasive problem in human dominated wetland systems; that of decreased flooding during storm events due to channel deepening by dredging activities. Additional water quality management practices should be implemented at the farm field level, prior to water entering major drainage canals.

  5. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  6. Impact of saline water sources on hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Adrian; Hoque, Mohammad; Mathewson, Eleanor; Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Moshuir; Vineis, Paolo; Scheelbeek, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Southern Bangladesh is periodically affected by tropical cyclone induced storm surges. Such events can result in the inundation of large areas of the coastal plain by sea water. Over time these episodic influxes of saline water have led to the build-up of a high of salinities (e.g. > 1,000 mg/l) in the shallow (up to ca. 150 m depth) groundwater. Owing to the highly saline groundwater, local communities have developed alternative surface water sources by constructing artificial drinking water ponds, which collect monsoonal rainwater. These have far greater storage than traditional rainwater harvesting systems, which typically use 40 litre storage containers that are quickly depleted during the dry season. Unfortunately, the ponds can also become salinised during storm surge events, the impacts of which can last for a number of years. A combined hydrological and epidemiological research programme over the past two years has been undertaken to understand the potential health risks associated with these saline water sources, as excessive intake of sodium can lead to hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (such as stroke and heart attack). An important aspect of the selected research sites was the variety of drinking water sources available. These included the presence of managed aquifer recharge sites where monsoonal rainwater is stored in near-surface (semi-)confined aquifers for abstraction during the dry season. This provided an opportunity for the effects of interventions with lower salinity sources to be assessed. Adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender and diet, the results show a significant association between salinity and blood pressure. Furthermore, the results also showed such impacts are reversible. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits of such interventions, a water salinity - dose impact model is being developed to assess the effectiveness of alternative drinking water sources, such as enhanced rainwater

  7. RAPID DETERMINATION OF {sup 210} PO IN WATER SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-05-22

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for emergency response or routine water analyses. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD) event or a radiological attack associated with drinking water supplies occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of water samples, including drinking water, ground water and other water effluents. Current analytical methods for the assay of {sup 210}Po in water samples have typically involved spontaneous auto-deposition of {sup 210}Po onto silver or other metal disks followed by counting by alpha spectrometry. The auto-deposition times range from 90 minutes to 24 hours or more, at times with yields that may be less than desirable. If sample interferences are present, decreased yields and degraded alpha spectrums can occur due to unpredictable thickening in the deposited layer. Separation methods have focused on the use of Sr Resin, often in combination with 210Pb analysis. A new rapid method for {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that utilizes a rapid calcium phosphate co-precipitation method, separation using DGA Resin (N,N,N,N-tetraoctyldiglycolamide extractant-coated resin, Eichrom Technologies or Triskem-International), followed by rapid microprecipitation of {sup 210}Po using bismuth phosphate for counting by alpha spectrometry. This new method can be performed quickly with excellent removal of interferences, high chemical yields and very good alpha peak resolution, eliminating any potential problems with the alpha source preparation for emergency or routine samples. A rapid sequential separation method to separate {sup 210} Po and actinide isotopes was also developed. This new approach, rapid separation with DGA Resin plus microprecipitation for alpha source preparation, is a significant advance in radiochemistry for the rapid

