WorldWideScience

Sample records for coastal regions ii

  1. Statistical downscaling of historical monthly mean winds over a coastal region of complex terrain. II. Predicting wind components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Derek van der [University of Victoria, Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Curry, Charles L. [Environment Canada University of Victoria, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada); Monahan, Adam H. [University of Victoria, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    A regression-based downscaling technique was applied to monthly mean surface wind observations from stations throughout western Canada as well as from buoys in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the period 1979-2006. A predictor set was developed from principal component analysis of the three wind components at 500 hPa and mean sea-level pressure taken from the NCEP Reanalysis II. Building on the results of a companion paper, Curry et al. (Clim Dyn 2011), the downscaling was applied to both wind speed and wind components, in an effort to evaluate the utility of each type of predictand. Cross-validated prediction skill varied strongly with season, with autumn and summer displaying the highest and lowest skill, respectively. In most cases wind components were predicted with better skill than wind speeds. The predictive ability of wind components was found to be strongly related to their orientation. Wind components with the best predictions were often oriented along topographically significant features such as constricted valleys, mountain ranges or ocean channels. This influence of directionality on predictive ability is most prominent during autumn and winter at inland sites with complex topography. Stations in regions with relatively flat terrain (where topographic steering is minimal) exhibit inter-station consistencies including region-wide seasonal shifts in the direction of the best predicted wind component. The conclusion that wind components can be skillfully predicted only over a limited range of directions at most stations limits the scope of statistically downscaled wind speed predictions. It seems likely that such limitations apply to other regions of complex terrain as well. (orig.)

  2. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  10. Egyptian coastal regions development through economic diversity for its coastal cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek AbdeL-Latif

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the structure of the coastal cities industry, the main types, the impacts (economic, environmental, and social of coastal cities, and the local trends in development in the Egyptian coastal cities and its regions. It will also analyze coastal and marine tourism in several key regions identified because of the diversity of life they support, and the potential destruction they could face. This paper confirms that economic diversification in coastal cities is more effective than developments in only one economic sector, even if this sector is prominent and important.

  11. Extinction of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, F.P.; Kennicutt, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Visual extinction of H II regions in nine nearby galaxies as derived from the ratio of the radio continuum emission to H-alpha emission is systematically larger than visual extinction deduced from the Balmer lines alone, if one assumes a value Av/E(B-V) 3. An optically-limited sample of about 30 extragalactic H II regions has a mean extinction of 1.7 m in the visual while about 1.2 m is not seen in the reddening of the Balmer lines. Both reddening and extinction decreases with increasing galactic radius, at least for M33 and M101

  12. Tracers vs. trajectories in a coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, A.; Döös, K.

    2008-12-01

    Two different methods of estimating the water exchange through a Baltic coastal region have been used, consisting of particle trajectories and passive tracers. Water is traced from and to a small discharge region near the coast. The discharge material in this region is treated as zero dimensional particles or tracers with neutral buoyancy. The real discharge material could be a leakage of radio-nuclides through the sea floor from an underground repository of nuclear waste. Water exchange rates between the discharge region and the model domain are estimated using both forward and backward trajectories as well as passive tracers. The Lagrangian trajectories can account for the time evolution of the water exchange while the tracers give one average age per model grid box. Water exchange times such as residence time, age and transient times have been calculated with trajectories but only the average age (AvA) for tracers. The trajectory calculations provide a more detailed time evolution than the tracers. On the other hand the tracers are integrated "on-line" simultaneously in the sea circulation model with the same time step while the Lagrangian trajectories are integrated "off-line" from the stored model velocities with its inherent temporal resolution, presently one hour. The sub-grid turbulence is parameterised as a Laplacian diffusion for the passive tracers and with an extra stochastic velocity for trajectories. The importance of the parameterised sub-grid turbulence for the trajectories is estimated to give an extra diffusion of the same order as the Laplacian diffusion by comparing the Lagrangian dispersions with and without parameterisation. The results of the different methods are similar but depend on the chosen diffusivity coefficient with a slightly higher correlation between trajectories and tracers when integrated with a lower diffusivity coefficient.

  13. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F.; Scholten, J.; Betti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  14. Boundary Layer Depth In Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porson, A.; Schayes, G.

    The results of earlier studies performed about sea breezes simulations have shown that this is a relevant feature of the Planetary Boundary Layer that still requires effort to be diagnosed properly by atmospheric models. Based on the observations made during the ESCOMPTE campaign, over the Mediterranean Sea, different CBL and SBL height estimation processes have been tested with a meso-scale model, TVM. The aim was to compare the critical points of the BL height determination computed using turbulent kinetic energy profile with some other standard evaluations. Moreover, these results have been analysed with different mixing length formulation. The sensitivity of formulation is also analysed with a simple coastal configuration.

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. Regional biomass stores and dynamics in forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaill A. Yatskov; Mark E. Harmon; Olga N. Krankina; Tara M. Barrett; Kevin R. Dobelbower; Andrew N. Gray; Becky Fasth; Lori Trummer; Toni L. Hoyman; Chana M. Dudoit

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Alaska is a vast forested region (6.2 million ha) with the potential to store large amounts of carbon in live and dead biomass thus influencing continental and global carbon dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to assess regional biomass stores, examine the biomass partitioning between live and dead pools, and evaluate the effect of disturbance on...

  7. Geomorphic Regionalization of Coastal Zone Using Geospatial Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The world coastal environment is made of diversified landforms and are also potentially vulnerable to climate variability, delta sinking, extreme events and anthropogenic interferences. Sustainable management of coastal resources and transforming quality ecosystem services to future generation are the goals of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM. Geographical homogenous unit are the basic implementation locus and back bone of these kinds of integrated management strategy and activities. However, coastal zone management projects in developing world using use arbitrary land-ward and sea-ward boundaries from physical reference as unit of management. The oversimplified fixed distance approaches are not able to map the spatial and temporal changes in coastal systems. The spatio-temporal variations of coastal systems are configured in geomorphic landforms and further that work on interaction between natural forces and anthropogenic inputs. The present research work is an attempt to present a simplified method of regionalization geomorphic landforms using geospatial platforms for delineating Orissa coast into smaller homogenous geographic unit as reference point for future management. Geomorphic landforms are reconstructed using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imagery, Survey of India topomaps, field survey and Digital Elevation Model data at geographic information system (GIS plat form. Seventy geomorphic features covering an area of 5033.64 km2 were identified and further, regionalized into five homogenous geographic units. The need of time is to recognize unsustainable coastal systems in these homogenous geographic units by fine tuning development parameters and also same time allowing coastal systems to adapt naturally to any kind of variability. Although, the methodology applied to Orissa for delineation homogenous geographic area but it can be replicated to any coast in world.

  8. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants,

  9. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  10. Coastal vegetation: Patterns in a tourist region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Desai, K.; Rodrigues, R.

    , Ni and Co) by their incorporation and/or ad· sorption to authigenic mineral phases (ALTSCHCU;R, 19801. Earlier reports on geochemistry of sediments along Ihe C-SW coast of India are limited to MURTHY et ai" 1973; RAO et al., 1974 and RAJAMA."r, 1994... to about 2000 km 2 , also covering the nearest mud bank region. The samples were kept frozen prior to drying, grinding and analysis. Tex tural characteristics were determined following pipette anal ysis (KRUMBEIN and PETTIJOHN", 1938) and organic carbon...

  11. Role of dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarazin, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to determine quantitatively the effects of U.V. absorbing dust on H II regions, and compare these effects with observations. Many observations indicate that dust grains are present within H II regions. An analytic theory is presented which describes all three of the effects of dust in H II regions. Although this model is relatively crude, it is useful in determining the approximate size of the modifications due to dust. In order to explore this problem more carefully, detailed numerical models of H II regions with dust were constructed. The ionization and thermal structure of these model H II regions is discussed. The observational consequences of the presence of dust are explored; the optical line intensities, radio continuum and line fluxes, and infrared emission of model H II regions with dust are given. These numerical models are compared with observations of diffuse nebulae. The optical line ratios are compared to several nearby bright H II regions, and it is found that the dust models may explain several anomalies in their spectrum

  12. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  13. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models

  14. The H II regions of IC 1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, P.; Lee, M.G.; Gurwell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD H-alpha imaging of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has revealed a total of 77 H II regions, five of which are complexes of several smaller emission regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The H-alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, following a power law with an exponent of -1.6. The faintest H II regions are at the low-luminosity end of the generally observed luminosity function for H II regions in galaxies, with fluxes of only 10 to the 35th erg/sec. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 56 pc. The morphologies of different H II regions are discussed and compared to those in other galaxies. Published radio continuum maps compare well with the H-alpha emission distribution. The distribution of H I is also similar in the central areas to the H II with, however, a tendency for the H II regions to lie to one side of H I peaks. 31 refs

  15. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date... commercial Atlantic region non-sandbar large coastal shark fishery. This action is necessary to inform... large coastal shark fishery will open on July 15, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karyl Brewster...

  16. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. Development of three dimensional ocean current model for coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    1999-12-01

    In order to study the migration behavior of radionuclides released into a coastal region around Japan, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was introduced. This three-dimensional ocean current model was modified to be applied for oceanic simulations around Japan. This report describes the governing equations, numerical methods and model improvements. In addition, database system which is utilized for calculations and visualization system for graphical outputs are also described. Model simulation was carried out at off the area of Shimokita. Aomori-ken, Japan to investigate the effects of the boundary conditions on simulated results. (author)

  18. Environmental hazards for pipelines in coastal regions/shore approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsi, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Often oil/gas and other hydrocarbons discovered and produced offshore are transported to onshore facilities via submarine pipelines. The route of such pipelines traverses through coastal/shore approach regions. For a rational/economic design, safe installation and subsequent operation it is of utmost importance to review, evaluate and finalize various environmental hazard such as winds, waves, currents, seabed topography, seabed and sub-bottom soils, seabed erosion and soil accretion. This paper addresses the above described environmental hazards, their assessment and techniques to prepare design parameters which must be used for stability analysis, installation methods, long term operation and maintenance for the shore approaches. Additionally, various proven pipeline installation and stabilization techniques for the shore approach region are detailed. As case histories, three approaches installed in the Dutch North Sea are described

  19. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  20. Recent warming trend in the coastal region of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Saleem, Ayman; Sadr, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze long-term temperature-related phenomena in the eastern portion of the Middle East, focusing on the coastal region of Qatar. Extreme temperature indices were examined, which were defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, for Doha, Qatar; these indices were then compared with those from neighboring countries. The trends were calculated for a 30-year period (1983-2012), using hourly data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The results showed spatially consistent warming trends throughout the region. For Doha, 11 of the 12 indices studied showed significant warming trends. In particular, the warming trends were represented by an increase in the number of warm days and nights and a decrease in the number of cool nights and days. The high-temperature extremes during the night have risen at more than twice the rate of their corresponding daytime extremes. The intensity and frequency of hot days have increased, and the minimum temperature indices exhibited a higher rate of warming. The climatic changes in Doha are consistent with the region-wide heat-up in recent decades across the Middle East. However, the rapid economic expansion, increase of population since the 1990s, and urban effects in the region are thought to have intensified the rapidly warming climate pattern observed in Doha since the turn of the century.

  1. Modelization of highly nonlinear waves in coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The proposed work deals with the development of a highly non-linear model for water wave propagation in coastal regions. The accurate modelization of surface gravity waves is of major interest in ocean engineering, especially in the field of marine renewable energy. These marine structures are intended to be settled in coastal regions where the effect of variable bathymetry may be significant on local wave conditions. This study presents a numerical model for the wave propagation with complex bathymetry. It is based on High-Order Spectral (HOS) method, initially limited to the propagation of non-linear wave fields over flat bottom. Such a model has been developed and validated at the LHEEA Lab. (Ecole Centrale Nantes) over the past few years and the current developments will enlarge its application range. This new numerical model will keep the interesting numerical properties of the original pseudo-spectral approach (convergence, efficiency with the use of FFTs, …) and enable the possibility to propagate highly non-linear wave fields over long time and large distance. Different validations will be provided in addition to the presentation of the method. At first, Bragg reflection will be studied with the proposed approach. If the Bragg condition is satisfied, the reflected wave generated by a sinusoidal bottom patch should be amplified as a result of resonant quadratic interactions between incident wave and bottom. Comparisons will be provided with experiments and reference solutions. Then, the method will be used to consider the transformation of a non-linear monochromatic wave as it propagates up and over a submerged bar. As the waves travel up the front slope of the bar, it steepens and high harmonics are generated due to non-linear interactions. Comparisons with experimental data will be provided. The different test cases will assess the accuracy and efficiency of the method proposed.

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States (NODC Accession 0121254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. Regiones H II alrededor de estrellas WR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Benitez, S.; Niemela, V.

    En base a observaciones espectroscópicas en el rango óptico, obtenidas en el CASLEO, se estudian las condiciones físicas de tres regiones H II alrededor de estrellas WR: N76 en el entorno de Ab7, en la Nube Menor de Magallanes, N79 alrededor de Br 2, en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes y G2.4+1.4 alrededor de WR 102, en nuestra Galaxia. Estas regiones presentan una alta ionización. Se observa la línea nebular de HeII en 4686 Å . Utilizando líneas nebulares de diagnóstico, se derivan los valores de la densidad y la temperatura electrónica, así como también las abundancias de algunos de los elementos químicos nebulares.

  4. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Greenwood, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  5. Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-06-01

    Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

  6. Ecological sensitivity of the Persian Gulf coastal region (Case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    geo-referencing photo mosaic Land Sat Satellite images (2003) and IRS' (2004) were taken and basic maps of two influential areas were evaluated within the above mentioned limits which included the coastal village boundaries. The coastal line of the area being evaluated (set back line) was 673.62 kms comprising an ...

  7. H II region-like galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    Line fluxes in the region 3700 to 7100A are presented for 14 galaxies with strong, sharp, H II region-like emission lines. Ten of these galaxies are low luminosity objects (M > -17); the others have M approx. < -20. Ratios of the line fluxes are used to derive electron temperatures and densities, and the abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, neon, and sulfur relative to hydrogen. The low luminosity galaxies are generally found to have oxygen abundances about 30% of normal, while the high luminosity ones generally have about 60% of normal. These galaxies are found to be almost certainly photoionized by hot main sequence stars. The velocity dispersion has been measured for one object; the mass of stars derived for it is several times smaller than the mass of neutral hydrogen which has previously been found in an extended halo around this object. The continuum colors of these galaxies are very blue, and are indistinguishable from those of extragalactic H II regions. No older red population has been convincingly detected. Galactic chemical evolution is investigated through a comparison of the relative abundances in these galaxies with their normal values. It is found that: (i) there is a primary contribution to the nitrogen abundance ((N/O)/sub p = 0.019), but that 80% of the nitrogen in the Galaxy today is of secondary origin; (ii) Ne/O appears to be constant for all objects (Ne/O = 0.23); and (iii) S/O decreases with increasing oxygen abundance, implying that most sulfur is produced in the most massive stars

  8. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  9. 77 FR 64396 - Order of Succession for HUD Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Region II AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession... Field Offices (Region II). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for Region II. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D. Reynolds...

  10. Why is Coastal Community Resilience Important in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program supports the regional collaborative approach and efforts of the Coastal Community Resilience Priority Issue Team of the Gulf of Mexico Governors’ Alliance and its broad spectrum of partners and stakeholders.

  11. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier

  12. Process for evaluating overweight truck corridors serving coastal port regions and border ports of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Coastal and inland ports, regional mobility authorities, cities, and counties located near or along the Texas Gulf Coast, and along the border with Mexico, have been granted authority by the state legislature to establish permitted overweight truck c...

  13. Radio recombination lines from H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverglate, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Radio recombination lines have been observed from forty-six H II regions. The Arecibo 1000-foot radio telescope was used to provide high sensitivity and high angular resolution at 1400 MHz (gain approx. 7.7 0 K/Jy, HPBW = 3:2) and 2372 MHZ (gain approx. 6.3 0 K/Jy, HPBW = 2'). Observations were made at 1400 MHz in the frequency switching mode, and at 2372 MHz in the total power mode. Gaussians were fit to be observed lines to derive velocities, line widths, and line temperatures. From the velocities kinematic distances were derived. For eleven sources H I absorption measurements were also made. The absorption spectra enabled the kinematic distance ambiguity to be resolved for some sources. The absorption spectra themselves were found to have extremely sharp, non-gaussian edges. One explanation for these is a model where the interstellar medium contains many H I cloudlets with T/sub s/less than or equal to 100 0 K and turbulent velocities less than or equal to 3 km/s. The H I absorption spectrum is then a superposition of many narrow gaussian profiles. It was also found from a comparison of H I absorption velocities with radio recombination line velocities that peculiar motions exist in the interstellar medium with velocities of up to 10 km/s. Using the measured line temperatures and continuum temperatures, estimates were desired of emission measures, electron temperatures, and electron densities, using a non-LTE analysis. Non-LTE effects were important only for the hottest and densest H II regions. The non-LTE calculations were checked through a comparison derivation of electron temperatures using hydrogen beta lines

  14. Characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyatmo, B.; Rustadi; Priyono, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture. This study was conducted in 2015 by characterizing land and water dynamics, land use, and the suitability of coastal environments for aquaculture. Evaluation on the coastal environments suitability for aquaculture ponds was based on the landforms, soil properties, water quality and land. Selection of coastal locations for aquaculture development was based on the level of suitability of coastal environment. The results showed that the coastal in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regencies were characterized by sand dune and beach ridge with sandy soil texture, while in Gunungkidul Regency was characterized by limestone hill with rocky texture. Water sources of the coastal area were the sea, river, and ground water with the salinity of 31–37, 7–11, 7–31 ppt and pH of 7.4–8.4 7.0–8.2 and 7.4–9.9, respectively. The coastal lands were used for seasonal/annual planting, ponds, fish landing sites, tourism areas and conservation areas. The coastal carrying capacity was rather suitable for aquaculture, especially in the sandy soil area. Aquaculture in that area can be done intensively for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), using biocrete (biological material) or plastic sheet.

  15. Infrared emission from galactic H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilik, M. II.

    1975-01-01

    Near-infrared observations are presented of selected galactic HII regions (especially G45.5 + 0.1, G45.1 + 0.1, S88, and W3A) to infer the physical conditions of the dust responsible for the 2 to 25 micron emission. Two-component dust models are developed to match the observed characteristics of the infrared emission from HII regions. The dust, assumed to be bare and well-mixed with the gas in the ionized volume, consists of large (0.1 micron) ''silicate'' grains and small (0.2 micron) graphite grains. The ''silicates'' have their cosmic maximum abundance with respect to hydrogen, but the graphite grains are depleted by factors of 25 to 100 in mass. The Lyman-alpha radiation field predominately heats the ''silicate'' grains, which produce almost all the emission at 20 microns and most of it from 8 to 13 microns. The stellar radiation field predominately heats the graphite grains, which generate most of the emission at 3.5 and 5 microns. Roughly half of the observed 2 to 25 micron luminosity (when corrected for extinction) arises from Lyman-alpha photons and the other half from the Lyman and Balmer continua. The grains are too hot to provide significant emission in the far-infrared; this probably arises from a dust shell around the HII region. This two-component model predicts that HII regions should have smaller sizes at 3.5 and 5 microns than at 10 and 20 microns. The emissivities of fine-structure infrared lines for the regions are calculated. In the one instance where observations of such lines have been published (G29.9 - 0.0), predicted emissivities fall below those observed, especially for the 12.86-micron line of NeII. The discrepancy probably arises from an incorrect modeling of the region's ionization structure, but it might also reflect variations in elemental abundances or deficiencies in model stellar atmospheres for hot stars

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2005 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Regional Hydrogeochemistry of a Modern Coastal Mixing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Carol M.; Herman, Janet S.

    1996-02-01

    In west central Florida, groundwater samples were collected along flow paths in the unconfined upper Floridan aquifer that cross the inland, freshwater recharge area and the coastal discharge area. A groundwater flow and solute transport model was used to evaluate groundwater flow and mixing of fresh and saline groundwater along a cross section of the unconfined upper Floridan aquifer. Results show that between 8% and 15% of the fresh and 30-31% of the saline groundwater penetrates to the depth in the flow system where contact with and dissolution of gypsum is likely. The deeply circulating fresh and saline groundwater returns to the near-surface environment discharging CaSO4-rich water to the coastal area where it mixes with fresh CaHCO3 groundwater, resulting in a prediction of calcite precipitation in the modern mixing zone.

  20. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  1. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  2. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Camila de Toledo; Lortie, Christopher J; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or 'stressful' environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  3. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Toledo Castanho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%. Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping

  4. Preliminary survey of the coastal region between Peruibe and Iguape: plankton and hydrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.N.; Tommasi, L.R.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    1984-01-01

    In October 1980 a preliminary survey of the coastal region, between Peruibe and Iguape (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) was carried out in order to gather basic oceanographic data on the region where nuclear power plants are going to be built. Data on temperature, salinity, currents, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, phytoplankton, chlorophyll-a and zooplankton are presented and discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininskii Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  6. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  7. Recent crustal movements and seismicity in the western coastal region of peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasam, L. N.

    1983-09-01

    Recent crustal movements, tectonics and seismicity of the western coastal region of peninsular India have been studied in detail in the very recent past. Prominent geomorphic features and large-scale manifestation of Holocene deformation and crustal movements have been noticed and studied over this coastal region from the Gulf of Cambay to the southernmost parts of Kerala, evidence for which is afforded in the form of Recent and sub-Recent raised beaches, sandbars, raised old terraces, pebble beds, etc. The sedimentary formations in this narrow coastal belt include Neogene and Quaternary sediments. The Bouguer gravity map of the western coastal tract shows some prominent gravity features extending into the offshore regions, suggestive of some significant tectonic and structural features. The seismic data in the offshore regions bring out some prominent roughly northwest-southeast as well as east-west faults and shears, in addition to prominent structural "highs" off the Bombay and Ratnagiri coast which have proved oil. The seismicity in this coastal tract as well as the faulted western margin of the western continental shelf in the Arabian Sea is generally of magnitude 3-6.

  8. Perturbations of modeling and forecast of karachi coastal region seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.A.; Abbas, S.; Ansari, M.R.K.; Zaffar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is now a stark reality affecting the humanity in many hazardous ways. Continuous floods in Pakistan in past two years are an eye opener in this regard. A great loss of property, agriculture and life as a result of these floods suggests for an intelligent monitoring of the future projections of climate change and global warming. This is necessary because the harmful impacts of natural hazards can be coped and alleviated with a good planning in advance. This monitoring demands for enhanced forecasting capabilities, use of better analytical techniques and a clear determination and study of the controlling factors. Karachi is a coastal city which is also the industrial hub of Pakistan. Moreover, it is among one of the largest metropolitans of the world. So expectedly is most suitable for the study of high level of complex natural and anthropogenic activities. It is peculiar in the sense that it has two summer seasons, a situation scarcely observable on the globe. Here, summer season seawater temperature fluctuations are studied with the help of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models and short- and long-term forecasts are made. Our short-term forecasts determine months for the summer wise temperature extremes. It appears that the months of May, June, July and August are the months of extreme temperature for the first summer and October is the month of extreme temperature for the second summer. The long-term forecasts predict that 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2019 will be the years of warm summers. The analysis appearing here would be useful for coastal-urban planners in emphasizing the impact of seawater extreme temperatures on urban industrial activities, etc. (author)

  9. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  11. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  12. SCREENING OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY BACILLUS SP ISOLATED FROM COASTAL REGION IN CUDDALORE TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari. M*and P. Sivagurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...

  13. Associations between accelerated glacier mass wastage and increased summer temperature in coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyurgerov, M.; McCabe, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-elevation glaciers in coastal regions of Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, individual ice caps around the Greenland ice sheet, and the Patagonia Ice Fields have an aggregate glacier area of about 332 ?? 103 km 2 and account for approximately 42% of all the glacier area outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. They have shown volume loss, especially since the end of the 1980s, increasing from about 45% in the 1960s to nearly 67% in 2003 of the total wastage from all glaciers on Earth outside those two largest ice sheets. Thus, a disproportionally large contribution of coastal glacier ablation to sea level rise is evident. We examine cumulative standardized departures (1961-2000 reference period) of glacier mass balances and air temperature data in these four coastal regions. Analyses indicate a strong association between increases in glacier volume losses and summer air temperature at regional and global scales. Increases in glacier volume losses in the coastal regions also coincide with an accelerated rate of ice discharge from outlet glaciers draining the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. These processes imply further increases in sea level rise. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  14. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  15. Searching for Compact Radio Sources Associated with UCH ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Trinidad, Miguel A.; Rodríguez-Rico, Carlos A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, 36000 Guanajuato, México (Mexico); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Ultra-compact (UC)H ii regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation. The structure and evolution of these regions are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations showed in recent years that compact sources of uncertain nature are associated with some UCH ii regions. To examine this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCH ii regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCH ii regions. With these observations, we find 13 compact sources that are associated with 9 UCH ii regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that are probably deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCH ii region. These sources are photoevaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCH ii region as the photoevaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem of these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photoevaporating objects such as those of the first type, but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The remaining sources of this second type appear unresolved, and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.

  16. ON RADIATION PRESSURE IN STATIC, DUSTY H II REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation pressure acting on gas and dust causes H II regions to have central densities that are lower than the density near the ionized boundary. H II regions in static equilibrium comprise a family of similarity solutions with three parameters: β, γ, and the product Q 0 n rms ; β characterizes the stellar spectrum, γ characterizes the dust/gas ratio, Q 0 is the stellar ionizing output (photons/s), and n rms is the rms density within the ionized region. Adopting standard values for β and γ, varying Q 0 n rms generates a one-parameter family of density profiles, ranging from nearly uniform density (small Q 0 n rms ) to shell-like (large Q 0 n rms ). When Q 0 n rms ∼> 10 52 cm -3 s -1 , dusty H II regions have conspicuous central cavities, even if no stellar wind is present. For given β, γ, and Q 0 n rms , a fourth quantity, which can be Q 0 , determines the overall size and density of the H II region. Examples of density and emissivity profiles are given. We show how quantities of interest-such as the peak-to-central emission measure ratio, the rms-to-mean density ratio, the edge-to-rms density ratio, and the fraction of the ionizing photons absorbed by the gas-depend on β, γ, and Q 0 n rms . For dusty H II regions, compression of the gas and dust into an ionized shell results in a substantial increase in the fraction of the stellar photons that actually ionize H (relative to a uniform-density H II region with the same dust/gas ratio and density n = n rms ). We discuss the extent to which radial drift of dust grains in H II regions can alter the dust-to-gas ratio. The applicability of these solutions to real H II regions is discussed.

  17. Metallogenic events in the Coastal Cordillera of Copiapo region, northern Chile (26-28o S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.; Vivallo, W

    2001-01-01

    The metallogenic province of the Coastal Cordillera in the Copiapo region is characterized by Cu, Cu-Au,Cu-Fe-Au, Fe, Ag and Au deposits. The ore deposits are ranging in ages between Middle to Late Jurassic (1) and Early Cretaceous (2). Results of a geochronology program for ore deposits in this metallogenic province, in addition to existing geochronological control of the ore deposits host rocks (mainly intrusive) allowed to define four different Metallogenic Epochs which could be extended to other zones in the Coastal Cordillera (au)

  18. Coastal upwelling ecosystems are often identified as regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    ... are often identified as regions susceptible to seasonal blooms of harmful ... that the bay acts as a net importer of bottom water and net exporter of surface waters over a synoptic cycle. This ... waves or wind stress on the surface friction layer.

  19. Spatial distribution of H II regions in NGC 4321

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.; Hodge, P.; Kennicutt, R.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A catalog of 286 H II regions in the giant Sc Virgo Cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4321 is used to analyze some aspects of this galaxy's spiral structure. The H II region distribution is rectified to face-on by least-squares fitting to a logarithmic spiral, and the radial distribution, the across-arm distribution, and the along-arm distribution of H II regions are determined. Comparison of the circular distribution with a simple shock wave model of the density wave theory does not clearly support the model. Arm 1 shows no obvious structure, and arm 2, although it has a clear peak, does not show the expected asymmetrical distribution. Agreement is reasonably good, however, with the somewhat more elaborate density wave model of Bash. Tests for clumping of the H II regions were negative

  20. Challenges of Tsunami Disaster and Extreme climate Events Along Coastal Region in Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, S.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia is more vulnerable to Geo disasters and impacts of climate changes in recent years. On 26 December 2004 massive waves triggered by an earthquake surged into coastal communities in Asia and East Africa with devastating force. Hitting Indonesia, Sri Lanka , Thailand and India hardest, the deadly waves swept more than 200 000 people to their deaths. Also in an another extreme climate change phenomenon during 2005 - 2006,causing heavy rains and flooding situation in the South Asia - Europe and Pacific region ,more than 100 million population in these regions are witnessing the social- economical and ecological risks and impacts due to climate changes and Geohazards. For mitigating geo-disasters, marine hazards and rehabilitation during post tsunami period, scientific knowledge is needed, requiring experienced research communities who can train the local population during tsunami rehabilitation. Several civil society institutions jointly started the initiatives on the problem identifications in management of risks in geo-disasters, tsunami rehabilitation ,Vulnerability and risk assessments for Geohazards etc., to investigate problems related to social-economic and ecological risks and management issues resulting from the December tsunami and Geo- disaster, to aid mitigation planning in affected areas and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable and economic solutions. The poster aims to assess the potential risk and hazard , technical issues, problems and damage arising from Tsunami in the Asia-pacific region in coastal geology, coastal ecosystems and coastal environmental systems . This poster deals with the status and issues of interactions between Human and Ocean Systems, Geo-risks, marine risks along coastal region of Asia- Pacific and also human influence on the earth system . The poster presentation focuses on capacity building of the local population, scientists and researchers for integration of human and ocean

  1. Development of a Florida Coastal Mapping Program Through Local and Regional Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Kramer, P. A.; Fetherston-Resch, E.; Baumstark, R.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States (2,170 km). The coastal zone is heavily populated and contains 1,900 km of sandy beaches that support economically important recreation and tourism. Florida's waters also host important marine mineral resources, unique ecosystems, and the largest number of recreational boats and saltwater fishermen in the country. There is increasing need and demand for high resolution data of the coast and adjacent seafloor for resource and habitat mapping, understanding coastal vulnerability, evaluating performance of restoration projects, and many other coastal and marine spatial planning efforts. The Florida Coastal Mapping Program (FCMP), initiated in 2017 as a regional collaboration between four federal and three state agencies, has goals of establishing the priorities for high resolution seafloor mapping of Florida's coastal environment, and developing a strategy for leveraging funds to support mapping priorities set by stakeholders. We began by creating a comprehensive digital inventory of existing data (collected by government, the private sector, and academia) from 1 kilometer inland to the 200 meter isobath for a statewide geospatial database and gap analysis. Data types include coastal topography, bathymetry, and acoustic data such as sidescan sonar and subbottom profiles. Next, we will develop appropriate proposals and legislative budget requests in response to opportunities to collect priority data in high priority areas. Data collection will be undertaken by a combination of state and federal agencies. The FCMP effort will provide the critical baseline information that is required for characterizing changes to fragile ecosystems, assessing marine resources, and forecasting the impacts on coastal infrastructure and recreational beaches from future storms and sea-level rise.

  2. Infrared study of seven possible compact H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, F.; Lunel, M.; Bergeat, J.

    1976-01-01

    We report observations of seven possible compact H II regions in the infrared with the hydrogen spectrum in order to derive extinction and emission measures. The emission measure is compared with available radio data. For two sources, agreement is found between radio and infrared data. Infrared excess is found in four sources, its origin is discussed. Two sources cannot be interpreted as compact H II regions. (orig.) [de

  3. NODC Standard Product: C-CAP Coastal Change Analysis Project - St. Croix estuary region (1985 - 1992) (NODC Accession 0090142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Change Analysis Project St. Croix Estuary Region CD-ROM data set uses Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery from 1985 to 1992 to provide a regional change...

  4. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Patrick; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry,...

  5. Historical bathymetry and bathymetric change in the Mississippi-Alabama coastal region, 1847-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Noreen A.; Morton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Land loss and seafloor change around the Mississippi and Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are of great concern to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies. The islands provide wildlife protected areas and recreational land, and they serve as a natural first line of defense for the mainland against storm activity (index map on poster). Principal physical conditions that drive morphological seafloor and coastal change in this area include decreased sediment supply, sea-level rise, storms, and human activities (Otvos, 1970; Byrnes and others, 1991; Morton and others, 2004; Morton, 2008). Seafloor responses to the same processes can also affect the entire coastal zone. Sediment eroded from the barrier islands is entrained in the littoral system, where it is redistributed by alongshore currents. Wave and current activity is partially controlled by the profile of the seafloor, and this interdependency along with natural and anthropogenic influences has significant effects on nearshore environments. When a coastal system is altered by human activity such as dredging, as is the case of the MS-AL coastal region, the natural state and processes are altered, and alongshore sediment transport can be disrupted. As a result of deeply dredged channels, adjacent island migration is blocked, nearshore environments downdrift in the littoral system become sediment starved, and sedimentation around the channels is modified. Sediment deposition and erosion are reflected through seafloor evolution. In a rapidly changing coastal environment, understanding historically where and why changes are occurring is essential. To better assess the comprehensive dynamics of the MS-AL coastal zone, a 160-year evaluation of the bathymetry and bathymetric change of the region was conducted.

  6. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  7. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  8. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  9. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  10. Dynamics of H II regions around exiled O stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2013-11-01

    At least 25 per cent of massive stars are ejected from their parent cluster, becoming runaways or exiles, travelling with often-supersonic space velocities through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their overpressurized H II regions impart kinetic energy and momentum to the ISM, compress and/or evaporate dense clouds, and can constrain properties of both the star and the ISM. Here, we present one-, two- and (the first) three-dimensional simulations of the H II region around a massive star moving supersonically through a uniform, magnetized ISM, with properties appropriate for the nearby O star ζ Oph. The H II region leaves an expanding overdense shell behind the star and, inside this, an underdense wake that should be filled with hot gas from the shocked stellar wind. The gas column density in the shell is strongly influenced by the ISM magnetic field strength and orientation. Hα emission maps show that H II region remains roughly circular, although the star is displaced somewhat from the centre of emission. For our model parameters, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region is comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the stellar wind, and the momentum feedback rate is >100 times larger than that from the wind and ≈10 times larger than the total momentum input rate available from radiation pressure. Compared to the star's eventual supernova explosion, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region over the star's main-sequence lifetime is >100 times less, but the momentum feedback is up to 4 times larger. H II region dynamics are found to have only a small effect on the ISM conditions that a bow shock close to the star would encounter.

