WorldWideScience

Sample records for coastal marine environment

  1. Flow-structure-seabed interactions in coastal and marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Flow–structure–seabed interaction in coastal and marine environments is a rapidly growing area of research and applications. In this vision paper, this area is discussed with a view of identifying its state of the art and current research challenges. The discussion draws attention to key issues......, among other areas, as an emerging branch of Marine Civil Engineering. Predictions of the field development for the forthcoming years are also briefly outlined....

  2. Impact of aquaculture on coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    expanding marine fish and shellfish farming, world over. Accelerated development in techniques and equipment in the last three decades has created negative environmental impact and the subject of increasing heated debate in the advanced countries...

  3. Changes in the coastal and marine environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Ahmed, A.U.; DileepKumar, M.; Jagtap, T.G.; Sardessai, S.; Hassan, A.

    to the euphotic layer. These factors make the Arabian Sea a potentially fertile area, since any vertical disturbance that can disrupt or shift the thermocline banier can lead to injection of nutrients into the euphotic layer and fuel increased biological...) injecting nutrients from the thermocline region into the surface layer, as observed by de Sousa et a!. (1996b). 1.1.3 Biological Response It was seen in sections 1.1.1-1.1.2 that processes of upwelling (both coastal and open ocean) during summer monsoon...

  4. Coastal and Marine Environment Problems in East Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Supriharyono

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine problems were collected from the coastal community in area of the Municipality of Balikpapan East Kalimantan Province, from fishermen, NGO's and government officials. The technique used was that of the Field Participatory Workshop's. the result of the study revealed some coastal community awarenees, coastal resources USAge, and governmental policy. The local government's failure to solve those problems was mainly due to lack of social awarenees for environmental coastal man...

  5. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.L.; Obbard, J.P. . E-mail esejpo@nus.edu.sg

    2006-01-01

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 μm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 μm) and subsurface layer (1 m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping

  6. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.S.; Sartandel, S.; Pote, M.B.; Hemalatha, P.; Rajan, M.P.; Vidyasagar, D.; Indumati, S.P.; Shrivastava, R.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The data on the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of 137 Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The 137 Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m −3 . The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III). - Highlights: ► Benchmark value of 137 Cs in coastal environment of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. ► International reference source of 137 Cs in coastal marine environment of India. ► In-situ pre-concentration technique for measurement of 137 Cs. ► Comparison of 137 Cs Indian coastal data with ASPAMARD.

  7. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Kanyakumari which comprises the high natural background region reflects different ratio varying from 3.5 to 6.9. The Higher concentration ratio of {sup 228}Ra to {sup 226}Ra in coastal water of Rameswaram and Kanyakumari reflecting {sup 232}Th rich sources of terrigenous material in regions. The findings supported the fact that the area also comes under natural high radiation background at the south west of Indian peninsula due to the presence of heavy mineral containing monazite in the beach sand. In Arabian sea, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration were observed to be in the range of 1.5-2.9 Bq m{sup -3} with a mean of 2.2 Bq m{sup -3} while {sup 228}Ra was in the range of 2.5-8.6 Bq m{sup -3} with mean of 4.9 Bq m{sup -3}. The observed ratio at locations in Arabian sea indicates restricted circulation pattern of sea water. The activity concentrations for radium isotopes were found within the reported range of values from other coastal area. The radioactive database can be used as tracer for understanding processes and for assessing radioactivity inventory in the coastal marine environment in India. (authors)

  8. [The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Irene

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem.

  9. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  10. 137Cs activity and associated dose in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, G.P.; Sharma, D.N.; Jha, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal marine environment is important for India since a considerable percentage of the human population resides in coastal areas. Fallout radionuclides as well as non-radioactive substances have polluted the coastal marine environment of India. The introduction of 137 Cs, a fallout radionuclide, considered as global pollutant, into marine environment has created the need for marine environmental data. The main objective is to provide data on the present level of 137 Cs which is important from the standpoint of radiological health and dose associated with it. Such database will also provide benchmark which will be helpful in assessing the impact of additional contribution to marine radioactivity in the future. The results confirm that the mean annual individual dose from 137 Cs in seafood (fish) for the Indian subcontinent is 0.03 μSv. The highest annual individual dose for 137 Cs due to the ingestion offish is in the age group of 40 to 59 years which is due to the reason that the Indian annual dietary intake of fish is highest in this age group

  11. Bacteriological quality and solid wastes at five coastal marine environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vera; Acuna Gonzalez, Jenaro; Vargas Zamora, Jose A.; Garcia Cespedes, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic waste and water bacteriological quality were surveyed twice a year in 2000 and in 2002 at five coastal marine environments in Costa Rica, one in the Caribbean (Bahia de Moin) and four in the Pacific (Bahia de Culebra, Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Puntarenas, Bahia de Golfito). The most probable number (MPN)/100 mL of coliform bacteria was calculated after incubation series of five test tubes. A total of 14 coastal and two river water samples were collected in the Caribbean, and 32 coastal, nine estuarine and one tap water samples in the Pacific, plus 25 samples investigated for Escherichia coli in 2002. The means of 2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 17 MPN/100 mL in May 2002, and faecal coliforms [es

  12. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  13. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  14. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.L. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Obbard, J.P. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail esejpo@nus.edu.sg

    2006-07-15

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 {mu}m) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 {mu}m) and subsurface layer (1 m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping.