  8. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn Martinez, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen exists in lunar materials in distinct phases having unique sources and equilibration histories. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O) of various components of lunar materials has been studied extensively, but analyses of water in these samples are relatively sparse [1-3]. Samples collected on the lunar surface reflect not only the composition of their source reservoirs but also contributions from asteroidal and cometary impacts, interactions with solar wind and cosmic radiation, among other surface processes. Isotopic characterization of oxygen in lunar water could help resolve the major source of water in the Earth-Moon system by revealing if lunar water is primordial, asteroidal, or cometary in origin [1]. Methods: A lunar rock/soil sample is pumped to high vacuum to remove physisorbed water before heating step-wise to 50, 150, and 1000°C to extract extraterrestrial water without terrestrial contamination. The temperature at which water is evolved is proportional to the strength with which the water is bound in the sample and the relative difficulty of exchanging oxygen atoms in that water. This allows for the isolated extraction of water bound in different phases, which could have different source reservoirs and/or histories, as evidenced by the mass (in)dependence of oxygen compositions. A low blank procedure was developed to accommodate the low water content of lunar material [4]. Results: Oxygen isotopic analyses of lunar water extracted by stepwise heating lunar basalts and breccias with a range of compositions, petrologic types, and surface exposure ages will be presented. The cosmic ray exposure age of these samples varies by two orders of magnitude, and we will consider this in discussing the effects of solar wind and cosmic radiation on the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O). I will examine the implications of our water analyses for the composition of the oxygen-bearing reservoir from which that water formed, the effects of surface

  9. Utilizing Land:Water Isopleths for Storm Surge Model Development in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, C. G.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Braud, D.; Peele, H.; Twilley, R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) Land:Water (L:W) isopleths (Gagliano et al., 1970, 1971) can be used to better understand coastal flood risk from hurricanes than simple estimates of land loss (Twilley et al., 2016). The major goal of this study is to develop a methodology that utilizes L:W isopleths to simplify a detailed present day storm surge model of coastal Louisiana. A secondary goal is to represent marsh fragmentation via L:W isopleths for modeling (for example) storm surge. Isopleths of L:W were derived for the year 2010 and include 1%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 99% (1% being mostly water and 99% being mostly land). Thirty-six models were developed via permutations of two isopleths selected with no repetition between 1% and 99%. The selected two isopleths result in three polygons which represent "open water/transition", "marsh", and "land". The ADvaced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) code (Luettich and Westerink, 2006) was used to perform storm surge simulations. Hydrologic basins, specifically Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC12s), were used to quantify the water surface elevation, depth, volume, area and retention time across south Louisiana for each storm simulation and to provide a basin by basin comparison for the detailed model vs. simplified model results. This methodology aids in identifying the simplified model that most closely resembles the detailed model. It can also be used to develop comparable storm surge models for historical eras prior to the advent of modern remote sensing technology for the purpose of storm surge analysis throughout time.

  10. Effects of water application intensity of microsprinkler irrigation on water and salt environment and crop growth in coastal saline soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Lin-lin; KANG Yao-hu; WAN Shu-qin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and ifeld experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water application intensity (WAI) on soil salinity management and the growth ofFestuca arundinacea (festuca) under three stages of water and salt management strategies using microsprinkler irrigation in Hebei Province, North China. The soil water content (è) and salinity of homogeneous coastal saline soils were evaluated under different water application intensities in the laboratory experiment. The results indicated that the WAI of microsprinkler irrigation inlfuenced theè, electrical conductivity (ECe) and pH of saline soils. As the WAI increased, the average values ofè and ECe in the 0–40 cm proifle also increased, while their average values in the 40–60 cm proifle decreased. The pH value also slightly decreased as depth increased, but no signiifcant differences were observed between the different treatments. The time periods of the water redistribution treatments had no obvious effects. Based on the results forè, ECe and pH, a smaler WAI was more desirable. The ifeld experiment was conducted after being considered the results of the technical parameter experiment and evaporation, wind and leaching duration. The ifeld experiment included three stages of water and salt regulation, based on three soil matric potentials (SMP), in which the SMP at a 20-cm depth below the surface was used to trigger irrigation. The results showed that the microsprinkler irrigation created an appropriate environment for festuca growth through the three stages of water and salt regulation. The low-salinity conditions that occurred at 0–10 cm depth during the ifrst stage (−5 kPa) continued to expand through the next two stages. The average pH value was less than 8.5. The tiler number of festuca increased as SMP decreased from the ifrst stage to the third stage. After the three stages of water and salt regulation, the highly saline soil gradualy changed to a low-saline soil. Overal, based on the

  11. ENHANCED DAPI STAINING FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify the presence of {ital Cryptosporidium} spp. oocysts in water. The protocol consists of concentrating a sample, staining this concentrate with a fluorescent antibody, and examining the sample mi...