  11. Fog in the coastal region of southern Brazil: seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, N.; Gomes, C.

    2009-05-01

    Fog forecasting, especially advection fog, is important because a large port is located at Rio Grande, 32° S and 52° W. Fogs discontinue the cargo transport and prevent entrance of ships in the port, causing great financial loss. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated to fog formation are been investigated, especially those that happen during advection fog. The result of this characterization will facilitate the forecast using mesoscale numerical models. The research started with a climatology of fog in the region, in two locations which are 2° of latitude apart, with an average temperature difference of 3°C. The observation of fog is a standard record at conventional meteorological stations. Data from this study was obtained from the Meteorological Station of Rio Grande, which belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia network, and from the Meteorological Station operated by the Division of Meteorology of Department of Airspace Control in Porto Alegre. The period of this study is from January 1990 to December 2005. The distribution of the monthly total of fog observations shows that they occur mainly between May and August, with maximum in June. In all seasons of the year the total number of fogs is greater than in Porto Alegre in Rio Grande. There was a decrease in the average annual number of fogs from the 90s to the last five years of research, which can be attributed to urbanization around the places of observation. It increases the temperature in the layers closer to the soil and decreases the available moisture, making the occurrence of radiation fog. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, prevalent during these occurrences, will be examined next. The another goal is to compare the data of advection fog in Rio Grande, obtained from images of the type ARGUS in Cassino beach, with those recorded by Meteorological Station. This work is partially financed by FINEP and CAPES.

  12. Far infrared spectroscopy of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    A fully liquid helium cooled grating spectrometer has been developed for far infrared observations from the NASA Lear Jet. This instrument has been used in observations of the galactic HII regions M42 and M17. The instrument is described, and the results of various performance tests and calibrations are presented. The methods employed in observations from the Lear Jet are described, and the data analysis procedures are discussed. The results of a search for the (O III) 88.16 micron fine structure line are presented. The intensity of the line in M17 is reported, and an upper limit given for the intensity in M42. These results are compared with theoretical predictions, and future applications of infrared line observations are discussed. Coarse resolution spectra of M42 and M17 from 45 to 115 microns are also presented. The emission from M42 is shown to be a very smooth function of wavelength, closely fitting the wavelength dependence of a 105 0 K graybody. The spectrum of M17 is very different, having a bump at approximately 75 microns and a general far infrared excess. The observed spectrum is compared to the predictions of models for M17

  13. Effect of urbanization in a coastal region on sea breeze and urban thermal environment

    OpenAIRE

    河原, 能久; 川又, 孝太郎; 玉井, 信行

    1994-01-01

    Effect of land use development in a coastal region on heat island phenomenon is studied numerically by an urban climate model that employs the k-e turbulence model and an eddy diffusivity model for the transport of momentum, temperature and moisture in the Eckman layer together with a heat balance model for the surface boundary layer and the soil layer. Numerical simulations are carried out for a simplified terrain which consists of sea and land. Changes in wind velocity, temperature and heat...

  14. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  15. Shifts between gelatinous and crustacean plankton in a coastal upwelling region

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Antonio; Álvarez-Ossorio, Maria Teresa; Miranda, Ana; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    proyectos RADIALES (IEO) y EURO-BASIN (Ref. 264933, 7FP) Variability in the dominance of copepods vs. gelatinous plankton was analysed using monthly time-series covering the last 55 years and related to changes in climatic, oceanographic, and fishery conditions in the upwelling region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seasonality was generally the main component of variability in all groups, both along the coast and in the nearby ocean, but no common long-term trend was found. Coastal copepo...

  16. Radon as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.; Suresh Babu, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the various available methodologies to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and demonstrates the utility of radon with a case study. An attempt has been made to identify the existence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and semi-quantitatively estimate its rate in the coastal area of Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Natural 222 Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) was used as a tracer of SGD because of its conservative nature, short half-life, easiness in measurement and high abundance in groundwater. As in situ radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring study conducted in this region indicated comparatively higher 222 Rn activities (average 14.1±1.7 Bq/m 3 ) in the coastal waters revealing significant submarine groundwater discharge. The SGD may be a combination of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater that is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the adjacent aquifer and varying tidal conditions in the coastal waters. Using a transient 222 Rn mass balance model for the coastal waters, SGD rates were computed and the average value was found to be 10.9±6.1 cm/day. These estimates are comparable with those reported in the literature. In general, identification and estimation of submarine groundwater discharge is important in the Indian context because of the possibility of large amounts of groundwater loss through its long coastline, that can be judiciously exploited to cater to the present water requirements for drinking and irrigation purposes. (author)

  17. Analysis of systematic fracturing in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vrabec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse systematic fractures occurring in sandstone beds in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal area. Two nearly perpendicular fracture sets were identifid: fractures F1 are generally NW-SE oriented, wellexpressed and predominately planar, whereas fractures F2 are NE-SW-striking, shorter, more irregular in shape, and terminate against the F1 set. The average orientation of both sets does not change signifiantly in a coastal transect crossing all principal structural domains of the area. We analysed fracture spacing with respect to layer thickness and determined fracture spacing index for both fracture sets. We interpret both fracture sets as tensional (Mode I joints originating in two distinct extensional episodes. Set F1 is older and formed in NE-SW directed tension which we correlate with the well-documented regional post-Dinaric orogen-perpendicular extension of presumably mid-Miocene age. Set F2 formed in NW-SE oriented tension, which is compatible with previously documented NE-SW-striking normal faults occurring in the area, but was so far not documented elsewhere. We interpret that F1 fractures predate folding and thrusting in the coastal belt. Earlier, Eocene-Oligocene Dinaric thrusting therefore did not signifiantly affect the coastal area, whereas post-F1 shortening, associated with northward indentation and underthrusting of the Adria microplate, did not commence before late Miocene.

  18. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems.

  19. Bipolar H II regions produced by cloud-cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Anthony; Lomax, Oliver; Balfour, Scott; Mège, Pierre; Zavagno, Annie; Deharveng, Lise

    2018-05-01

    We suggest that bipolar H II regions may be the aftermath of collisions between clouds. Such a collision will produce a shock-compressed layer, and a star cluster can then condense out of the dense gas near the center of the layer. If the clouds are sufficiently massive, the star cluster is likely to contain at least one massive star, which emits ionizing radiation, and excites an H II region, which then expands, sweeping up the surrounding neutral gas. Once most of the matter in the clouds has accreted onto the layer, expansion of the H II region meets little resistance in directions perpendicular to the midplane of the layer, and so it expands rapidly to produce two lobes of ionized gas, one on each side of the layer. Conversely, in directions parallel to the midplane of the layer, expansion of the H II region stalls due to the ram pressure of the gas that continues to fall towards the star cluster from the outer parts of the layer; a ring of dense neutral gas builds up around the waist of the bipolar H II region, and may spawn a second generation of star formation. We present a dimensionless model for the flow of ionized gas in a bipolar H II region created according to the above scenario, and predict the characteristics of the resulting free-free continuum and recombination-line emission. This dimensionless model can be scaled to the physical parameters of any particular system. Our intention is that these predictions will be useful in testing the scenario outlined above, and thereby providing indirect support for the role of cloud-cloud collisions in triggering star formation.

  20. H II regions ionized by sigma and tau Sco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylard, M J [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Inst. for Telecommunications Research

    1984-11-15

    The H142..cap alpha.. line has been detected in Sharpless 9, which is ionized by sigmaSco, and in RCW 129, ionized by tau Sco. The electron temperatures in the two H II regions are 5700 +- 340 K and 4200 +- 600 K respectively. The thermal radio emission from S9 is asymmetric with respect to the stellar position, and the emission peak coincides with the position of the optical red emission features to the north and west of the star. There is no evidence for collisional excitation. S9 is a density-bounded H II region in the champagne phase, the bright rims and radio peak marking the ionization front.

  1. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  2. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  3. Wind bubbles within H ii regions around slowly moving stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar bubbles around O stars are driven by a combination of the star's wind and ionizing radiation output. The wind contribution is uncertain because the boundary between the wind and interstellar medium is difficult to observe. Mid-infrared observations (e.g., of the H ii region RCW 120) show arcs of dust emission around O stars, contained well within the H ii region bubble. These arcs could indicate the edge of an asymmetric stellar wind bubble, distorted by density gradients and/or stellar motion. We present two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations investigating the evolution of wind bubbles and H ii regions around massive stars moving through a dense (nH = 3000 cm-3), uniform medium with velocities ranging from 4 to 16 km s-1. The H ii region morphology is strongly affected by stellar motion, as expected, but the wind bubble is also very aspherical from birth, even for the lowest space velocity considered. Wind bubbles do not fill their H ii regions (we find filling factors of 10-20 per cent), at least for a main sequence star with mass M⋆ ~ 30 M⊙. Furthermore, even for supersonic velocities the wind bow shock does not significantly trap the ionization front. X-ray emission from the wind bubble is soft, faint, and comes mainly from the turbulent mixing layer between the wind bubble and the H ii region. The wind bubble radiates <1 per cent of its energy in X-rays; it loses most of its energy by turbulent mixing with cooler photoionized gas. Comparison of the simulations with the H ii region RCW 120 shows that its dynamical age is ≲0.4 Myr and that stellar motion ≲4 km s-1 is allowed, implying that the ionizing source is unlikely to be a runaway star but more likely formed in situ. The region's youth, and apparent isolation from other O or B stars, makes it very interesting for studies of massive star formation and of initial mass functions. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Anthropogenic activities and coastal environmental quality: a regional quantitative analysis in southeast China with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Yan; Huang, Dongren; Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Huorong; Zhang, Songbin; Yang, Shengyun; Cai, Minggang

    2018-02-01

    Regional analysis of environmental issues has always been a hot topic in the field of sustainable development. Because the different levels of economic growth, urbanization, resource endowments, etc. in different regions generate apparently different ecological responses, a better description and comparison across different regions will provide more valuable implications for ecological improvement and policymaking. In this study, seven typical bays in southeast China that are a rapid developing area were selected to quantitatively analyze the relationship between socioeconomic development and coastal environmental quality. Based on the water quality data from 2007 to 2015, the multivariate statistical method was applied to analyze the potential environmental risks and to classify the seven bays based on their environmental quality status. The possible variation trends of environmental indices were predicted based on the cross-regional panel data by Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results showed that there were significant regional differences among the seven bays, especially Quanzhou, Xiamen, and Luoyuan Bays, suffered from severer artificial disturbances than other bays, despite their different development patterns. Socioeconomic development level was significantly associated with some water quality indices (pH, DIN, PO 4 -P); the association was roughly positive: the areas with higher GDP per capita have some worse water quality indices. In addition, the decreasing trend of pH values and the increasing trend of nutrient concentration in the seven bays will continue in the foreseeable future. In consideration of the variation trends, the limiting nutrient strategy should be implemented to mitigate the deterioration of the coastal environments.

  5. Tsunami induced transportation of the coastal marine sediments to distant onshore regions: Some indications from foraminiferal and microbenthic studies of new Wandoor region (Andaman & Nicobar)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    regions near New Wandoor (Andaman and Nicobar) suggested the areal extent of marine transgression due to tsunami waves on December 26, 2004. There is a need to investigate coastal marine sediments with multi-disciplinary approach to understnd impact...

  6. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability.

  7. H II region in NGC 6744: Spectrophotometry and chemical abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talent, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of emission lines in the lambdalambda3700--6800 spectral range is presented for An H II region in an outer arm of NGC6744, a southern hemisphere galaxy of type SAB(r)bc II. The electron temperature, derived from the [O III] lines and assuming N/sub e/ = 100 cm -3 , was found to be 9,630 +- 450 K. Ionic abundances, derived in the usual fashion from the measured line strengths, were corrected to total relative number abundances by application of the standard ionization correction factor (ICF) scheme and by comparison to models. The derived abundances, relative to log Hequivalent12.00, are log He = 10.96 +- 0.06, log N = 7.34 +- 0.26, log O log O = 8.44 +- 0.10, log Ne = 7.80 +- 0.16, and log S = 6.75 +- 0.28. The NGC 6744 H II region abundances, and various ratios, are compared to similar data for H II regions in the SMC, LMC, and the Perseus arm of the Galaxy,. From the comparison it is suggested that the histories of nucleosynthesis in the outer regions of NGC 6744 and the Galaxy could have been quite similar

  8. Gas dynamics of H II regions. II. Two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Yorke, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of H II regions is calculated with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical procedure under the assumption that the exciting star is born within a cool molecular cloud whose density is about 10 3 particles cm -3 . As the ionization of the cloud's edge is completed, a large pressure gradient is set up and ionized cloud material expands into the ionized low-density (1 particle cm -3 ) intercloud medium, with velocities larger than 30 km s -1 .The calculations are made under the simplifying assumptions that (i) within the H II region, ionization equilibrium holds at all times, (ii) the ionization front is a discontinuity, thus its detailed structure is not calculated, (iii) the temperature of each region (H II region, neutral cloud, and intercloud medium) is constant in time, (iv) all ionizing photons come radially from the exciting star. Four cases are calculated and compared with observations: (1) the edge of the cloud is overrun by a supersonic ionization front, (2) the initial Stroemgren sphere surrounding the star lies deep inside the cloud, thus the cloud's edge is ionized by a subsonic ionization front, (3) the ionization front breaks through two opposite faces of the same cloud simultaneously, (4) the flow encounters an isolated globule of density 10 3 particles cm -3 shortly after emerging from the molecular cloud.The phenomena here considered show how evolving H II regions are an important input of kinetic energy to the interstellar medium

  9. Ionised gas kinematics in bipolar H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Hannah S.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peters, Thomas; Henshaw, Jonathan D.; Veitch-Michaelis, Joshua L.; Urquhart, James S.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar feedback plays a fundamental role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. Here we explore the use of ionised gas kinematics in young, bipolar H II regions as a probe of early feedback in these star-forming environments. We have undertaken a multi-wavelength study of a young, bipolar H II region in the Galactic disc, G316.81-0.06, which lies at the centre of a massive (˜103 M⊙) infrared-dark cloud filament. It is still accreting molecular gas as well as driving a ˜0.2 pc ionised gas outflow perpendicular to the filament. Intriguingly, we observe a large velocity gradient (47.81 ± 3.21 km s-1 pc-1) across the ionised gas in a direction perpendicular to the outflow. This kinematic signature of the ionised gas shows a reasonable correspondence with the simulations of young H II regions. Based on a qualitative comparison between our observations and these simulations, we put forward a possible explanation for the velocity gradients observed in G316.81-0.06. If the velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow is caused by rotation of the ionised gas, then we infer that this rotation is a direct result of the initial net angular momentum in the natal molecular cloud. If this explanation is correct, this kinematic signature should be common in other young (bipolar) H II regions. We suggest that further quantitative analysis of the ionised gas kinematics of young H II regions, combined with additional simulations, should improve our understanding of feedback at these early stages.

  10. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  11. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  12. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  13. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... address for its Region II office and to update the main telephone number. The Region II office move and... update the NRC Region II office street address and office main telephone number. The physical location of...

  14. Twitter Analytics: Are the U.S. Coastal Regions Prepared for Climate Change in 2017?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, S. L.; Kumar, S.

    2017-12-01

    According to the U.S. National Climate Assessment, the Southeast Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States are particularly susceptible to sea level rise, heat waves, hurricanes and less accessibility to clean water due to climate change. This is because of the extreme variation of topography in these two regions. Preparation for climate change consequences can only occur with conversation, which is a method of bringing awareness to the issue. Over the past decade, social media has taken over the spectrum of information exchange in the United States. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a field that is emerging with the growth in popularity of social media. SNA is the practice of analyzing trends in volume and opinion of a population of social media users. Twitter, one popular social media platform, is one of the largest microblogging sites in the world, and it provides an abundance of data related to the trending topics such as climate change. Twitter analytics is a type of SNA performed on data from the tweets of Twitter users. In this work, Twitter analytics is performed on the data generated from the Twitter users in the United States, who were talking about climate change, global warming and/or CO2, over the course of one year (July 2016 - June 2017). Specifically, a regional comparative analysis on the coastal U.S. regions was conducted to recognize which region(s) is/are falling behind on the conversation about climate change. Sentiment analysis was also performed to understand the trends in opinion about climate change that vary over time. Experimental results determined that the southeast coast of the United States is deficient in their discussion about climate change compared to the other coastal regions. Igniting the conversation about this issue in these regions will mitigate the disasters due to climate change by increasing awareness in the people of these regions so they can properly prepare.

  15. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  16. Evaluation of Tsunami Run-Up on Coastal Areas at Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez, O.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is tackled by means of numerical simulations, giving as a result, the areas flooded by tsunami wave inland. To get this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulations are still excessive. An important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we present a complementary methodology based on a hybrid numerical model, formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The run-up of a tsunami scenario is obtained by applying the coupled model to an ad-hoc numerical flume. To design this methodology, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. As an application of the numerical flume methodology, the coastal parameterized profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in the numerical flume The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape

  17. Calculations of hydrophysical fields in the coastal regions of the Black Sea with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, N.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters in the coastal regions of the Black Sea taking into account the real atmospheric forcing and river discharges for the winter and summer seasons of 2006. A higher spatial resolution allowed to get a detailed meso- and submesoscale structure of hydrophysical fields in the upper and deep layers of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the north-western shelf and to obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eddies and jets more accurately in comparison with previous calculations.

  18. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  19. Iodine deficiency status of school going children in coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayedur Rahman Miah; Chowdhury Habibur Rasul; Ashoke Kumar Paul

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bangladesh is an iodine deficient zone, affected mainly in the northern part i.e., in Himalayan belt along Brahmaputra and Jamuna River. Severity of' iodine deficiency can be assessed by prevalence of goitre and urinary iodine excretion. The latest nationwide survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders of' Bangladesh in 1993 showed prevalence of goitre 47.1% in all age and sex group and 69% of the population had urinary iodine excretion 100 mcg/L. Conclusion: On the basis of goitre prevalence and urinary iodine excretion, coastal region of Bangladesh is a mild iodine deficient zone. (authors)

  20. DEFORMATION EFFECTS OF DAMS ON COASTAL REGIONS USING SENTINEL-1 IW TOPS TIME SERIES: THE WEST LESVOS, GREECE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karamvasis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are vulnerable to erosion and loss by level sea rise. Subsidence caused by the reduction of fluvial sediments in coastal zones found close to dams, is another important deformation factor. Quantification of the deformation rate of coastal region is essential for natural and anthropogenic activities. The study utilizes Interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar techniques and exploits the archive of Sentinel-1 TOPS data for the period 2014–2016. The freely available, wide ground coverage (250 × 170 km and small temporal resolution Sentinel-1 TOPS datasets are promising for coastal applications. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI methodologies are considered state-of-the-art remote sensing approaches for land deformation monitoring. The selected PSI method is the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS multitemporal InSAR technique. The study area of this study is the coastal zone of west region of Lesvos Island, Greece. The main characteristic of the area is the reduction of the fluvial sediment supply from the coastal drainage basins due to construction of dams and the abstraction of riverine sediments. The study demonstrates the potentials of the SBAS method for measuring and mapping the dynamic changes in coastal topography in terms of subsidence rates and discusses its advantages and limitations. The results show that natural and rural environments appear to have diverse ground deformation patterns.

  1. THE DISCOVERY OF RAMAN SCATTERING IN H II REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Nicholls, David C.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Groves, Brent A., E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2016-06-10

    We report here on the discovery of faint extended wings of H α observed out to an apparent velocity of ∼7600 km s{sup −1} in the Orion Nebula (M42) and in five H ii regions in the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds. We show that these wings are caused by Raman scattering of both the O i and Si ii resonance lines and stellar continuum UV photons with H i followed by radiative decay to the H i n = 2 level. The broad wings also seen in H β and in H γ result from Raman scattering of the UV continuum in the H i n = 4 and n = 5 levels, respectively. The Raman scattering fluorescence is correlated with the intensity of the narrow permitted lines of O i and Si ii. In the case of Si ii, this is explained by radiative pumping of the same 1023.7 Å resonance line involved in the Raman scattering by the Ly β radiation field. The subsequent radiative cascade produces enhanced Si ii λλ 5978.9, 6347.1, and 6371.4 Å permitted transitions. Finally, we show that in O i, radiative pumping of the 1025.76 Å resonance line by the Lyman series radiation field is also the cause of the enhancement in the permitted lines of this species lying near H α in wavelength, but here the process is a little more complex. We argue that all these processes are active in the zone of the H ii region near the ionization front.

  2. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of 222Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C.; Cook, Peter G.; Burnett, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The radon isotope 222 Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  3. Climate Change and Coastal Zones. An Overview of the State-of-the-Art on Regional and Local Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterr, H.; Klein, R.J.T.; Reese, S.

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in methodologies for assessing the vulnerability of coastal zones to climate change at regional and local scales. The focus of vulnerability assessment in coastal zones used to be on erosion and land loss due to sea-level rise. Methodologies now increasingly consider the wide range of climate and impact variables that play a part in determining coastal vulnerability, as well as non-climatic developments. The paper presents a conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment that identifies a number of system components that can be considered determinants of vulnerability. It then goes on to outline a number of steps that are required for the actual assessment of coastal vulnerability, such as scenario development, data collection and impact assessment. The approach is illustrated using a regional and local case study in Germany

  4. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. - Highlights: • PFAAs were detected in rapidly urbanized regions. • PFOA was found predominant followed by short chain PFCAs. • Fluoropolymer facilities were associated with PFAAs contamination. • Higher PFAAs levels were found near the PTFE production facilities. • Diffusion of PFAAs from rivers to the sea was influenced by tide and current. - High level of PFOA was detected in the river water due to the fluoropolymer industries in South Bohai coastal region

  5. Radio observations of the CMa OB1 H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylard, M.J.; Kemball, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive 10 0 x 15 0 13-cm map made of the CMa OB1 H II regions' radio emission shows a strong similarity to Hα emission photographs. Sharpless 296 is shown to consist of a prominent central and western arc completed by a weaker southern loop, and with a faint northern bar. The emission is thermal, superimposed over a predominantly non-thermal background. The H142α recombination line has been detected at eight positions in S296, and in S292 and S297. The average electron temperature in S296 is 6900 +- 1300 K. The UV fluxes from the CMa OB1 stars account for the observed emission measures of the H II regions. The H142α 1sr velocities indicate that the ionized material is in contact with the molecular clouds. (author)

  6. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  7. Living with the Risks of Cyclone Disasters in the South-Western Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishawjit Mallick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Cyclone disasters that affect millions of people, destroy homesteads and livelihoods, and trigger migration are common in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to understand how the coastal communities in Bangladesh deal with the continuous threats of cyclones. As a case study, this study investigates communities that were affected by the Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009, covering 1555 households from 45 coastal villages in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The survey method incorporated household based questionnaire techniques and community based focus group discussions. The pre-event situation highlights that the affected communities were physically vulnerable due to the strategic locations of the cyclone shelters nearer to those with social supreme status and the location of their houses in relatively low-lying lands. The victims were also socio-economically vulnerable considering the high rate of illiteracy, larger family size, no ownership of land, and extreme poverty. They were mostly day labourers, farmers, and fishermen. Post-event situation reveals that the victims’ houses and livelihoods were severely damaged or destroyed. Most victims were forced to shift their occupations (e.g., from farmers to fishermen, and many became unemployed. They also became heavily dependent on micro-credits and other forms of loans. A significant number of people were displaced and migrated to large urban agglomerations in search of livelihoods to maintain their families back in the affected villages. Migration was primarily undertaken as an adaptation strategy.

  8. Impact of climate change on food security in southwest coastal region of bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Rahman, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on food security of the population residing in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Based on multistage random sampling technique, a survey was conducted to collect socioeconomic and food datasets of the people affected by extreme climate events in the country. The study found that climate change caused food insecurity in the region; it led to greater dependence on pond and rain water for cooking food and water intake. Catastrophe due to extreme weather events adversely affected the livelihoods and level of income. The severe cyclonic storms, Sidr (November 2007) and Alia (May 2009) severely affected the vulnerable people of this region, especially the extremely poor. The study came out with several coping strategies to address adverse effects of climate change, including rehabilitation with income and employment generating activities and development training; alternative livelihood adaptation practices; access to subsidized inputs and credits; introduction of crop calendar; conservation of arable and fellow land; and innovation of saline-tolerant, heat-resistant, moderate water consuming and short-rotation crops for the coastal people. (author)

  9. Observed changes in relative humidity and dew point temperature in coastal regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Sabziparvar, A. A.; Tabari, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of trends in hydroclimatic parameters and assessment of their statistical significance have recently received a great concern to clarify whether or not there is an obvious climate change. In the current study, parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann-Kendall tests were applied for detecting annual and seasonal trends in the relative humidity (RH) and dew point temperature ( T dew) time series at ten coastal weather stations in Iran during 1966-2005. The serial structure of the data was considered, and the significant serial correlations were eliminated using the trend-free pre-whitening method. The results showed that annual RH increased by 1.03 and 0.28 %/decade at the northern and southern coastal regions of the country, respectively, while annual T dew increased by 0.29 and 0.15°C per decade at the northern and southern regions, respectively. The significant trends were frequent in the T dew series, but they were observed only at 2 out of the 50 RH series. The results showed that the difference between the results of the parametric and nonparametric tests was small, although the parametric test detected larger significant trends in the RH and T dew time series. Furthermore, the differences between the results of the trend tests were not related to the normality of the statistical distribution.

  10. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  12. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Cloud Formation in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U. S.; Wu, Y.; Reid, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the tropics, shallow and deep convective cloud structures organize in hierarchy of spatial scales ranging from meso-gamma (2-20 km) to planetary scales (40,000km). At the lower end of the spectrum is shallow convection over the open ocean, whose upscale growth is dependent upon mesoscale convergence triggers. In this context, cloud systems associated with land breezes that propagate long distances into open ocean areas are important. We utilized numerical model simulations to examine the impact of biomass burning on such cloud systems in the maritime continent, specifically along the coastal regions of Sarawak. Numerical model simulations conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model show spatial patterns of smoke that show good agreement to satellite observations. Analysis of model simulations show that, during daytime the horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) that form over land play an important role in organizing transport of smoke in the coastal regions. Alternating patterns of low and high smoke concentrations that are well correlated to the wavelengths of HCRs are found in both the simulations and satellite observations. During night time, smoke transport is modulated by the land breeze circulation and a band of enhanced smoke concentration is found along the land breeze front. Biomass burning aerosols are ingested by the convective clouds that form along the land breeze and leads to changes in total water path, cloud structure and precipitation formation.

  14. Two Kilometer Coastal Ocean Current Predictions, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data is derived from the NetCDF files that come from http://hfrnet.ucsd.edu/. EPA Region 9 has developed a series of python scripts to download the data hourly,...

  15. Six Kilometer Coastal Ocean Current Predictions, Region 9, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data is derived from the NetCDF files that come from http://hfrnet.ucsd.edu/. EPA Region 9 has developed a series of python scripts to download the data hourly,...

  16. Photo-Geomorphology of Coastal Landforms, Cat Island, Bahamas. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides the aerial imagery used in the analysis of the coastal landforms of Cat Island in the east-central Bahama Islands. Interpretive...published volume Coastal Landform of Cat Island, Bahamas: A Study of Holocene Accretionary Topography and Sea-Level Change but may also serve as an

  17. Business and Entrepreneurship in South Coastal Zone of Attica Region, in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present paper is to investigate the evolution of the economic situation and particularly employment in Attica region in Greece. It focuses particularly on the southern coastal municipalities in the region and specifically in municipalities of Moshato, Kallithea, Paleo Faliro, Alimos, Elliniko, Voula and Vouliagmeni. Attica is an urbanized region which displays an excellence in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. In addition, it is a center of advanced services with valuable human resources because of higher educational institutions hosted in the region. That means a dynamic development of high technology. The good economic situation of the study area changed in recent years, from 2009 onwards, due to the economic crisis in Greece. The poor fiscal policy resulted in swelling of the external debt of the country, has contributed not only to the economic downturn, but has also affected the welfare of residents. The economic effects are obvious in the private sector, thereby reducing business activities, revenues and lost jobs. All the above have additional effect of increasing intra-regional disparities, such as population disparities, rising unemployment, the population movements for job search and other. The paper elaborates on the economic situation and entrepreneurship in the region over the past 20 years or so including both periods of acne, and those of the last economic downturn. Using documents, tables and graphs, work draws conclusions.

  18. Regional Interdependence in Adaptation to Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, M. T.; Lubell, M.; Hummel, M.; Wang, R. Q.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Herdman, L.; Pozdnukhov, A.; Sheehan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Projections of sea level rise may differ in the pace of change, but there is clear consensus that coastal communities will be facing more frequent and severe flooding events in the coming century. As communities adapt to future conditions, infrastructure systems will be developed, modified and abandoned, with important consequences for services and resilience. Whether action or inaction is pursued, the decisions made by an individual community regarding a single infrastructure system have implications that extend spatially and temporally due to geographic and infrastructure system interactions. At the same time, there are a number of barriers to collective or coordinated action that inhibit regional solutions. This interplay between local actions and regional responses is one of the great challenges facing decision-makers grappling with both local and regional climate-change adaptation. In this talk, I present case studies of the San Francisco Bay Area that examine how shoreline infrastructure, transporation sytems and decision-making networks interact to define the regional response to local actions and the local response to regional actions. I will characterize the barriers that exist to regional solutions, and characterize three types of interdependence that may motivate decision-makers to overcome those barriers. Using these examples, I will discuss the importance of interdisciplinary analyses that integrate the natural sciences, engineering and the social science to climate change adaptation more generally.

  19. Observational tests for H II region models - A 'champagne party'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, D; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1979-09-01

    Observations of several neighboring H II regions associated with a molecular cloud were performed in order to test the champagne model of H II region-molecular cloud interaction leading to the supersonic expansion of molecular cloud gas. Nine different positions in the Gum 61 nebula were observed using an image dissector scanner attached to a 3.6-m telescope, and it is found that the area corresponds to a low excitation, high density nebula, with electron densities ranging between 1400 and 2800/cu cm and larger along the boundary of the ionized gas. An observed increase in pressure and density located in an interior region of the nebula is interpreted in terms of an area between two rarefaction waves generated together with a strong isothermal shock, responsible for the champagne-like streaming, by a pressure discontinuity between the ionized molecular cloud in which star formation takes place and the intercloud gas. It is noted that a velocity field determination would provide the key in understanding the evolution of such a region.

  20. Water vapor emission from H II regions and infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cato, B.T.; Ronnang, B.O.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Lewin, P.T.; Yngvesson, K.S.; Cardiasmenos, A.G.; Shanley, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The spatial structure of water vapor microwave line emission has been investigated with moderate angular resolution in several well-known H II regions. New H 2 O sources have been with infrared (1R) sources. One of these sources, IRC: 20411, has been investigated at optical wavelengths. It is found to be of spectral class M3-M5 and by indirect evidence the luminosity class is preliminarily determined to Ib. The distance is estimated to be approx.2 kpc, and the star must be in front of the dust complex which obscures W28 A2. In NGC 7538 new high-velocity features have been discovered. Two new weak water vapor masers, G30.1: 0.7 and G32.8: 0.3, have been detected in a search among eight class II OH/IR sources. H 2 O emission coinciding with the low-velocity OH features of VY Canis Majoris has also been detected. A search for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) water-vapor line emission in molecular clouds associated with H II regions is also reported. No line was detected with the utilized sensitivity. The physical implications of this are discussed and an upper limit of the H 2 O column density has been estimated. Gaussian analysis of the strong, narrow feature in the spectrum of ON 1 indicates a possible presence of two hyperfine components, viz., F→F'=7→6 and 6→5

  1. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  2. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grundmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping – above the natural rate of replenishment – strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  3. Weed occurrence in Finnish coastal regions: a survey of organically cropped spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RIESINGER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Weed communities of organically cropped spring cereal stands in the southern and the northwestern coastal regions of Finland (= south and northwest, respectively were compared with respect to number of species, frequency of occurrence, density and dry weight. Regional specialization of agricultural production along with differences in climate and soil properties were expected to generate differences in weed communities between south and northwest. Total and average numbers of species were higher in the south than in the northwest (33 vs. 26 and 15.6 vs. 10.0, respectively. Some rare species (e.g. Papaver dubium were found in the south. Fumaria officinalis and Lamium spp. were found only in the south. The densities and dry weights of Lapsana communis, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Tripleurospermum inodorum and Vicia spp. were higher in the south, while the densities and dry weights of Elymus repens, Persicaria spp. and Spergula arvensis were higher in the northwest. Total density of weeds did not differ between south and northwest (average = 565 vs. 570 shoots m-2, respectively. Total dry weight of weeds was higher in the northwest compared with the south (average = 1594 vs. 697 kg ha-1, respectively, mainly due to the high dry weight of E. repens. The only variable that was dependent on the duration of organic farming was weed density in the south. The abundance of nitrophilous in relation to non-nitrophilous weed species was higher while the abundance of perennial ruderal and grassland weed species was lower compared with previous weed surveys. This can be regarded as the result of increasing cropping intensity on organic farms in Finland. Different weed communities call for the application of specific target-oriented weed management in the respective coastal regions.;

  4. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  5. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  6. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  7. Field studies of hydrodynamic conditions and fine-sediment suspension in the Kapar coastal region, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2006-01-01

    Field studies to determine the hydrodynamics and fine-sediment transport were carried out at the Kapar coastal region, on the west coast of the Malaysian Peninsula. Several observation stations were established to measure near-bed tidal currents, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), water temperature, salinity and tidal elevation. It was found that resuspension (erosion) and deposition of fine sediment occurred during every tidal cycle, with greater transport occurred during the ebb than the flood. This become the major source of fine sediment that contribute to the siltation problem in this region. The high resuspension and entrainment of sediment into the flow column was due to a high near-bed current velocity which was at its peak at 1.3 m/s (during spring tides) and easily-eroded fine particles recently settled during previous tidal cycles. Significant erosion (and deposition) took place during the spring tides but little erosion was observed during the neap. The secondary source of fine sediment is from Sungai Kelang transported to the area by ebb currents in particular during spring tides. The measurement data also showed that the current flows around an industrial construction, the Kapar power station, had been modified and greatly reduced, which had resulted in a significant siltation problem in this region. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influence of hydrodynamics on the physical processes relating to the resuspension, transport and deposition of the fine-sediment in this region. (Author)

  8. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  9. The “shallow-waterness” of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Christensen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  10. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  11. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (PPAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  12. Polonium-210 and Lead-210 in marine biota from a coastal region with high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrul Kabir, M.; Deeba, Farah; Hossain, Sushmita; Fharim, Massoud; Md Moniruzzaman; Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, M.; Silva, L.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal sediments and marine fish from a region with high natural radioactivity in Cox Bazar Bangladesh, were analyzed in order to investigate the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Sediment from the sea shore in high ambient radiation dose rate areas contained naturally occurring radionuclides at high concentrations. These sediments displayed 226 Ra, 232 Th and 235 U activity concentrations of 2184 ± 88 Bq kg -1 dry weight (d.w.), 3808 ± 200 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) and 123 ± 15 Bq kg -1 (d.w.), respectively. In contrast with these high values, radionuclide concentrations in sand from other areas of the Cox's Bazar coast were as low as 42 ± 3, 70 ± 4 and < 8 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) for the same radionuclides, respectively, which are comparable to concentrations determined in many coastal areas elsewhere. The presence of sand deposits with high concentration of uranium series radionuclides could potentially originate high accumulation of alpha emitting radionuclides such as 210 Po in marine biota, and food chain transfer to man. 210 Po is a major contributor to the radiation dose both in marine organisms and sea food consumers. Determination of 210 Po in marine fish and shrimp from the area lead to concentration values ranging from 4.5±0.3 to 124±3 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in fish and 82.9±1.6 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in shrimp. Similar concentrations are commonly reported in marine biota from several regions. Therefore, in spite of the deposits of heavy mineral sands containing high concentrations of radionuclides such as 210 Pb and 210 Po no significant raise in the accumulation of these radionuclides in biota seems to occur, which suggests that radionuclides are tightly bound in sediment grains and are not significantly bioavailable. (author)

  13. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  14. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo...