  15. Structural strength deterioration of coastal bridge piers considering non-uniform corrosion in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anxin; Yuan, Wenting; Li, Haitao; Li, Hui

    2018-04-01

    In the aggressive marine environment over a long-term service period, coastal bridges inevitably sustain corrosion-induced damage due to high sea salt and humidity. This paper investigates the strength reduction of coastal bridges, especially focusing on the effects of non-uniform corrosion along the height of bridge piers. First, the corrosion initiation time and the degradation of reinforcement and concrete are analyzed for bridge piers in marine environments. To investigate the various damage modes of the concrete cover, a discretization method with fiber cells is used for calculating time-dependent interaction diagrams of cross-sections of the bridge piers at the atmospheric zone and the splash and tidal zone under a combination of axial force and bending moment. Second, the shear strength of these aging structures is analyzed. Numerical simulation indicates that the strength of a concrete pier experiences dramatic reduction from corrosion initiation to the spalling of the concrete cover. Strength loss in the splash and tidal zone is more significant than in the atmospheric zone when structures' service time is assumed to be the same.

  16. Methylamine as a nitrogen source for microorganisms from a coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Martin; Grob, Carolina; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Pratscher, Jennifer; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Richnow, Hans H; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen is a key limiting resource for biomass production in the marine environment. Methylated amines, released from the degradation of osmolytes, could provide a nitrogen source for marine microbes. Thus far, studies in aquatic habitats on the utilization of methylamine, the simplest methylated amine, have mainly focussed on the fate of the carbon from this compound. Various groups of methylotrophs, microorganisms that can grow on one-carbon compounds, use methylamine as a carbon source. Non-methylotrophic microorganisms may also utilize methylamine as a nitrogen source, but little is known about their diversity, especially in the marine environment. In this proof-of-concept study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify microorganisms from a coastal environment that assimilate nitrogen from methylamine. SIP experiments using 15 N methylamine combined with metagenomics and metaproteomics facilitated identification of active methylamine-utilizing Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The draft genomes of two methylamine utilizers were obtained and their metabolism with respect to methylamine was examined. Both bacteria identified in these SIP experiments used the γ-glutamyl-methylamide pathway, found in both methylotrophs and non-methylotrophs, to metabolize methylamine. The utilization of 15 N methylamine also led to the release of 15 N ammonium that was used as nitrogen source by other microorganisms not directly using methylamine. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Environmental impact of condenser effluents into coastal marine environments: need for continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    Electric plants working on the principle of steam-water cycle require large amounts of water for condenser cooling purpose. Nuclear power plants require, on an average, about 3m 3 cooling water per minute per megawatt of electricity generated. Owning to the scarcity of large sources of freshwater for cooling, newer power plants, particularly in water-stressed parts of the world, tend to get located in coastal regions, where they can make use of the abundant seawater. However, this also poses a problem, in terms of the biofouling potential of coastal marine environments. Sessile benthic organism, which are generally present as part of the coastal marine ecosystem, extend their habitat into the cooling water system of the power plant. It is often observed that massive growth of such fouling organisms may endanger normal operation of the cooling water system, unless appropriate control measures are adopted. Presence of calcareous organisms such as mussels and barnacles in the pre-condenser sections of the power plant is a common sight; but these organisms, when lodged inside condenser tubes, can not only reduce the heat transfer efficiency but also can cause localized corrosion and tube leakage, leading of ingress of seawater into the steam-water system. It is, therefore, important that appropriate control measures are adopted to discourage the growth of the organisms. However, this needs to be done in an environmentally sustainable manner, as the cooling water is ultimately discharged back into the sea. The presentation aims to give and overview of the biofouling problems generally encountered in a typical tropical coastal power station operating in India and the chemical control measures adopted and their effectiveness. The talk also throws light on the more recent advances in biofouling control such as surface modification and use of nanotechnology which, in the foreseeable future, may provide more lasting and environmentally sustainable solutions. (author)

  18. Summary of other human activities in the coastal and marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) offers a wealth of opportunity for the profitable and beneficial use of coastal and marine resources – a prospect for a true ocean economy. These benefits are derived from a range of human activities in the coastal...

  19. The Development of Coastal and Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Widjojo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and development process of oastaland marine resources tends centralized and adopted top down policy, without any active participations from coastal and marine communities. In order to reach integrated and sustainable development in coastaland marine areas, people should have both complete and up to date information, so that planning and decision making for all aspect of the environment can be done easily. People should give a high attention of surveis, mappings, as well as science and technology of coastal and marine sectors, in order to change the paradigm of development from inland to coastal and marine. Moreover, people should give high attention of potential resources of coastal and marine areas.

  20. High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

    2004-06-01

    The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system.