  12. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  13. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  14. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  15. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  16. Resistivity tomography study on samples with water-bearing structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The apparent resistivity of the samples with water-bearing configuration was measured by an electrode-array and 2-D resistivity images of these samples were reconstructed then. The obtained series of tomograms reveal the distribution and its variation of true resistivity within the samples caused by the changes of crack and liquid distribution. Applying this method to the simulation experiment on the electrical properties of rocks, the fracturing and water filling process, which produces the electrical changes, can be brought to light clearly.

  17. Quantifying Organic Matter in Surface Waters of the United States and Delivery to the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.

    2012-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters. It is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context, and considering upstream-downstream linkages along flow paths. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation from headwaters to the coasts; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments; and 4) considered seasonal factors affecting the temporal variation in OC responses. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. The modeling approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of OC loads that were observed at a network of monitoring stations across the nation, and further explored factors controlling seasonal dynamics of OC based on these long term monitoring data. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the OC to each location

  18. Phytoplankton, sediment and optical observations in Netherlands coastal water in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Lane, Andrew; Tett, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Factors controlling the dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM), its influence on sea-leaving radiance and in-water optical properties, and the consequences of optical variation for phytoplankton growth, were studied at the 'Processes of Vertical Exchange in Shelf Seas' (PROVESS) project's southern North Sea site during April 1999. The optical properties of Netherlands coastal water were not unexpectedly found to be primarily determined by suspended sediment (Case 2) and were classified as Jerlov type 7 'relatively turbid coastal water'. During the study period, vertical mixing periodically resuspended optically active particles from the bed fluff layer throughout the water column and into the near-surface layer. These particles influenced sea surface radiance reflectance, and the red/green ratio of radiance reflectance, both of which can be observed by remote sensing. Linear relationships between sea surface radiance reflectance and SPM concentration were primarily determined by the inorganic fraction, as organic SPM varied little in concentration throughout the cruise period. The inorganic fraction was an important scatterer of light at all wavelengths, whereas the organic fraction displayed a greater tendency for light absorption at shorter wavelengths. Although the euphotic layer (depth of 1% surface irradiance) was only 8-10 m deep, vertical mixing ensured that phytoplankton throughout the water column (˜18 m) had access to PAR in excess of the estimated compensation illumination. Growth rates of microplankton (which includes pelagic microheterotrophs as well as phytoplankters) were calculated using an algorithm from the PROWQM model. These ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 d -1, and implied loss rates of 3-25% which were mostly attributed to mesozooplankton grazing. Estimated oxygen production, however, was in near equilibrium with oxygen demand observed in dark bottles, and implied a significant oxygen demand due to detrital respiration and nitrification. This

  19. Determinação da composição isotópica de estrôncio em águas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicação em águas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na região Bragantina-PA Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Bordalo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Pará. Coastal plateau waters have delta87Sr between 1.51 and 6.26‰ and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show delta87Sr between 0.55 and 0.90‰ and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have delta87Sr‰ around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal pleteau waters.

  20. The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; W.; Howarth

    2005-01-01

    Two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays in the United States are degraded from nutrient pollution, and nitrogen inputs these waters continue to increase. The nitrogen comes from a variety of sources, including runoff from agricultural fields, concentrated animal feeding operations, atmospheric deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and sewage and septic wastes.Technical solutions for nitrogen pollution exist at reasonable cost. That most of these solutions have not yet been implemented to any significant extent across the United States suggests that new policy approaches are necessary. The best solution may involve a combination of voluntary and mandatory approaches, applying different approaches to different sources of nitrogen poilution. A watershed-based approach that relies heavily on voluntary mechanisms (such as crop-yield insurance to reduce over-fertilization) is likely to be the most effective for some sources of nitrogen (such as runoff from agricultural fields), while a uniform national regulatory approach may be better for others (such as NOx emissions from fossil fuel combustion). Implementation of management strategies should be carefully coupled to monitoring programs to assess the effectiveness of these strategies. While both nitrogen and phosphorus are important to control, the focus should be on nitrogen management, in part because nitrogen is more generally the causal agent of coastal eutrophication. Also, while nitrogen-control practices tend to also reduce phosphorus pollution, phosphorus-control practices often have little effect on nitrogen.Although current scientific and technical knowledge is sufficient to begin to make substantial progress toward solving coastal nitrogen pollution, progress will be made more quickly and more cost effectively with increased investment in appropriate scientific research.