  15. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES... Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo...

  17. Modeling wave trains in coastal regions; Modelagem de trens de ondas em regioes costeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Ana M.S.; Nachbin, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA)

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is to present a model that captures how the sea bottom topography or submarine structures can influence the evolution of water wave trains over a varying topography at intermediate depth. To obtain such a model, we consider Euler equations for inviscid fluids and we perform the asymptotic simplification of the nonlinear potential theory equations together with the method of multiple scales to get a reduced model. Such a model is called reduced because it simplifies nonlinear potential theory from two spatial dimensions to one dimension along the free boundary. We consider a varying topography at the bottom and/or the presence of submarine structures together with a free boundary at the surface of the sea. For modeling such a geometry we transform our Cartesian system into curvilinear coordinates through a conformal mapping that maps the original physical domain into a simpler domain (a strip). This modeling strategy allows us to capture and understand the dynamics of water waves in regions where offshore exploration activity already exists or not. Through an efficient model we can get important information regarding the dynamics of waves in coastal regions and also questions on the viability of oil and gas recovery in these regions. (author)

  18. International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics

    1992-01-01

    This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac­ curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi­ neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...

  19. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  20. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  1. Survey on changes of breast cancer radiotherapy in four hospitals within southeast coastal region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Yongling; Liu Jingjie; Tian Ye; Li Xianming; Zhu Yaqun; Yu De; Du Xianghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to explore the changes and the tendency of breast cancer radiotherapy in China within the past decade. Methods: A survey on breast cancer radiotherapy in 1999 and 2006 was conducted in 4 hospitals located within the southeast coastal region of China, including patients' clinical characteristics, the purpose of radiotherapy and its techniques. Results: The percentage of breast conservative treatment (BCT) increased from 3% in 1999 to 13% in 2006. For radiotherapy techniques in 2066 compared with 1999, the growth trend was found in use of breast immobilization devices (80% vs. 46%), treatment planning system (70% vs. 23%), and CT simulation (14% vs. 0). The frequency was increased in the chest wall irradiation after mastectomy (90% vs. 67%), but decreased in internal mammary region (30% vs. 76%) and axilla (37% vs. 69%) treatment. There were no differences in total dose and fractionation prescription. Conclusions: BCT was performed more frequently, but post-mastectomy radiotherapy was still essential option in China at present. Although some advanced techniques were applied frequently in clinical practice. Simulation, treatment planning, and irradiation target design were urgent for improvement and standardization. (authors)

  2. Numerical study of desirable solar-collector orientations for the coastal region of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.; Chan, A.L.S.

    2004-01-01

    The overall performance of any solar energy project depends very much on the availability of solar radiation and the orientations of solar collectors. Presented in this paper is a numerical analysis of the solar irradiation received at the coastal region of South China. This region, with latitudes from 20.5 deg. N to 24 deg. N, belongs to the subtropical monsoon climatic zone. The computations were based on the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data of Macau, compiled as a result of the ASHRAE International Weather for Energy Calculations Project. The hourly data were applied to the ESP-r building simulation program with the adoption of the Perez solar model. The analyses estimated the solar irradiation received on inclined surfaces at different orientations and slopes, and for different periods of the year. It was found that a solar collector facing the south-west direction could be most desirable for a wide range of tilt angles, and for maximizing the annual yield. The trends of variations towards other directions, tilt angles, and shorter periods of the year are also explored

  3. Radiological maps in beach sands along some coastal regions of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B.; Karadeniz, A.; Damla, N.; Yesilkanat, C.M.; Cevik, U.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the gamma-emitting radionuclides in beach sands along the coastal regions of the Ordu, Giresun and Trabzon provinces, Turkey have been determined. The natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations of the samples have been measured employing a germanium (HPGe) detector with high resolution and purity. The activity for 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs of the samples were found to vary in the range from below detection limit (BDL) to 65 Bq·kg −1 , from BDL to 28 Bq·kg −1 , from 9 to 1936 Bq·kg −1 and from BDL to 22 Bq·kg −1 , respectively. The activity concentrations were compared with those in the literature. The associated radiological hazard indices were estimated, and were compared to the internationally recommended values. The radiological map of beach sand in the surveyed area was imaged. The data presented in the study are crucial since they constitute a baseline for the radiological mapping of the region in the future. - Highlights: • The natural and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in beach sands were analyzed. • The associated radiological hazard indices were estimated. • The results were evaluated to check the compatibility of national and international values. • The radiological maps of beach sand were produced. • The findings demonstrate that the obtained values were less than the internationally accepted recommended limits.

  4. The influence of education level on choosing coastal regions as tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeri Lukrecija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of formal education level on decision-making process when choosing a tourist destination based on multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The survey was conducted on the sample of 252 respondents from Bačka region (Vojvodina/Serbia. Also, this study strives to examine the influence of education level on decision-making process including all five phases of decision-making process: need awareness, information search, alternatives estimation, purchase and purchase evaluation, applied to the process of choosing coastal regions as tourist destinations. The study shows that education level is related to four out of five phases of decision-making process (only in case of need awareness there is no statistically significant difference. This is especially important for creation of a marketing platform with promotional activities adjusted to different market segments differentiated by education level. Moreover, the study discusses differences in behaviour of different educational groups while choosing travel destinations.

  5. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  6. AN ANALYTIC MODEL OF DUSTY, STRATIFIED, SPHERICAL H ii REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Lora, V. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Cantó, J., E-mail: juan.rodriguez@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-468, 04510 D. F., México (Mexico)

    2016-12-20

    We study analytically the effect of radiation pressure (associated with photoionization processes and with dust absorption) on spherical, hydrostatic H ii regions. We consider two basic equations, one for the hydrostatic balance between the radiation-pressure components and the gas pressure, and another for the balance among the recombination rate, the dust absorption, and the ionizing photon rate. Based on appropriate mathematical approximations, we find a simple analytic solution for the density stratification of the nebula, which is defined by specifying the radius of the external boundary, the cross section of dust absorption, and the luminosity of the central star. We compare the analytic solution with numerical integrations of the model equations of Draine, and find a wide range of the physical parameters for which the analytic solution is accurate.

  7. The possible nature of socket stars in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Close inspection of faint stars (V of about 14 mag) in H II regions show that they appear to be surrounded by circumstellar envelopes of about 10 arcsecs in diameter (as reported by Feibelman in 1989). The present premise is that the sockets are envelopes of obscuring dust which should emit a measurable amount of infrared radiation based on a simple thermal equilibrium model. A search of literature shows that, of 36 socket stars listed by Feibelman, 17 have been measured in the infrared. Of the 17, 14 show excess IR emission. This is very strong evidence that the socket stars are really stars with circumstellar envelopes. Socket stars may be a new type of astronomical object or well-known astronomical objects in environments or evolutionary states not previously seen. 22 refs

  8. Improved selection criteria for H II regions, based on IRAS sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-Zeng; Xu, Ye; Walsh, A. J.; Macquart, J. P.; MacLeod, G. C.; Zhang, Bo; Hancock, P. J.; Chen, Xi; Tang, Zheng-Hong

    2018-05-01

    We present new criteria for selecting H II regions from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalogue (PSC), based on an H II region catalogue derived manually from the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The criteria are used to augment the number of H II region candidates in the Milky Way. The criteria are defined by the linear decision boundary of two samples: IRAS point sources associated with known H II regions, which serve as the H II region sample, and IRAS point sources at high Galactic latitudes, which serve as the non-H II region sample. A machine learning classifier, specifically a support vector machine, is used to determine the decision boundary. We investigate all combinations of four IRAS bands and suggest that the optimal criterion is log(F_{60}/F_{12})≥ ( -0.19 × log(F_{100}/F_{25})+ 1.52), with detections at 60 and 100 {μ}m. This selects 3041 H II region candidates from the IRAS PSC. We find that IRAS H II region candidates show evidence of evolution on the two-colour diagram. Merging the WISE H II catalogue with IRAS H II region candidates, we estimate a lower limit of approximately 10 200 for the number of H II regions in the Milky Way.

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  10. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  11. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  12. Study and mapping of natural hazards in the coastal zone of Murcia; Estudio y cartografia de los peligros naturales costeros de la region de Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seisdedos, J.; Mulas, J.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L. I.; Rodriguez Franco, J. A.; Garcia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Garrote, J.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance and implications of coastal hazards, very few studies have been focused on their analysis and mapping on a regional scale in a systematic and integrated way. This article presents a methodology based on the detailed analysis of natural hazards affecting coastal zones: floods, erosion, sea level rise, tsunamis, landslides, etc., and the study and mapping of the factors involved (coastal geomorphology, coastal processes, historical events, human activities). These factors and hazards are evaluated and integrated to prepare maps which include the assessments of each individual hazard and the overall ones. A mapping system in strips parallel to the coast is used, allowing the recognition and interpretation of the characteristics of the coast and the associated hazards. This methodology is applied to the coastal zone of Murcia, showing its usefulness for studying and mapping coastal hazards and its applicability to other regions. (Author)

  13. Long-term nutrient reductions lead to the unprecedented recovery of a temperate coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Orth, Robert J; Dennison, William C; Wilcox, David J; Murphy, Rebecca R; Keisman, Jennifer; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Landry, J Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A; Patrick, Christopher J; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E; Batiuk, Richard A

    2018-04-03

    Humans strongly impact the dynamics of coastal systems, yet surprisingly few studies mechanistically link management of anthropogenic stressors and successful restoration of nearshore habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Such examples are sorely needed to ensure the success of ecosystem restoration efforts worldwide. Here, we unite 30 consecutive years of watershed modeling, biogeochemical data, and comprehensive aerial surveys of Chesapeake Bay, United States to quantify the cascading effects of anthropogenic impacts on submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), an ecologically and economically valuable habitat. We employ structural equation models to link land use change to higher nutrient loads, which in turn reduce SAV cover through multiple, independent pathways. We also show through our models that high biodiversity of SAV consistently promotes cover, an unexpected finding that corroborates emerging evidence from other terrestrial and marine systems. Due to sustained management actions that have reduced nitrogen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay by 23% since 1984, SAV has regained 17,000 ha to achieve its highest cover in almost half a century. Our study empirically demonstrates that nutrient reductions and biodiversity conservation are effective strategies to aid the successful recovery of degraded systems at regional scales, a finding which is highly relevant to the utility of environmental management programs worldwide.

  14. Phenolic Compounds from the Fermentation of Cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Berovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fermentation of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian coastal region was performed in Bücher-Vaslin roto tank vinificators. Six different areas, Prade, Kortina, Škocijan, Ankaran, Labor and Hrvatini, were selected for this study to investigate total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins and colour density, as well as pH, titratable acidity, sugar content and ethanol. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be in generally higher concentrations (up to 4240 mg/L in Cabernet Sauvignon. Prolongation of the fermentation phase with Merlot gave even reduced concentrations of anthocyanins, a phenomenon which was not observed in Cabernet Sauvignon. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was found in Merlot from the Kortina location (735 mg/L, and in Cabernet Sauvignon from the Labor location (998 mg/L. The highest concentration of tannins (1828 mg/L was found in the grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon from the Ankaran location, while in Merlot 1280 mg/L was detected in a sample from the Prade area. The tone of colour and its intensity reached full maturity in Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot from the Kortina location reached the highest colour density of 1.57, while in a sample of Cabernet Sauvignon from Hrvatini colour density was 2.89. Only small differences were detected in colour quality between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  15. Heavy metals contamination in fish and shrimp from coastal regions of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    in the present study, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn) concentration was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in 5 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp commonly taken by locals at the coastal regions of Karachi, Pakistan Concentrations of Cd and Pb studied in tissues of Mushka (Otolithes ruber; 0.120 and 1.018 micro g/ wet weight) and palaemon longirostris shrimp (2.457 and 0.480 micro g/g wet weight) were found near to safe level for human consumption. Mullet, Tarli, Surmai, Dohtar fishes and Blacktiger shrimp were found contaminated by Cd and Pb but still within the limits fit for and human consumption. the distribution of trace metals detected in all fish and shrimp species followed the order of Zn >Pb> Fe>Cu> Cd and Cd> Fe > Zn> Cu>Ph, respectively. Metal concentration exhibited significant species variation and followed the order In fishes as otolithes ruber> Liza vaigiensis>sardinella albella>Scomberomorus guttatus>pomadasys olivaecum and in shrimp as palaemon longirostris>penaeus monodon> penaeus penicillatu. (author)

  16. Measurement of radon concentration in drinking water in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Srinivasa, E.

    2018-01-01

    Water is absolutely needed for most life on this earth. Quality of drinking water is the need of the hour for person's health and environmental studies rather it is consumed and transported pollutant in the environment. The most commonly occurring radionuclides in natural water Rn, that cause risk to human health are 222 Rn, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. They emit alpha particles and their inhalation and ingestion may results in high radioactive dose to sensitive cells of lungs, digestive tract and other organs of the human bodies. Radon enriched drinking water poses a potential health risk in two ways: first, transfer of radon from water to indoor air and its inhalation and secondly, through ingestion. Radon monitoring has been increasingly conducted worldwide because of the hazardous effects of radon on the health of human beings. The aim of the present study is to measure radon concentration and to estimate the annual effective dose in drinking water samples in coastal regions of Uttara Kannada district

  17. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  18. Tackling the salinity-pollution nexus in coastal aquifers from arid regions using nitrate and boron isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E

    2017-05-01

    Salinization and nitrate pollution are generally ascertained as the main issues affecting coastal aquifers worldwide. In arid zones, where agricultural activities also result in soil salinization, both phenomena tend to co-exist and synergically contribute to alter groundwater quality, with severe negative impacts on human populations and natural ecosystems' wellbeing. It becomes therefore necessary to understand if and to what extent integrated hydrogeochemical tools can help in distinguishing among possible different salinization and nitrate contamination origins, in order to provide adequate science-based support to local development and environmental protection. The alluvial plain of Bou-Areg (North Morocco) extends over about 190 km 2 and is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the coastal Lagoon of Nador. Its surface is covered for more than 60% by agricultural activities, although the region has been recently concerned by urban population increase and tourism expansion. All these activities mainly rely on groundwater exploitation and at the same time are the main causes of both aquifer and lagoon water quality degradation. For this reason, it was chosen as a case study representative of the typical situation of coastal aquifers in arid zones worldwide, where a clear identification of salinization and pollution sources is fundamental for the implementation of locally oriented remedies and long-term management strategies. Results of a hydrogeochemical investigation performed between 2009 and 2011 show that the Bou-Areg aquifer presents high salinity (often exceeding 100 mg/L in TDS) due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The area is also impacted by nitrate contamination, with concentrations generally exceeding the WHO statutory limits for drinking water (50 mg/L) and reaching up to about 300 mg/L, in both the rural and urban/peri-urban areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved nitrates (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO ) was used to constrain

  19. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  20. The Lower Chesapeake Bay LTAR: A coastal urban-agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, G.; Alfieri, J. G.; Cavigelli, M.; Cosh, M. H.; Hapeman, C. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Maul, J.; Mirsky, S.; Pooler, M.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Schomberg, H.; Timlin, D. J.; Rice, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., is the largest estuary in North America. The watershed area includes six states from New York to Virginia and is nearly 167,000 km2 in size with more than 150 rivers and streams entering the 300-km Bay main stem. Forested and agricultural lands make up 58 and 22 percent of the land use, respectively. Nearly 9 percent is urban and suburban use, and the watershed is home to over 17 million people. However, the population is expected to reach 19 million by 2025, raising the potential for conflict between the agricultural and urban communities over land and water use and in protecting natural resources, especially in the lower portion of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Lower Chesapeake Bay study area, part of the USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network, will provide much-needed data to support decisions at this critical agriculture-urban interface. Current long-term projects seek to assess the economic, production, and environmental performance of conventional and organic cropping systems and to evaluate the resilience of these systems to climate change. Large-scale studies are being conducted to examine the effects of land-use and landscape characteristics on ecosystem services and on energy, water, nutrient, carbon, and pest dynamics within watersheds. New in-situ measurement and remote sensor technologies are being considered with the expectancy that the data streams will be available on-line and for use in modeling. Results and outcomes of these research efforts will greatly benefit the national LTAR network and will be applicable to other US coastal urban-agricultural regions.

  1. Wind distribution and capacity factor estimation for wind turbines in the coastal region of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, T.R.; Jimoh, A.A.; Munda, J.L.; Agee, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate capacity factor of some commercially available wind turbines. ► Wind speed in the sites studied can best be modelled using Weibull distribution. ► Site WM05 has the highest wind power potential while site WM02 has the lowest. ► More wind power can be harnessed during the day period compared to the night. ► Turbine K seems to be the best turbine for the coastal region of South Africa. - Abstract: The operating curve parameters of a wind turbine should match the local wind regime optimally to ensure maximum exploitation of available energy in a mass of moving air. This paper provides estimates of the capacity factor of 20 commercially available wind turbines, based on the local wind characteristics of ten different sites located in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Ten-min average time series wind-speed data for a period of 1 year are used for the study. First, the wind distribution that best models the local wind regime of the sites is determined. This is based on root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) which are used to test goodness of fit. First, annual, seasonal, diurnal and peak period-capacity factor are estimated analytically. Then, the influence of turbine power curve parameters on the capacity factor is investigated. Some of the key results show that the wind distribution of the entire site can best be modelled statistically using the Weibull distribution. Site WM05 (Napier) presents the highest capacity factor for all the turbines. This indicates that this site has the highest wind power potential of all the available sites. Site WM02 (Calvinia) has the lowest capacity factor i.e. lowest wind power potential. This paper can assist in the planning and development of large-scale wind power-generating sites in South Africa.

  2. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  3. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  4. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V., E-mail: re@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 40123 Venice (Italy); National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS) - Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment (LRAE) Sfax (Tunisia); Sacchi, E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mas-Pla, J. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), 17003 Girona (Spain); Menció, A. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); El Amrani, N. [Faculty of Sciences and techniques, University Hassan 1er, Settat (Morocco)

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  5. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V.; Sacchi, E.; Mas-Pla, J.; Menció, A.; El Amrani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  6. Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.

  7. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  8. Establishing Design Storm Values from Climate Models in Coastal Regions: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic interactions of atmospheric and hydrological processes result in large spatiotemporal changes of precipitation and wind speed in coastal storm events under both current and future climates. This variability can impact the design and sustainability of water infrastructure ...

  9. Health status of the coastal waters of Mumbai and regions around

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Govindan, K.

    in the drainage zones also contribute to pollution loads. These inputs have affected the water quality, sediment quality and biological characteristics of receiving waters to varying degrees. BOD in coastal water is often high and water is enriched in dissolved...

  10. Bathymetry of Shallow Coastal Regions Derived from Space-Borne Hyperspectral Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, ZhongPing; Casey, Brandon; Parsons, Rost; Goode, Wesley; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... Though Hyperion was not designed for ocean studies, its unique spectral configuration makes it especially attractive to study the effectiveness of such kind of sensor for observing complex coastal waters...

  11. A multi-purpose rural development programme for coastal regions utilising solar energy and the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.; Sastry, J.S.

    A project primarily designed to meet the energy and fresh-water requirements of isolated coastal communities is presented. It will also help to increase the production of salts and marine chemical and fish (by aquaculture). The design involves...

  12. SEDIMENTATION IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS -- EVIDENCE FROM REGIONAL SURVEY OF BED SUBSTRATE SIZE AND STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive erosion, transport and deposition of sediment are major problems in streams and rivers throughout the United States. We examined evidence of anthropogenic sedimentation in Oregon and Washington coastal streams using relatively rapid measurements taken from surveys duri...

  13. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  14. A case study in atmospheric lead pollution of Northern-German coastal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitza, H.; Eppel, D.P. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1998-12-31

    Transport and deposition of atmospheric lead over the coastal zone of Northern Germany are investigated. It is shown that marked differences in the impact of the ecologically valuable wadden sea areas can occur between summer and winter time. Due to the formation of sea breeze systems in summer the coastal zone is likely to be less stressed than in winter when the pollutant is confined to a shallow layer above ground. (orig.) 10 refs.

  15. In-roads to the spread of antibiotic resistance: regional patterns of microbial transmission in northern coastal Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen; Scott, James; Percha, Bethany; Segovia, Rosana; Ponce, Karina; Hubbard, Alan; Marrs, Carl; Foxman, Betsy; Smith, David L.; Trostle, James

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance (AR) increases treatment cost and probability of failure, threatening human health worldwide. The relative importance of individual antibiotic use, environmental transmission and rates of introduction of resistant bacteria in explaining community AR patterns is poorly understood. Evaluating their relative importance requires studying a region where they vary. The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provide...

  16. Far-infrared observations of Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.W.; Becklin, E.E.; Gatley, I.; Ellis, M.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Robinson, G.; Thomas, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Far-infrared emission has been measured from four Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions: the 30 Doradus nebula, MC75, MC76 and MC77. The far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust heated by starlight. The results show that the LMC H II regions, like H II regions in the Galaxy, have far-infrared luminosities comparable to the total luminosity of their exciting stars. (author)

  17. Understanding Urban Communication in Information Era: Analyzing Development Progress of Coastal Territories in the Context of West Java’s Metropolitan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutriadi, Ridwan; Indriyani Kurniasari, Meta

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores a consequence of metropolitan and development centers policy to the development progress of coastal territories by analyzing municipal website base on urban communication functions of communicative city concept. In terms of coastal territories as a part of development center, efforts have to be made in enhancing the role and function of municipal website to show their development progress. Perceptual analysis is taken as a method to measure their position, especially kabupaten/kota as coastal territories in regional context (West Java Province). The results indicate that the availability of public information in coastal territories cities lower than other cities in metropolitan area. Innovation in specifying coastal features has to be promoted in illustrating development progress of coastal territories as a part of development centers in West Java Province.

  18. Greenland coastal air temperatures linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2018-01-01

    Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface air temperatures (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of warm air from lower latitudes and local warm air advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. Temperature composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.

  19. H II REGION DRIVEN GALACTIC BUBBLES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: pavelmi@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The relative alignments of mid-infrared traced Galactic bubbles are compared to the orientation of the mean Galactic magnetic field in the disk. The orientations of bubbles in the northern Galactic plane were measured and are consistent with random orientations-no preferential alignment with respect to the Galactic disk was found. A subsample of H II region driven Galactic bubbles was identified, and as a single population they show random orientations. When this subsample was further divided into subthermal and suprathermal H II regions, based on hydrogen radio recombination linewidths, the subthermal H II regions showed a marginal deviation from random orientations, but the suprathermal H II regions showed significant alignment with the Galactic plane. The mean orientation of the Galactic disk magnetic field was characterized using new near-infrared starlight polarimetry and the suprathermal H II regions were found to preferentially align with the disk magnetic field. If suprathermal linewidths are associated with younger H II regions, then the evolution of young H II regions is significantly affected by the Galactic magnetic field. As H II regions age, they cease to be strongly linked to the Galactic magnetic field, as surrounding density variations come to dominate their morphological evolution. From the new observations, the ratios of magnetic-to-ram pressures in the expanding ionization fronts were estimated for younger H II regions.

  20. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  1. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Moessbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batan Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sican ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  2. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type.

  3. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K

    2004-07-01

    To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy.

  4. Indoor radon concentrations in the coastal and central regions of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, Perko; Antovic, Nevenka; Svrkota, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first systematic indoor radon survey in Montenegro, in 10 municipalities of its coastal and central regions. In rural areas one home was randomly selected in each 5 x 5 km square of a regular grid covering the territory of Montenegro, while in urban areas the basic grid was subdivided into 0.5 x 0.5 km squares, and in each of them one building was selected and one dwelling within the building. In each of these 434 homes, radon measurements were performed twice a year, using passive dosimeters placed in the living room or bedroom on the ground floor or the first floor. The CR-39 nuclear track detectors were exposed each time for about six months. The annual average radon concentrations in the surveyed homes are found to be log normally distributed (GM = 49.6 Bq m -3 , GSD 3.2) within the range 2-2,208 Bq m -3 . Their arithmetic mean is 105 Bq m -3 and median 41.4 Bq m -3 . Radon concentrations above the action level of 400 Bq m -3 are detected in 5.6% of the surveyed homes. Most of these 24 homes are detached single-family houses, and the majority are rural. Radon concentrations were generally higher in detached family houses than in apartment buildings, in older than in newer houses, and higher in rural than in urban homes. As to the domestic radon exposure, this survey indicates reinforced concrete as the most favorable and stones as the most unfavorable of the building materials commonly used in Montenegro. The lowest average effective dose is in urban homes on the Montenegrin Coast (0.80 mSv y -1 ), while the highest is in the rural area of the Niksic municipality (7.31 mSv y - 1 ) , which is abundant in bauxite deposits. (author)

  5. A Carbon Monitoring System Approach to US Coastal Wetland Carbon Fluxes: Progress Towards a Tier II Accounting Method with Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Holmquist, J. R.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Byrd, K. B.; Callaway, J.; Crooks, S.; Drexler, J. Z.; Feagin, R. A.; Ferner, M. C.; Gonneea, M. E.; Kroeger, K. D.; Megonigal, P.; Morris, J. T.; Schile, L. M.; Simard, M.; Sutton-Grier, A.; Takekawa, J.; Troxler, T.; Weller, D.; Woo, I.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their high rates of long-term carbon (C) sequestration when compared to upland ecosystems, coastal C accounting is only recently receiving the attention of policy makers and carbon markets. Assessing accuracy and uncertainty in net C flux estimates requires both direct and derived measurements based on both short and long term dynamics in key drivers, particularly soil accretion rates and soil organic content. We are testing the ability of remote sensing products and national scale datasets to estimate biomass and soil stocks and fluxes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, the 2013 Wetlands Supplement to the 2006 IPCC GHG national inventory reporting guidelines requests information on development of Tier I-III reporting, which express increasing levels of detail. We report progress toward development of a Carbon Monitoring System for "blue carbon" that may be useful for IPCC reporting guidelines at Tier II levels. Our project uses a current dataset of publically available and contributed field-based measurements to validate models of changing soil C stocks, across a broad range of U.S. tidal wetland types and landuse conversions. Additionally, development of biomass algorithms for both radar and spectral datasets will be tested and used to determine the "price of precision" of different satellite products. We discuss progress in calculating Tier II estimates focusing on variation introduced by the different input datasets. These include the USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program, and combinations to calculate tidal wetland area. We also assess the use of different attributes and depths from the USDA-SSURGO database to map soil C density. Finally, we examine the relative benefit of radar, spectral and hybrid approaches to biomass mapping in tidal marshes and mangroves. While the US currently plans to report GHG emissions at a Tier I level, we argue that a Tier II analysis is possible due to national

  6. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  7. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds such as HCB, PeCB and HCHs. © 2013.

  8. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  9. Environmental security of the coastal seafloor in the sea ports and waterways of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, Ivica [Ministry of Defense, Croatian Navy, Dubrovacka 49, 21000 Split (Croatia); Kollar, Robert [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    The Mediterranean coastal seafloor is littered with man-made objects and materials, including a variety of ammunition in many areas. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas are contaminated with elevated concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. In order to reach a satisfactory level of environmental security of the coastal sea areas, fast neutron activation analysis with detection of associated alpha particles and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, both in laboratory and inside an autonomous underwater vehicle for in-situ measurements, has been used for the characterization of the objects on the seafloor. Measurements have shown that gamma ray spectra are able to distinguish threat material from the surrounding material. Analysis of more than 700 coastal sea sediment samples has resulted in concentration distribution maps indicating the locations of 'hot spots', which might interfere with threat material identification.

  10. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  11. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  12. Infrared studies of H II regions: the Sharpless regions S148, 184, 198, 206 and 269

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pismis, Paris

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a combined near-infrared and IRAS mapping study of five H II regions for which fairly complete information at optical and radio wavelengths previously existed. The near-infrared observations, carried out with the 2.1-m telescope at Observatorio de San Pedro Martir (Mexico), allowed us to study the the stellar content at the core of each nebula, while an analysis of extended near-infrared emission zones showed these to arise mainly from ionized gas (S148 and S206) or through scattering and thermal emission from dust grains surrounding a massive young star (S269-IRS2). The analysis of IRAS data, on the other hand, suggests that two different populations of grains contribute to the observed 12- to 100-μm fluxes. (author)

  13. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... coastal currents thus reducing density of water masses influencing major deep water formation areas in the Subarctic Atlantic Ocean. Ultimately, the observed freshening could have implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation....

  14. Decision-support for climate change adaptation – applications for coastal regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    of a coastline, its hazard profile and possible management options, and can be used for screening purposes prior to more detailed feasibility studies. The project has applied the framework for multi-hazard-assessments for the state of Karnataka, India and for the state of Djibouti to showcase its application...... challenges, uncertainties and limitations. Based on the applications on Karnataka and Djibouti, feedback from coastal experts and a range of selected spot-assessments, a slightly revised version of the Coastal Hazard Wheel has been developed. This is presented in an overview paper together with general...

  15. Characteristics of planetary nebulae and H II regions based on lambda = 1. 35 cm continuum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz, M A; Jardim, J O; Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia et Astrofisica

    1975-11-01

    Physical parameters are derived and discussed for stronger H II regions and planetary nebulae for which continuum radio data at lambda = 1.35 cm was obtained. The study includes southern hemisphere planetary nebulae IC-418, NGC-6,302, NGC-6,369, and H II regions RCW-65, RCW-87, RCW-99, H 2-3 and H 2-6.

  16. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  17. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    35 Figure 4. At the toe of a hill slope, the gradient is only slightly inclined or nearly level. ..................... 35...marshes, beach/ dune systems, and wet flats are typical of the outer coastal plain on recent or Holocene sediments, while mixed evergreen/hardwood...mangrove shrublands are also found along the Texas and Louisiana coasts (NatureServe 2006). Beach/ dune systems are typically associated with barrier

  18. The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow, through its trace constituents, can have a major impact on lower tropospheric chemistry, as evidenced by ozone depletion events (ODEs in oceanic polar areas. These ODEs are caused by the chemistry of bromine compounds that originate from sea salt bromide. Bromide may be supplied to the snow surface by upward migration from sea ice, by frost flowers being wind-blown to the snow surface, or by wind-transported aerosol generated by sea spray. We investigate here the relative importance of these processes by analyzing ions in snow near Alert and Ny-Ålesund (Canadian and European high Arctic in winter and spring. Vertical ionic profiles in the snowpack on sea ice are measured to test upward migration of sea salt ions and to seek evidence for ion fractionation processes. Time series of the ionic composition of surface snow layers are investigated to quantify wind-transported ions. Upward migration of unfractionated sea salt to heights of at least 17cm was observed in winter snow, leading to Cl- concentration of several hundred µM. Upward migration thus has the potential to supply ions to surface snow layers. Time series show that wind can deposit aerosols to the top few cm of the snow, leading also to Cl- concentrations of several hundred µM, so that both diffusion from sea ice and wind transport can significantly contribute ions to snow. At Ny-Ålesund, sea salt transported by wind was unfractionated, implying that it comes from sea spray rather than frost flowers. Estimations based on our results suggest that the marine snowpack contains about 10 times more Na+ than the frost flowers, so that both the marine snowpack and frost flowers need to be considered as sea salt sources. Our data suggest that ozone depletion chemistry can significantly enhance the Br- content of snow. We speculate that this can also take place in coastal regions and contribute to propagate ODEs inland. Finally, we stress the need to measure snow physical parameters

  19. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  20. Solar pond-based rural development programme for selected coastal regions - A concept

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    is expected to aid speedy development of selected coastal areas. The programme involves design and construction of a solar pond in which brine in the lower layer is heated to 85 degrees C by solar radiation and is used as the heat source for a closed cycle...

  1. Arabian Sea upwelling - A comparison between coastal and open ocean regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The response of the eastern Arabian Sea to prevailing winds during an upwelling event, in the peak of southwest monsoon, was studied at both coastal and open ocean environment based on the data collected as a part of the Indian Joint Global Ocean...

  2. Exploring the fate, transport and risk of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in a coastal region of China using a multimedia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Shuangwei; Wang, Tieyu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between

  3. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  4. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  5. Microbiological quality of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) produced and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Murilo Anderson; Nunes,Márcia Menezes; Nuernberg,Leonardo; Schulz,Denys; Batista,Cleide Rosana Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Oysters are filter feeders able to ingest particles in suspension that may carry pathogenic microorganisms. In this respect, the consumption of raw oysters can cause foodborne diseases in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of Crassostrea gigas oysters cultivated and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The study comprised counts of coliforms at 35ºC and at 45ºC, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, a...

  6. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    –885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34/871/2016/ doi:10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea V. Sanil Kumar and Jesbin... of the period. The annual average value is ∼ 1.5 m (Anoop et al., 2015). During the non-monsoon period, the land and sea breeze has a signif- icant influence on the wave climate of eastern AS (Glejin Ann. Geophys., 34, 871–885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34...

  7. A Simple Technique for Sustaining Solar Energy Production in Active Convective Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E. Emetere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. 3D simulations relating the surface temperature, sunshine hour, and solar irradiance were adopted to see the effect of minute changes of other meteorological parameters on solar irradiance. This enabled the day-to-day solar radiation monitoring with the primary objective to examine the best technique for maximum power generation via solar option in coastal locations. The month of January had the highest turbulent features, showing the influence of weather and the poorest solar radiance due to low sunshine hour. Twenty-year weather parameters in the research area were simulated to express the systematic influence of weather of PV performance. A theoretical solar farm was illustrated to generate stable power supply with emphasis on the longevity of the PV module proposed by introducing an electronic concentrator pillar (CP. The pictorial and operational model of the solar farm was adequately explained.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL URBAN AREA OF KALLITHEA IN ATTICA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

  9. Natural radioactivity in some drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Byrakdar, E.; Amin, Y.; Abu Baker, S.