  1. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laane, R.W.P.M.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Vethaak, A.D.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention

  2. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  3. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  4. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  5. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  6. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g −1 (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. -- Highlights: • Total and methylmercury in marine fish from estuarine and coastal ecosystems were compared. • Hg levels were generally low in the coastal wild fish in southern China. • Overfishing and decreased wetland coverage may be responsible for the low Hg concentration. • Stable isotopes signatures reveal that the two fish communities had contrasting trophic structures. -- Overfishing and habitat-specific geochemical properties are related to the low Hg concentrations in the wild fish

  7. Mixing of Marine and Terrestrial Sources of Strontium in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Saskia; Crowley, Quentin; Deegan, Eileen; Snoeck, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    87Sr/86Sr from bulk soils, soil extracts and plant material have been used to investigate and quantify the extent of marine-derived Sr in the terrestrial biosphere. Samples were collected along coastal transects and 87Sr/86Sr biosphere values (plant and soil) converge to marine values with increasing proximity to the coast. R2values indicate highly significant trends in certain regions. The National Soils Database (NSDB), TELLUS and TELLUS Border datasets, all of which are geochemical surveys have been employed to further test the extent of marine elemental contribution. Collectively these data cover all of Ireland and Northern Ireland, with varying degrees of sampling density. A strong spatial correlation exists between the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA; (Al2O3-(CaO*+Na2O)-K2O)) in topsoil (CIA <60; 27% n = 11651) and areas of blanket peat. The enrichment of Ca and Na in these regions would suggest a significant marine geochemical contribution. Topsoil CIA can therefore be used to identify areas likely to feature significant marine inputs and identify regions where the 87Sr/86Sr budget may deviate from bedrock values.

  8. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Fazil, M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, H.A.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  9. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  10. Constrains in gamma spectrometry analysis of fallout 137Cs in coastal marine environment of Arabian sea in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartandel, S.J.; Jha, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an accurate faster gamma spectrometry method for measuring the low level activity concentrations of 137 Cs using in situ pre-concentration technique on copper ferrocyanide cartridge was standardized. Due to unavailability of reference standard in the copper ferrocyanide matrix, efficiency calibration curves were plotted using RGU and RGTh reference standards. To harmonize the difference in density of standard and sample the required density correction factors for photo peak efficiency were generated. The in situ pre-concentration technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was applied for activity determination in surface seawater from eight locations in the coastal marine environment of Arabian Sea. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs ranged between 0.71 and 0.91 Bq/m 3 . Higher activity concentrations were observed at location with latitude, longitude of 21.6 deg N, 69.57 deg E as compared to concentration observed at location with latitude, longitude 16.98 deg N, 73.25 deg E. The observed concentrations were found to be in range of data reported in Asia-Pacific Marine radioactive database (ASPARMARD). The results will fill up the gaps in the existing database. The generated data will be useful for monitoring fresh input of anthropogenic radionuclide into coastal marine environment for post Fukushima environmental assessment. (author)

  11. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Slijkerman, D.; Vethaak, A. D.; Schobben, J. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds.

  12. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  13. Oil spill sensing in marine and coastal environments using laser-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. E.; Fingas, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (LEAF) under development by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada, which has the ability to detect and classify oil on water, land and conditions of snow and ice, real-time from an airborne platform, was described. Also under development are a scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) to detect and map oil in complex marine and shoreline environments where other nonspecific sensors are not effective, and a laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor, which is expected to provide a measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. Details of each of these remote sensing technologies are provided, along with a discussion of expected benefits to the oil spill response community. 12 refs

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-02-24

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  15. Frequent ultrafine particle formation and growth in Canadian Arctic marine and coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Douglas B.; Burkart, Julia; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Lizotte, Martine; Boivin-Rioux, Aude; Blais, Marjolaine; Mungall, Emma L.; Boyer, Matthew; Irish, Victoria E.; Massé, Guillaume; Kunkel, Daniel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Papakyriakou, Tim; Bertram, Allan K.; Bozem, Heiko; Gosselin, Michel; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-11-01

    The source strength and capability of aerosol particles in the Arctic to act as cloud condensation nuclei have important implications for understanding the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. It has been shown in several Arctic regions that ultrafine particle (UFP) formation and growth is a key contributor to aerosol number concentrations during the summer. This study uses aerosol number size distribution measurements from shipboard expeditions aboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen in the summers of 2014 and 2016 throughout the Canadian Arctic to gain a deeper understanding of the drivers of UFP formation and growth within this marine boundary layer. UFP number concentrations (diameter > 4 nm) in the range of 101-104 cm-3 were observed during the two seasons, with concentrations greater than 103 cm-3 occurring more frequently in 2016. Higher concentrations in 2016 were associated with UFP formation and growth, with events occurring on 41 % of days, while events were only observed on 6 % of days in 2014. Assessment of relevant parameters for aerosol nucleation showed that the median condensation sink in this region was approximately 1.2 h-1 in 2016 and 2.2 h-1 in 2014, which lie at the lower end of ranges observed at even the most remote stations reported in the literature. Apparent growth rates of all observed events in both expeditions averaged 4.3 ± 4.1 nm h-1, in general agreement with other recent studies at similar latitudes. Higher solar radiation, lower cloud fractions, and lower sea ice concentrations combined with differences in the developmental stage and activity of marine microbial communities within the Canadian Arctic were documented and help explain differences between the aerosol measurements made during the 2014 and 2016 expeditions. These findings help to motivate further studies of biosphere-atmosphere interactions within the Arctic marine environment to explain the production of UFP and their growth to sizes