  1. Genetic diversity and temporal variation in the cyanophage community infecting marine Synechococcus species in Rhode Island's coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Marcia F; Sallee, Jennifer L

    2003-08-01

    The cyanophage community in Rhode Island's coastal waters is genetically diverse and dynamic. Cyanophage abundance ranged from over 10(4) phage ml(-1) in the summer months to less then 10(2) phage ml(-1) during the winter months. Thirty-six distinct cyanomyovirus g20 genotypes were identified over a 3-year sampling period; however, only one to nine g20 genotypes were detected at any one sampling date. Phylogenetic analyses of g20 sequences revealed that the Rhode Island cyanomyoviral isolates fall into three main clades and are closely related to other known viral isolates of Synechococcus spp. Extinction dilution enrichment followed by host range tests and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to detect changes in the relative abundance of cyanophage types in June, July, and August 2002. Temporal changes in both the overall composition of the cyanophage community and the relative abundance of specific cyanophage g20 genotypes were observed. In some seawater samples, the g20 gene from over 50% of isolated cyanophages could not be amplified by using the PCR primer pairs specific for cyanomyoviruses, which suggested that cyanophages in other viral families (e.g., Podoviridae or Siphoviridae) may be important components of the Rhode Island cyanophage community.

  2. Seasonal variation of some physical features of the coastal waters off Waltair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.R. Varadachari

    1963-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of temperature, density and transparency of the coastal waters off Waltair has been studied with the help of the data obtained on the oceanographic cruises of the Andhra University. The study reveal the following results. The surface temperature is lowest in December and highest in September. The annual range of temperature is not maximum at the surface but at some depth. In the surface layers, positive temperature gradients occur during the winter months and negative gradients during the remaining period of the year. The thermocline gets deeper and deeper during the period September to January and it begins to move up in February. The water undergoes large seasonal change of density at the surface with low values in October and high values in Spring and Summer. The annual range of density decreases with depth in the top fifty meters. The vertical density gradients in the surface layers are small in Spring and Summer and large in the Fall season. The transparency of the waters changes with season and distance from the coast. The nearshore waters are less transparent than those offshore, throughout the year. The most turbid waters for the year are encountered in April and Maya feature related to upwelling near the coast. Sinking during the period September to December and upwelling in Spring and Summer take place in nearshore regions.

  3. Human impacts on land cover and water balances in a coastal Mediterranean county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellot, Juan; Bonet, Andreu; Peña, Juan; Sánchez, Juan Rafael

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the effects of changes in land cover on the water balance in Spain's Marina Baixa County, on the Mediterranean coast. To reveal how different land management strategies have affected the area's environment, four municipalities within the same catchment were studied: Benidorm, Callosa d'en Sarrià, Beniardà, and Guadalest. In the municipalities of Callosa and Benidorm, the proportion of the area covered by woodland declined by 4.2% and 30.2%, respectively, and woodland was replaced by agriculture and urban development. The abandonment of farmland produced a 17% increase in the proportion of the area covered by vegetation in Guadalest and Beniardá, where frequent forest fires have exacerbated a decrease in the area of pine woodland. Tourism development in Benidorm has been accompanied by an increase in the transportation infrastructure and by an expansion of areas with an impermeable surface, with the lowest level of infiltration into the aquifer system. These changes have generated a net water deficit in Callosa and Benidorm of more than 6 Mm(3)/year, creating a high demand for water imported from other municipalities (Guadalest and Beniardá) or from outside of the county to maintain the sustainability of the current water management strategies. The Marina Baixa case study is representative of many of the world's coastal areas that are undergoing rapid urban development based on an inappropriate understanding of human progress based mainly on economic development and thus provides insights into water management in other areas.