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides ( 222 Rn, 222 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 238 U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)

  10. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  11. Modeling Water Exchange and Contaminant Transport through a Baltic Coastal Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Doeoes, Kristofer; Andrejev, Oleg

    2006-01-01

    The water exchange of the Baltic coastal zone is characterized by its seasonally varying regimes. In the safety assessment of a potential repository for spent nuclear fuel, it is important to assess the consequences of a hypothetical leak of radionuclides through the seabed into a waterborne transport phase. In particular, estimates of the associated residence times in the near-shore coastal zone are of interest. There are several methods to quantify such measures, of which three are presented here. Using the coastal location of Forsmark (Sweden) as an example, methods based on passive tracers, particle trajectories, and the average age distribution of exogenous water parcels are compared for a representative one-year cycle. Tracer-based methods can simulate diffusivity more realistically than the other methods. Trajectory-based methods can handle Lagrangian dispersion processes due to advection but neglect diffusion on the sub-grid scale. The method based on the concept of average age (AvA) of exogenous water can include all such sources simultaneously not only boundary water bodies but also various (fresh)water discharges. Due to the inclusion of sub-grid diffusion this method gives a smoother measure of the water renewal. It is shown that backward in time trajectories and AvA-times are basically equipollent methods, yielding correlated results within the limits set by the diffusivity

  12. Remote wind stress influence on mean sea level in a subtropical coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Calim Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relative influence of remote wind stress on mean sea level (MSL variations in the coastal region of Cananeia (Sao Paulo State, Southern Brazil during the period from 1/1/1955 to 12/31/1993. An optimized low-pass Thompson filter for the study area, and spectral analysis (cross spectrum, coherence and phase lag of the relationship between the MSL and both parallel (T// and perpendicular (T| wind stress components were applied. These were extracted from four grid points of the NCEP/NCAR global model. The predominance of annual oscillations as those of greatest coherence and energy, of periods of approximately 341 days (frequency of 0.00293 cpd and 410 days (frequency of 0.00244 cpd, respectively, were observed. Offshore NCEP/NCAR grid points were those with the highest coherence and energy throughout the study in relation to the observed MSL. This may be linked to the restriction of the NCEP/NCAR model as regards the inland limit. It is also concluded that remote wind stress may play an important role in several MSL time scales, including the annual ones. Based on criteria such as coherence and energy peaks, the wind stress component of greatest effect on MSL was the parallel one.O presente estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a influência relativa de tensão do vento remoto na variação do nível médio do mar (NMM para a região costeira de Cananéia (SP durante o período de 1/1/1955 a 31/12/1993. Foram aplicados um filtro de passa-baixa de Thompson (1983, otimizado para a região de Cananéia, além de análise espectral (espectro cruzado, coerência e defasagem entre o NMM e as componentes paralela (T// e perpendicular (T| da tensão do vento. Estas foram extraídas de quatro pontos de grade do modelo global NCEP/NCAR. Observou-se a predominância das oscilações anuais como aquelas de maior coerência e energia, destacando-se os períodos de aproximadamente 341 dias (frequência de 0,00293 cpd e 410

  13. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of {sup 222}Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, Thomas C., E-mail: thomas.stieglitz@jcu.edu.a [AIMS-JCU, Townsville (Australia); Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB NO 3, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); Cook, Peter G., E-mail: peter.g.cook@csiro.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Burnett, William C., E-mail: wburnett@mailer.fsu.ed [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The radon isotope {sup 222}Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  14. Potency of Education Historical Tourismof World War II Japanese Cavesand Bunkersin Coastal Banyuwangi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Miftahul; Qiram, Ikhwanul

    2018-05-01

    Banyuwangi district has some Japanese caves and bunkers of World War II. The location of the objects are along the Banyuwangi coast as a maritime defense during the war. This structures can be used as education historical tourism object. There are many similar structures in other area that have been neglected and do not get enough preservation attention. This research is aimed to identify the potency of education historical tourism of Japanese caves and bunker in Banyuwangi. The research is done by field research for the observation of objects physical condition. It is also done by interviewing local government, historical actors and surrounding community. The result shows that the caves and bunker have a great potency but have not been used as education historical object.

  15. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  16. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  17. Determination of Ra natural isotopes in marine samples from Itamaraca coastal regions; Determinacao de isotopos naturais de Ra em amostras costeiras da regiao de Itamaraca (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Valentim, Eliane; Lima, Ricardo A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br; Medeiros, Carmem [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia; Oliveira, Joselene [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in the transport of nutrients and pollutants to the coastal marine environment s and other surfaces water. Concentrations of {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in marine water of the Itamaraca coastal region, PE, were measured during the winter of 2004, aiming to investigate the presence of radionuclides as a tracer of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) in the environment studied. Measurements of temperature, salinity and nutrients were also carried out. (author)

  18. Regional disarmament and security issues. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenhill, J.

    1994-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in building cooperation in the Asia-pacific region in remarkably short period of time. Problems of regional disarmament are analysed by linking the economic and security issues. International cooperation regimes, whether in the military sphere, such as the Non-proliferation treaty, or in the trade sphere such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, inevitably impose restrictions on the autonomy of member States. The integrity of the regime depends on countries' acceptance of the obligations it imposes. The task ahead is to convince all countries in the region that cooperation in the security sphere will be of even greater long-term benefit

  19. Regional Dialogue on the Information Society (DIRSI) - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Regional Dialogue on the Information Society Network (DIRSI) is a ... the poorest sectors of society, the project will focus on innovative policy solutions ... their Impact on the Development of the Mobile Telecommunications Services Sector.

  20. Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Logic of quench protection assembly for BEPC II interaction region superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fusan; Cheng Jian

    2006-01-01

    Two superconducting magnet complexes are used in BEPC II interaction region. The corresponding quench protection system divides all related faults into two classes and takes different protection actions according to the urgency degree. Since BEPC II has two operating modes and the superconducting magnets use different power supplies in different operating modes, the quench protection system must take the mode switching into consideration. (authors)

  2. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.

  3. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, M.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission

  4. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  5. Coastal flooding impact evaluation using an INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model for Varna region, Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The study presents evaluation and comparative analysis of storm induced flooding impacts on different coastal receptors at a scale of Varna region using INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model. The model was developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT project, as a part of Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) consisting of two phases. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process that evaluates coastal risk at a regional scale by means of coastal indices approach, which helps to identify potentially vulnerable coastal sectors: hot spots (HS). CRAF Phase 2 has the objective to assess and rank identified hotspots by detailed risk analysis done by jointly performing a hazard assessment and an impact evaluation on different categories (population, businesses, ecosystems, transport and utilities) using INDRA model at a regional level. Basically, the model assess the shock of events by estimating the impact on directly exposed to flooding hazard receptors of different vulnerability, as well as the potential ripple effects during an event in order to assess the "indirect" impacts, which occur outside the hazard area and/or continue after the event for all considered categories. The potential impacts are expressed in terms of uniform "Impact Indicators", which independently score the indirect impacts of these categories assessing disruption and recovery of the receptors. The ultimate hotspot ranking is obtained through the use of a Multi Criteria analysis (MCA) incorporated in the model, considering preferences of stakeholders. The case study area - Varna regional coast - is located on the western Black Sea, Bulgaria. The coastline, with a length of about 70 km, stretches from cape Ekrene to cape St. Atanas and includes Varna Bay. After application of CRAF Phase 1 three hotspots were selected for further analysis: Kabakum beach (HS1), Varna Central beach plus Port wall (HS2) and Artificial Island (HS3). For first two hotspots beaches and associated infrastructure are the assets

  6. Multisite Evaluation of APEX for Water Quality: II. Regional Parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nathan O; Baffaut, Claire; Lory, John A; Anomaa Senaviratne, G M M M; Bhandari, Ammar B; Udawatta, Ranjith P; Sweeney, Daniel W; Helmers, Matt J; Van Liew, Mike W; Mallarino, Antonio P; Wortmann, Charles S

    2017-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) Index assessment requires independent estimates of long-term average annual P loss from fields, representing multiple climatic scenarios, management practices, and landscape positions. Because currently available measured data are insufficient to evaluate P Index performance, calibrated and validated process-based models have been proposed as tools to generate the required data. The objectives of this research were to develop a regional parameterization for the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model to estimate edge-of-field runoff, sediment, and P losses in restricted-layer soils of Missouri and Kansas and to assess the performance of this parameterization using monitoring data from multiple sites in this region. Five site-specific calibrated models (SSCM) from within the region were used to develop a regionally calibrated model (RCM), which was further calibrated and validated with measured data. Performance of the RCM was similar to that of the SSCMs for runoff simulation and had Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) > 0.72 and absolute percent bias (|PBIAS|) 90%) and was particularly ineffective at simulating sediment loss from locations with small sediment loads. The RCM had acceptable performance for simulation of total P loss (NSE > 0.74, |PBIAS| < 30%) but underperformed the SSCMs. Total P-loss estimates should be used with caution due to poor simulation of sediment loss. Although we did not attain our goal of a robust regional parameterization of APEX for estimating sediment and total P losses, runoff estimates with the RCM were acceptable for P Index evaluation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Para, BR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, Adriana Oliveira; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso; Scheller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Para. Coastal plateau waters have δ 87 Sr between 1.51 and 6.26 per mille and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show δ 87 Sr between 0.55 and 0.90 per mille and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have δ 87 Sr per mille around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal plateau waters. (author)

  8. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: sjkang@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  9. Regional patterns and controlling factors in plant species composition and diversity in Canadian lowland coastal bogs and laggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Howie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventories of natural assemblages of plant species are critical when planning ecological restoration of bogs. However, little is known about the regional variation in plant communities at the margins (laggs of bogs, even though they are an integral element of raised bog ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the regional patterns in the plant communities of bogs and laggs, and the factors that control them, for thirteen bogs in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Species richness was significantly higher in the bogs and laggs of the cooler, wetter Pacific Oceanic wetland region. Beta Diversity analyses showed that bogs in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region often shared species with their respective laggs, whereas half of the laggs in the warmer, drier Pacific Temperate wetland region had no species in common with the adjacent bogs and were thus more ecologically distinct from the bog. Primary climatic variables, such as mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature and latitude, as well as climate-influenced variables, such as pH, peat depth, and Na+ concentrations were the main correlates of plant species composition in the studied bogs. Site-specific factors, particularly depth to water table, and fraction of inorganic material in peat samples, were as strongly related to lagg plant communities as climate, while hydrochemistry appeared to have less influence.

  10. Prevalence and Density of Digenetic Trematode Metacercariae in Clams and Oysters from Western Coastal Regions of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2017-08-01

    A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

  11. Emission-line diagnostics of nearby H II regions including interacting binary populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2018-06-01

    We present numerical models of the nebular emission from H II regions around young stellar populations over a range of compositions and ages. The synthetic stellar populations include both single stars and interacting binary stars. We compare these models to the observed emission lines of 254 H II regions of 13 nearby spiral galaxies and 21 dwarf galaxies drawn from archival data. The models are created using the combination of the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code with the photoionization code CLOUDY to study the differences caused by the inclusion of interacting binary stars in the stellar population. We obtain agreement with the observed emission line ratios from the nearby star-forming regions and discuss the effect of binary-star evolution pathways on the nebular ionization of H II regions. We find that at population ages above 10 Myr, single-star models rapidly decrease in flux and ionization strength, while binary-star models still produce strong flux and high [O III]/H β ratios. Our models can reproduce the metallicity of H II regions from spiral galaxies, but we find higher metallicities than previously estimated for the H II regions from dwarf galaxies. Comparing the equivalent width of H β emission between models and observations, we find that accounting for ionizing photon leakage can affect age estimates for H II regions. When it is included, the typical age derived for H II regions is 5 Myr from single-star models, and up to 10 Myr with binary-star models. This is due to the existence of binary-star evolution pathways, which produce more hot Wolf-Rayet and helium stars at older ages. For future reference, we calculate new BPASS binary maximal starburst lines as a function of metallicity, and for the total model population, and present these in Appendix A.

  12. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  13. Including ecosystem dynamics in risk assessment of radioactive waste in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.; Gilek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection has mainly focused on assessing and minimising risks of negative effects on human health. Although some efforts have been made to estimate effects on non-human populations, modelling of radiation risks to other components of the ecosystem have often lead to more or less disappointing results. In this paper an ecosystem approach is suggested and exemplified with a preliminary 14 C model of a coastal Baltic ecosystem. Advantages with the proposed ecosystem approach are for example the possibility to detect important but previously neglected pathways to humans since the whole ecosystem is analysed. The results from the model indicate that a rather small share of hypothetical released 14 C would accumulate in biota due to large water exchange in the modelled area. However, modelled future scenarios imply opposite results, i.e. relatively high doses in biota, due to changes of the physical properties in the area that makes a larger accumulation possible. (author)

  14. Community structure of spiders in coastal habitats of a Mediterranean delta region (Nestos Delta, NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buchholz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (pp 101-115Habitat zonation and ecology of spider assemblages have been poorly studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. A first analysis of spider assemblages in coastal habitats in the east Mediterranean area is presented. The study area is the 250 km² Nestos Delta, located in East Macedonia in the North-East of Greece. Spiders were caught in pitfall traps at 17 sites from the beginning of April to the end of June 2004. Nonparametric estimators were used to determine species richness and alpha diversity. Ordination analysis (redundancy analysis indicated four clearly separable spider species groups (salt meadows, dunes, mea-dows and floodplain forests, along a soil salinity and moisture gradient. Based on these results we discuss the habitat preferences of these spiders and include the first ecological data on several species.

  15. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  16. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  17. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  18. The cometary H II regions of DR 21: Bow shocks or champagne flows or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, K.; Cyganowski, C.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    We present deep Very Large Array H66α radio recombination line (RRL) observations of the two cometary H II regions in DR 21. With these sensitive data, we test the "hybrid" bow shock/champagne flow model previously proposed for the DR 21 H II regions. The ionized gas down the tail of the southern H II region is redshifted by up to ~30 km s-1 with respect to the ambient molecular gas, as expected in the hybrid scenario. The RRL velocity structure, however, reveals the presence of two velocity components in both the northern and southern H II regions. This suggests that the ionized gas is flowing along cone-like shells, swept-up by stellar winds. The observed velocity structure of the well-resolved southern H II region is most consistent with a picture that combines a stellar wind with stellar motion (as in bow shock models) along a density gradient (as in champagne flow models). The direction of the implied density gradient is consistent with that suggested by maps of dust continuum and molecular line emission in the DR 21 region. The image cubes are only available as a FITS file at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A39Table 2, Fig. 4, and Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Evaluating Production of Cyclopentyl Tetraethers by Marine Group II Euryarchaeota in the Pearl River Estuary and Coastal South China Sea: Potential Impact on the TEX86 Paleothermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TEX86 [TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs with 86 carbon atoms] has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo- sea surface temperature. Marine Group I (MG-I Thaumarchaeota were thought to be the primary source of GDGTs constituting the TEX86 formula; however, recent research has suggested that Marine Group II (MG-II Euryarchaeota may also contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. Little is known regarding the potential impact of MG-II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs on TEX86 values recorded in marine sediments. In this study, we assessed the relationship between distributions of GDGTs and MG-II Euryarchaeota and evaluated its potential effect on the TEX86 proxy. Lipid and DNA analyses were performed on suspended particulate matter and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water and its estuary (mixing water to the coastal South China Sea (SCS, seawater. TEX86-derived temperatures from the water column and surface sediments were significantly correlated and both were lower than satellite-based temperatures. The ring index (RI values in these environments were higher than predicted from the calculated TEX86-RI correlation, indicating that the GDGT pool in the water column of the PR estuary and coastal SCS comprises relatively more cyclopentane rings, which thereby altered TEX86 values. Furthermore, the abundance of MG-II Euryarchaeota 16S rRNA gene in the mixing water was two to three orders of magnitude higher than those observed in the river or seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG-II Euryarchaeota to total archaea and the fractional abundance of GDGTs with cyclopentane rings. Collectively, these results suggest that MG-II Euryarchaeota likely produce a large proportion of GDGTs with 1–4 cyclopentane moieties, which may bias TEX86 values in the water column and sediments. As such, valid

  20. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Rood, Robert T., E-mail: Loren.Anderson@mail.wvu.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  1. Global warming hiatus contributed to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuwei; Zhan, Ruifen; Wang, Yuqing

    2018-04-16

    The recent global warming hiatus (GWH) was characterized by a La Niña-like cooling in the tropical Eastern Pacific accompanied with the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming. Here we show that the recent GWH contributed significantly to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia since 1998. The GWH associated sea surface temperature anomalies triggered a pair of anomalous cyclonic and anticyclonic circulations and equatorial easterly anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which favored TC genesis and intensification over the western Northwest Pacific but suppressed TC genesis and intensification over the southeastern Northwest Pacific due to increased vertical wind shear and anticyclonic circulation anomalies. Results from atmospheric general circulation model experiments demonstrate that the Pacific La Niña-like cooling dominated the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming in contributing to the observed GWH-related anomalous atmospheric circulation over the Northwest Pacific.

  2. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  3. How sea level change mediates genetic divergence in coastal species across regions with varying tectonic and sediment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Greer A; Ellingson, Ryan A; Findley, Lloyd T; Jacobs, David K

    2018-02-01

    Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea level change interacted with variable nearshore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the last glacial maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38°N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25°N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three codistributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals. Results show that glacial-associated sea level change limited estuarine habitat to few, widely separated refugia at glacial lowstand, and present-day genetic clades were sourced from specific refugia. Habitat increased during postglacial sea level rise and refugial populations admixed in newly formed habitats. Continental shelves with active tectonics and/or low sediment supply were steep and hosted fewer, smaller refugia with more genetically differentiated populations than on broader shelves. Approximate Bayesian computation favoured the refuge-recolonization scenarios from habitat models over isolation by distance and seaway alternatives, indicating isolation at lowstand is a major diversification mechanism among these estuarine (and perhaps other) coastal species. Because sea level change is a global phenomenon, we suggest this top-down physical control of extirpation-isolation-recolonization may be an important driver of genetic diversification in coastal taxa inhabiting other topographically complex coasts globally during the Mid- to Late Pleistocene and deeper timescales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Local and regional scale exchanges of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between tidal wetlands and their adjacent coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Joshi, I.; Lebrasse, M. C.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Bianchi, T. S.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; D'Sa, E. J.; He, R.; Ko, D.; Arellano, A.; Ward, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of blue carbon from tidal wetlands to the coastal ocean in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a terrestrial-aquatic linkage of increasing importance. DOC flux results will be presented from local (tidal creek) and regional (bays) scale studies in which various combinations of field observations, ocean-color satellite observations, and the outputs of high-resolution hydrodynamic models were used to estimate DOC export. The first project was located in Bald Head Creek, a tributary to the Cape Fear River estuary in eastern North Carolina (NC). DOC fluxes were computed using a bathymetric data collected via unmanned surface vehicle (USV) and a numerical hydrodynamic model (SCHISM) based on the relationships between colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption, DOC concentration, and salinity taken from field observations. Model predictions estimated an annual net export of DOC at 54 g C m-2 yr-1 from the tidal creek to the adjacent estuary. Carbon stable isotope (δ13C) values were used to estimate the contribution of wetland carbon to this export. In the second project, DOC fluxes from the Apalachicola Bay, FL, Barataria Bay, LA, were based on the development of algorithms between DOC and CDOM absorption derived from the VIIRS ocean color sensor. The Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) was used to compute salt flux estimates from each bay to the Louisiana-Texas shelf. The relationship between salinity and CDOM was used to estimate net annual DOC exports of 8.35 x 106 g C m-2 y-1 (Apalachicola Bay) and 7.14 x 106 g C m-2 yr-1 (Barataria Bay). These values approximate 13% and 9% of the annual loads of DOC from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, respectively. CDOM and lignin were used in a mixing model to estimate wetland-derived DOC were 2% for Apalachicola Bay and 13% for Barataria Bay, the latter having one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise in North America. Results from our project demonstrated the utility

  5. Coastal Ecosystem Assessment, Development and Creation of a Policy Tool using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for: A Case Study of Western Puerto Rico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Barreto, J.; Pillich, J.; Aponte Bermúdez, L. D.; Torres Pagan, G.

    2017-12-01

    This project utilizes low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based systems for different applications, such as low-altitude (high resolution) aerial photogrammetry for aerial analysis of vegetation, reconstruction of beach topography and mapping coastal erosion to understand, and estimated ecosystem values. As part of this work, five testbeds coastal sites, designated as the Caribbean Littoral Aerial Surveillance System (CLASS), were established. The sites are distributed along western Puerto Rico coastline where population and industry (tourism) are very much clustered and dense along the coast. Over the past year, rapid post-storm deployment of UAV surveying has been successfully integrated into the CLASS sites, specifically at Rincon (Puerto Rico), where coastal erosion has raised the public and government concern over the past decades. A case study is presented here where we collected aerial photos before and after the swells caused by Hurricane Mathew (October 2016). We merged the point cloud obtained from the UAV photogrammetric assessment with topo-bathymetric data, to get a complete beach topography. Using the rectified and georeferenced UAV orthophotos, we identified the maximum wave runup for the pre-swell and post-swell events. Also, we used numerical modeling (X-Beach) to simulate the rate-of-change dynamics of the coastal zones and compare the model results to observed values (including multiple historic shoreline positions). In summary, our project has accomplished the first milestone which is the Development and Implementation of an Effective Shoreline Monitoring Program using UAVs. The activities of the monitoring program have enabled the collection of crucial data for coastal mapping along Puerto Rico's shorelines with emphasis on coastal erosion hot spots zones and ecosystem values. Our results highlight the potential of the synergy between UAVs, photogrammetry, and Geographic Information Systems to provide faster and low-cost reliable

  6. Politics in the Western Maya Region (II: Emblem Glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express ideas and concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. In this article I investigate the meaning of emblem glyphs. I suggest that originally they were toponyms but later on they became titles of origin which indicated descendance from a common origin place.En una serie de artículos investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental que se conectan con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan ideas y conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. En este artículo investigo el significado de los glifos emblema. Propongo que originalmente fueron topónimos y después llegaron a ser títulos de origen que indicaron descendencia común de un lugar original.

  7. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Surinam; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America

  8. ABRASION WAVE OBSTRUCTS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN COASTAL REGIONS OF BINUANGEUN, LEBAK - BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geographically, the study area is located in the southern coast of Java and also exposed to the influence of wave energy from the southeast, south and southwest. The energy flux of waves generated by surface wind components that affect the coastline and the surrounding waters of Binuangeun. The impact of the wave coming from southeast direction caused a continuous abrasion process in Binuangeun coast and its adjacent areas, included the tourism area in the eastern part of Binuangeun coast towards the center of the study area. The current movement along the coast was accompanied by sediments deposition which tends to westward. The value of sediments supply (Vq in sample area point number 9 was bigger than the sample area number 4 about 33.703 m3/year within the same direction tendency of sediments deposition. Western part of Binuangeun coastal area would presumably become the sediment accumulation point throughout the year, while the erosion process in the central part of the study area were expanding and occured seasonally.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in marine molluscs from the Moroccan coastal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maanan, Mohamed [Geolittomer, UMR 6554 LETG - CNRS, Universite de Nantes, BP 81227, 44312 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: mohamed.maanan@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-05-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis decussatus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were sampled seasonally during 2004-2005, from different coastal environments of Morocco in order to measure their accumulated heavy metal concentrations. The concentrations of Hg and Pb were determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn and Ni) were quantified by AAS. The soft tissue concentrations of the mussels were on average 7.2 mg kg{sup -1} (Cd), 9.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Pb), 0.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Hg), 26.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cu), 8.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cr), 292 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn), 20.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Mn) and 32.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Ni). The highest tissue heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the south from the industrial area of Jorf Lasfar. The relationships between metal concentration and season in each species showed very similar annual profiles with a peak observed around spring-summer. Statistical analysis indicated that different species showed different bioaccumulation of metals depending on study site and season. - The accumulated metal concentrations in bivalves from the clean stations may be considered as useful Atlantic coast reference background levels for future comparison.

  10. Mapping the Factors Affecting Household Food Security of Tuberculosis Patients in Coastal Region of Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningrum, D.; Ulama, B. S. S.; Lathifah, R.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is a condition of a person who has access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food to meet the needs of a healthy life. Affordability of food is determined by the aggregate purchasing power. It is also can be measured by the amount of poverty in Indonesia which reached 28,07 million in 2014. According to data from the health department, the largest TB cases in Indonesia were in East Java Province and Surabaya accounted for the largest number, there are 48379 cases in 2015. This study mapping the factors that affect household food security of TB patients in the coastal areas of Surabaya. This study used secondary data sources from 11 clinics i.e. TB patient's addres and primary data source to survey patients about food security. Variables used in this study are variables related to socioeconomic factors and sanitary factors. Those variables will be analyzed descriptively and mapping using biplot analysis. Biplot generated based on socio-economic factors, sanitary factors, and status of households in 11 districts Surabaya that near the beach geographically. The result shows that 64% of TB patient households are food insecure than the left are food secure. More than 50% of TB patient households have a good house physically. From the result of mapping between sub-districts and factors, formed five groups consisting of: 1) Benowo and Mulyorejo; 2) Asemrowo, Gunung Anyar, Sukolilo and Pabean Cantikan; 3) Semampir, Krembangan and Bulak; 4) Kenjeran; and 5) Rungkut.

  11. [Polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions HVR I and HVR II in Changdu Tibetan in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianmin; Kang, Longli; Bian, Liqiang; La, Zong

    2008-10-01

    To analyze the sequence polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II in Tibetan population in Changdu area of Tibet. mtDNAs obtained from 97 unrelated individuals were amplified and directly sequenced. One hundred and eleven variable sites were identified, including nucleotide transitions, transversions, insertions and deletions. In HVR I region (nt16024-nt16365), sixty-eight polymorphic sites and 92 haplotypes were observed, and the genetic diversity was 0.9985. In HVR II region (nt73-nt340), forty-three polymorphic sites and 91 haplotypes were detected, and the genetic diversity was 0.9882. The random match probability of HVR I and HVR II regions were 0.0120 and 0.0118, respectively. When the sequence analysis of HVR I and HVR II regions were combined, ninety-seven different haplotypes were found. The combined match probability of two unrelated persons having the same sequence was 0.0103. There are some unique polymorphic loci in the Changdu Tibetan population. The results suggest that there are significant difference in the genetic structure in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region between Changdu Tibetans and other Asian populations and Caucasians. Sequence polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II can be used as a genetic marker for forensic individual identification and genetic analysis.

  12. Downscaling wind and wavefields for 21st century coastal flood hazard projections in a region of complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    While global climate models (GCMs) provide useful projections of near-surface wind vectors into the 21st century, resolution is not sufficient enough for use in regional wave modeling. Statistically downscaled GCM projections from Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogues provide daily averaged near-surface winds at an appropriate spatial resolution for wave modeling within the orographically complex region of San Francisco Bay, but greater resolution in time is needed to capture the peak of storm events. Short-duration high wind speeds, on the order of hours, are usually excluded in statistically downscaled climate models and are of key importance in wave and subsequent coastal flood modeling. Here we present a temporal downscaling approach, similar to constructed analogues, for near-surface winds suitable for use in local wave models and evaluate changes in wind and wave conditions for the 21st century. Reconstructed hindcast winds (1975–2004) recreate important extreme wind values within San Francisco Bay. A computationally efficient method for simulating wave heights over long time periods was used to screen for extreme events. Wave hindcasts show resultant maximum wave heights of 2.2 m possible within the Bay. Changes in extreme over-water wind speeds suggest contrasting trends within the different regions of San Francisco Bay, but 21th century projections show little change in the overall magnitude of extreme winds and locally generated waves.

  13. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Fazil, M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, H.A.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  14. Occurrence and multivariate exploratory analysis of the natural radioactivity anomaly in the south coastal region of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniu, M. I.; Angeyo, K. H.; Darby, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    Characterized by a variety of rock formations, namely alkaline, igneous and sedimentary that contain significant deposits of monazite and pyrochlore ores, the south coastal region of Kenya may be regarded as highly heterogeneous with regard to its geochemistry, mineralogy as well as geological morphology. The region is one of the several alkaline carbonatite complexes of Kenya that are associated with high natural background radiation and therefore radioactivity anomaly. However, this high background radiation (HBR) anomaly has hardly been systematically assessed and delineated with regard to the spatial, geological, geochemical as well as anthropogenic variability and co-dependencies. We conducted wide-ranging in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements in this area. The goal of the study was to assess the radiation exposure as well as determine the underlying natural radioactivity levels in the region. In this paper we report the occurrence, exploratory analysis and modeling to assess the multivariate geo-dependence and spatial variability of the radioactivity and associated radiation exposure. Unsupervised principal component analysis and ternary plots were utilized in the study. It was observed that areas which exhibit HBR anomalies are located along the south coast paved road and in the Mrima-Kiruku complex. These areas showed a trend towards enhanced levels of 232Th and 238U and low 40K. The spatial variability of the radioactivity anomaly was found to be mainly constrained by anthropogenic activities, underlying geology and geochemical processes in the terrestrial environment.

  15. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the

  16. Development of a Regional Neural Network for Coastal Water Level Predictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Wenrui; Murray, Catherine; Kraus, Nicholas; Rosati, Julie

    2003-01-01

    .... Fortunately, the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has a national network of water level monitoring stations distributed in regional scale that has been operating for several decades...

  17. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W. [Now at Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. (United States); Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M., E-mail: ianws@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  18. Multiscale habitat suitability index models for priority landbirds in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Tirpak; D. Todd Jones-Farrand; Frank R., III Thompson; Daniel J. Twedt; William B., III Uihlein

    2009-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models were developed to assess habitat quality for 40 priority bird species in the Central Hardwoods and West Gulf Coastal Plain/Ouachitas Bird Conservation Regions. The models incorporated both site and landscape environmental variables from one of six nationally consistent datasets. Potential habitat was first defined from unique...

  19. Biomass and nitrogen-use efficiency of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with nitrogen and supplemental irrigation in Coastal Plain Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor rainfall distribution and soil conditions such as high soil strength, low water holding capacity of soils and poor soil fertility in the humid Coastal Plain region may affect production of grain crops. Nitrogen insufficiency and water stress can both reduce crop yield, but little information is...

  20. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  1. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Haworth, Thomas J.; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J.

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within H II regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within H II regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the H II region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the H II region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the torus code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24 μm through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresponding feature in tracers of gas emission. The 24 μm intensity decreases exponentially from the arc with increasing distance from the star because the dust temperature decreases with distance. The size distribution and composition of the dust grains has quantitative but not qualitative effects on our results. Despite the simplifications of our model, we find good qualitative agreement with observations of the H II region RCW 120, and can provide physical explanations for any quantitative differences. Our model produces an infrared arc with the same shape and size as the arc around CD -38°11636 in RCW 120, and with comparable brightness. This suggests that infrared arcs around O stars in H II regions may be revealing the extent of stellar wind bubbles, although we have not excluded other explanations.

  2. Biomagnification of some heavy and essential metals in sediments, fishes and crayfish from Ondo State coastal region, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaolu, S.S.; Olaofe, O.

    2005-01-01

    The bio magnifications levels of some essential (Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn) were determined in sediments, three kinds of fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Synodonthis sp., and Clarias gariepinus) and crayfish from the Ondo State coastal region. The metal bio magnification in the fish and crayfish was several times greater than in water, while that in the sediments was several thousand-folds greater than in both the organisms and water. Among the metals examined in water, Fe was the most abundant with average values of 146.7 and 74.3 mg/1, respectively, for wet and dry seasons, while Co was the least with average values of 2.4 and 1.6 mg/1. In the sediments, concentrations of Pb, Ni, Fe, Cr, Co and Mn in the wet season were relatively higher than those obtained for the dry season. Fe with an average of 50.9 mg/kg in C, gariepinus was the most abundant metal in the fish samples, while Cu with an average value of 0.3 mg/kg in O. niloticus was the least. The metal bio magnification for most of the metals for both seasons was found to vary widely from one location to the other. This was confirmed by the coefficient of variation that ranged from 31% to 144% and 29% to 130% in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The present study has shown that fish, crayfish and sediments can be used to monitor the pollution level of metals in the Nigerian coastal water. (author)

  3. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  4. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner Oest, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  5. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  6. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  7. Genetic diversity of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810 in the coastal regions of Golstan province, using microsatellite marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ghodsi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Golden grey mullet (Liza aurata is a commercially valuable fish with great demand due to its delicious taste in southern coastal parts of the Caspian Sea. Genetic diversity of marine resources is of vital importance in their management and protection, as this is the first prerequisite for maintaining the consistency of populations in an inconsistent environmental conditions. In this study, we have used six microsatellite locations to investigate the level of genetic variation of Liza aurata in Gomishan and Miyankale regions in Golestan province. The results showed no conspicuous genetic variations in these two regions using Fst, Rst and AMOVA and accordingly a relatively high level of gene flow was found among the populations. Genetic variations in Gomishan (mean number of alleles per locus, Na=14.667, mean effective number of alleles, Ne=10.355, observed heterozygosity, Ho=0.905 and expected heterozygosity, He=0.894 and Miyankale (Na=15, Ne=10.223, Ho=0.863 and He=0.892 were not statistically different. There were evidences for genetic bottleneck in the populations. Protection and restoration of habitats can help to increase the population size and decrease risk of vulnerability of the species in the future.

  8. Distribution patterns of ferns and lycophytes in the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gonzatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey of ferns and lycophytes of the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (CRRS was performed based on field work and collections of the main regional herbaria. The following were evaluated for each species: preferential habits (terrestrial, epiphytic or aquatic, geographic distribution patterns and habitats (forest, grassland, and wetland. The occurrence of a latitudinal gradient in diversity was tested over five latitudinal ranges using the Sørensen Similarity Index. A total of 17 lycophyte and 206 fern species representing 28 families was found between the latitudes of 29° and 34°S. Exclusively terrestrial species were predominant (162, with the majority (113 exhibiting wide Neotropical distributions, followed by species that also occurred in the state of Paraná (44. The forest habitat harbored the greatest number of species (159, while grasslands had the fewest (26. Cluster analysis showed pronounced floristic differentiation among latitudinal Ranges III (31°01' to 32°S and IV (32°01' to 31°S, with a similarity index of only 0.41. Our results demonstrate a strong north-to-south reduction in species richness in the study area, which is related to environmental conditions along the latitudinal gradient and, especially, microclimatic differences in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes.

  9. Production of pulse in mono-cropped rice system in the coastal region of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Nanda, P.; Chandra, Dinesh; Ghorai, A.K.; Behera, M.S.

    2001-04-01

    This experiment was undertaken with an objective to increase the yield of black-gram leguminous pulse crop through optimal doses of phosphatic fertilizer with supplemental irrigation in mono-cropped rice-fallow regions of India. Irrigation and phosphorus fertilizer application were introduced for enhancing productivity of black-gram to provide better returns to available water resources

  10. Regional landslide susceptibility assessment using multi-stage remote sensing data along the coastal range highway in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Fang; Huang, Wei-Kai; Chang, Yu-Lin; Chi, Shu-Yeong; Liao, Wu-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Typhoons Megi (2010) and Saola (2012) brought torrential rainfall which triggered regional landslides and flooding hazards along Provincial Highway No. 9 in northeastern Taiwan. To reduce property loss and saving lives, this study combines multi-hazard susceptibility assessment with environmental geology map a rock mass rating system (RMR), remote sensing analysis, and micro-topography interpretation to develop an integrated landslide hazard assessment approach and reflect the intrinsic state of slopeland from the past toward the future. First, the degree of hazard as indicated by historical landslides was used to determine many landslide regions in the past. Secondly, geo-mechanical classification of rock outcroppings was performed by in-situ investigation along the vulnerable road sections. Finally, a high-resolution digital elevation model was extracted from airborne LiDAR and multi-temporal remote sensing images which was analyzed to discover possible catastrophic landslide hotspot shortly. The results of the analysis showed that 37% of the road sections in the study area were highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The spatial distribution of the road sections revealed that those characterized by high susceptibility were located near the boundaries of fault zones and in areas of lithologic dissimilarity. Headward erosion of gullies and concave-shaped topographic features had an adverse effect and was the dominant factor triggering landslides. Regional landslide reactivation on this coastal highway are almost related to the past landslide region based on hazard statistics. The final results of field validation demonstrated that an accuracy of 91% could be achieved for forecasting geohazard followed by intense rainfall events and typhoons.