  16. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  17. Radionuclide sorption behavior in particulate matter in near coastal marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.M.; Ortega-Lara, V.; Leckie, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: In order to evaluate the migration behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium while transported from continental aquatic systems to marine environments, the sorption behaviors for these metals were evaluated in several different environments. Laboratory experiments using radioactive tracers, and equilibrium as well as time dependent modeling were used to evaluate and quantify the distribution of the two elements as a function of element chemistry, solid substrate characteristics and solution composition. The experimental conditions reflected salinities ranging from those found in rivers and lakes through estuaries to the ocean. Adsorption constants were obtained for strontium in natural sediments from these aquatic environments. The strontium specification was evaluated in solution as well as in the adsorbed state. Sorption of strontium occurred mainly as outer sphere complexes. Major cations, ligands (soluble and particulate), ionic strength, and pH were among parameters that affected the distribution of cesium and strontium between adsorbed and dissolved forms. Time-dependent sorption behaviors were observed under study dissolved salt and suspended sediment conditions. Desorption occurred to some degree for all sediment types. Cesium was exchanged with potassium and sodium in clay minerals and was therefore less desorbed than would be expected. The results allowed the description of migration behaviors of two important pollutants from the atomic energy industry

  18. Enhancing the sustainability of the Marine Coastal Environment of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2012-01-01

    This project enhances the national capabilities to monitor and assess contaminants in the marine environment that could be organic pollutants, radioactive materials and toxins. This will be very beneficial as, the monitoring processes and control of marine pollution is a very strategic important objective of the national institutes concerned with environmental protection and rehabilitation of the marine environment. (author)

  19. Complex carbon cycling processes and pathways in a tropical coastal marine environment (Saco do Mamangua, RJ - Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgioni, M.; Jovane, L.; Millo, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Bertassoli, D. J., Jr.; Gamba Romano, R.; Pellizari, V.; Castillo Franco, D.; Krusche, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Saco do Mamangua is a narrow and elongated gulf located along the southeastern coast of Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). It is surrounded by high relieves, which form a peculiar environment called riá, with little river input and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. These features make the Saco do Mamangua an ideal environment to study sedimentary carbon cycling under well-constrained boundary conditions in order to investigate if tropical coastal environments serve dominantly as potential carbon sinks or sources. In this work we integrate geochemical data from marine sediments and pore waters in the Saco do Mamangua with mapping of benthic microbial communities, in order to unravel the biogeochemical carbon cycling linked to the production of biogenic methane. Our results reveal that carbon cycling occurs in two parallel pathways. The Saco do Mamangua receives organic carbon both by surface runoff and by primary production in the water column. A large part of this organic carbon is buried within the sediment resulting in the production of biogenic methane, which gives rise to methane seepages at the sea floor. These methane seeps sustain methanotrophic microbial communities in the sediment pore water, but also escapes into the atmosphere by ebullition. Consequently, the sediments of Saco do Mamangua acts simultaneously as carbon sink and carbon source. Future work will allow us to accurately quantify the actual carbon fluxes and calculate the net carbon balance in the local environment.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin and manatees in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  1. Risks for marine coastal ecosystems from anthropogenic loading in the Leningrad NPP environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimina, L.; Zimin, V.; Shchukina, T.; Pomiluiko, G.; Ryabova, V.

    1998-01-01

    Data on conditions and variations in phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish communities, chlorophyll 'a' and hydrochemical parameters in the coastal waters of Koporskaya Bay (cooling water body of the Leningrad NPP) were analyzed. The most significant anthropogenic factors issued from the Leningrad nuclear power plant activity are of non-radioactive character, as it was recognized during long-time (20 years) ecological monitoring. Main factors influenced ecosystem of the NPP cooling water body are thermal water discharge and nutrient outflows from the bay catchment area. (authors)

  2. Chemicals in marine and coastal environments: the need for toxicological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.R.

    1982-04-01

    The tremendous increase in the number and amount of chemicals produced and transported in past years has resulted in increasing problems with accidental spills and uncontrolled waste sites involving these chemicals. The United States government has accordingly developed a mechanism for responding to such incidents. As part of that mechanism, the Hazardous Materials Response Project serves to coordinate scientific activities and facilitate in the gathering of scientific information needed for response to chemical spill or waste site emergencies involving coastal waters. Inevitably, much information of a toxicological nature is required to adequately evaluate potential hazards and appropriate responses. The Hazardous Materials Response Project is also able to provide a framework for significant progress in scientific understanding because it can bring together and encourage collaboration among experts in the various disciplines which are relevant to the environmental toxicological problems encountered.

  3. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The near coastal environment monitored from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekielda, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    The optical information required for monitoring the marine environment from space is discussed and applied for the near coastal area. By categorizing coastal features it is possible to recognize coastal regions to a high degree and to indentify water masses derived from land sources and sewage dumping sites. It is concluded that monitoring from space can be used as a tool in environmental planning. (orig.) [de

  5. Preliminary investigation of a sensitive biomarker of organotin pollution in Chinese coastal aquatic environment and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qunfang; Li Zhongyang; Jiang Guibin; Yang Ruiqiang

    2003-01-01

    A new sensitive biomarker can be potentially used to indicate the pollution status of organotin in oceanic environment. - In nine batches of sea bivalves collected from Chinese coastal cities during the year of 2000 to 2002, a special sample named Mya arenaria was found to have strong ability of butyltin accumulation compared with the other sampled bivalves in the corresponding batches. Tributyltin compound was the predominant pollutant with the detection rate high up to 100%. Special high levels of μg Sn/g were detected in some Mya arenaria samples. The results obtained showed that Mya arenaria was potentially a biomarker to indicate organotin pollution in coastal aquatic environment

  6. Planktonic foraminiferal abnormalities in coastal and open marine eastern Mediterranean environments: A natural stress monitoring approach in recent and early Holocene marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakou, A.; Kontakiotis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Koskeridou, E.; Anastasakis, G.