  4. The diversity and structure of marine protists in the coastal waters of China revealed by morphological observation and 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Song, Shuqun; Chen, Tiantian; Li, Caiwen

    2017-04-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene has been widely adopted to study the eukaryotic diversity in various types of environments, and has an advantage over traditional morphology methods in exploring unknown microbial communities. To comprehensively assess the diversity and community composition of marine protists in the coastal waters of China, we applied both morphological observations and high-throughput sequencing of the V2 and V3 regions of 18S rDNA simultaneously to analyze samples collected from the surface layer of the Yellow and East China Seas. Dinoflagellates, diatoms and ciliates were the three dominant protistan groups as revealed by the two methods. Diatoms were the first dominant protistan group in the microscopic observations, with Skeletonema mainly distributed in the nearshore eutrophic waters and Chaetoceros in higher temperature and higher pH waters. The mixotrophic dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium, were more competitive in the oligotrophic waters. The pyrosequencing method revealed an extensive diversity of dinoflagellates. Chaetoceros was the only dominant diatom group in the pyrosequencing dataset. Gyrodinium represented the most abundant reads and dominated the offshore oligotrophic protistan community as they were in the microscopic observations. The dominance of parasitic dinoflagellates in the pyrosequencing dataset, which were overlooked in the morphological observations, indicates more attention should be paid to explore the potential role of this group. Both methods provide coherent clustering of samples. Nutrient levels, salinity and pH were the main factors influencing the distribution of protists. This study demonstrates that different primer pairs used in the pyrosequencing will indicate different protistan community structures. A suitable marker may reveal more comprehensive composition of protists and provide valuable information on environmental drivers.

  5. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  6. Spatial distribution of dinoflagellates from the tropical coastal waters of the South Andaman, India: Implications for coastal pollution monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Anil, A.C.

    (Moestrup et al., 2009 onwards; IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference list of harmful microalgae, web: http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB/dinoflag.php). Cyst production efficiency of dinoflagellates enables them to withstand against unfavourable conditions...., Furuya, K., Furio, E., Cayme, M., Lim, P., Dao, V., Kotaki, Y., Matsuoka, K., 2011. Ecology and oceanography of harmful marine microalgae. Coastal marine science in Southeast Asia. Terrapub, Tokyo, 23-48. Furio, E.F., Azanza, R.V., Fukuyo, Y., Matsuoka...

  7. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  8. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bittencourt Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2 in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P inputs into inland waters may be a relevant component of the C cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoon waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24-fold to fourfold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoon waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoon water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoon waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters.

  9. Overall-effective Measures for Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Coastal Areas of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoxiang; W. F. Geiger; S. Kaden; R. Kutzner; WANG Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In the coastal catchments of Shandong Province the water scarcity is aggravated due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. Such a situation calls for sustainable integrated water resources management (Ⅰ-WRM). The idea for the objectives and implementation of the IWRM are explained in this paper. The general objective of the planned project disscussed in the present study is to bring together German traditional expertise in water resources management and newer developments in the context of the European Water Framework Directive; the research efforts aim to relieve the desperate water scarcity situation in the costal area of Shandong Province.