  11. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the authors’ Agencies. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR...COASTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 2-20 contingent probabilities given their dependence on non-probabilistic emissions futures, have extended the ranges of...flood risk provides confidence in the associated projection as a true minimum value for risk management purposes. The contemporary rate observed by

  12. Local scale atmospheric diffusion at a coastal site in the presence of breeze effect (Phase I and II: data collection at a coastal site and off shore)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnetti, P.; Ferrara, V.; Pellegrini, A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this contract is the characterization, from the thermal and anemological point of view of the lower layers of the atmosphere at a coastal site, affected by breeze circulation. Data are utilized to set up diffusion models for accidental releases of airborne materials, both of short and prolonged duration. Five inland meteorological campaigns, starting from Jan. 82 (Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. 1982, Jan. 1983), have been carried out; an appropriate extension of the contract allowed the execution of two more campaigns in the open sea (Apr., Jul. 1983), utilizing the oceanographic ship ''Bannock'' kindly supplied by CNR. The analysis of the data showed the development of a well defined IBL during on-shore flow only in Spring and Summer, while an inversion layer was detectable aloft independently of the season (provided that an anticyclonic situation was present). According to those relevant features a simple diffusion model has been developed for short duration releases at local scale. Finally, the analysis and elaboration of the data, collected on site by a meteorological automatic station, allowed the extension of the model to prolonged releases

  13. SPITZER AND HERSCHEL MULTIWAVELENGTH CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DUST CONTENT OF EVOLVED H II REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Umana, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Veneziani, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Piacentini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Pinheiro Goncalves, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto 50 George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Paradis, D.; Bernard, J.-P. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tibbs, C. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Natoli, P., E-mail: paladini@ipac.caltech.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Ferrara, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed a uniform sample of 16 evolved H II regions located in a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign Galactic field centered at (l,b) = (30 Degree-Sign , 0 Degree-Sign ) and observed as part of the Herschel Hi-GAL survey. The evolutionary stage of these H II regions was established using ancillary radio-continuum data. By combining Hi-GAL PACS (70 {mu}m, 160 {mu}m) and SPIRE (250 {mu}m, 350 {mu}m, and 500 {mu}m) measurements with MIPSGAL 24 {mu}m data, we built spectral energy distributions of the sources and showed that a two-component gray-body model is a good representation of the data. In particular, wavelengths >70 {mu}m appear to trace a cold dust component, for which we estimated an equilibrium temperature of the big grains (BGs) in the range 20-30 K, while for {lambda} < 70 {mu}m, the data indicate the presence of a warm dust component at temperatures of the order of 50-90 K. This analysis also revealed that dust is present in the interior of H II regions, although likely not in a large amount. In addition, the data seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the main mechanism responsible for the (partial) depletion of dust in H II regions is radiation-pressure-driven drift. In this framework, we speculated that the 24 {mu}m emission that spatially correlates with ionized gas might be associated with either very small grain or BG replenishment, as recently proposed for the case of wind-blown bubbles. Finally, we found that evolved H II regions are characterized by distinctive far-IR and submillimeter colors, which can be used as diagnostics for their identification in unresolved Galactic and extragalactic regions.

  14. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.

  15. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  16. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones

  17. Gasdynamics of H II regions. V. The interaction of weak R ionization fronts with dense clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Bedijn, P J

    1981-06-01

    The interaction of weak R-type ionization fronts with a density enhancement is calculated numerically as a function of time within the framework of the champagne model of the evolution of H II regions. Calculations are performed under the assumption of plane-parallel geometry for various relative densities of the cloud in which the exciting star is formed and a second cloud with which an ionization front from the first cloud interacts. The supersonic ionization front representing the outer boundary of an H II region experiencing the champagne phase is found to either evolve into a D-type front or remain of type R, depending on the absolute number of photons leaving the H II region that undergoes the champagne phase. Recombinations in the ionized gas eventually slow the ionization front, however photon fluxes allow it to speed up again, resulting in oscillatory propagation of the front. Front-cloud interactions are also shown to lead to the development of a backward-facing shock, a forward-facing shock, and a density maximum in the ionized gas. The results can be used to explain the origin of bright rims in H II regions.

  18. Atlantic coastal experiment 5: R/V advance II cruise (MESEX I) 27 April--2 May 1979, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Bock, K. (ed.)

    1983-03-01

    68 hydrographic stations were arranged as boundary transects, and a proximate calibration matrix, to an array of current meters and fluorometers moored within the coastal boundary layer near southern Long Island. Assessments were made of water-mass characterization, nutrient distribution, chlorophyll variability and phytoplankton composition. Supplemental thermal structure was obtained from expendable bathythermographs.

  19. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, J.G.S.; Poortinga, A.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal

  20. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  1. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II - An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherdon, Lauren; Sumaila, Rashid; Cheung, William W.L.; Rogers, Alex; Magnan, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2010, the oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming, leading to several major changes such as the increase in stratification, limitation in the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface, and sea level rise. In addition, the oceans absorbed 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 emitted since the start of the Industrial Revolution, which resulted in ocean acidification. Together, these processes strongly affect marine and coastal species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. As a consequence of these complex environmental changes, marine and coastal human sectors (i.e., fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism and health) are in turn at risk. This report provides an updated synthesis of what the science tells us about such a risk, based upon IPCC AR5 (2013- 2014) and published scientific articles and grey literature that have been published between July 2013 and April 2015. Although uncertainty remains strong, there is growing scientific evidence that ocean warming and acidification will affect key resources for societies through ecosystems services. For example, while AR5 indicated that coral reefs had little scope for adaptation, recent research has suggested that there may be some capacity for some coral species to recover from climatic hocks and bleaching events, and to acquire heat resistance through acclimatization. This will have huge implications on many coastal economies in the developing and developed countries. More generally, key sectors will be affected. For example, while the fish catch potential is expected to decrease at the global scale, it will show diversified trends at the regional scale as fish stocks have started shifting in latitudes or by depth. This will impact regional to local fisheries systems. Also, climate and acidification-related impacts to existing aquaculture are expected to be generally negative, with impacts varying by location

  2. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization when Considering Global Warming for a Coastal Tropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonalez, Jorge E.; Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Smith, T.

    2010-01-01

    The overachieving goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, regions where global, regional and local climate phenomena converge, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to a high resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by high resolution remote sensing data (10-m-res). The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods of time simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies), while urban sprawl dominates maximum temperatures. To further investigate impacts of land use the Bowen Ratio and the thermal response number (TRN) are analyzed. The Bowen ratio indicates that forestation of past agricultural high areas have an overwhelmingly mitigation effect on increasing temperatures observed in different LCLU scenarios, but when abandoned agricultural lands are located in plains, the resulting shrub/grass lands produce higher surface

  3. Hydrocarbon composition and distribution in a coastal region under influence of oil production in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Angela de L R; Carreira, Renato S; Hamacher, Claudia; Scofield, Arthur de L; Farias, Cassia O; Cordeiro, Lívia G M S; Luz, Letícia G; Baêta, Aída P; Kalas, Francine A

    2011-08-01

    Waters and sediments from the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazilian coast) were investigated for the presence and nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The region receives treated produced waters through a submarine outfall system serving the industrial district. The total dispersed/dissolved concentrations in the water column ranged from 10-50 ng L(-1) for ∑16PAH and 5-10 μg L(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the sediments, hydrocarbon concentrations were low (0.5-10 ng g(-1)for ∑16PAH and 0.01-5.0 μg g(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons) and were consistent with the low organic carbon content of the local sandy sediments. These data indicate little and/or absence of anthropogenic influence on hydrocarbon distribution in water and sediment. Therefore, the measured values may be taken as background values for the region and can be used as future reference following new developments of the petroleum industry in the Potiguar Basin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. WATERSHED SPATIAL DISCRETIZATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF LAND USE CHANGE IN COASTAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Terezinha Galvão Boulomytis

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a methodology to discretize a non-assessed basin based on terrain analysis using the SRTM digital elevation model (DEM and a high resolution surface model (DSM with a drainage network semi-automatic extraction process. The Juqueriquerê River Basin was used for the case study, which has the most representative non-urbanized plains of the northern coastline of São Paulo State, Brazil. The low-lying region is featured by elevations close to the sea level, mild slopes, and shallow water tables. It is also influenced by tidal variation and orographic rains. Therefore, frequent flooding occurs, even in vegetated areas. Two conflicting land use scenarios, proposed by the City Master Plan (CMP of Caraguatatuba and the Ecological-Economical Zoning (EEZ, were compared to analyze the flood vulnerability increase and geotechnical risk caused by the urbanization process. The drainage extraction techniques showed better results on high resolution DSM for low-lying regions than the SRTM DEM and determined with accuracy the locations of flood potentiality in the plains. The watershed spatial discretization allowed us to show the effects of the two different land use approaches, considering the flood vulnerability and geotechnical risk of each sub-basin

  5. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  6. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) in human brain: regional distribution of IGF II and of higher molecular mass forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselbacher, G.K.; Schwab, M.E.; Pasi, A.; Humbel, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four distinct areas of human brain were analyzed for the presence of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). As reported for cerebrospinal fluid, only IGF II-like immunoreactivity, but no significant amounts of IGF I-like immunoreactivity, could be found. Upon gel permeation chromatography, two to five distinct size classes were separated on the basis of their immunoreactivity. Radioimmunoassays and a bioassay also gave results indistinguishable from those of serum IGF II. The highest amounts of IGF II-like immunoreactivity occur in the anterior pituitary. This is up to 100 times more than in most other brain regions analyzed. The higher molecular mass immunoreactive species were partially characterized. After immunoaffinity purification, the 38- and 26-kDa species are active in a bioassay. Specific IGF-binding protein activity could be shown after purification of the 38- and 26-kDa species on an IGF-affinity column. The 13-kDa species released significant amounts of 7.5-kDa material. The results are interpreted as evidence for the presence of IGF II synthesized locally in human brain

  7. Internal Variations in Empirical Oxygen Abundances for Giant H II Regions in the Galaxy NGC 2403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Lin, Lin; Kong, Xu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a spectroscopic investigation of 11 {{H}} {{II}} regions in the nearby galaxy NGC 2403. The {{H}} {{II}} regions are observed with a long-slit spectrograph mounted on the 2.16 m telescope at XingLong station of National Astronomical Observatories of China. For each of the {{H}} {{II}} regions, spectra are extracted at different nebular radii along the slit-coverage. Oxygen abundances are empirically estimated from the strong-line indices R23, N2O2, O3N2, and N2 for each spectrophotometric unit, with both observation- and model-based calibrations adopted into the derivation. Radial profiles of these diversely estimated abundances are drawn for each nebula. In the results, the oxygen abundances separately estimated with the prescriptions on the basis of observations and models, albeit from the same spectral index, systematically deviate from each other; at the same time, the spectral indices R23 and N2O2 are distributed with flat profiles, whereas N2 and O3N2 exhibit apparent gradients with the nebular radius. Because our study naturally samples various ionization levels, which inherently decline at larger radii within individual {{H}} {{II}} regions, the radial distributions indicate not only the robustness of R23 and N2O2 against ionization variations but also the sensitivity of N2 and O3N2 to the ionization parameter. The results in this paper provide observational corroboration of the theoretical prediction about the deviation in the empirical abundance diagnostics. Our future work is planned to investigate metal-poor {{H}} {{II}} regions with measurable T e, in an attempt to recalibrate the strong-line indices and consequently disclose the cause of the discrepancies between the empirical oxygen abundances.

  8. Compilation and testing of tools and methods for sustainable coastal management at local and regional scales : Deliverable D2.5.4, Thresholds project, 6th framework programme, EU, 108 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Håkanson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how general methods and models for sustainable coastal ecosystem management at local to regional scales may be used to address key questions in coastal management and threshold science. The general, process-based mass-balance model (CoastMab) for substances transported to, within and from for coastal areas may be used as a tool to: 1. Combat eutrophication, 2. Rank nutrient fluxes, 3. Estimate the system response related to nutrient reductions and 4. Estimate realistic val...

  9. Crustacean communities in coastal ephemeral pools in the Araucanía region (38° S, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos-Escalante, P; Acevedo, P

    2016-01-01

    The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.

  10. Microbiological quality of oysters (Crassostrea gigas produced and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Murilo Anderson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters are filter feeders able to ingest particles in suspension that may carry pathogenic microorganisms. In this respect, the consumption of raw oysters can cause foodborne diseases in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of Crassostrea gigas oysters cultivated and commercialized in the coastal region of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The study comprised counts of coliforms at 35ºC and at 45ºC, Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, and detection of Salmonella sp, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Ninety samples were analyzed, 45 of them collected at seafood commercial establishments and the other 45 were collected in the cultivation area. All analyses were performed according to methods of the American Public Health Association. Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella sp. were not detected in any of the samples. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were observed in only one sample (80 CFU/g. The counts of coliforms at 35 and 45ºC indicated that samples obtained from both the cultivation area and place of sale were contaminated. E. coli was detected in 4 (9% samples collected in the cultivation area and in 16 (35.5% samples obtained from commercial establishments. These results indicate the need for monitoring the quality of raw oysters, including the implantation of programs for good mollusk manipulation and management practices.

  11. Species of Macrostomum (Macrostomorpha: Macrostomidae) from the coastal region of Lima, Peru, with comments on M. rostratum Papi, 1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jhoe; Brusa, Francisco

    2017-12-05

    Species of Macrostomum are present in almost all regions of the world. These flatworms occur in different kinds of environments, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. Although Peru is considered one of the megadiverse countries in South America, little is known about freshwater microturbellarians in this country. Here we report the presence of M. rostratum Papi, 1951 for the first time in Peru, in a coastal brackish water wetland, and that of M. quiritium Beklemischev, 1951 and M. tuba Graff, 1882 in an inland portion of a river near the city of Lima. All the species were studied alive. Comments on the habitat and associated fauna are given. Detailed information on the copulatory system is provided for M. rostratum; the male system has a bilobed seminal vesicle with thick walls and full of spindle-shaped sperm cells, and a stylet in the form of a solid curved inverted cone with a subterminal opening located on the concave side of the stylet. These findings led us to suggest that M. rostratum may exhibit a hypodermic mating syndrome. The three species of Macrostomum reported here are widespread and, although the diagnostic characters of the species are present, some morphological differences in the copulatory stylet suggest they are cryptic species.

  12. Chemical Abundances and Physical Parameters of H II Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R. E. C.

    The chemical abundances and physical parameters of H II regions are important pa rameters to determine in order to understand how stars and galaxies evolve. The Magellanic Clouds offer us a unique oportunity to persue such studies in low metallicity galaxies. In this contribution we present the results of the photoionization modeling of 5 H II regions in each of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) sys tems. Optical data were collected from the literature, complemented by our own observa tions (Carlos Reyes et al. 1998), including UV spectra from the new IUE data ban k and infrared fluxes from the IRAS satellite. The chemical abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar and physical parameters like the densities, the ionized masses, the luminosities, the ionization temperatures , the filling factor and optical depth are determined. A comparison of the abundances of these HII regions with those of typical planetary nebulae and supergiants stars is also presented.

  13. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-03-07

    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers to identify the outstanding workload categorized as in-office datum transformations or offset applications versus out

  14. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  15. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  16. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.

  17. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  18. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  19. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  20. Critical region of a type II superconducting film near Hsub(c2): rational approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggeri, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature perturbative expansions for the thermal quantities of a type II superconducting film are extrapolated to the critical region near Hsub(c2) by means of new rational approximants of the Pade type. The new approximants are forced to reproduce the leading correction to the flux lattice contribution on the low-temperature side of the transition. Compared to those previously considered in the literature: (i) the mutual consistency of the approximants is improved; and (ii) they are nearer to the exact solution of the zero-dimensional Landau-Ginsburg model. (author)

  1. Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling: a Copernicus marine research project in the framework of Service Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervatis, Vassilios; De Mey, Pierre; Ayoub, Nadia; Kailas, Marios; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2017-04-01

    The project entitled Stochastic Coastal/Regional Uncertainty Modelling (SCRUM) aims at strengthening CMEMS in the areas of ocean uncertainty quantification, ensemble consistency verification and ensemble data assimilation. The project has been initiated by the University of Athens and LEGOS/CNRS research teams, in the framework of CMEMS Service Evolution. The work is based on stochastic modelling of ocean physics and biogeochemistry in the Bay of Biscay, on an identical sub-grid configuration of the IBI-MFC system in its latest CMEMS operational version V2. In a first step, we use a perturbed tendencies scheme to generate ensembles describing uncertainties in open ocean and on the shelf, focusing on upper ocean processes. In a second step, we introduce two methodologies (i.e. rank histograms and array modes) aimed at checking the consistency of the above ensembles with respect to TAC data and arrays. Preliminary results highlight that wind uncertainties dominate all other atmosphere-ocean sources of model errors. The ensemble spread in medium-range ensembles is approximately 0.01 m for SSH and 0.15 °C for SST, though these values vary depending on season and cross shelf regions. Ecosystem model uncertainties emerging from perturbations in physics appear to be moderately larger than those perturbing the concentration of the biogeochemical compartments, resulting in total chlorophyll spread at about 0.01 mg.m-3. First consistency results show that the model ensemble and the pseudo-ensemble of OSTIA (L4) observation SSTs appear to exhibit nonzero joint probabilities with each other since error vicinities overlap. Rank histograms show that the model ensemble is initially under-dispersive, though results improve in the context of seasonal-range ensembles.

  2. Spatial variation of PAHs and PCBs in coastal air, seawater, and sediments in a heavily industrialized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-05-01

    Concurrent coastal seawater (n = 22), sediment (n = 22), and atmospheric samples (n = 10) were collected in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey, to explore the spatial variation, sources, and air-seawater exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Seawater Σ 16 PAH concentrations (particle + dissolved) ranged between 5107 and 294,624 pg L -1 , while Σ 41 PCB concentrations were in the range of 880-50,829 pg L -1 . Levels in sediments were highly variable ranging between 35.5-49,682 and 2.7-2450 μg kg -1 in dry weight for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations varied between 1791-274,974 and 104-20,083 pg m -3 for Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs, respectively. Sediment organic matter (OM) content and levels of Σ 16 PAHs and Σ 41 PCBs correlated weakly (r 2  = 0.19-0.23, p seawater, and sediment and factor analysis on the sediment levels pointed out that the major sources in the region are steel plants, petroleum refinery, petrochemical complex, ship breaking, loading/unloading activities at the ports, vehicular emissions, and fossil fuel combustion emissions. The direction of the air-seawater exchange was also explored by estimating seawater fugacity fractions of PAHs and PCBs. For PAHs, the number of cases implying deposition (43.0%) and volatilization (39.5%) was similar, while for PCBs, the number of cases implying volatilization (60.4%) was much higher compared to deposition (21.6%). Fugacity fractions were generally seawater and sediment levels were measured, implying that atmospheric deposition is an important mechanism affecting seawater and sediment PAH and PCB levels.

  3. Anthropogenic impact on the sedimentation in coastal regions: an example in Saco do Bracui - Ribeira Bay, Angra dos Reis, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Alayde Alfaia

    2001-01-01

    The Saco do Bracui, located in the littoral zone of the Brazilian southeast, receives run off from the region of Angra dos Reis. Anthropological intervention in this area has modified local morphology during the last 40 years. These modifications include an intense deforestation of mangrove regions, construction of the Bracui Boat Yard, the dredging of part of the draining basin and development of the coastal plain. Results from seismic surveys identify three different stratigraphic units separated by two reflectors as well as Holocenic paleodeltas and paleochannels of the Bracui and Gratau rivers. Results from this study and previous work indicate an age of 6800 years for the top of the superior unit. Areal photographs from the years 1964, 1965, 1978 and 1991 reveal the principal modifications occurring during the last 40 years in the area. Field observations from this study as well as bathymetric profiles based on the nautical maps of 1980 and 1944 reveal shoaling and erosion areas in the Saco do Bracui. Sedimentation rates, using lead-210 profiles, are between 0,17 - 1,90 cm/year and lead-210 inventory values are between 16-6-dpm/cm 2 /year. The results for sedimentation rate and inventory show a high accumulation around Bracui, Gratau and Frade mouth rivers and agree with results from the bathymetric profiles with respect to the site of erosion and shoaling in the Saco do Bracui. The results for grain size and lead-210 analyses support the idea that the Saco do Bracui is suffering shoaling processes in specific sites and erosion in others. Comparison between long term sedimentation rates obtained by seismic results and short term rates obtained by lead-210 shows an increase of the sedimentary discharge in the 1960's, when the intense anthropological intervention in the area began. (author)

  4. Biogeochemistry of uranium in plants associated to phosphatic rocks in the coastal region of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Rayes, A.; El-Sharabi, N.A.

    2000-07-01

    Investigation studies in general, demonstrate that background levels of U in plant ash are less than 2 ppm and plant materials which contain more in excess of this amount are indicative either of local uranium mineralization, or the presence of high background levels of uranium in the substrate. Uranium concentrations in different plant parts grown on decomposite phosphate rocks in the mountain coast region of Syria was investigated. Mean uranium concentrations in the soil ranged between 0.44 - 3.91 ppm in the reference area and 22 - 92 ppm in the area of outcrop in phosphate rocks. The results showed that low-order plant forms (Fuaria, Lycopodium, and Pteridium) readily accumulate uranium, whereas high-order forms accumulate uranium in certain parts only. The greatest amount of uranium in flowering parts is concentrated in the plant roots, followed by leaves, twigs and fruits. In addition, results showed that there is a good correlation between uranium in soil and uranium in plant roots. the study demonstrate that Galium Canum could be considered as a good uranium indicator plant for two reason: It was distributed on decomposite phosphate rocks only, and the high concentration of uranium in aerial part similar to the concentration in soil (89.9 ppm). Lagurus Ovatus may be considered as uranium indicator plant, because it was highly dense on the outcrop phosphate rocks, and has a high uranium concentration in its roots (up to 93 ppm) and aerial parts (up to 33 ppm) compared to concentrations in roots and aerial parts in the reference area (10.2 and 0.37 ppm) respectively. (Author)

  5. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.S.; Sartandel, S.; Pote, M.B.; Hemalatha, P.; Rajan, M.P.; Vidyasagar, D.; Indumati, S.P.; Shrivastava, R.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The data on the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of 137 Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The 137 Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m −3 . The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III). - Highlights: ► Benchmark value of 137 Cs in coastal environment of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. ► International reference source of 137 Cs in coastal marine environment of India. ► In-situ pre-concentration technique for measurement of 137 Cs. ► Comparison of 137 Cs Indian coastal data with ASPAMARD.

  6. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Kumar, M. S. N. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 s/n Porto (Portugal); Bachiller, Rafael [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Samal, M. R. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Pirogov, L., E-mail: kshitiz@tifr.res.in [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Uljanov str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even

  7. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  8. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Berné, O.; Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Keller, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s −1 and an age of ≃10 5 years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ 1 Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  9. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Berné, O. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s{sup −1} and an age of ≃10{sup 5} years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ {sup 1} Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  10. PROPERTIES OF THE COMPACT H II REGION COMPLEX G-0.02-0.07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Morris, M. R.; Lang, C. C.; Dong, H.; Wang, Q. D.; Cotera, A.; Stolovy, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new extinction maps and high-resolution Paschen-alpha images of G-0.02-0.07, a complex of compact H II regions located adjacent to the M-0.02-0.07 giant molecular cloud, 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy. These H II regions, which lie in projection just outside the boundary of the Sgr A East supernova remnant, represent one of the most recent episodes of star formation in the central parsecs of the Galaxy. The 1.87 μm extinctions of regions A, B, and C are almost identical, approximately 3.7 mag. Region D, in contrast, has a peak extinction of A 1.87 = 5.9 mag. Adopting an extinction law specific to the Galactic center, we find that these extinctions correspond to visual extinctions of A V = 45 and A V = 71. The similar and uniform extinctions of regions A, B, and C are consistent with that expected for foreground extinction in the direction of the Galactic center, suggesting that they lie at the front side of the M-0.02-0.07 molecular cloud. Region D is more compact, has a higher extinction, and is thus suspected to be younger and embedded in a dense core in a compressed ridge on the western edge of this cloud.

  11. Temperature and emission-line structure at the edges of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, D.C.V.

    1975-01-01

    Models of ionization fronts located at the edges of expanding H ii regions are presented. These fronts are of the weak D-type and are preceded by shocks in the H i clouds. Since the energy input time is smaller than the cooling time, the gas is found to heat up to a high temperature immediately following ionization. At the trailing edge of the front, the temperature decreases and the ionized gas merges with the main bulk of the nebula where the physical processes are in equilibrium. The emission in O ii and N ii lines is greatly enhanced because of the high temperature at the front. The emission in these and other important lines is calculated and compared with Hβ. Effects of different velocities of flow, of different exciting stars, and of different gas densities on the structure of the fronts are also investigated

  12. Diversity and Transcriptional Levels of RuBisCO Form II of Sulfur-Oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria in Coastal-Upwelling Waters with Seasonal Anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Léniz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal wind-driven upwelling, high primary production in surface waters, and oxygen deficiency in subsurface waters characterize the coastal ecosystem of the subtropical eastern South Pacific (ESP, and shape the nature and dynamics of the microbial community structure and function. We investigated the diversity, abundance, and transcriptional levels of the gene encoding the large subunit form II of the RuBisCO enzyme (cbbM in the pelagic microbial community at a continental-shelf site off central Chile over 2 years. We focused on cbbM genes affiliated with the sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria cluster, whose members are known to dominate in oxygen-deficient marine environments and are highly abundant in the study area. Phylogenetic analysis of cbbM sequences suggests the presence of a novel group of chemolithoautotrophs, closely related to the SUP05/ARCTIC96BD-19 clade. Through (RT-qPCR, we studied the cbbM gene abundance and transcript dynamics over an annual cycle, finding a significantly higher number of cbbM copies per unit volume in months of active upwelling and at depths in which oxygen was scarce or absent. The same temporal pattern was observed at the transcriptional level. We also analyzed the relative expression of key genes for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling in six metatranscriptomic datasets, for two characteristic periods within the annual cycle: the anoxic upwelling and the suboxic downwelling. Our results indicate that coastal waters of the subtropical ESP contain transcriptionally active populations of carbon fixing pelagic bacteria, whose dynamics is controlled, in large part, by fluctuations in oxygen levels. They also suggest that chemolithoautotrophic processes coupled to the sulfur and nitrogen cycles become increasingly important for the carbon economy of marine coastal waters as oxygen concentrations decline.

  13. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  14. Design and field measurement of the BEPC-II interaction region dual-aperture quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Z.S.; Wu, Y.Z.; Zhang, J.F.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.J.; Li, L.; Hou, R.; Yin, B.G.; Sun, X.J.; Ren, F.L.; Wang, F.A.; Chen, F.S.; Yu, C.H.; Chen, C.

    2007-01-01

    With the Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgrade project (BEPC-II), two dual-aperture septum-style quadrupole magnets are used in the interaction region for the final focusing of the electron and positron beams. The BEPC-II lattice design calls for the same high quality integral quadrupole field and large good field region in both apertures for each magnet. Two-dimensional contour optimization and pole-end chamfer iteration are used to minimize the systematic harmonic errors. Unexpected non-systematic errors induced by the unsymmetrical structure and the manufacturing errors are compensated with the pole-end shimming. Magnet measurements with rotating coils are performed to guide and confirm the magnet design. This paper discusses the design consideration, optimizing procedure and measurement results of these dual-aperture magnets

  15. Microstructural analysis of the type-II boundary region in Alloy 152 weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The weld metals are more susceptible to SCC growth and that most cracks are blunted by the fusion boundary. However, they also found that some cracking occurs along the fusion boundary, often in an area with high hardness. Nelson et al. investigated a DMW of Monel 409 stainless steel and American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1080 alloy and found a type-II boundary, which exists parallel to the fusion boundary in the dilution zone. They conclude that the type-II boundary is a potential path for crack growth. While there are several theories for the mechanisms of the type-II boundary formation, they conclude that the type-II boundary forms from the allotropic δ-γ transformation at the base metal in the elevated austenitic temperature range. As the operation time of nuclear power plants using DMWs of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B increases, these DMWs must be evaluated for their resistance to SCC for long-term operations. However, only few studies have investigated the thermal aging effects induced by long-term operations at high temperature. Type-II boundary is known as a potential crack path from the results of crack growth test at DMW without any heat treatment. So the analysis about type-II boundary with applying heat treatment could be helpful to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC of structural materials. The objective of this study is to analyze the detailed microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B, after applying heat treatment simulating thermal aging effect of a nuclear power plant operation condition to evaluate the susceptibility of this region to SCC. The microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B were analyzed with an energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and a nanoindentation test. Microstructural, grain boundary orientation, nanohardness analysis were conducted in the type-II

  16. Microstructural analysis of the type-II boundary region in Alloy 152 weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The weld metals are more susceptible to SCC growth and that most cracks are blunted by the fusion boundary. However, they also found that some cracking occurs along the fusion boundary, often in an area with high hardness. Nelson et al. investigated a DMW of Monel 409 stainless steel and American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1080 alloy and found a type-II boundary, which exists parallel to the fusion boundary in the dilution zone. They conclude that the type-II boundary is a potential path for crack growth. While there are several theories for the mechanisms of the type-II boundary formation, they conclude that the type-II boundary forms from the allotropic δ-γ transformation at the base metal in the elevated austenitic temperature range. As the operation time of nuclear power plants using DMWs of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B increases, these DMWs must be evaluated for their resistance to SCC for long-term operations. However, only few studies have investigated the thermal aging effects induced by long-term operations at high temperature. Type-II boundary is known as a potential crack path from the results of crack growth test at DMW without any heat treatment. So the analysis about type-II boundary with applying heat treatment could be helpful to evaluate the susceptibility to SCC of structural materials. The objective of this study is to analyze the detailed microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B, after applying heat treatment simulating thermal aging effect of a nuclear power plant operation condition to evaluate the susceptibility of this region to SCC. The microstructure of the type-II boundary region in the DMW of Alloy 152 and A533 Gr. B were analyzed with an energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope attached to a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and a nanoindentation test. Microstructural, grain boundary orientation, nanohardness analysis were conducted in the type-II

  17. Rising CO2 interacts with growth light and growth rate to alter photosystem II photoinactivation of the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available We studied the interactive effects of pCO(2 and growth light on the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP 1335 growing under ambient and expected end-of-the-century pCO(2 (750 ppmv, and a range of growth light from 30 to 380 µmol photons·m(-2·s(-1. Elevated pCO(2 significantly stimulated the growth of T. pseudonana under sub-saturating growth light, but not under saturating to super-saturating growth light. Under ambient pCO(2 susceptibility to photoinactivation of photosystem II (σ(i increased with increasing growth rate, but cells growing under elevated pCO(2 showed no dependence between growth rate and σ(i, so under high growth light cells under elevated pCO(2 were less susceptible to photoinactivation of photosystem II, and thus incurred a lower running cost to maintain photosystem II function. Growth light altered the contents of RbcL (RUBISCO and PsaC (PSI protein subunits, and the ratios among the subunits, but there were only limited effects on these and other protein pools between cells grown under ambient and elevated pCO(2.

  18. Radio observations of H II regions and some related theoretical work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.; Wink, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the whole complex of radio and IR sources associated with an O-star is referred to as H II region. Radio continuum observations are widely used for the interpretation of IR-observations. Thus, this review is limited to recent high frequency single dish observations and aperture synthesis observations. Recent developments in the field of radio recombination line observations and their application to the interpretation of IR-observations are discussed. (G.T.H.)

  19. H II regions and the extinction of Cepheids in NGC 2403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, M L

    1984-04-15

    Spectrophotometric observations of H II regions can be used to constrain the extinction of Population I objects in external galaxies. An analysis of NGC 2403 reveals that the Cepheids used to determine the distance are reddened on average by less than 0.2 mag. Either they are redder intrinsically than the Cepheids used to calibrate the PLC relation, or their photometry suffers from systematic errors.

  20. Internal motions in H II regions. XI. The emission nebula sharpless 206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pismis, P.; Hasse, I.

    1982-01-01

    Radial velocities at 142 points are obtained on the H II region S206 by photographic Fabry-Perot interferometry using the reflectors with apertures of 2.1 meters at San Pedro Martir and 1 m at Tonantzintla. The overall velocity agrees with previous determinations. Our velocities cover the western faint extensions of the nebula not studied hitherto. The velocity field is consistent with a directional expansion of S206. (author)

  1. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Foreman, William T.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.

  2. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cystoseira crinita Duby and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus from the coastal region of Sinop, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Berber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and total phenol contents of Cystoseira crinita and Ulva intestinalis species collected from the coastal region of Sinop. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of each methanolic algae sample was screened by using disc diffusion method against to 15 bacteria and 3 yeasts. The antioxidant potential of the extracts on the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was determined. The total phenolic content of the 3 methanolic extracts of the seaweed samples were determined by the FolinCiocalteu method. Results: The results of antimicrobial assay showed that extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria rather than Gram-negative. In addition, while the algal extracts had antifungal efficacy against Candida krusei, the other yeast strains were not affected at all. According to the findings of antioxidant activity, all methanolic extracts displayed good free radical scavenging activity ranging from IC50 = (32.19 ± 0.08 mg/mL to the IC50 = (37.57 ± 0.11 mg/mL. The total phenols content of the macroalgal extracts were found as between (5.10 ± 0.16 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and (87.70 ± 1.03 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. In this sense, our findings confirmed that there was a positive linear correlations (r = 0.86 between total phenol contents and the IC50 values. Conclusions: The data gathered from this study suggested that the seaweeds can be used as a potential natural seafood sources owing to the antimicrobial efficiency and good antioxidant activity.

  3. Transport of natural series radionuclides and light rare earth elements in a coastal lagoon of a monazite region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lauria, D. da

    2002-01-01

    It has been investigated the transport of radionuclides of natural radioactive series and the light rare earth elements in a coastal lagoon system, located in a monazite rich region, in whose water was found abnormal concentrations of radium isotopes and light rare earth elements (LREEs). Four sampling campaigns were carried out: two in rainy and two in dry seasons. Sediment and water samples were collected in seven sampling stations along of the lagoon's 5.4-km. The stations were localized in the map of the lagoon by global positioning system, GPS. Still at the field, it was determined the conductivity, alkalinity, Eh and pH in the water and the pH and Eh in the sediment samples. The determination of Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210 activity concentrations in the water samples were performed by gross alpha and beta counting. The Th, U, light rare earth elements (La-Sm), Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Al and Fe were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Perkin Elmer-Sciex, model Elan 5000 A) by the TotalQuant method. Argentometric (chloride), turbidimetric (sulfate), cadmium reduction (nitrate), ascorbic acid reduction (phosphate) and selective ion electrode (fluoride) methods determined anions (2). Organic and inorganic dissolved carbons were determined by combustion-infrared method using a carbon analyzer (2). The sediment samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry, to determine Ra-228 (Ac-228, 911 keV) and Ra-226 (Bi-214, 609 keV) (3), and after sample dissolution by ICP-MS aiming the determination of U, Th and LREE concentrations. (author)

  4. Modification of growth medium of mixed-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern java coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae as production organisms. Microalgae contain lipids (oil, proteins and carbohydrates (sugars, and, especially marine algae have been used as food and feed for centuries. Recently, production cost reduction related to the supply of growth nutrients is necessary to make it profitable. Therefore, utilization of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, as the natural carbon, macronutrients, and micronutrients sources can be helpful. The analysis showed that the content of sucrose, glucose, fructose, potassium, zinc, and magnesium was 68.4% w/w, 18.5% w/w, and 13.1% w/w, 5.5% w/w, 3.91 ppm, and 1,370 ppm respectively. This work aimed to determine the effect of molasses addition to the physio-chemical properties of multi-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern Java coastal region in Indonesia grown under mixotrophic culture. The cultivation in this work used medium which was self-formulated by the authors consisting of NaNO3 (5 mL/L, H3BO3 (1 mL/L, EDTA (1 mL/L, N2H2PO4 (5 mL/L, FeSO4 (1 mL/L, MgSO4 (1 mL/L, NaCl (1 mL/L, micronutrients (1 mL/L, vitamin B1 (1 mL/L, and vitamin B12 (1 mL/L in 500 mL of water. The medium will be treated to have molasses concentration of 0.05% v/v, 0.15% v/v, 0.25% v/v, 0.35% v/v, and 0.45% v/v.