    2018-05-01

    Marine environmental status can be assessed through the study of bio-indicator species. Here, we monitor natural environmental stress by the occurrence of morphologically abnormal planktonic foraminiferal specimens from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) abnormality observations from sapropel S1-derived sediments in the Aegean, Libyan and Levantine basins, since they provide a direct record of a natural stress experiment that took place over past time scales. At initial sapropel deposition levels, we observe increased growth asymmetry in Globigerinoides ruber twinned and twisted individuals, possibly associated with eutrophication and anoxia. In modern material, a range of malformations and aberrant morphologies from slight deformity with smaller or overdeveloped chambers to more severe deformity with abnormally protruding or misplaced chambers, distorted spirals, and double tests is also observed, as a result of the hypersaline, oligotrophic and oxygen-depleted nature of the Mediterranean Sea water column. Overall, we highlight the current use of the relative abundance of abnormal tests as a bio-indicator for monitoring natural stress, especially the occurrence of twin specimens as indicative of high-salinity stress conditions, and further illustrate the necessity to map both their spatial and temporal distribution for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such an approach presents the advantage to rapidly provide information over wide spatial and temporal scales, extending our ability to monitor a wide variety of environments (from coastal to the open-sea). However, further investigations should extend this approach to test the robustness of our findings in a number of similar oceanic settings.

  7. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  8. Sustaining anti-littering behavior within coastal and marine environments: Through the macro-micro level lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeharry, Yashna Devi; Bekaroo, Girish; Bokhoree, Chandradeo; Phillips, Michael Robert; Jory, Neelakshi

    2017-06-30

    Being regarded as a problem of global dimensions, marine litter has been a growing concern that affects human beings, wildlife and the economic health of coastal communities to varying degrees. Due to its involvement with human behavior, marine littering has been regarded as a cultural matter encompassing macro and micro level aspects. At the micro or individual level, behavior and behavioral motivation of an individual are driven by perception of that person while at the macro or societal level, aspects including policies and legislations influence behavior. This paper investigates marine littering through the macro-micro level lenses in order to analyze and recommend how anti-littering behavior can be improved and sustained. Using Coleman's model of micro-macro relations, research questions are formulated and investigated through a social survey. Results showed important differences in perceptions among participating groups and to address key issues, potential actions are proposed along with a framework to sustain anti-littering behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seawater quality assessment and identification of pollution sources along the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf (SE Tunisia): Evidence of industrial impact and implications for marine environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Ben Alaya, Mohsen; Daghbouj, Nabil; Castet, Sylvie; Besson, Philippe; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla; Courjault-Radé, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped by the Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT) seem to have continuously degraded the seawater quality in the study area. A rapid intervention is needed to stop the effects on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: Implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liangying; Wang Jizhong; Wei Gaoling; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ 18 PAH) were 27–224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ 18 PAH (28–224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28–109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. - Highlights: ► Coal and biomass combustion was the main origin of PAHs in coastal marine sediment of China. ► Fluvial transport was the main mode for transporting PAHs to the East China Sea inner shelf. ► Atmospheric deposition largely accounted for sediment PAHs in Yellow Sea and the South China Sea. ► Regional energy use pattern in China was responsible for the spatial distribution of PAHs in coastal marine sediment. - Sources, compositions and spatial distributions of PAHs in continental shelf sediments off China are analyzed to estimate anthropogenic influences.

  11. Molecular diversity of fungal phylotypes co-amplified alongside nematodes from coastal and deep-sea marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punyasloke Bhadury

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99-100% and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%. BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: Model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; Van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation,

  13. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  14. 75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard must be... marine and coastal environments of the United States. It was developed to provide a common language that... existing classification standards. The CMECS domain extends from the coastal tidal splash zone to the deep...

  15. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g⁻¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ∼10⁵-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl⁺ through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K⁺ ion channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  17. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F.T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  19. Effects of Biological and Photochemical Degradation on the Optical Properties of CDOM Exported to Coastal Marine Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moran, Mary

    2004-01-01

    .... This project quantitatively assessed the ability of coastal ocean bacteria to degrade and produce CDOM and investigated the synergistic interactions between bacterial degradation and photochemical...