  10. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  11. High Ice Water Concentrations in the 19 August 2015 Coastal Mesoconvective System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Harrah, Steven; Switzer, George F.; Strickland, Justin K.; Hunt, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    During August 2015, NASA's DC-8 research aircraft was flown into High Ice Water Content (HIWC) events as part of a three-week campaign to collect airborne radar data and to obtain measurements from microphysical probes. Goals for this flight campaign included improved characterization of HIWC events, especially from an airborne radar perspective. This paper focuses on one of the flight days, in which a coastal mesoscale convective system (MCS) was investigated for HIWC conditions. The system appears to have been maintained by bands of convection flowing in from the Gulf of Mexico. These convective bands were capped by a large cloud canopy, which masks the underlying structure if viewed from an infrared sensing satellite. The DC-8 was equipped with an IsoKinetic Probe that measured ice concentrations of up to 2.3 g m(exp -3) within the cloud canopy of this system. Sustained measurements of ice crystals with concentrations exceeding 1 g m(exp -3) were encountered for up to ten minutes of flight time. Airborne Radar reflectivity factors were found to be weak within these regions of high ice water concentrations, suggesting that Radar detection of HIWC would be a challenging endeavor. This case is then investigated using a three-dimensional numerical cloud model. Profiles of ice water concentrations and radar reflectivity factor demonstrate similar magnitudes and scales between the flight measurements and model simulation. Also discussed are recent modifications to the numerical model's ice-microphysics that are based on measurements during the flight campaign. The numerical model and its updated ice-microphysics are further validated with a simulation of a well-known case of a supercell hailstorm measured during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment. Differences in HIWC between the continental supercell and the coastal MCS are discussed.

  12. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) established in European coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M S; Merckelbach, Lucas M; Cragg, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  13. Water-poverty relationships in the coastal town of Mbour (Senegal): Relevance of GIS for decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Néné Makoya; Kane, Alioune; Noel, Jean François; Turmine, Vincent; Nedeff, Valentin; Lazar, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    Coastal area is always a zone with complex problems. Due to the attraction they exert, are facing many social problems. Therefore, a coastal city is usually a city with problems. Its extension, caused by the influx of people from different backgrounds, creates an increased demand for services. One of the problems frequently encountered, especially in Senegal, is access to water. The problem of access to water is poorly treated, without being correlated with the urban evolution, i.e. with increasing population and demand growth. The water resource is facing numerous complications such as the lack of integrated management, integration issues at the governance level, where the local factor is often forgotten. The town of Mbour, object of our study, does not come out of that lot, being an attractive coastal city, from an African country. This indicates the need for an integrated management oriented from local to a global basis and not vice versa. The study presented in this paper indicates that a large proportion of the population has not access to a verified drinking water system and uses water from wells or standpipes. Half of the surveyed population (50%) has no access to a water supply system. The water poverty map of the town overlaps with that of the general poverty excepting few neighborhoods. This means that even areas that are not affected by poverty have a very low or poor access to water, which so far remains the perverse effect of the reform of the Senegalese water sector in 1995.

  14. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    Full Text Available Surface water samples of baseflow were collected from 20 headwater sub-watersheds which were classified into three types of watersheds (natural, urban and agricultural in the flood, dry and transition seasons during three consecutive years (2010-2012 within a coastal watershed of Southeast China. Integrating spatial statistics with multivariate statistical techniques, river water quality variations and their interactions with natural and anthropogenic controls were examined to identify the causal factors and underlying mechanisms governing spatiotemporal patterns of water quality. Anthropogenic input related to industrial effluents and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities associated with the precipitation-induced surface runoff, and natural weathering process were identified as the potential important factors to drive the seasonal variations in stream water quality for the transition, flood and dry seasons, respectively. All water quality indicators except SRP had the highest mean concentrations in the dry and transition seasons. Anthropogenic activities and watershed characteristics led to the spatial variations in stream water quality in three types of watersheds. Concentrations of NH(4(+-N, SRP, K(+, COD(Mn, and Cl- were generally highest in urban watersheds. NO3(-N Concentration was generally highest in agricultural watersheds. Mg(2+ concentration in natural watersheds was significantly higher than that in agricultural watersheds. Spatial autocorrelations analysis showed similar levels of water pollution between the neighboring sub-watersheds exhibited in the dry and transition seasons while non-point source pollution contributed to the significant variations in water quality between neighboring sub-watersheds. Spatial regression analysis showed anthropogenic controls played critical roles in variations of water quality in the JRW. Management implications were further discussed for water resource management. This research

  15. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the ea