  5. Patterns of Wastewater Infrastructure along a Gradient of Coastal Urbanization: A Study of the Puget Sound Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Spirandelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore patterns of wastewater infrastructures (sewers vs. septic tanks in urbanizing watersheds across a coastal metropolitan region. This research combines an urban-rural gradient with spatial metrics at the patch and watershed scale (proportion of parcels on a treatment system, septic density, lot size and percent imperviousness to analyze wastewater patterns in the Puget Sound, WA, USA. Results show that most urban residential parcels are hooked up to a sewer, although there remain urban residences on a septic tank with small lots. I find a complex arrangement of wastewater treatment in suburban watersheds representing a patchwork of parcels on sewers and septic tanks. Sewers dominate in total numbers, while the density of septic tanks is highest in this portion of the urban gradient. Lot size decreases from rural to urban; however, it varies depending on the type of wastewater treatment system. In urban watersheds, lots on septic tanks are significantly smaller than lots in suburban and rural watersheds and of a similar size compared to lots on sewers. I also find a significant difference in the amount of impervious surfaces in watersheds dominated by sewers vs. septic tanks. In the urban portion of the gradient, the amount of paved surfaces in parcels with septic tanks is also similar in level as parcels with sewers. I discuss how these patterns emerge from the interplay of biophysical, socio-economic and technological factors and how different regulatory regimes for septic tanks and sewers may further induce these patterns.

  6. Observations of ultraviolet spectra of H II regions and galaxies with IUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1982-08-01

    The ultraviolet spectra, obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer, of a sample of H II regions and the nuclear regions of spiral and elliptical galaxies are described. The star formation rates in the nuclei of spiral galaxies are similar to the star formation rate in the solar neighbourhood. The data indicate that the current thinking on the synthesis of carbon and nitrogen in galaxies has to be revised and the K-corrections determined from the ultraviolet spectra of galaxies when compared with the photometry of distant galaxies suggests colour evolution of galaxies at z > 0.3. (author)

  7. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  8. Models of infrared emission from dusty and diffuse H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aannestad, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Models for the infrared emission from amorphous core-mantle dust within diffuse (n/sub e/ 3 cm -3 ) H II regions with neutral shells that are optically thin in the infrared have been calculated. The icy mantles sublimate only within a fractional radius of 0.2--0.5, affecting the overall gas-to-dust ratio only slightly. A region with variable grain composition may have a much smaller infrared luminosity than a similar region with uniform grain properties. Calculations of the total infrared luminosity, the relative contribution by Lα photons, the infrared spectral distribution, and the size of the dust-depleted regions are presented as functions of the ultraviolet optical depths in the ionized and neutral regions and for stellar temperatures of 35,000 and 48,000 K. Comparison with observations indicate that at least 20% of the Lyman-continuum photons are absorbed by the dust, and that the dust optical depth in the Lyman continuum is likely to be of the order of unity. For core-mantle grains most of the infrared energy is emitted between 30 and 70 μm, relatively independent of whether the dust is within or outside the H II region. Amorphous silicate particles tend to emit more energy below 30 μm, but also emit efficiently at far-infrared wavelengths. In order to illustrate the model calculations, we present infrared spectra for the Orion A region and compare them with observed fluxed, accounting for beam-width effects. A reasonable agreement is obtained with most of the near- to middle-infrared observations if the total ultraviolet optical depth is about unity and about equally divided between the ionized region and an outside neutral shell. Intensity profiles for Orion A are presented for wavelengths in the ragne 20--1000 μm, and show a strong increase in width beyond 20 μm

  9. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, P.; Garrido, M.; Collos, Y.; Pasqualini, V.

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations. - Highlights: •Dinoflagellate proliferation is now common in Mediterranean coastal waters. •Trophic strategies are advanced to explain the success of these organisms. •Prorocentrum minimum exhaustively dominated in the Biguglia lagoon (Corsica) in 2010. •Photosynthesis alone did not sustain the observed situation all year round. •Mixotrophy is hypothesized as an alternative driver of the process.

  10. The role of stellar feedback in the dynamics of H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Laura A.; Castro, Daniel; Krumholz, Mark R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bolatto, Alberto D.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar feedback is often cited as the biggest uncertainty in galaxy formation models today. This uncertainty stems from a dearth of observational constraints as well as the great dynamic range between the small scales (≲1 pc) where the feedback originates and the large scales of galaxies (≳1 kpc) that are shaped by this feedback. To bridge this divide, in this paper we aim to assess observationally the role of stellar feedback at the intermediate scales of H II regions (∼10-100 pc). In particular, we employ multiwavelength data to examine several stellar feedback mechanisms in a sample of 32 H II regions (with ages ∼3-10 Myr) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, respectively. Using optical, infrared, radio, and X-ray images, we measure the pressures exerted on the shells from the direct stellar radiation, the dust-processed radiation, the warm ionized gas, and the hot X-ray-emitting gas. We find that the warm ionized gas dominates over the other terms in all of the sources, although two have comparable dust-processed radiation pressures to their warm gas pressures. The hot gas pressures are comparatively weak, while the direct radiation pressures are one to two orders of magnitude below the other terms. We discuss the implications of these results, particularly highlighting evidence for hot gas leakage from the H II shells and regarding the momentum deposition from the dust-processed radiation to the warm gas. Furthermore, we emphasize that similar observational work should be done on very young H II regions to test whether direct radiation pressure and hot gas can drive the dynamics at early times.

  11. Description and characteristics of 81 patients attending the Reference Center for Multiple Sclerosis of the coastal region of the state of São Paulo-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Fiore, Ana Patricia Perez

    2005-09-01

    To register multiple sclerosis (MS) patients residing in the coastal region of the State of São Paulo (CEREM Litoral Paulista). Individual interviews with identified cases of MS. 81 individuals with diagnosis of MS agreed to come for registration (62 females [76.5%], 19 males [23.5%]). 65% of all patients were residents of the city of Santos. The mean age of these patients was 43 years (14 to 74 years), and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was Litoral Paulista for prescription of immunomodulators. There is a clear need to identify other cases in the region and to allow other forms of treatment to be put into practice.

  12. The events associated with the great tsunami of 26 December, 2004 sea level variation and impact on coastal region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Goa The events associated with the Great Tsunami of 26 December 2004 Sea Level Variation and Impact on Coastal Region of India Tsunamis are shallow... in the region. The Great Tsunami, though an event with a low probability of occurrence, was a high-impact event. One cannot but compare this event with what happened in 1755 along the east coast of the North Atlantic, another low-probability location...

  13. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  14. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  15. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE GALACTIC H II REGION Sh2-297

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm –3 and 9.15 × 10 5 cm –6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ∼7.'5 × 7.'5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H – K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ∼0.1-2 M ☉ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V–I) and NIR (J/J–H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ∼1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  16. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  17. Characterization of class II alpha genes and DLA-D region allelic associations in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, U M; Storb, R F

    1988-10-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the alpha genes of the DLA-D region in dogs. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes of 23 unrelated DLA-D homozygous dogs representing nine DLA-D types (defined by mixed leucocyte reaction) was digested with restriction enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, Hind III, Pvu II, Taq I, Rsa I, Msp I, Pst I and Bgl II), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred onto Biotrace membrane. The Southern blots were successively hybridized with radiolabelled HLA cDNA probes corresponding to DQ, DP, DZ and DR alpha genes. Clear evidence was obtained for the canine homologues of DQ and DR alpha genes with simple bi- or tri-allelic polymorphism respectively. Evidence for a single, nonpolymorphic DP alpha gene was also obtained. However, the presence of a DZ alpha gene could not be clearly demonstrated in canine genomic DNA. This report extends our previous RFLP analysis documenting polymorphism of DLA class II beta genes in the same panel of homozygous typing cell dogs, and provides the basis for DLA-D genotyping at a population level. This study also characterizes the RFLP-defined preferential allelic associations across the DLA-D region in nine different homozygous typing cell specificities.

  18. High resolution far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, B.; Fazio, G.G.; Jaffe, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    M16 is an evolved, extremely density bounded H II region, which now consists only of a series of ionization fronts at molecular cloud boundaries. The source of ionization is the OB star cluster (NGC 6611) which is about 5 x 10 6 years old. We used the CFA/UA 102 cm balloon-borne telescope to map this region and detected three far-infrared (far-IR) sources embedded in an extended ridge of emission. Source I is an unresolved far-IR source embedded in a molecular cloud near a sharp ionization front. An H 2 O maser is associated with this source, but no radio continuum emission has been observed. The other two far-IR sources (II and III) are associated with ionized gas-molecular cloud interfaces, with the far-IR radiation arising from dust at the boundary heated by the OB cluster. Source II is located at the southern prominent neutral intrusion with its associated bright rims and dark ''elephant trunk'' globules that delineate the current progress of the ionization front into the neutral material, and Source III arises at the interface of the northern molecular cloud fragment

  19. MOPRA CO OBSERVATIONS OF THE BUBBLE H II REGION RCW 120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Deharveng, L.; Zavagno, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Tremblin, P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay (CEA/Irfu - Uni. Paris Diderot - CNRS/INSU), Centre d' etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Lowe, V.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Mullins, A. M. [Irish Research CouncilEMBARK Scholar, at NUI Galway, Galway (Ireland); Redman, M. P. [Director, Centre for Astronomy, NUI Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2015-02-20

    We use the Mopra radio telescope to test for expansion of the molecular gas associated with the bubble H II region RCW 120. A ring, or bubble, morphology is common for Galactic H II regions, but the three-dimensional geometry of such objects is still unclear. Detected near- and far-side expansion of the associated molecular material would be consistent with a three-dimensional spherical object. We map the J = 1 → 0 transitions of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O, and C{sup 17}O, and detect emission from all isotopologues. We do not detect the 0{sub 0} → 1{sub –1} E masing lines of CH{sub 3}OH at 108.8939 GHz. The strongest CO emission is from the photo-dissociation region (PDR), and there is a deficit of emission toward the bubble interior. We find no evidence for expansion of the molecular material associated with RCW 120 and therefore can make no claims about its geometry. The lack of detected expansion is roughly in agreement with models for the time-evolution of an H II region like RCW 120, and is consistent with an expansion speed of ≲ 1.5 km s{sup –1}. Single-position CO spectra show signatures of expansion, which underscores the importance of mapped spectra for such work. Dust temperature enhancements outside the PDR of RCW 120 coincide with a deficit of emission in CO, confirming that these temperature enhancements are due to holes in the RCW 120 PDR. H-alpha emission shows that RCW 120 is leaking ∼5% of the ionizing photons into the interstellar medium (ISM) through PDR holes at the locations of the temperature enhancements. Hα emission also shows a diffuse 'halo' from leaked photons not associated with discrete holes in the PDR. Overall ∼25% ± 10% of all ionizing photons are leaking into the nearby ISM.

  20. MOPRA CO OBSERVATIONS OF THE BUBBLE H II REGION RCW 120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Deharveng, L.; Zavagno, A.; Tremblin, P.; Lowe, V.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P.; Mullins, A. M.; Redman, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    We use the Mopra radio telescope to test for expansion of the molecular gas associated with the bubble H II region RCW 120. A ring, or bubble, morphology is common for Galactic H II regions, but the three-dimensional geometry of such objects is still unclear. Detected near- and far-side expansion of the associated molecular material would be consistent with a three-dimensional spherical object. We map the J = 1 → 0 transitions of 12 CO, 13 CO, C 18 O, and C 17 O, and detect emission from all isotopologues. We do not detect the 0 0 → 1 –1 E masing lines of CH 3 OH at 108.8939 GHz. The strongest CO emission is from the photo-dissociation region (PDR), and there is a deficit of emission toward the bubble interior. We find no evidence for expansion of the molecular material associated with RCW 120 and therefore can make no claims about its geometry. The lack of detected expansion is roughly in agreement with models for the time-evolution of an H II region like RCW 120, and is consistent with an expansion speed of ≲ 1.5 km s –1 . Single-position CO spectra show signatures of expansion, which underscores the importance of mapped spectra for such work. Dust temperature enhancements outside the PDR of RCW 120 coincide with a deficit of emission in CO, confirming that these temperature enhancements are due to holes in the RCW 120 PDR. H-alpha emission shows that RCW 120 is leaking ∼5% of the ionizing photons into the interstellar medium (ISM) through PDR holes at the locations of the temperature enhancements. Hα emission also shows a diffuse 'halo' from leaked photons not associated with discrete holes in the PDR. Overall ∼25% ± 10% of all ionizing photons are leaking into the nearby ISM

  1. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Pacific Region (Region 1) includes more than 158 million acres (almost 247,000 square miles) of land base in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Hawai`i, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Region 1 is ecologically diverse with landscapes that range from coral reefs, broadleaf tropical forests, and tropical savannahs in the Pacific Islands, to glacial streams and lakes, lush old-growth rainforests, inland fjords, and coastal shoreline in the Pacific Northwest, to the forested mountains, shrub-steppe desert, and native grasslands in the Inland Northwest. Similarly, the people of the different landscapes perceive, value, and manage their natural resources in ways unique to their respective regions and cultures. The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (Partners Program) and Coastal Program work with a variety of partners in Region 1 including individual landowners, watershed councils, land trusts, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, non-governmental organizations, Tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, and local, State, and Federal agencies. The Partners Program is the FWS's vanguard for working with private landowners to voluntarily restore and conserve fish and wildlife habitat. Using non-regulatory incentives, the Partners Program engages willing partners to conserve and protect valuable fish and wildlife habitat on their property and in their communities. This is accomplished by providing the funding support and technical and planning tools needed to make on-the-ground conservation affordable, feasible, and effective. The primary goals of the Pacific Region Partners Program are to: Promote citizen and community-based stewardship efforts for fish and wildlife conservation Contribute to the recovery of at-risk species, Protect the environmental integrity of the National Wildlife

  2. M101: Spectral Observations of H II Regions and Their Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Wang, Enci; Lin, Zesen; Kong, Xu; Cheng, Fuzhen; Fan, Zou; Fang, Guangwen; Lin, Lin; Mao, Yewei; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Xu; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhu, Yinan; Zou, Hu

    2018-02-01

    By using the Hectospec 6.5 m Multiple Mirror Telescope and the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatories, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, we obtained 188 high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of {{H}} {{II}} regions in the nearby galaxy M101, which is the largest spectroscopic sample of {{H}} {{II}} regions for this galaxy so far. These spectra cover a wide range of regions on M101, which enables us to analyze two-dimensional distributions of its physical properties. The physical parameters are derived from emission lines or stellar continua, including stellar population age, electron temperature, oxygen abundance, etc. The oxygen abundances are derived using two empirical methods based on O3N2 and R 23 indicators, as well as the direct {T}e method when [{{O}} {{III}}] λ 4363 is available. By applying the harmonic decomposition analysis to the velocity field, we obtained a line-of-sight rotation velocity of 71 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a position angle of 36°. The stellar age profile shows an old stellar population in the galaxy center and a relatively young stellar population in outer regions, suggesting an old bulge and a young disk. The oxygen abundance profile exhibits a clear break at ∼18 kpc, with a gradient of ‑0.0364 dex kpc‑1 in the inner region and ‑0.00686 dex kpc‑1 in the outer region. Our results agree with the “inside-out” disk growth scenario of M101.

  3. Radiation transport in dense interstellar dust clouds. II. Infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the distribution of grain temperature (T/sub d/) and infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions (with embedded O: B stars). The effects of the following parameters on the temperature structure and the emergent spectrum are studied: grain type (graphite, silicate, and core-mantle grains), optical depth, density inhomogeneity, cloud size, anisotropic scattering, radiation field anisotropy, and characteristics of central heat source. T/sub d/ varies from approximately-greater-than100 K to approximately-less-than20 K throughout the major portion of a cloud, and dielectric grains attain lower temperatures. Due to an inward increase in T/sub d/, the radiation field is strongly forward-peaking, thereby producing a pronounced limb-darkening in the surface brightness. Important features of the computed emission spectra from typical models are compared with available observations, and the importance of beam dilution is emphasized. Theoretical surface brightnesses at selected infrared wavelengths are also presented. The outward radiation pressure on the dust grains is found to exceed the self-gravitational force of the gas over a large portion of a cloud, thus possibly causing the gas in the inner region to expand. Assumptions commonly used in the analysis of infrared observations are examined. Finally, observational methods of deriving the temperature structure (from color and brightness temperatures in the far-infrared), density distribution (from surface brightness at lambdaapproximately-greater-than1 mm), and optical depth (from multiaperture photometry) for the dust component in simple sources are discussed

  4. Decentralized/stand-alone hybrid Wind-Diesel power systems to meet residential loads of hot coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In view of rising costs, pollution and fears of exhaustion of oil and coal, governments around the world are encouraging to seek energy from renewable/sustainable energy sources such as wind. The utilization of energy from wind (since the oil embargo of the 1970s) is being widely disseminated for displacement of fossil fuel produced energy and to reduce atmospheric degradation. A system that consists of a wind turbine and Diesel genset is called a Wind-Diesel power system.The literature indicates that the commercial/residential buildings in Saudi Arabia consume an estimated 10-40% of the total electric energy generated. In the present study, the hourly mean wind-speed data of the period 1986-1997 recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological station, Dhahran (26 deg. 32'N, 50 deg. 13'E in the Eastern Coastal Region of Saudi Arabia), has been analyzed to investigate the potential of utilizing hybrid (Wind-Diesel) energy conversion systems to meet the load requirements of a hundred typical two bedroom residential buildings (with annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh). The long term monthly average wind speeds for Dhahran range from 4.2 to 6.4 m/s. The hybrid systems considered in the present case study consist of different combinations/clusters of 150 kW commercial wind machines supplemented with battery storage and Diesel back-up. The deficit energy generated by the Diesel generator (for different battery capacities) and the number of operational hours of the Diesel system to meet a specific annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh have also been presented. The evaluation of the hybrid system shows that with seven 150 kW wind energy conversion system (WECS) and one day of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 21.6% of the load demand. Furthermore, with three days of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 17.5% of the load demand. However, in the absence of battery storage, about 37% of the load needs to be

  5. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel

  6. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  7. Triggering the formation of the supergiant H II region NGC 604 in M 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachihara, Kengo; Gratier, Pierre; Sano, Hidetoshi; Tsuge, Kisetsu; Miura, Rie E.; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Formation mechanism of a supergiant H II region NGC 604 is discussed in terms of collision of H I clouds in M 33. An analysis of the archival H I data obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA) reveals complex velocity distributions around NGC 604. The H I clouds are composed of two velocity components separated by ˜20 km s-1 for an extent of ˜700 pc, beyond the size of the the H II region. Although the H I clouds are not easily separated in velocity with some mixed component represented by merged line profiles, the atomic gas mass amounts to 6 × 106 M_{⊙} and 9 × 106 M_{⊙} for each component. These characteristics of H I gas and the distributions of dense molecular gas in the overlapping regions of the two velocity components suggest that the formation of giant molecular clouds and the following massive cluster formation have been induced by the collision of H I clouds with different velocities. Referring to the existence of a gas bridging feature connecting M 33 with M 31 reported by large-scale H I surveys, the disturbed atomic gas possibly represents the result of past tidal interaction between the two galaxies, which is analogous to the formation of the R 136 cluster in the LMC.

  8. Development of a global river-coastal coupling model and its application to flood simulation in Asian mega-delta regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    The world's mega-delta regions and estuaries are susceptible to various water-related disasters, such as river flooding and storm surge. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of them would be more devastating than a situation where they occur in isolation. Therefore, it is important to provide information about compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, both their statistical dependency as well as their combined resulting flooding in delta regions. Here we report on a first attempt to address this issue globally by developing a method to couple a global river model (CaMa-Flood) and a global tide and surge reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. A state-of-the-art global river routing model, CaMa-Flood, was modified to represent varying sea levels due to tides and storm surges as downstream boundary condition, and the GTSR dataset was post-processed to serve as inputs to the CaMa-Flood river routing simulation and a long-term simulation was performed to incorporate the temporal dependency between coastal tide and surge on the one hand, and discharge on the other. The coupled model was validated against observations, showing better simulation results of water levels in deltaic regions than simulation without GTSR. For example in the Ganges Delta, correlation coefficients were increased by 0.06, and root mean square errors were reduced by 0.22 m. Global coupling simulations revealed that storm surges affected river water levels in coastal regions worldwide, especially in low-lying flat areas with increases in water level larger than 0.5 m. By employing enhanced storm surge simulation with tropical storm tracks, we also applied the model to examine impacts of past hurricane and cyclone storm events on river flood inundation.

  9. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  10. Spatio-temporal assessment and trend analysis of surface water salinity in the coastal region of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammi, Mashura; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md Atikul; Bodrud-Doza, Md; Zahid, Anwar; Akter, Yeasmin; Quaiyum, Samia; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    The study was designed to collect water samples over two seasons-wet-monsoon season (n = 96) (March-April) and dry-monsoon season (n = 44) (September-October)-to understand the seasonal variation in anion and cation hydrochemistry of the coastal rivers and estuaries contributing in the spatial trend in salinity. Hydrochemical examination of wet-monsoon season primarily revealed Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type (66%) and followed by Na-Cl type (17.70%) water. In the dry-monsoon season, the scenario reversed with primary water being Na-Cl type (52.27%) followed by Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type (31.81%). Analysis of Cl/Br molar ratio vs. Cl (mg/L) depicted sampling area affected by seawater intrusion (SWI). Spatial analysis by ordinary kriging method confirmed approximately 77% sample in the dry-monsoon, and 34% of the wet-monsoon season had shown SWI. The most saline-intruded areas in the wet-monsoon seasons were extreme south-west coastal zone of Bangladesh, lower Meghna River floodplain and Meghna estuarine floodplain and south-eastern part of Chittagong coastal plains containing the districts of Chittagong and Cox's Bazar adjacent to Bay of Bengal. In addition, mid-south zone is also affected slightly in the dry-monsoon season. From the analyses of data, this study could further help to comprehend seasonal trends in the hydrochemistry and water quality of the coastal and estuarine rivers. In addition, it can help policy makers to obligate some important implications for the future initiatives taken for the management of land, water, fishery, agriculture and environment of coastal rivers and estuaries of Bangladesh.

  11. [The mutations of the D-loop hypervariable region II and hypervariable region III of mitochondrial DNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Zhong; Jia, Mu-Yun; Yuan, Rong-Tao; Han, Guo-Dong; Bu, Ling-Xue

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop hypervariable region II (HVR II) and hypervariable region III (HVR III) mutations in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their correlation to provide the new targets for the prevention and treatment of OSCC. The D-loop HVR II and HVR III regions of mtDNA in seven cases with OSCC tissues, matched with paracancerous tissues and normal mucosa tissues from the same case, were amplified by polymerase chain raction (PCR), then were detected by direct sequencing to find the mutantsites after the comparison of all sequencing results with the mtDNA Cambridge sequence in the GenBank database. 82 (56 species) nucleotide changes, with 51(26 species) nucleotide polymorphism, were found after the comparison of all sequencing results with the mtDNA Cambridge sequence in the GenBank database. 31(30 species) mutations, with 21 located within the HVR II and HVR III regions, were found in 3 tumor tissue samples, their paracancerous and normal mucosa tissue were found more polymorphic changes but no mutation. The mtDNA D-loop HVR II and HVR III regions mutation rate was 42.9% (3/7) in OSCC. The mtDNA D-loop HVR II and HVR III regions were highly polymorphic and mutable regions in OSCC. It suggested that the D-loop HVR II and HVR III regions of mtDNA might play a significant role in the tumorigenesis of OSCC. It may become new targets for the gene therapy of OSCC by regulating the above indexes.

  12. GIANT H II REGIONS IN M101. I. X-RAY ANALYSIS OF HOT GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Chen Yang; Feng Li; Chu, You-Hua; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Wang, Q. Daniel; Li Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    We performed a Chandra X-ray study of three giant H II regions (GHRs), NGC 5461, NGC 5462, and NGC 5471, in the spiral galaxy M101. The X-ray spectra of the three GHRs all contain a prominent thermal component with a temperature of ∼0.2 keV. In NGC 5461, the spatial distribution of the soft ( 52 erg, is consistent with a hypernova origin. In addition, a bright source in the field of NGC 5462 has been identified as a background active galactic nucleus, instead of a black hole X-ray binary in M101.

  13. WTO’s information technology agreement (ITA and its expansion (ITA II: multilateralizing regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Capucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the complex context of the relationship between multilateralism and regionalism, the conclusion of plurilateral agreements within the WTO, open to participation of all interested members, offers a multilateral perspective of regionalism, in which the benefits of partial consensus are to be extended to the multilateral sphere. The ITA - Information Technology Agreement - is mentioned as an example of this possibility, and its recent expansion, through the negotiation of the ITA II, demonstrates the strengthening of this multilateralisation trend of regionalism, although with special features. Thus, this article is developed drawing the context and introduction of the theme of regionalism and multilateralism, and presents the theory of multilateralisation of regionalism and the ITA as one of those experiences, and its recent expansion as a resumption of the relevance of this theory. Considering the impasses for the conclusion of the Doha Round, the expansion of these partial consensus and the continuation of negotiations at the World Trade Organization by the conclusion of sectoral plurilateral agreements emerges as a possible way out, which demands a re-architecture of the interpretation of the role of the WTO in the global economic governance.

  14. Chronic pain and evoked responses in the brain: A magnetoencephalographic study in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theuvenet, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type I and II are chronic pain syndromes with comparable symptoms, only in CRPS II a peripheral nerve injury is present. No objective tests are currently available to differentiate the two types which hampers diagnosis and treatment. Non-invasive brain imaging

  15. Far-infrared observations of M17: The interaction of an H II region with a molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.; Becklin, E.E.; Sellgren, K.; Werner, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    The central 15' of the M17 H II region--molecular cloud complex has been mapped with 1' resolution simultaneously at 30, 50, and 100 μm. The data suggest that the bulk of the luminosity radiated in the far-infrared is supplied by the exciting stars of the H II region; the far-infrared radiation is thermal emission from dust grains located chiefly outside the ionized gas. Large-scale systematic gradients in both the temperature and the column density of the dust are seen across the source. The appearance of the source in the far-infrared reflects the markedly nonuniform distribution of matter around the exciting stars; the H II region is bounded by the molecular cloud to the southwest. The core of the molecular cloud is heated primarily by infrared radiation from dust within and adjacent to the H II region; no evidence is seen for substantial luminosity sources embedded within the molecular cloud

  16. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional 150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging 7 days per month during winter and 2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  17. Conservation of Sand Dune Vegetation in Coastal areas of the Valencian Region (Spain); Estado de conservacion de la vegetacion dunar en las costas de la comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertos, B.; San Miguel, E.; Draper, I.; Garilleti, R.; Lara, F.; Varela, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    The state of conservation of the coastal dune vegetation in Valencia region has been assessed within a survey of the vegetal communities present in these systems.The conservation status has been evaluated through a qualitative scale which integrates criteria such as dune extension, structure and diversity of the vegetal communities, level of ruderalization, presence of invasive species, and floristic rarity. Special attention has been paid to the usual aggressions to this type of ecosystem and the situation of the most aggressive invasive plants. (Author) 15 refs.

  18. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  19. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 from a southern coastal city of China: applications of modeling and chemical tracers in demonstration of regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamao; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhao, Shuyu; Zhu, Chongshu; Wang, Qiyuan; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Youzhi; Wang, Ping; Tie, Xuexi

    2018-05-11

    An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions. Three major transport pathways were identified, and flow from the northeast (from South China) typically brought the most polluted air to Sanya. A case study confirmed strong impact from South China (e.g., Pearl River Delta region) (contributed 76.8% to EC, and then this result can be extended to primary pollutants) when the northeast winds were dominant. The Weather Research Forecasting Black carbon model and trace organic markers were used to apportion local pollution versus regional contributions. Results of the study offer new insights into the atmospheric conditions and air pollution at this coastal city.

  20. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  1. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, R.C.; Cornett, R.H.; Hill, J.K.; Stecher, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses. 25 refs

  2. Climatic Atlas of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Regions of Alaska. Volume 2. Bering Sea. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Joe D. Elms , for their editorial evaluation of the vironmental Assessmant Program. Additional depends to a large extent on weather condi- isopleth...waves, icing rates are open waters and coastal sectionsofAlaska.The temperatures less than 8°C, winds of 25 knots lower. icing causes slippery decks...thereby bias the oceanic climatology towards fair weather. A recent study by Elms (1986), in which he compared the Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) data

  3. ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN H ii REGIONS: IS IT REALLY ANOMALOUS? THE CASE OF RCW 49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, Roberta [Infrared Processing Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Umana, Grazia; Trigilio, Corrado [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania Italy (Italy); Tibbs, Christopher T. [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration,European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Clive [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free–free emission has been reported for several Galactic H ii regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (∼3σ) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7′. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5, 19, and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109α radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: (1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.′4 to 0.″4, although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; (2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free–free emission, however, ∼30% of these are positive and much greater than −0.1, consistent with a stellar wind scenario; and (3) no major evidence for inverted free–free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of AME in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources that are very well known and studied, such as H ii regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emission might be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.

  4. Observations of neutral hydrogen in the region 355 deg II) < 10 deg and -5 deg < bsup(II) < 5 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.J.; Pedlar, A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the 21cm hydrogen line from the central regions of the Galaxy are reported. The instruments used for the study are the Mark II (31'x35' HPBW) and Mark IA (13' HPBW) radio telescopes at NRAL, Jodrell Bank

  5. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  6. [Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II regions in the Deng populations from Tibet in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I (HVR I) and HVR II in the Deng population in Linzhi area of Tibet. mtDNAs obtained from 119 unrelated individuals were amplified and directly sequenced. One hundred and ten variable sites were identified, including nucleotide transitions, transversions, and insertions. In the HVR I region (nt16024-nt16365), 68 polymorphic sites and 119 haplotypes were observed, the genetic diversity was 0.9916. In the HVR II (nt73-nt340) region, 42 polymorphic sites and 113 haplotypes were observed, and the genetic diversity was 0.9907. The random match probability of the HVR I and HVR II regions were 0.0084 and 0.0093, respectively. When combining the HVR I and HVR II regions, 119 different haplotypes were found. The combined match probability of two unrelated persons having the same sequence was 0.0084. There are some unique polymorphic loci in the Deng population. There are different genetic structures between Chinese and other Asian populations in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. Sequence polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA HVR I and HVR II can be used as a genetic marker for forensic individual identification and genetic analysis.

  7. Magnetic fields, stellar feedback, and the geometry of H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic pressure has long been known to dominate over gas pressure in atomic and molecular regions of the interstellar medium. Here I review several recent observational studies of the relationships between the H+, H0 and H2 regions in M42 (the Orion complex) and M17. A simple picture results. When stars form they push back surrounding material, mainly through the outward momentum of starlight acting on grains, and field lines are dragged with the gas due to flux freezing. The magnetic field is compressed and the magnetic pressure increases until it is able to resist further expansion and the system comes into approximate magnetostatic equilibrium. Magnetic field lines can be preferentially aligned perpendicular to the long axis of quiescent cloud before stars form. After star formation and pushback occurs ionized gas will be constrained to flow along field lines and escape from the system along directions perpendicular to the long axis. The magnetic field may play other roles in the physics of the H II region and associated PDR. Cosmic rays may be enhanced along with the field and provide additional heating of atomic and molecular material. Wave motions may be associated with the field and contribute a component of turbulence to observed line profiles.

  8. A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

  9. Diffusion effects on the line intensities of He I and He II in the solar transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, R.; Gerola, H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of diffusion in the solar chromosphere-corona transition region is developed. Diffusion becomes increasingly important with steeper temperature gradients, in active and quiet regions relative to coronal holes, and with increasing excitation potential. Numerical calculations are made for the resonance lines of He i and He ii and show that diffusion can enhance these lines. Thus the helium lines may appear relatively weak in coronal holes due to a weakening of the enhancement mechanism. Most transition region lines will be less affected by diffusion than He i or He ii

  10. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  11. Line profile studies of hydrodynamical models of cometary compact H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Zhu, Qing-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We simulate the evolution of cometary H II regions based on several champagne flow models and bow shock models, and calculate the profiles of the [Ne II] fine-structure line at 12.81 μm, the H30α recombination line and the [Ne III] fine-structure line at 15.55 μm for these models at different inclinations of 0°, 30° and 60°. We find that the profiles in the bow shock models are generally different from those in the champagne flow models, but the profiles in the bow shock models with lower stellar velocity (≤ 5 km s −1 ) are similar to those in the champagne flow models. In champagne flow models, both the velocity of peak flux and the flux weighted central velocities of all three lines point outward from molecular clouds. In bow shock models, the directions of these velocities depend on the speed of stars. The central velocities of these lines are consistent with the stellar motion in the high stellar speed cases, but they are opposite directions from the stellar motion in the low speed cases. We notice that the line profiles from the slit along the symmetrical axis of the projected 2D image of these models are useful for distinguishing bow shock models from champagne flow models. It is also confirmed by the calculation that the flux weighted central velocity and the line luminosity of the [Ne III] line can be estimated from the [Ne II] line and the H30α line. (paper)

  12. Particle backscattering variability in the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal: A case study along off Kakinada and Yanam Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Latha, P.T.; Nagamani, P.V.; Rao, B.S.; Amarendra, P.; Rao, K.H.; Choudhury, S.B.; Dash, S.K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    to 82◦23.425′ E longitudes. The area is often called Kakinada–Godavari Basin (KG Basin) and very signif- icant for petroleum reserve. The geographical distribution of in-situ sampling locations are shown in Fig. 1. The in-situ data was collected in two... sensing reflectance at sampling locations of the study area. Fig. 3. Frequency distribution of Chl-a conc. (mg/m3) measured during the cruise in the Godavari basin, 02–09 March 2012. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In-situRrs spectra measured in the coastal...