  20. Evolution of coastal and marine environments during the Holocene transgression. Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, F.; Pérez-Arlucea, M.; Méndez, G.; Francés, G.; Alejo, I.; González, D.; Nombela, M.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal deposits are not prominent in the Ria de Vigo, high cliffs dominate the coast line, but several well-preserved sedimentary areas are observed. Beach and aeolian sand dunes are preserved in protected bays along margins between low cliffs, as Playa America, Patos and Samil. Several rivers form prominent estuaries such as the Verdugo-Oitaven, the Minor and the Lagares. Tidal flats are well preserved in the San Simon embayment and small areas of tidal flats and marshes can be found elsewhere associated with estuaries and protected by sandy spits as the Ramallosa tidal Complex, Moaña and San Simón. Four sedimentary areas were selected to study vertical sediment distribution. 6 cores were obtained. Sediment thicknesses range between 4.0m and 26.0 m. Vertical sediment distributions show 6 different lithologic units from basal fluvial (A), estuarine (B), tidal flat and peat fens (C), muddy subtidal bay (D), estuarine (E) and beach barrier (F). 10 14C age determinations were obtained from the longest core (Ladeira N) located at the Ramallosa beach barrier-lagoon complex. The oldest sample located at 22 m yields an age of 8177 y. BP in unit (B) allowing to constrain most of sediment evolution in the holocene transgressive context. The lower unit (A) composed mainly of fluvial gravels, and deposited in a palaeovalley, is attributed to the Younger Dryas although the LST could be also represented in these deposits. Units B, C and D configure the TST showing an initial rapid increase in water depth at 8177 y. BP and subsequent shallowing conditions due to progressive aggradation until 4809 y BP. Units E and F mark the HST eustatic stage being characterised by progradational shallow marine conditions and beach barrier progressive enclosing of the complex. Sedimentation rates were calculated at 7 intervals. An upward decrease is observed from 8177 y BP to 2001 y. BP, followed by a strong sudden increase, mostly in the last 500 years. Hydrology and geomorphology of river

  1. Coastal Marine Pollution in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution surveys were undertaken during 2007 and 2008 in the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam and the remote Ras Dege Creek. The objective was to determine the levels of microbial contamination, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants and compare these with the recommended environmental ...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, porpoise, and whales in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  4. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  5. Qualitative assessment to determine internal and external factors influencing the origin of styrene oligomers pollution by polystyrene plastic in coastal marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Chung, Seon-Yong; Park, Seung-Shik; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the qualitative contribution of internal and external factors of the area contaminated by polystyrene (PS) in coastal marine environments. This study is based on the extensive results of monitoring the styrene oligomers (SOs) present in sand and seawater samples along various coastlines of the Pacific Ocean. Here, anthropogenic SOs is derived from PS during manufacture and use, and can provide clues about the origin of SOs by PS pollution. The monitoring results showed that, if the concentration of SOs in water is higher than those concentrations in beach sand, this area could be affected by PS plastic caused by an external factor. On the other hand, if the concentration of SOs is higher in the beach sand, the region can be mainly influenced by PS plastic derived from its own area. Unlike the case of an external factor, in this case (internal influence), it is possible to take policy measures of the area itself for the PS plastic problem. Thus, this study is motivated by the need of policy measures to establish a specific alternative to the problems of PS plastic pollution in ocean environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Taxonomic identification and lipid production of two Chilean Chlorella-like strains isolated from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mariela A.; Pröschold, Thomas; Palacios, Yussi; Aguayo, Paula; Inostroza, Ingrid; Gómez, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Chlorella was the first microalga to be massively cultured as food, feed and as a source of nutraceuticals. More recently, some species have been suggested as candidates for biodiesel production. One of the most difficult tasks in studying the systematics of green coccoids is the identification of species assigned to the genus Chlorella. In the context of several projects carried out by our research group we isolated two Chlorella-like strains from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment in Chile (Coliumo strain and Baker strain, respectively). The main objectives of this research were to identify these Chilean strains—at the species level—and determine and compare their lipid production when cultured under identical conditions. Cell size and shape, autospore number and sizes, and chloroplast and pyrenoid ultrastructure were considered as taxonomic descriptors, and 18S rDNA sequences and internal transcribed spacer ITS-1 + ITS-2 sequences and secondary structure were adopted as phylogenetic tools. The combined use of these morphological, ultrastructural and molecular attributes revealed that only the Baker strain belongs to the genus Chlorella (C. vulgaris), while the Coliumo strain corresponds to the recently amended genus Chloroidium (C. saccharophilum). Lipid characterization of the biomass obtained from these strains showed that Chlorella vulgaris (Baker strain) appears to be suitable as a raw material for biodiesel production, while Chloroidium saccharophilum (Coliumo strain) would be more appropriate for animal nutrition.

  7. Transuranic elements in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1975-04-01

    Transuranic elements are present in marine environments as a result of worldwide fallout, close-in fallout, the SNAP-9A burnup, pipeline disposal of reprocessing wastes, neutron capture by uranium in one-pass cooling-water reactors and the B-52 crash in Thule, Greenland. Distributions and movements of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs from these introductions in the Atlantic Ocean are being studied partly because the transuranic elements themselves are geochemically interesting, partly because they appear to serve as tracers for specific oceanographic processes, and partly because of concern that man is faced with the problem of disposal of rapidly increasing amounts of transuranics as radioactive waste, and that we must be able, soon, to predict the fates and the effects of those amounts that reach the coastal waters or the deep oceans. Plutonium and americium are widely distributed in the oceans as a result of man's activities. Both appear to be more mobile than expected, and Pu shows little behavior in these environments that had been predicted from laboratory studies. Although their associations with biological material seem to be most striking for rooted plants or Sargassum, it is too premature to dismiss the possibility of their being a real hazard to marine life

  8. Study of heavy metal pollution in mangrove sediments reference to marine environment along the coastal areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.; Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu and Fe) in Mangrove sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu and Fe) were measured in different samples of in different Mangroves sediments along the coastal areas of Pakistan and was found that concentration of heavy metals in the Mangrove sediments near to Lyari and Malir river discharge points are at much higher level than the Mangrove sediments of Port Qasim area which are not according to WHO standard and are very are very serious health hazardous. In addition to point sources, possible reasons of non point sources were also discussed. (author)

  9. Coastal marine pollution and toxicology : overview of current research and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubir Din

    1996-01-01

    The contents are marine pollution and toxicology studies at Universiti Sains Malaysia, their facilities, and research projects have been done on this subject. In coastal pollution monitoring and baseline studies, the emphasis have been on determination of levels of trace-metals in the coastal marine environment, in relation to other physico-chemical parameters. The future needs and goals of marine pollution and toxicology studies in Malaysia also discussed

  10. Coastal marine pollution and toxicology : overview of current research and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, Zubir [Science Univ. of Malaysia, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies

    1997-12-31

    The contents are marine pollution and toxicology studies at Universiti Sains Malaysia, their facilities, and research projects have been done on this subject. In coastal pollution monitoring and baseline studies, the emphasis have been on determination of levels of trace-metals in the coastal marine environment, in relation to other physico-chemical parameters. The future needs and goals of marine pollution and toxicology studies in Malaysia also discussed.

  11. Previously unknown evolutionary groups dominate the ssDNA gokushoviruses in oxic and anoxic waters of a coastal marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Labonté

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic studies have revealed that ssDNA phages from the family Microviridae subfamily Gokushovirinae are widespread in aquatic ecosystems. It is hypothesized that gokushoviruses occupy specialized niches, resulting in differences among genotypes traversing water column gradients. Here, we use degenerate primers that amplify a fragment of the gene encoding the major capsid protein to examine the diversity of gokushoviruses in Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Amplicon sequencing of samples from the mixed oxic surface (10 m and deeper anoxic (200 m layers indicated a diverse assemblage of gokushoviruses, with greater richness at 10 m than 200 m. A comparison of amplicon sequences with sequences selected on the basis of RFLP patterns from eight surface samples collected over a one-year period revealed that gokushovirus diversity was higher in spring and summer during stratification, and lower in fall and winter after deep-water renewal, consistent with seasonal variability within gokushovirus populations. Phylogenetic analysis of clustered amplicons revealed at least five new phylogenetic clades of previously unknown sequences, with the most abundant group associated with viruses that infect SUP05, a ubiquitous and abundant member of marine oxygen minimum zones. Our results provide persuasive evidence that, while specific gokushovirus genotypes may have a narrow host range, hosts for gokushoviruses in Saanich Inlet consist of a wide range of bacterial taxa, including SUP05, a taxonomic clade of gamma proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers. Members of SUP05 are abundant in Saanich Inlet and involved in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling along the redoxline; thus, gokushoviruses are likely important mortality agents of these bacteria and have consequent influences on biogeochemical cycling in this system.

  12. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  13. Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory regime in controlling the effects of oil pollution on Kenya's coastal and marine environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohowa, Boaz Ogola

    2004-01-01

    The Kenya coast is part of the major tanker route that stretches along the East African coast, running from the Middle East round the Hom of Africa to other parts of the world. The major Kenyan port, Mombasa, handles a substantial number of ocean-going ships (including oil tankers) and other smaller vessels, in addition to having other installations that deal with oil such as refineries and power generators. This raises the prospect of chronic oil pollution in the coastal and marine environme...

  14. Knowledge and power in integrated coastal management. For a political anthropology of the sea combined with the sciences of the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazé, Camille; Dahou, Tarik; Ragueneau, Olivier; Danto, Anatole; Mariat-Roy, Emilie; Raimonet, Mélanie; Weisbein, Julien

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an innovative collaborative approach, which aims to reinforce and institutionalize the field of the political anthropology of the sea combined with the natural sciences. It begins by relating the evolution in coastal areas, from integrated coastal zone management to the notion of adaptive co-management. It then sets out what contribution the social sciences of politics may bring to our understanding of the government/governance of the sea in terms of sustainable development, starting with political science and then highlighting the importance of a deep anthropological and socio-historical approach. Finally, it gives us a glimpse of the benefits of combining the human and social sciences with the natural sciences to produce a critical analysis of the categories of thought and action associated with the systemic management of the environment, especially the coastal areas.

  15. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  16. Coastal and marine biodiversity of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkataraman, K.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    endangered eco-regions of the world 1 . Among the Asian countries, India is perhaps the only one that has a long INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 34, No. 1, MARCH 2005 58 record of inventories of coastal and marine biodiversity dating back to at least two..., planktonic algae appear to have been more completely catalogued 2,3 . Their compilation suggests that the number of pennate diatoms in the world oceans could range from 500 to 784 and that of centric diatoms, from 865 to 999. Compared with these, not more...