  13. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063-6259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bik, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063-6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 {mu}m) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 {mu}m silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063-6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 {mu}m absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  14. EXTINCTION AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INTENSITY VARIATIONS ACROSS THE H II REGION IRAS 12063–6259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E.; Otaguro, J. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Bik, A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band intensities are normally attributed to the physical conditions of the emitting PAHs, however in recent years it has been suggested that such variations are caused mainly by extinction. To resolve this question, we have obtained near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), and radio observations of the compact H II region IRAS 12063–6259. We use these data to construct multiple independent extinction maps and also to measure the main PAH features (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 μm) in the MIR. Three extinction maps are derived: the first using the NIR hydrogen lines and case B recombination theory; the second combining the NIR data with radio data; and the third making use of the Spitzer/IRS MIR observations to measure the 9.8 μm silicate absorption feature using the Spoon method and PAHFIT (as the depth of this feature can be related to overall extinction). The silicate absorption over the bright, southern component of IRAS 12063–6259 is almost absent while the other methods find significant extinction. While such breakdowns of the relationship between the NIR extinction and the 9.8 μm absorption have been observed in molecular clouds, they have never been observed for H II regions. We then compare the PAH intensity variations in the Spitzer/IRS data after dereddening to those found in the original data. It was found that in most cases, the PAH band intensity variations persist even after dereddening, implying that extinction is not the main cause of the PAH band intensity variations.

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship McARTHUR II in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-06-05 to 2007-07-26 (NODC Accession 0109934)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109934 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship McARTHUR II in the Coastal Waters of SE...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf of Mexico from 2012-05-08 to 2012-08-12 (NCEI Accession 0157334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157334 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from WEATHERBIRD II in the Coastal Waters of Florida and Gulf...

  17. A bright-rimmed cloud sculpted by the H ii region Sh2-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Giacani, E.; Rubio, M.; Dubner, G.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We characterize a bright-rimmed cloud embedded in the H ii region Sh2-48 while searching for evidence of triggered star formation. Methods: We carried out observations towards a region of 2' × 2' centered at RA = 18h22m11.39s, Dec = -14°35'24.81''(J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, HCO+J = 4-3, and CS J = 7-6 lines with an angular resolution of about 22''. We also present radio continuum observations at 5 GHz carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; EEUU) interferometer with a synthetized beam of 7'' × 5''. The molecular transitions were used to study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of the bright-rimmed cloud. The radio continuum data was used to characterize the ionized gas located on the illuminated border of this molecular condensation. Combining these observations with infrared public data allowed us to build up a comprehensive picture of the current state of star formation within this cloud. Results: The analysis of our molecular observations reveals a relatively dense clump with n(H2) ~ 3 × 103cm-3, located in projection onto the interior of the H ii region Sh2-48. The emission distribution of the four observed molecular transitions has, at VLSR ~ 38 km s-1, morphological anticorrelation with the bright-rimmed cloud as seen in the optical emission. From the new radio continuum observations, we identify a thin layer of ionized gas located on the border of the clump that is facing the ionizing star. The ionized gas has an electron density of about 73 cm-3, which is a factor three higher than the typical critical density (nc ~ 25 cm-3), above which an ionized boundary layer can be formed and maintained. This supports the hypothesis that the clump is being photoionized by the nearby O9.5V star, BD-14 5014. From the evaluation of the pressure balance between the ionized and molecular gas, we conclude that the clump would be in a prepressure balance

  18. Determination of the Anthropogenic Carbon Signal to the Total Change in Dissolved Carbon in the Coastal Upwelling Region Along the Washington-Oregon-California Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canthro) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al (2008) along with the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data sets from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canthro and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program west coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canthro in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canthro in surface waters along the coast with the lowest surface values (40-45 µmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 µmol kg-1) to the north and south. Canthro contributes an average of about 70% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface. In contrast, at 50 m the Canthro contribution is approximately 31% and at 100 m it averages about 16%. The remaining contributions are primarily due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or underwent respiration processes that occurred locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canthro has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions that affect the biological communities on the continental shelf.

  19. Assessment of the present and future implications of radioactive contamination of the Irish Sea coastal region of Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Simmonds, J.R.; Cooper, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    An assessment has been made of the doses that could be received by people who make use of the Cumbrian coastal area. Current doses have been estimated for residents and visitors to different parts of the area. By making assumptions about changes in waste management practices at the BNFL Sellafield plant and in the geography of the coastal area, the development of doses over the next 200 years has been assessed. The study was confined to exposure pathways in the terrestrial environment, although the influence of liquid discharges on terrestrial pathways was taken into account. Consumption of marine foodstuffs was outside the scope of the study. As expected, the highest doses would be received by those people who live closest to Sellafield. However, in all cases doses to average individuals were well below the present limit for members of the public specified by ICRP. The general future trend was for doses to decline. Doses were also estimated for particular population groups such as those who spend more time on beaches. While the resultant values were higher than those for average individuals, they were still well within the ICRP limit in all cases. (author)

  20. Spatio-temporal variability in accretion and erosion of coastal foredunes in the Netherlands: regional climate and local topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Joep G S; Poortinga, Ate; Riksen, Michel J P M; Maroulis, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the amount of aeolian sediment input and dune erosion, dune size and morphology change over time. Since coastal foredunes play an important role in the Dutch coastal defence, it is important to have good insight in the main factors that control these changes. In this paper the temporal variations in foredune erosion and accretion were studied in relation to proxies for aeolian transport potential and storminess using yearly elevation measurements from 1965 to 2012 for six sections of the Dutch coast. Longshore differences in the relative impacts of erosion and accretion were examined in relation to local beach width. The results show that temporal variability in foredune accretion and erosion is highest in narrow beach sections. Here, dune erosion alternates with accretion, with variability displaying strong correlations with yearly values of storminess (maximum sea levels). In wider beach sections, dune erosion is less frequent, with lower temporal variability and stronger correlations with time series of transport potential. In erosion dominated years, eroded volumes decrease from narrow to wider beaches. When accretion dominates, dune-volume changes are relatively constant alongshore. Dune erosion is therefore suggested to control spatial variability in dune-volume changes. On a scale of decades, the volume of foredunes tends to increase more on wider beaches. However, where widths exceed 200 to 300 m, this trend is no longer observed.

  1. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  3. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  4. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Osland

    Full Text Available Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA across political boundaries (states, wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise. Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our

  5. Widespread detection of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, in expanded polystyrene marine debris and microplastics from South Korea and the Asia-Pacific coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The role of marine plastic debris and microplastics as a carrier of hazardous chemicals in the marine environment is an emerging issue. This study investigated expanded polystyrene (EPS, commonly known as styrofoam) debris, which is a common marine debris item worldwide, and its additive chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To obtain a better understanding of chemical dispersion via EPS pollution in the marine environment, intensive monitoring of HBCD levels in EPS debris and microplastics was conducted in South Korea, where EPS is the predominant marine debris originate mainly from fishing and aquaculture buoys. At the same time, EPS debris were collected from 12 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and HBCD concentrations were measured. HBCD was detected extensively in EPS buoy debris and EPS microplastics stranded along the Korean coasts, which might be related to the detection of a quantity of HBCD in non-flame-retardant EPS bead (raw material). The wide detection of the flame retardant in sea-floating buoys, and the recycling of high-HBCD-containing EPS waste inside large buoys highlight the need for proper guidelines for the production and use of EPS raw materials, and the recycling of EPS waste. HBCD was also abundantly detected in EPS debris collected from the Asia-Pacific coastal region, indicating that HBCD contamination via EPS debris is a common environmental issue worldwide. Suspected tsunami debris from Alaskan beaches indicated that EPS debris has the potential for long-range transport in the ocean, accompanying the movement of hazardous chemicals. The results of this study indicate that EPS debris can be a source of HBCD in marine environments and marine food web. - Highlights: • A brominated flame retardant, HBCD, was assessed in EPS debris and microplastics. • HBCD was widely detected in EPS debris from the Asia-Pacific coastal region. • Additive HBCD are dispersed via EPS pollution in marine environments. • EPS debris can be a

  6. A numerical investigation of the atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast over the coastal upwelling region of Cabo Frio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, M. [Departamento de Meteorologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcelo_dourado@ufpel.edu.br; Pereira de Oliveira, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Atmosfericas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    An one-dimensional atmospheric second order closure model, coupled to an oceanic mixed layer model, is used to investigate the short term variation of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers in the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio, Brazil (23 degrees Celsius S, 42 degrees Celsius 08' W). The numerical simulations were carried out to evaluate the impact caused by the thermal contrast between atmosphere and ocean on the vertical extent and other properties of both atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The numerical simulations were designed taking as reference the observations carried out during the passage of a cold front that disrupted the upwelling regime in Cabo Frio in July of 1992. The simulations indicated that in 10 hours the mechanical mixing, sustained by a constant background flow of 10 m s-1, increases the atmospheric boundary layer in 214 m when the atmosphere is initially 2 K warmer than the ocean (positive thermal contrast observed during upwelling regime). For an atmosphere initially -2 K colder than the ocean (negative thermal contrast observed during passage of the cold front), the incipient thermal convection intensifies the mechanical mixing increasing the vertical extent of the atmospheric boundary layer in 360 m. The vertical evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is consistent with the observations carried out in Cabo Frio during upwelling condition. When the upwelling is disrupted, the discrepancy between the simulated and observed atmospheric boundary layer heights in Cabo Frio during July of 1992 increases considerably. During the period of 10 hours, the simulated oceanic mixed layer deepens 2 m and 5.4 m for positive and negative thermal contrasts of 2 K and -2 K, respectively. In the latter case, the larger vertical extent of the oceanic mixed layer is due to the presence of thermal convection in the atmospheric boundary layer, which in turn is associated to the absence of upwelling caused by the passage of cold fronts

  7. Testing the existence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions in H II regions after assessing atomic data accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, C. [Permanent address: Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), P.O. Box 20632, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela. (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bautista, M. A., E-mail: claudio.mendozaguardia@wmich.edu, E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    The classic optical nebular diagnostics [N II], [O II], [O III], [S II], [S III], and [Ar III] are employed to search for evidence of non-Maxwellian electron distributions, namely κ distributions, in a sample of well-observed Galactic H II regions. By computing new effective collision strengths for all these systems and A-values when necessary (e.g., S II), and by comparing with previous collisional and radiative data sets, we have been able to obtain realistic estimates of the electron-temperature dispersion caused by the atomic data, which in most cases are not larger than ∼10%. If the uncertainties due to both observation and atomic data are then taken into account, it is plausible to determine for some nebulae a representative average temperature while in others there are at least two plasma excitation regions. For the latter, it is found that the diagnostic temperature differences in the high-excitation region, e.g., T{sub e} (O III), T{sub e} (S III), and T{sub e} (Ar III), cannot be conciliated by invoking κ distributions. For the low-excitation region, it is possible in some, but not all, cases to arrive at a common, lower temperature for [N II], [O II], and [S II] with κ ≈ 10, which would then lead to significant abundance enhancements for these ions. An analytic formula is proposed to generate accurate κ-averaged excitation rate coefficients (better than 10% for κ ≥ 5) from temperature tabulations of the Maxwell-Boltzmann effective collision strengths.

  8. Collection and analysis of existing information on applicability of investigation methods for characterizing natural events/processes in a coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Doke, Ryosuke; Shigehiro, Michiko; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako

    2011-02-01

    The investigation methods for characterizing natural events and processes in a coastal field have been extracted on the basis of analysis of previous research. Collected information is classified into three groups according to the characteristics of natural events/processes and investigation methods. First group is the methods for evaluation of uplift, subsidence and sedimentation rates. Second group is the methods for evaluation of denudation rates. The third group is the methods for reconstruction of the climatic and sea-level changes. Study area, timeframe of the investigation, work sequences, techniques for age-determination, index and objects for characterizing natural events/processes, etc. in each research example were arranged in an 'information spread sheet'. Information on applicability of the each investigation method was extracted from information spread sheet, and was arranged in tabular form. Based on an analysis of the above information, investigation method that can be applied to a coastal region was extracted. The methods and indices are as follows: Uplift rate: the heights of marine terraces are the most important index in an upheaval region. Subsidence and sedimentation rate: the depths of strata underlying an alluvial plain are main indices in a subsidence region. Denudation rate: the features of marine terrace are main indices and the inspection of denudation processes by the use of a numerical simulation is necessary. Climate change: lacustrine deposits are main object for investigation. Sea-level change: reconstruction of relative sea-level change curve including uplift/subsidence factor and paleogeography based on acoustic exploration and the investigation of marine terraces. (author)

  9. Abundance and distribution of Portunidae larval phases (Crustacea: Brachyura in the estuarine and coastal region of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Roberto Ramos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The abundance and distribution of larval phases of the Portunidae found in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon and the coastal region were studied during two years (1995 and 1999. A conical net (165 cm long, 60 cm mouth, and 330 µm mesh equipped with a flowmeter was towed for three minutes at 2 knots at six stations within the estuary and four stations in the coastal region. Samplings were carried out on the surface and near the bottom. At each sampling location, the salinity and temperature were also recorded. In 1995, the zoeae of Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Achelous spinicarpus Stimpson, 1871 were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 121.98 ind.100 m-3 (90.95 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 31.03 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. A total of 452.27 ind.100 m-3 were caught in the megalopa phase (13.49 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 438.78 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. In 1999, only zoeae of C. sapidus were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 419.78 ind.100 m-3 (386.98 ind.100 m-3 on the surface and 32.8 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Megalopae of these three species were caught, resulting in a total abundance of 179.91 ind.100 m-3 (25.38 ind.100 m-3 on surface and 154.53 ind.100 m-3 near the bottom. Summer was the season with the highest abundance of larvae in both years. During spring and summer, spawning was observed in the estuarine region of the Patos Lagoon.

  10. Comparative performance of PV panels of different technologies over one year of exposure: Application to a coastal Mediterranean region of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenounou, A.; Malek, A.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of four PV panels of various technologies are compared during one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions. • An original platform and methodology of test allow a real-time scan of several PV panel parameters. • The technologies compared are micromorph silicon, monocrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon. • The performance ratio point out a difference of behavior between the four technologies over one year. • Results are directly exploitable in costal regions of Mediterranean countries. - Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to compare the performance of four PV panels of different technologies for one year of exposure under natural outdoor conditions of a coastal region in the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. An original platform of test, especially dedicated for this study is presented describing operations and techniques used for measurements of the pertinent experimental data and for their exploitation. The four panel technologies studied are micromorph silicon (μ-Si), monocrystalline silicon (M-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polycrystalline silicon (Poli-Si). Two types of results are analyzed and presented. The first type is straight forwardly linked to the PV panels standard data calculated experimentally from measurements recorded during one year of exposure and compared with the values provided by the manufacturers in their datasheets. The second type is related to the energy yield in which the corresponding monthly and annual performance ratios of the four PV panels is calculated in two ways, using 1 – the datasheet’s value of Power Max, and 2 – the data providing from experimental campaign. In addition to the general conclusions concerning the fundamental role of the experimental study at a natural site for a good sizing of a renewable energy production system, we extend the analysis and discussion for the specific localization case of southern coastal region of

  11. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  12. Reverse trends of TEX86 temperature in coastal areas of the East China Sea over the last 100 years: implication for global warming and regional circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Xing, L.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    To reconstruct and compare the SST changes in different regions of the ECS over the last 100 years, in this study, we analyzed iGDGTs compounds and TEX86 index in two sediment cores (DH5-1 and DH6-2) from the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). GDGT-0 and GDGT-5 in the two cores account for 80% of iGDGTs, significantly more abundant than the other iGDGTs compounds. It is also found that iGDGTs are mainly derived from marine Thaumarchaeota. TEXH86 temperatures varied from 17 °C to 22 °C (average 19.4 °C), showing a gradual increase in Core DH5-1 near the Changjiang River Estuary, corresponding to global warming and temperature rise in the ECS over the last 100 years. However, in Core DH6-2 further away from the Changjiang River Estuary, TEXH86 temperatures gradually decreased over the last 80 years with a range of 15.3 °C-18.3 °C, which is attributed to the strengthened near-shore Kuroshio Branch Current transporting more subsurface cold water to the ECS coastal area. In future, more sites should be investigated to confirm the range of the coastal area where the decrease in SST is caused by upwelling subsurface water.

  13. Absence of domestic triatomine colonies in an area of the coastal region of Ecuador where Chagas disease is endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J Grijalva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is considered the second most important vector of Chagas disease in Ecuador. It is distributed across six of the 24 provinces and occupies intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and sylvatic habitats. This study was conducted in six communities within the coastal province of Guayas. Triatomine searches were conducted in domestic and peridomestic habitats and bird nests using manual searches, live-bait traps and sensor boxes. Synantrhopic mammals were captured in the domestic and peridomestic habitats. Household searches (n = 429 and randomly placed sensor boxes (n = 360 produced no live triatomine adults or nymphs. In contrast, eight nymphs were found in two out of six searched Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Troglodytidae nests. Finally, Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was amplified from the blood of 10% of the 115 examined mammals. Environmental changes in land use (intensive rice farming, mosquito control interventions and lack of intradomestic adaptation are suggested among the possible reasons for the lack of domestic triatomine colonies.

  14. Assessment of Sustainable Use of Coastal Resources of Regional Waters Conservation Area Biak Numfor Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaman Sutaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to exploit fish resources optimally, continuous and sustainable is an urgent demand for the greatest prosperity of the people, especially to improve the welfare of fishermen and fish farmers. The level of sustainable use of coastal resources in water conservation is very important, so that the utilization does not exceed the carrying capacity of the environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sustainable use of coastal resources Biak Numfor, associated with the utilization of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. The study was conducted in June to December 2015 and October to November 2016. The primary data obtained by interview and direct discussion through Focus Group Disscution (FGD with fishermen community, tourist and tourist entrepreneurs as well as related officials in the Office of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, and Tourism Office of Biak Numfor Regency. Methods of data analysis approach sustainability analysis conducted by the method of MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling with the help of software Rapfish. Based on the survey results revealed that the value of fisheries ordinated to achieve 57.66%, 44.80% aquaculture, and tourism 46.25%. With these achievements ordinated value, it can be concluded that the use of sustainable capture fisheries are still classified by the lever sustainability attributes include; the type of fishing gear, vessel types used and the catch per unit effort (CPUE. Meanwhile the relatively less sustainable aquaculture with the sustainability lever attributes include; cultivation technology, the number of business units with different types and species of fish. For tourism utilization is still considered less sustainable with levers sustainability attributes include the number of tourists, the type and number of amenities and facilities and infrastructure   Keywords: Sustainability, utilization, waters conservation area (KKPD, MDS-Rapfish

  15. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m"− "2): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  16. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xiaohua, Long, E-mail: longxiaohua@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hongbo, Shao, E-mail: shaohongbochu@126.com [Institute of Agro-biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhaopu, Liu [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m{sup −} {sup 2}): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  17. The environment and star formation of H II region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the environment of H II region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this H II region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the H II region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. Using 2MASS photometry, we tried to search for embedded young stellar object (YSO) candidates in this region. The very good agreement between CO emission, infrared shell and YSOs suggest that it is probably a star formation region triggered by the expansion of Sh2-163. We also found the most likely massive protostar related to IRAS 23314+6033.

  18. Optical polarimetric and near-infrared photometric study of the RCW95 Galactic H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, J.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Santos, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Santos, J. F. C.; Maia, F. F. S.; Sanmartim, D.

    2018-02-01

    We carried out an optical polarimetric study in the direction of the RCW 95 star-forming region in order to probe the sky-projected magnetic field structure by using the distribution of linear polarization segments which seem to be well aligned with the more extended cloud component. A mean polarization angle of θ = 49.8° ± 7.7°7 was derived. Through the spectral dependence analysis of polarization it was possible to obtain the total-to-selective extinction ratio (RV) by fitting the Serkowski function, resulting in a mean value of RV = 2.93 ± 0.47. The foreground polarization component was estimated and is in agreement with previous studies in this direction of the Galaxy. Further, near-infrared (NIR) images from Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV) survey were collected to improve the study of the stellar population associated with the H II region. The Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis algorithm was employed to derive structural parameters for two clusters in the region, and a set of PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) isochrones was superimposed on the decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams to estimate an age of about 3 Myr for both clusters. Finally, from the NIR photometry study combined with spectra obtained with the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrometer mounted at the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope we derived the spectral classification of the main ionizing sources in the clusters associated with IRAS 15408-5356 and IRAS 15412-5359, both objects classified as O4V stars.

  19. Regulation of Islamic art in confessional policy of Catherine II (on materials of the Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the religious conflicts and Islamic extremism, education of confessional tolerance, – these and other questions became the most actual political and scientific problem now. Art reflects outlook of people and is an ideological lever on society. In article the policy on use of Islamic art for education of confessional tolerance is analyzed. This policy began by Catherine II in 1773, had the content of reform and extended on religious art and architecture of all gentiles in the Russian Empire. Article is written on the basis of materials of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan and exhibits of the museums. The Tyumen region (the South of the modern Tyumen region was an optimum basis for carrying out this policy because of the mixed option of Islam which arose there. Muslim art included a complex of the subjects intended for execution of a religious cult. It reflected elements of Shamanism and Tengriism, and after carrying out reform – Judaism and Christianity. Thus, at it there were forms and images of all religions of the Tyumen region. Syncretism of Islamic art was shown in a typology of cult objects, their ornament and mission. The most unusual phenomenon was existence of a religious sculpture which was forbidden in Islam and Orthodoxy, but existed in both religions, and also in Catholicism, Tengriism and Shamanism. In article ways of impact on Muslim art which were used by the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting are considered. It didn't interfere in preservation of religious syncretism, and also executed orders of the government on Christianization of Islamic art. Authors come to a conclusion that reform carried lines of policy of multiculturalism for gentiles.

  20. Study of diffuse H II regions potentially forming part of the gas streams around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; López, E.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Aravena, M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Llerena, M.; Aldás, F.; Logan, C.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of diffuse extended ionized gas towards three clouds located in the Galactic Centre (GC). One line of sight (LOS) is towards the 20 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.11) in the Sgr A region, another LOS is towards the 50 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.02), also in Sgr A, while the third is towards the Sgr B2 cloud (LOS+0.693). The emission from the ionized gas is detected from Hnα and Hmβ radio recombination lines (RRLs). Henα and Hemβ RRL emission is detected with the same n and m as those from the hydrogen RRLs only towards LOS+0.693. RRLs probe gas with positive and negative velocities towards the two Sgr A sources. The Hmβ to Hnα ratios reveal that the ionized gas is emitted under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in these regions. We find a He to H mass fraction of 0.29±0.01 consistent with the typical GC value, supporting the idea that massive stars have increased the He abundance compared to its primordial value. Physical properties are derived for the studied sources. We propose that the negative velocity component of both Sgr A sources is part of gas streams considered previously to model the GC cloud kinematics. Associated massive stars with what are presumably the closest H II regions to LOS-0.11 (positive velocity gas), LOS-0.02, and LOS+0.693 could be the main sources of ultraviolet photons ionizing the gas. The negative velocity components of both Sgr A sources might be ionized by the same massive stars, but only if they are in the same gas stream.

  1. Identification of candidate regions for a novel Usher syndrome type II locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rebeh, Imen; Benzina, Zeineb; Dhouib, Houria; Hadjamor, Imen; Amyere, Mustapha; Ayadi, Leila; Turki, Khalil; Hammami, Bouthaina; Kmiha, Noureddine; Kammoun, Hassen; Hakim, Bochra; Charfedine, Ilhem; Vikkula, Miikka; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Ayadi, Hammadi; Masmoudi, Saber

    2008-09-19

    Chronic diseases affecting the inner ear and the retina cause severe impairments to our communication systems. In more than half of the cases, Usher syndrome (USH) is the origin of these double defects. Patients with USH type II (USH2) have retinitis pigmentosa (RP) that develops during puberty, moderate to severe hearing impairment with downsloping pure-tone audiogram, and normal vestibular function. Four loci and three genes are known for USH2. In this study, we proposed to localize the gene responsible for USH2 in a consanguineous family of Tunisian origin. Affected members underwent detailed ocular and audiologic characterization. One Tunisian family with USH2 and 45 healthy controls unrelated to the family were recruited. Two affected and six unaffected family members attended our study. DNA samples of eight family members were genotyped with polymorphic markers. Two-point and multipoint LOD scores were calculated using Genehunter software v2.1. Sequencing was used to investigate candidate genes. Haplotype analysis showed no significant linkage to any known USH gene or locus. A genome-wide screen, using microsatellite markers, was performed, allowing the identification of three homozygous regions in chromosomes 2, 4, and 15. We further confirmed and refined these three regions using microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. With recessive mode of inheritance, the highest multipoint LOD score of 1.765 was identified for the candidate regions on chromosomes 4 and 15. The chromosome 15 locus is large (55 Mb), underscoring the limited number of meioses in the consanguineous pedigree. Moreover, the linked, homozygous chromosome 15q alleles, unlike those of the chromosome 2 and 4 loci, are infrequent in the local population. Thus, the data strongly suggest that the novel locus for USH2 is likely to reside on 15q. Our data provide a basis for the localization and the identification of a novel gene implicated in USH2, most likely localized on 15q.

  2. A new approach to evaluate factors controlling elemental sediment–seawater distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in coastal regions, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Central Laboratory, Onjuku, Chiba (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan); Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba City, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In numerical models to simulate the dispersion of anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment, the sediment–seawater distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for various elements is an important parameter. In coastal regions, K{sub d} values are largely dependent on hydrographic conditions and physicochemical characteristics of sediment. Here we report K{sub d} values for 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, I, Cs, rare earth elements, Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) in seawater and sediment samples from 19 Japanese coastal regions, and we examine the factors controlling the variability of these K{sub d} values by investigating their relationships to hydrographic conditions and sediment characteristics. There was large variability in K{sub d} values for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, I, Pb and Th. Variations of K{sub d} for Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Pb and Th appear to be controlled by hydrographic conditions. Although K{sub d} values for Ni, Cu, Se, Cd and I depend mainly on grain size, organic matter content, and the concentrations of hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn in sediments, heterogeneity in the surface characteristics of sediment particles appears to hamper evaluation of the relative importance of these factors. Thus, we report a new approach to evaluate the factors contributing to variability in K{sub d} for an element. By this approach, we concluded that the K{sub d} values for Cu, Se, Cd and I are controlled by grain size and organic matter in sediments, and the K{sub d} value for Ni is dependent on grain size and on hydrous oxides/oxides of Fe and Mn. - Highlights: • K{sub d}s for 36 elements were determined in 19 Japanese coastal regions. • K{sub d}s for several elements appeared to be controlled by multiple factors in sediments. • We evaluated these factors based on physico-chemical characteristics of sediments.

  3. Analysis of the variability of extra-tropical cyclones at the regional scale for the coasts of Northern Germany and investigation of their coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Benjamin; Feser, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of long-term changes in wind speeds is very important for the coastal areas and the protection measures. Therefor the wind variability at the regional scale for the coast of Northern Germany shall be analysed. In order to derive changes in storminess it is essential to analyse long, homogeneous meteorological time series. Wind measurements often suffer from inconsistencies which arise from changes in instrumentation, observation method, or station location. Reanalysis data take into account such inhomogeneities of observation data and convert these measurements into a consistent, gridded data set with the same grid spacing and time intervals. This leads to a smooth, homogeneous data set, but with relatively low resolution (about 210 km for the longest reanalysis data set, the NCEP reanalysis starting in 1948). Therefore a high-resolution regional atmospheric model will be used to bring these reanalyses to a higher resolution, using in addition to a dynamical downscaling approach the spectral nudging technique. This method 'nudges' the large spatial scales of the regional climate model towards the reanalysis, while the smaller spatial scales are left unchanged. It was applied successfully in a number of applications, leading to realistic atmospheric weather descriptions of the past. With the regional climate model COSMO-CLM a very high-resolution data set was calculated for the last 67 years, the period from 1948 until now. The model area is North Germany with the coastal area of the North sea and parts of the Baltic sea. This is one of the first model simulations on climate scale with a very high resolution of 2.8 km, so even small scale effects can be detected. With this hindcast-simulation there are numerous options of evaluation. One can create wind climatologies for regional areas such as for the metropolitan region of Hamburg. Otherwise one can investigate individual storms in a case study. With a filtering and tracking program the course of

  4. Profiles of the N II 6584 A line over the giant H II regions IC 1318b and c, NGC 7000 and IC 5070. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Johnson, P G; Meaburn, J; Mikhail, J S; Terrett, D L; White, N J [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy

    1979-06-01

    Previously (Paper I) large-scale splitting of the (N II) line was discovered over an area of IC 1318b. The motions of the ionized material have now been mapped over a much larger region of this nebula and also IC 1318c. The splitting reaches a maximum value of 53 km/s over the faintest regions of IC 1318b and occurs over an area approximately > 20 pc across. However, few split (N II) lines were found over IC 1318c, but the motions of this whole ionized and neutral complex have been shown to be closely related. Wind-driven flows along neutral and ionized shells are proposed to explain the observations. Similar measurements have also been made on either side of the dark lane separating NGC 7000 from IC 5070.

  5. Biosorption of Cu(II) onto agricultural materials from tropical regions

    KAUST Repository

    Acheampong, Mike A.; Pereira, Joana P.C.; Meulepas, Roel J.W.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2011-01-01

    model described the Cu(II) removal by coconut husk (R2 = 0.999) and sawdust (R2 = 0.993) very well and the Cu(II) removal by Moringa oleifera seeds (R2 = 0.960) well. The model only reasonably described the Cu(II) removal by coconut shell (R2 = 0.932). A

  6. Chemical composition of the fruit of two species of tropical dry forest in the coastal region of Ecuador as food source for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrry Othón Intriago Mendoza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fodder species of trees in the coastal region of Manabí are an alternative food to cattle, especia-lly between the months of september and december when the pasture gets scarce. To evaluate their nutritional potential was made a compositional analysis of nutritional parameters to the fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Algarrobo and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Guasmo. Botanical characters of these trees and compositional analysis results are described. Furthermore, a comparison of these results with those obtained by other authors by con-sidering the values of protein, fat, fiber, ash and moisture is performed. For the environmental conditions of tropical dry forest, the guasmo presents higher contents of protein, fat, ash and fiber carob, although both species are important in the diet of herbivores, especially in dry seasons as providers of usable nutrients favoring animal nutrition

  7. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  8. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.

    2010-03-01

    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  9. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  10. Tales of some ancient harbors in the Aegean back-arc region: Earthquakes, coastal changes, historical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiros, Stathis; Saltogianni, Vasso

    2017-04-01

    Tectonically active terrains are characterized by seismic transient ground motions (shaking) and by permanent ground motions in the vicinity of activated faults, with both effects occasionally leaving their signature on human constructions and the landscape. Especially in coastal areas marked by small tidal ranges and normal water salinity, as is the case with most parts of the Eastern Mediterranean, even small-amplitude tectonic motions can be derived from observations on coastal constructions, mainly harbors, but also on spring chambers in nearly arid environments, sewers, etc. Such observations, if coupled with well-dated observations of destructions and repairs and of changes in the occupation style of ancient sites can permit precious information conveyed from archaeology to tectonics/seismology and vice versa. A transect with harbor remains from Rhodes to the Gulf of Corinth and then till the Ionian Islands provides some excellent examples. The military harbor of Rhodes, in an area of long term uplift, a coded report of which seems to be provided by ancient poet Pindar, was subject to seismic subsidence and destruction, but with major international support, it was repaired, till renewed uplift brought it several meters above the water. In the Corinth area, the Kenchreai harbor was abruptly submerged during a major repair of a temple, as revealed by precious stained glass panels, ready to use but abandoned in shallow water beneath ruins, while radiometric dating of the uplift in the western Lechaion harbor, constrains its excavation in swampy environment not in Roman times, but to the period of flourishing of Corinth in circa 600BC and the colonization of Italy. Farther west, the sea-level mark of the harbor of Aigeira, at Mavra Litharia (Derveni/Akrata) indicates 4m uplift since the Roman period, at least partly seismic, correlating with an exposed reef and the abandonment of the repairs of the theatre of Aigeira. Seismic land uplift explains the demise of

  11. Evaluation of Class II treatment by cephalometric regional superpositions versus conventional measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Stella; Baumrind, Sheldon; Shofer, Frances; Jacobsson-Hunt, Ulla; Laster, Larry; Ghafari, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate cephalometric changes in subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who were treated with headgear (HG) or Fränkel function regulator (FR) and (2) to compare findings from regional superpositions of cephalometric structures with those from conventional cephalometric measurements. Cephalographs were taken at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years of 65 children enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. The spatial location of the landmarks derived from regional superpositions was evaluated in a coordinate system oriented on natural head position. The superpositions included the best anatomic fit of the anterior cranial base, maxillary base, and mandibular structures. Both the HG and the FR were effective in correcting the distoclusion, and they generated enhanced differential growth between the jaws. Differences between cranial and maxillary superpositions regarding mandibular displacement (Point B, pogonion, gnathion, menton) were noted: the HG had a more horizontal vector on maxillary superposition that was also greater (.0001 < P < .05) than the horizontal displacement observed with the FR. This discrepancy appeared to be related to (1) the clockwise (backward) rotation of the palatal and mandibular planes observed with the HG; the palatal plane's rotation, which was transferred through the occlusion to the mandibular plane, was factored out on maxillary superposition; and (2) the interaction between the inclination of the maxillary incisors and the forward movement of the mandible during growth. Findings from superpositions agreed with conventional angular and linear measurements regarding the basic conclusions for the primary effects of HG and FR. However, the results suggest that inferences of mandibular displacement are more reliable from maxillary than cranial superposition when evaluating occlusal changes during treatment.

  12. Internal motions in H II regions. XII S162 and NGC 7635

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pismis, P; Moreno, M A; Hasse, I [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City

    1983-01-01

    The apparent structure of S162 and of the bubble nebula (NGC 7635) associated with it is discussed using a number of direct images taken through narrow band (10 A/sup 0/) interference filters in H..cap alpha.., (N II) and in the continuum at lambda6607. The results are discussed together with the radial velocity field of S162 and in particular of the bubble nebula as obtained from photographic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The bubble nebula is shown to be composed of distinct and amorphous very regularly curving arcs, all inscribed on a tenuous slightly ellipsoidal shell of gas expanding at velocity of about 4 km s/sup -1/. The arcs are probably genetically related to the globules which form the caracteristic comet like feature within the bubble nebula. The ionization source of S162 is BD + 60/sup 0/2522 and 071Isub(b)f star classified from our high dispersion spectrum. Our very tentative suggestion is that the brightest globule may be an offshoot fo this star and that the globule has generated the next globule which in turn may have generated the third one. The configuration of NGC 7635 suggests that magnetic fields are likely to be operative in the region. Polarimetry in the optical and in the radio range as well as high resolution infrared studies, high resolution velocity fields are desirable to find a satisfactory model for this nebula.

  13. A Broad 22 Micron Emission Feature in the Carina Nebula H ii Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan; Onaka

    2000-04-10

    We report the detection of a broad 22 µm emission feature in the Carina Nebula H ii region by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) short-wavelength spectrometer. The feature shape is similar to that of the 22 µm emission feature of newly synthesized dust observed in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This finding suggests that both of the features are arising from the same carrier and that supernovae are probably the dominant production sources of this new interstellar grain. A similar broad emission dust feature is also found in the spectra of two starburst galaxies from the ISO archival data. This new dust grain could be an abundant component of interstellar grains and can be used to trace the supernova rate or star formation rate in external galaxies. The existence of the broad 22 µm emission feature complicates the dust model for starburst galaxies and must be taken into account correctly in the derivation of dust color temperature. Mg protosilicate has been suggested as the carrier of the 22 µm emission dust feature observed in Cassiopeia A. The present results provide useful information in studies on the chemical composition and emission mechanism of the carrier.

  14. Thermophysical properties of the MER and Beagle II landing site regions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Hynek, Brian M.; Pelkey, Shannon M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Murphy, Nate; Christensen, Philip R.

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed remote-sensing observations of the Isidis Basin, Gusev Crater, and Meridiani Planum landing sites for Beagle II, MER-A Spirit, and MER-B Opportunity spacecraft, respectively. We emphasized the thermophysical properties using daytime and nighttime radiance measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and thermal inertias derived from nighttime data sets. THEMIS visible images, MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow-angle images, and MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data are incorporated as well. Additionally, the remote-sensing data were compared with ground-truth at the MER sites. The Isidis Basin surface layer has been shaped by aeolian processes and erosion by slope winds coming off of the southern highlands and funneling through notches between massifs. In the Gusev region, surface materials of contrasting thermophysical properties have been interpreted as rocks or bedrock, duricrust, and dust deposits; these are consistent with a complex geological history dominated by volcanic and aeolian processes. At Meridiani Planum the many layers having different thermophysical and erosional properties suggest periodic deposition of differing sedimentological facies possibly related to clast size, grain orientation and packing, or mineralogy.

  15. Biometric and physiological parameters of Heliconia bihai grown in coastal region under different levels of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reivany Eduardo Morais Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluate the effect of different levels of light intensity on the physiology, vegetative and reproductive development of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw Two grown under coastal zone of Ceara State. Plants of this species were grown under full and 30%, 40% and 50% reduction sunlight intensity. It was evaluated the number of leaves and tillers per plant; amount of stalks; leaf area, water and carbohydrate content in the leaf next to the inflorescence arising and next to the inflorescence at harvest stage. Photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance of plants were measured for six consecutive months. Significant difference were attained for leaf area and water content in leaves close to the inflorescence at harvest stage, with lower values, and carbohydrate contents in leaves, with higher values in plants grown in full sun. The treatments with lower levels of solar radiation had higher amounts of stalks and higher vegetative growth, the reduction in vegetative growth of the plants under full sun was due to the lower photosynthetic rate and lower translocation of assimilates.

  16. Atmospheric corrosion performance of different steels in early exposure in the coastal area region West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, Lutviasari; Prifiharni, Siska; Priyotomo, Gadang; Sundjono, Gunawan, Hadi; Purawiardi, Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    The performance of carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium after one month exposed in the atmospheric coastal area, which is in Limbangan and Karangsong Beach, West Java, Indonesia was evaluated. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss method and the morphology of the steel after exposed was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis(EDX). The site was monitored to determine the chloride content in the marine atmosphere. Then, the corrosion products formed at carbon steel were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The result showed the aggressively corrosion in Karangsong beach, indicated from the corrosion rate of carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium were 38.514 mpy; 4.7860 mpy and 0.5181 mpy, respectively. While in Limbangan Beach the corrosion rate of specimen carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium were 3.339; 0.219 and 0.166 mpy, respectively. The chloride content was found to be the main factor that influences in the atmospheric corrosion process in this area. Chloride content accumulated in Karangsong and Limbangan was 497 mg/m2.day and 117 mg/m2.day, respectively. The XRD Analysis on each carbon steel led to the characterization of a complex mixture of iron oxides phases.

  17. Disinfection of municipal water using solar radiation: an economical approach for rural dwellers in the coastal region of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.F.; Saleem, M.

    2010-01-01

    At present acquiring safe drinking water in rural or remote areas of Pakistan is a challenging task for dwellers. Coast line of Karachi is a sporadic habitat of villages not having access to safe drinking water. Many incidents of waterborne diseases have been reported in that area and attributed to contaminated municipal water supply. Solution of the problem is disinfection however, general methods of water disinfection such as boiling, UV-lamp, ozonation and chemical additive are costly or require skilled manpower. Present study investigates the solar disinfection method to treat municipal water supply at Karachi Institute of Power Engineering (KINPOE) located at the coastal belt of Karachi. Effect of exposure time, bottle material and turbidity of water on the process performance was evaluated. Model indicator bacteria total coliform (TC) was used to evaluate the solar disinfection process. Study revealed that in order to disinfect the municipal water, samples should be filled in PET transparent bottles, having turbidity below 23 NTU, and expose to solar radiation in the study area at least for one hour. Study shows that solar disinfection may provide safe drinking water meeting national and international water quality standards at minimum cost and effort in sunshine rich areas and not having access to other water purification systems. (author)

  18. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. - Graphical abstract: Fig. Threshold models and resilience management for water quality. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Coupling urbanization and water environmental system. • Developing threshold models of the coupled land-water systems. • Nonlinear relations between water quality variables and landscape metrics. • Enhancing resilience management of coastal rapid urbanization. - We develop environmental threshold models and provide their implications on resilience management for a coupled land-water system with rapid urbanization.

  19. Can Resilience be Reconciled with Globalization and the Increasingly Complex Conditions of Resource Degradation in Asian Coastal Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between resilience and globalization. We are concerned, most importantly, with whether resilience is a suitable conceptual framework for natural resource management in the context of the rapid changes and disruptions that globalization causes in social-ecological systems. Although theoretical in scope, we ground this analysis using our experiences in two Asian coastal areas: Junagadh District in Gujarat State, India and Banawa Selatan, in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We present the histories of resource exploitation in the two areas, and we attempt to combine a resilience perspective with close attention to the impact of globalization. Our efforts serve as a basis from which to examine the conceptual and practical compatibility of resilience with globalization. The first challenge we address is epistemological: given that resilience and globalization have roots in different disciplines, do they share a sufficiently common perception of change and human action to be compatible? Second, we address the issue of how resilience can be a viable management objective in the rapidly changing context of globalization. We identify scale as particularly important in this regard.

  20. Activity Concentrations of radionuclides in sea water in some Coastal Egyptian Regions and Their Public Health Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefien, S.M.; Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Yousef, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been carried out monthly for one year period in order to find out the average activity concentrations of the natural radionuclide in some Egyptian coastal aquatic environment and to assess the annual radiation doses likely to be received by population near by. The determinations were mainly for the measurement of gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples and some of its constituents. It has been found that; the average gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples for the different studied locations ranged from (0-52) x 10 -3 ,(3-68) x10 -3 and (13-283) x10 -3 Bq.l -1 respectively but still below the recommended permissible limits in most locations. It was found that Rashid area posses the highest concentrations of uranium and thorium. The present results have shown that the radio activities of most of the locations are mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclide. No regular tendency increase was observed in activity concentrations of any particular radionuclide in the studied period. Calculations have shown that, the average external dose from the γ- emitting radionuclide is ranged over (0.5-177)x10 -3 nGy/hr with annual exposure dose ranged from (1.04-29)x10 -3 nGy in most locations except Rashid. This exposure dose does not present radiological injuries to the population

  1. SPITZER ANALYSIS OF H II REGION COMPLEXES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS: DETERMINING A SUITABLE MONOCHROMATIC OBSCURED STAR FORMATION INDICATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Misselt, K.; Bolatto, A. D.; Carlson, L. R.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Oey, M. S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Vijh, U. P.

    2010-01-01

    H II regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. To study the H II regions, we compute the bolometric infrared flux, or total infrared (TIR), by integrating the flux from 8 to 500 μm. The TIR provides a measure of the obscured star formation because the UV photons from hot young stars are absorbed by dust and re-emitted across the mid-to-far-infrared (IR) spectrum. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the TIR and produces an accurate obscured SFR over large spatial scales. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) H II region complexes using the Spitzer Space Telescope's IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, 160 μm) bands. Ultraviolet rocket data (1500 and 1900 A) and SHASSA Hα data are also included. All data are convolved to the MIPS 160 μm resolution (40 arcsec full width at half-maximum), and apertures have a minimum radius of 35''. The IRAC, MIPS, UV, and Hα spatial analysis are compared with the spatial analysis of the TIR. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC H II region spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peak around 70 μm at all radii, from ∼10 to ∼400 pc from the central ionizing sources. As a result, we find the following: the sizes of H II regions as probed by 70 μm are approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (∼70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70 μm flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70 μm ∼ 0.45TIR); the 1σ standard deviation of the 70 μm fluxes, normalized by TIR, is a lower fraction of the mean (0.05-0.12 out to ∼220 pc) than the normalized 8, 24, and 160 μm normalized fluxes (0.12-0.52); and these results are the same for the LMC and the

  2. The molecular environment of the pillar-like features in the H II region G46.5-0.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Celis Peña, M.; Ortega, M. E.; Fariña, C.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.; Ashley, R. P.

    2017-10-01

    At the interface of H II regions and molecular gas, peculiar structures appear, some of them with pillar-like shapes. Understanding their origin is important for characterizing triggered star formation and the impact of massive stars on the interstellar medium. In order to study the molecular environment and influence of radiation on two pillar-like features related to the H II region G46.5-0.2, we performed molecular line observations with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment and spectroscopic optical observations with the Isaac Newton Telescope. From the optical observations, we identified the star that is exciting the H II region as spectral type O4-6. The molecular data allowed us to study the structure of the pillars and an HCO+ cloud lying between them. In this HCO+ cloud, which has no well-defined 12CO counterpart, we found direct evidence of star formation: two molecular outflows and two associated near-IR nebulosities. The outflow axis orientation is perpendicular to the direction of the radiation flow from the H II region. Several Class I sources are also embedded in this HCO+ cloud, showing that it is usual that young stellar objects (YSOs) form large associations occupying a cavity bounded by pillars. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the radiation-driven implosion (RDI) process is not occurring in one of the pillar tips.

  3. The in vitro transcription of a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) protamine gene. II. Controlled mutation of the cap site region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, J M; Dixon, G H

    1985-02-01

    A series of plasmids containing new fusion genes in which the trout protamine gene is placed under the control of the complete herpes virus (HSV-1) tk promoter Pvu II-Bgl II fragment (pM8), or a shortened thymidine kinase (tk) promoter in which the region between the TATA box and the cap site is altered by using the Pvu II-Mlu I fragment (pM7), have been constructed. An additional recombinant plasmid was constructed in which the Bgl II-Ava II fragment of the protamine gene containing the entire protamine promoter but missing the protamine coding region was cloned into pBR322 between the Xho II 1666 and Hind III sites (pP5). For in vitro transcription, a HeLa cell lysate system was prepared and the RNA transcription products, after glyoxalation, were electrophoretically analyzed on 5% polyacrylamide gels. In constructing pM8 the DNA sequence between the tk promoter and the cap site was present while in pM7 it was deleted. Similar multiple transcripts were seen in both cases, indicating that the region between the promoter and the cap site has no effect upon transcription in vitro. The multiple transcripts appear to be due to the presence of a cryptic promoter in the complementary strand of the protamine gene. The activity of this cryptic promoter has been confirmed by comparison of the transcription of plasmid pP5, in which the protamine mRNA coding region has been deleted, with a previously described plasmid, pJBRP (Jankowski JM and Dixon GH (1984) Can. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 62, 291-300), containing the intact protamine gene.

  4. Characterizing the Sources and Processing of Submicron Aerosols at a Coastal Site near Houston, TX, with a Specific Focus on the Impact of Regional Shipping Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, B.; Wallace, H. W., IV; Bui, A.; Flynn, J. H., III; Erickson, M. H.; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Texas Gulf Coast region historically has been influenced heavily by regional shipping emissions. However, the effects of the recent establishment of the North American Emissions Control Area (ECA) on aerosol properties in this region are presently unknown. In order to understand better the current sources and processing mechanisms influencing coastal aerosol near Houston, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed for three weeks at a coastal location during May-June 2016. Total mass loadings of organic and inorganic non-refractory aerosol components during onshore flow periods were similar to those published before establishment of the regulations. Using estimated methanesulfonic acid (MSA) mass loadings and published biogenic MSA:non-sea-salt-sulfate (nss-SO4) ratios, we determined that over 70% of nss-SO4 over the Gulf was from anthropogenic sources, predominantly shipping emissions. Mass spectral analysis indicated that for periods with similar backward-trajectory-averaged meteorological conditions, air masses influenced by shipping emissions have an increased mass fraction of ions related to carboxylic acids and a significantly larger oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) ratio than air masses that stay within the ECA boundary, suggesting that shipping emissions impact marine organic aerosol (OA) oxidation state. Amine fragment mass loadings were positively correlated with anthropogenic nss-SO4 during onshore flow, implying anthropogenic-biogenic interaction in marine OA production. Five OA factors were resolved by positive matrix factorization, corresponding to a hydrocarbon-like OA, a semi-volatile OA, and three different oxygenated organic aerosols ranked by their O:C ratio (OOA-1, OOA-2, and OOA-3). OOA-1 constituted the majority of OA mass during a period likely influenced by aqueous-phase processing and may be linked to local glyoxal/methylglyoxal-related sources. OOA-2 was produced within the Houston urban region and was

  5. Integrating wastewater reuse in water resources management for hotels in arid coastal regions - Case Study of Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water (using reverse osmosis) for their domestic water supply, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their potable and non-potable water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum amount of water that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). Hotels have to carefully analyse their water requirements in order to determine which percentage of the hotel's peak water demand should be used in the contract in order to reduce water costs and avoid the risk of water shortage. This paper describes a model to optimise the contracted-for irrigation water supply with the objective function to minimise total water cost to hotels. It analyses what the contracted-for irrigation water supply of a given hotel should be, based on the size of the green irrigated area on one hand and the unit prices of the different types of water on the other hand. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh (Sharm), Egypt. This paper presents costs of wastewater treatment using waste stabilisation ponds, which is the prevailing treatment mechanism in the case study area for centralised plants, as well as aerobic/anaerobic treatment used for decentralised wastewater treatment plants in the case study area. There is only one centralised wastewater treatment plant available in the city exerting monopoly and selling treated wastewater to hotels at a much higher price than the actual cost that a hotel would bear if it treated its own wastewater. Contracting for full peak irrigation demand is the highest total cost option. Contracting for a portion of the peak irrigation demand and complementing the rest from desalination water is a cheaper option. A better option still is to complement the excess irrigation demand

  6. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  7. Transfer of some trace metals from water and soil to plants in coastal region of syria using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.; Sarhil, A.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research to identify the trace elements of the impact on soil samples, plants and water in the coastal basin. Select the racial focus of the basic elements and the elements of impact in each of the samples of soil, some plants and irrigation water (underground and surface) in different parts of the basin, including the Syrian coast between the Lebanese border in the south and Turkey in the north using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that the concentrations of elements were high in some areas of the basin as a result ease of movement through surface and groundwater, due to nature of the geological cost area which is cracked and many faults and porous rock formations. The Large precipitation rain washed quickly the major agricultural soils, including fertilizers and sewage and municipal waste and some of them leak into the groundwater directly or moving from rivers and dams to these ground waters and agricultural soils to fall within the hydrological cycle and increase of this pollutant in the coastal strip, and adversely affect the marine environment through supplying them with many industrial contaminants: such as cement plants, oil and phosphate estuarine, thermal power plant, Baniyas's refinery and ports of ships. The method of neutron activation analysis considers as a reference method and is very effective in the study of environmental samples. 15 element concentrations were calculated using the relative method of INAA, data indicates that there is significant difference in the concentrations of study elements (As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, V, and Zn), depending on the nature of the site geography of irrigation water which used and the proximity of human events scattered along the study area. It is also a big difference in the concentration of these elements in the same soils and plants and the region between the closed systems of agriculture and open one, the increase of excessive

  8. Spectrophotometry of four H II regions in the Perseus arm and a reassessment of galactic abundance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talent, D.L.; Dufour, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results from deep spectrophotometry of four Perseus arm H II regions (NGC 1624, NGC 2359, NGC 7538, and NGC 7635) obtained with the KPNO IIDS are presented. The observed line strengths are used to derive electron temperatures, densities, and the relative concentrations of H, He, N, O, S, Cl, and Ar in the nebulae. These abundances are combined with similarly derived abundances for seven other well-observed galactic H II regions, and are used to estimate the magnitude of galactic abundance gradients over the 8--14 kpc region of the solar neighborhood.Significant radial gradients for oxygen and nitrogen are found: d log (O/H)/dR=-0.059 +- 0.017 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR= -0.083 +- 0.018 kpc -1 , while only marginal evidence for a helium gradient is found: d log (He/H)/dR=-0.008 +- 0.008 kpc -1 . Little evidence for gradient in S/H is found. From the red [N II] and [S II] lines we found d log (N + /S + )/dR=-0.068 +- 0.024 kpc -1 , which suggests that a radial gradient in S/O exists in the Galaxy. The O/H gradient found in this study is similar to that found from planetary nebulae, while the N/H gradient is significantly smaller. These results suggest that most of the nitrogen in the interstellar medium of the Galaxy was produced by primary nucleosynthesis processes.We also find evidence that the radial O/H and N/H gradients for H II regions in a given spiral arm are 2 to 3 times steeper than the global gradients over the 8--14 kpc interval in galactocentric distance. For four H II regions in the Sagittarius arm we found d log (O/H)/dR=-0.24 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR=-0.16 kpc -1 . For five H II regions in the Perseus arm we found d log (O/H)/dR=-0.18 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR=-0.15 kpc -1 . The larger magnitudes of these gradients are greater than those of the global gradients by amounts which exceed reasonable errors in abundances and/or relative distances

  9. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  10. Using Uncertainty Quantification to Guide Development and Improvements of a Regional-Scale Model of the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System Spanning Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. K.; Clark, B. R.; Duncan, L. L.; Tebo, D. T.; White, J.

    2017-12-01

    Several historical groundwater models exist within the Coastal Lowlands Aquifer System (CLAS), which spans the Gulf Coastal Plain in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The largest of these models, called the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) model, has been brought into a new framework using the Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005 (MODFLOW-NWT) and serves as the starting point of a new investigation underway by the U.S. Geological Survey to improve understanding of the CLAS and provide predictions of future groundwater availability within an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework. The use of an UQ framework will not only provide estimates of water-level observation worth, hydraulic parameter uncertainty, boundary-condition uncertainty, and uncertainty of future potential predictions, but it will also guide the model development process. Traditionally, model development proceeds from dataset construction to the process of deterministic history matching, followed by deterministic predictions using the model. This investigation will combine the use of UQ with existing historical models of the study area to assess in a quantitative framework the effect model package and property improvements have on the ability to represent past-system states, as well as the effect on the model's ability to make certain predictions of water levels, water budgets, and base-flow estimates. Estimates of hydraulic property information and boundary conditions from the existing models and literature, forming the prior, will be used to make initial estimates of model forecasts and their corresponding uncertainty, along with an uncalibrated groundwater model run within an unconstrained Monte Carlo analysis. First-Order Second-Moment (FOSM) analysis will also be used to investigate parameter and predictive uncertainty, and guide next steps in model development prior to rigorous history matching by using PEST++ parameter estimation code.

  11. Biosorption of Cu(II) onto agricultural materials from tropical regions

    KAUST Repository

    Acheampong, Mike A.

    2011-04-26

    Background: In Ghana, the discharge of untreated gold mine wastewater contaminates the aquatic systems with heavy metals such as copper (Cu), threatening ecosystem and human health. The undesirable effects of these pollutants can be avoided by treatment of the mining wastewater prior to discharge. In this work, the sorption properties of agricultural materials, namely coconut shell, coconut husk, sawdust and Moringa oleifera seeds for Cu(II) were investigated. Results: The Freundlich isotherm model described the Cu(II) removal by coconut husk (R2 = 0.999) and sawdust (R2 = 0.993) very well and the Cu(II) removal by Moringa oleifera seeds (R2 = 0.960) well. The model only reasonably described the Cu(II) removal by coconut shell (R2 = 0.932). A maximum Cu(II) uptake of 53.9 mg g-1 was achieved using the coconut shell. The sorption of Cu(II) onto coconut shell followed pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.997). FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of functional groups in the biosorbents, some of which were involved in the sorption process. SEM-EDX analysis confirmed an exchange of Mg(II) and K(I) for Cu(II) on Moringa oleifera seeds and K(I) for Cu(II) on coconut shell. Conclusion: This study shows that coconut shell can be an important low-cost biosorbent for Cu(II) removal. The results indicate that ion exchange, precipitation and electrostatic forces were involved in the Cu(II) removal by the biosorbents investigated. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  13. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  14. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end

  15. Dust Emission at 8 and 24 μ m as Diagnostics of H ii Region Radiative Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oey, M. S.; López-Hernández, J.; Kellar, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1107 (United States); Pellegrini, E. W. [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Überle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jameson, K. E. [Astronomy Department and Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Li, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Madden, S. C. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA, Université Paris VII, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bot, C. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Rubio, M. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-07-20

    We use the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) survey of the Magellanic Clouds to evaluate the relationship between the 8 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, 24 μ m hot dust emission, and H ii region radiative transfer. We confirm that in the higher-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud, PAH destruction is sensitive to optically thin conditions in the nebular Lyman continuum: objects identified as optically thin candidates based on nebular ionization structure show six times lower median 8 μ m surface brightness (0.18 mJy arcsec{sup −2}) than their optically thick counterparts (1.2 mJy arcsec{sup −2}). The 24 μ m surface brightness also shows a factor of three offset between the two classes of objects (0.13 versus 0.44 mJy arcsec{sup −2}, respectively), which is driven by the association between the very small dust grains and higher density gas found at higher nebular optical depths. In contrast, PAH and dust formation in the low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud is strongly inhibited such that we find no variation in either 8 μ m or 24 μ m emission between our optically thick and thin samples. This is attributable to extremely low PAH and dust production together with high, corrosive UV photon fluxes in this low-metallicity environment. The dust mass surface densities and gas-to-dust ratios determined from dust maps using Herschel HERITAGE survey data support this interpretation.

  16. Chemical dechlorination of pesticides at a superfund site in Region II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, S.; Prince, J.

    1991-01-01

    Selecting technologies for cleaning up hazardous waste sites is a complex task, due in part to the rapidly changing nature of the state-of-the-art in technology. There is strong support for use of innovative technologies as specified in Section 121(b) of CERCLA. However, use of an innovative technology requires overcoming a variety of challenges. These challenges include: Screening potentially appropriate technologies, including innovative technologies, and selecting one or more potential innovative technologies for which preliminary results are promising; however, site-specific data are needed prior to technology evaluation. Evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed technology for the site through the use of treatability studies. Gaining acceptance for the innovative technology, which may employ new or unfamiliar concepts. Determining optimal design and operating parameters for full-scale remediation. This paper discusses the technology evaluation process and how that process supported the selection of an innovative technology for the Myers Property site, a Superfund site in Region II. A case study is presented showing how technology screening and laboratory treatability studies were used to evaluate an innovative technology (chemical dechlorination), which was selected as the technology for remediation of soils and sediments contaminated with pesticides at this environmentally sensitive site in New Jersey. The remedy selected by the U.S. EPA for this site designates chemical dechlorination as the selected technology, but does not specify any particular vendor or process. Rather, the remedy sets forth technology performance standards and recommends certain design tasks which may be used to select a particular chemical process. This paper discusses he of these design tasks as they might apply to innovative technologies, using chemical dechlorination as a model

  17. A NEW RADIO RECOMBINATION LINE MASER OBJECT TOWARD THE MonR2 H II REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Zhang, Q.; Dierickx, M.; Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Baez-Rubio, A.; Rivilla, V. M.; Martin-Pintado, J., E-mail: ijimenez-serra@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mdierickx@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: npatel@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ryvendel@gmail.com, E-mail: jmartin@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: baezra@cab.inta-csic.es [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Ctra. de Torrejon a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-10

    We report the detection of a new radio recombination line (RRL) maser object toward the IRS2 source in the MonR2 ultracompact H II region. The continuum emission at 1.3 mm and 0.85 mm and the H30{alpha} and H26{alpha} lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at angular resolutions of {approx}0.''5-3''. The SMA observations show that the MonR2-IRS2 source is very compact and remains unresolved at spatial scales {<=}400 AU. Its continuum power spectrum at millimeter wavelengths is almost flat ({alpha} = -0.16, with S{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}), indicating that this source is dominated by optically thin free-free emission. The H30{alpha} and H26{alpha} RRL emission is also compact and peaks toward the position of the MonR2-IRS2 source. The measured RRL profiles are double peaked with the H26{alpha} line showing a clear asymmetry in its spectrum. Since the derived line-to-continuum flux ratios ({approx}80 and 180 km s{sup -1} for H30{alpha} and H26{alpha}, respectively) exceed the LTE predictions, the RRLs toward MonR2-IRS2 are affected by maser amplification. The amplification factors are, however, smaller than those found toward the emission-line star MWC349A, indicating that MonR2-IRS2 is a weakly amplified maser. Radiative transfer modeling of the RRL emission toward this source shows that the RRL masers arise from a dense and collimated jet embedded in a cylindrical ionized wind, oriented nearly along the direction of the line of sight. High-angular resolution observations at submillimeter wavelengths are needed to unveil weakly amplified RRL masers in very young massive stars.

  18. UNIFORM INFALL TOWARD THE COMETARY H II REGION IN THE G34.26+0.15 COMPLEX?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Gas accretion is a key process in star formation. However, gas infall detections in high-mass, star-forming regions with high spatial resolution observations are rare. Here, we report the detection of gas infall toward a cometary ultracompact H II region ( C) in the G34.26+0.15 complex. The observations were made with the IRAM 30 m, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope 15 m telescope, and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The hot core associated with 'C' has a mass of ∼76 ± 11 M ☉ and a volume density of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10 8 cm –3 . The HCN (3-2) and HCO + (1-0) lines observed by single dishes and the CN (2-1) lines observed by the SMA show redshifted absorption features, indicating gas infall. We found a linear relationship between the line width and optical depth of the CN (2-1) lines. Those transitions with larger optical depths and line widths have larger absorption areas. However, the infall velocities measured from different lines seem to be constant, indicating that the gas infall is uniform. We also investigated the evolution of gas infall in high-mass, star-forming regions. A tight relationship was found between the infall velocity and the total dust/gas mass. At stages prior to the hot core phase, the typical infall velocity and mass infall rate are ∼1 km s –1 and ∼10 –4 M ☉ yr –1 , respectively. While in more evolved regions, the infall velocity and mass infall rates can reach as high as several km s –1 and ∼10 –3 -10 –2 M ☉ yr –1 , respectively. Accelerated infall has been detected toward some hypercompact H II and ultracompact H II regions. However, the acceleration phenomenon is not seen in more evolved ultracompact H II regions (e.g., G34.26+0.15)

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon’s coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon’s coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983–2013 and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi’s most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs

  4. RNA polymerase II interacts with the promoter region of the noninduced hsp70 gene in Drosophila melanogaster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, D.S.; Lis, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    By using a protein-DNA cross-linking method, we examined the in vivo distribution of RNA polymerase II on the hsp70 heat shock gene in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider line 2 cells. In heat shock-induced cells, a high level of RNA polymerase II was detected on the entire gene, while in noninduced cells, the RNA polymerase II was confined to the 5' end of the hsp70 gene, predominantly between nucleotides -12 and +65 relative to the start of transcription. This association of RNA polymerase II was apparent whether the cross-linking was performed by a 10-min UV irradiation of chilled cells with mercury vapor lamps or by a 40-microsecond irradiation of cells with a high-energy xenon flash lamp. We hypothesize that RNA polymerase II has access to, and a high affinity for, the promoter region of this gene before induction, and this poised RNA polymerase II may be critical in the mechanism of transcription activation

  5. Shallow landslide prediction and analysis with risk assessment using a spatial model in the coastal region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarinha, P. I. M.; Canavesi, V.; Alvalá, R. C. S.

    2013-10-01

    In Brazil, most of the disasters involving landslide occur in coastal regions, with population density concentrated on steep slopes. Thus, different approaches have been used to evaluate the landslide risk, although the greatest difficulty is related to the scarcity of spatial data with good quality. In this context, four cities located on the southeast coast of Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - in a region with the rough reliefs of the Serra do Mar and with a history of natural disasters were evaluated. Spatial prediction by fuzzy gamma technique was used for the landslide susceptibility mapping, considering environmental variables from data and software in the public domain. To validate the susceptibility mapping results, it was overlapped with risk sectors provided by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM). A positive correlation was observed between the classes most susceptible and the location of these sectors. The results were also analyzed from the categorization of risk levels provided by CPRM. To compare the approach with other studies using landslide-scar maps, correlated indexes were evaluated, which also showed satisfactory results, thus indicating that the methodology presented is appropriate for risk assessment in urban areas and can be replicated to municipalities that do not have risk areas mapped.

  6. Population parameters and the relationships between environmental factors and abundance of the Acetes americanus shrimp (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae near a coastal upwelling region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Freitas dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe population dynamics of Acetes americanus was investigated, focusing on the sex ratio, individual growth, longevity, recruitment and relationship between abundance and environmental factors in the region of Macaé, strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Otter trawl net samplings were performed from July 2010 to June 2011 at two points (5 m and 15 m. Nearly 19,500 specimens, predominantly females (77.15%, were captured. Their sizes, larger than that of males, indicated sexual dimorphism. Shrimps at lower latitudes present larger sizes and longer longevity than those from higher latitudes. This difference is probably due to low temperatures and high primary productivity. Though no statistical correlation was found between abundance and environmental factors, the species was more abundant in temperatures closer to 20.0º C and in months with high chlorophyll-a levels. Due to the peculiar characteristics of this region, A. americanusshowed greater differences in size and longevity than individuals sampled in other studies undertaken in the continental shelf of Southeast Brazil.

  7. Development of simulated groundwater-contributing areas to selected streams, ponds, coastal water bodies, and production wells in the Plymouth-Carver region and Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carl S.; Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2017-12-21

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in support of the Massachusetts Estuaries Project (MEP), delineated groundwater-contributing areas to various hydrologic receptors including ponds, streams, and coastal water bodies throughout southeastern Massachusetts, including portions of the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system and all of Cape Cod. These contributing areas were delineated over a 6-year period from 2003 through 2008 by using previously published regional USGS groundwater-flow models for the Plymouth-Carver region (Masterson and others, 2009), the Sagamore (western) and Monomoy (eastern) flow lenses of Cape Cod (Walter and Whealan, 2005), and lower Cape Cod (Masterson, 2004). The original USGS groundwater-contributing areas were subsequently revised in some locations by the MEP to remove modeling artifacts or to make the contributing areas more consistent with site-specific hydrologic conditions without further USGS review. This report describes the process used to create the USGS groundwater-contributing areas and provides these model results in their original format in a single, publicly accessible publication.

  8. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmisson measurement in the Persian Gulf-coastal region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Fritz, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004

  9. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New England Regional Coastal Engineering Conference (1st) Held at Rockport, Maine n 30 October-1 November 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    regional site concept. Congressional appropriations in 1824 provided funding to repair Long Beach at Plymouth , Massachusetts. This was the first beach...command people to burn the land so you can take very nice *. aerial photographs. Actually these are blueberry barrens today. After the ice reached it’s...interest in flood levels behind the Point of Pines in the Saugus and Pines Rivers Basin. But what I will concentrate on is the Rouahans Point study

  11. A multi-wavelength analysis of the diffuse H II region G25.8700+0.1350

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowolski, S.; Duronea, N. U.; Suad, L. A.; Reynoso, E. M.; Dorda, R.

    2018-02-01

    We present a multi-wavelength investigation of the H II region G25.8700+0.1350, located in the inner part of the Galaxy. In radio continuum emission, the region is seen as a bright arc-shaped structure. An analysis of the H I line suggests that G25.8700+0.1350 lies at a distance of 6.5 kpc. The ionized gas is bordered by a photodissociation region, which is encircled by a molecular structure where four molecular clumps are detected. At infrared wavelengths, the region is also very conspicuous. Given the high level of visual absorption in the region, the exciting stars should be searched for in the infrared band. In this context, we found in the literature one Wolf-Rayet and one red supergiant, which, together with 37 2MASS sources that are candidate O-type stars, could be related to the origin of G25.8700+0.1350. Finally, as expanding H II regions are hypothesized to trigger star formation, we used different infrared point source catalogues to search for young stellar object candidates (cYSOs). A total of 45 cYSOs were identified projected on to the molecular clouds.

  12. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  13. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  15. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Statistical downscaling of historical monthly mean winds over a coastal region of complex terrain. I. Predicting wind speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Charles L. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Kamp, Derek van der [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Monahan, Adam H. [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Surface wind speed is a key climatic variable of interest in many applications, including assessments of storm-related infrastructure damage and feasibility studies of wind power generation. In this work and a companion paper (van der Kamp et al. 2011), the relationship between local surface wind and large-scale climate variables was studied using multiple regression analysis. The analysis was performed using monthly mean station data from British Columbia, Canada and large-scale climate variables (predictors) from the NCEP-2 reanalysis over the period 1979-2006. Two regression-based methodologies were compared. The first relates the annual cycle of station wind speed to that of the large-scale predictors at the closest grid box to the station. It is shown that the relatively high correlation coefficients obtained with this method are attributable to the dominant influence of region-wide seasonality, and thus contain minimal information about local wind behaviour at the stations. The second method uses interannually varying data for individual months, aggregated into seasons, and is demonstrated to contain intrinsically local information about the surface winds. The dependence of local wind speed upon large-scale predictors over a much larger region surrounding the station was also explored, resulting in 2D maps of spatial correlations. The cross-validated explained variance using the interannual method was highest in autumn and winter, ranging from 30 to 70% at about a dozen stations in the region. Reasons for the limited predictive skill of the regressions and directions for future progress are reviewed. (orig.)

  17. Remote sensing reflectance simulation of coastal optical complex water in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuo; Lou, Xiulin; Zhang, Huaguo; Zheng, Gang

    2018-02-01

    In this work, remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra of the Zhejiang coastal water in the East China Sea (ECS) were simulated by using the Hydrolight software with field data as input parameters. The seawater along the Zhejiang coast is typical Case II water with complex optical properties. A field observation was conducted in the Zhejiang coastal region in late May of 2016, and the concentration of ocean color constituents (pigment, SPM and CDOM), IOPs (absorption and backscattering coefficients) and Rrs were measured at 24 stations of 3 sections covering the turbid to clear inshore coastal waters. Referring to these ocean color field data, an ocean color model suitable for the Zhejiang coastal water was setup and applied in the Hydrolight. A set of 11 remote sensing reflectance spectra above water surface were modeled and calculated. Then, the simulated spectra were compared with the filed measurements. Finally, the spectral shape and characteristics of the remote sensing reflectance spectra were analyzed and discussed.

  18. SOURCE REGIONS OF THE TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVED DURING A CME–CME INTERACTION ON 2013 MAY 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Krupar, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind /WAVES and STEREO /WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  19. Indexes of spatio-temporal change to reconstruct the historical evolution of a coastal region: case study: São Sebastião Island - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia S. Bertolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The