  17. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Cowie, G; Naqvi, S W A

    2013-01-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926–9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655–8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). (synthesis and review)

  18. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  19. The marine and coastal environmental quality in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the problem is made, generated by the contamination in the sea and coasts of Colombia, an inventory and characterization of sources of contamination, state of the chemical and sanitary quality of the marine and coastal waters, effects of the contamination about the ecosystems and the life quality in the coastal and marine areas

  20. A Sociotechnical Systems Approach To Coastal Marine Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    SYSTEMS APPROACH TO COASTAL MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING by Tyler B. McDonald December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Karen Holness Co-Advisor: Tom...2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO COASTAL MARINE SPATIAL PLANNING...engineering perspective and specifically used a sociotechnical systems approach . The research investigated aquaculture permitting from the

  1. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  2. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  3. Monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The necessity of radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment was imposed by the increasing development of nuclear power and its world-wide use in many different segments of economic and social life. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In this respect three major facts continue to prevail in Romania. The fallout, the presence of the Danube river and the expectations for future energy production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in the Romanian Marine Research Institute in close co-operation with the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, in vertebrates and fish off the Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of beta gross measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides as K-40, Cs-134, Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distributions coefficients and concentrations factors (CF), as well as experimentally-derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored for a national data base. (author) 3 tabs., 18 refs

  4. Radioactive monitoring of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring of marine environment was required by the development of nuclear power and the worldwide use of ionizing radiations in many different activities. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In respect of this, three major facts prevail, namely: the fallout, the proximity of Danube River and the future nuclear power production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in Romanian Marine Research Institute in close cooperation with Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, invertebrates and fish of Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of gross beta measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides such as: K-40, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as experimentally derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored in a national data base. (author)

  5. Geochemical peculiarities of marine sediment in coastal areas of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothankar, S.S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of anthropogenic activity on coastal marine environment, sediment samples were collected covering the west and east coast of India. The elemental concentration was determined using EDXRF technique. The east coast showed lower Rb/Sr ratio reflecting higher fraction of biogenic deposits, the higher ratio at the west coast reflects higher fraction of terrigenous detritus. The concentration of Pb and Ni was found higher at Rameshwaram and Okha respectively. The result indicates the impact of land based source of pollutant in few locations due to the anthropogenic activities. (author)

  6. Payments for coastal and marine ecosystem services: prospects and principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2012-05-15

    Coastal and marine resources provide millions of impoverished people across the global South with livelihoods, and provide the world with a range of critical 'ecosystem services', from biodiversity and culture to carbon storage and flood protection. Yet across the world, these resources are fast-diminishing under the weight of pollution, land clearance, coastal development, overfishing, natural disasters and climate change. Traditional approaches to halt the decline focus on regulating against destructive practices, but to little effect. A more successful strategy could be to establish payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes, or incorporate an element of PES in existing regulatory mechanisms. Examples from across the world suggest that PES can work to protect both livelihoods and environments. But to succeed, these schemes must be underpinned by robust research, clear property rights, equitable benefit sharing and sustainable finance.

  7. Governance in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, T.

    2015-01-01

    The governance of the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies is complex, endlessly fascinating and often politically charged. There is no area where this complexity is more demonstrable than in the marine environment, where the issues of extended maritime boundaries granted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, fishing and prospecting rights, marine conservation and competing sovereignty mean that the practical application of the law in this area is particularly d...

  8. Trans-Disciplinary Education for Sustainable Marine and Coastal Management: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the effect of a trans-disciplinary design of curricula, deemed a powerful tool for teaching and research on complex environmental problems, with a goal to help solve the real problems that climate change has brought to the coastal environment in Taiwan. Three major real-life problems in southern Taiwan—declining mullet fisheries, flooding, and coral bleaching—were integrated into four courses. Adopting a qualitative case study method, the researchers investigated the student perceptions of the trans-disciplinary learning experiences, their attitudes toward marine and coastal environmental protection, and their capability of solving the problems related to marine and coastal environments. The researchers employed various methods to analyze the student reflection reports, student self-evaluation forms, and the tape-recorded class meetings. The findings suggest the following: the trans-disciplinary curriculum stands to be an innovative yet indispensable design for coastal management education; such a curriculum benefits students by equipping them with essential knowledge and skills to succeed in future marine conservation; action learning for marine and coastal sustainability serves as the final goal of trans-disciplinary learning project; a trans-disciplinary case study on the design of curricula provides effective knowledge integration of marine and coastal sustainability.

  9. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  10. Radioecological studies in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.; Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Nagaya, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Man-made radionuclides released into the marine environment have been regarded as useful tracers in the study of natural geochemical and oceanographic processes occurring in the ocean. Quantitative collection of Cs-137 from surface seawater by copper ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was examined and the same method was also applied to open ocean sea water. To get inherent bioconcentration coefficients of marine fish from the coastal seas of Japan, laboratory tracer experiments using some radioisotopes were carried out. Uptake, through both radioactive seawater and food, and excretion of radionuclides by marine fish were observed for about 8 weeks. The results showed that seawater and food equally contribute to accumulation of Cs-137 by fish. The adult rockfish and Japanese flounder seemed to take up Ru-103 mainly from seawater, while juvenile fish take it from seawater and food equally. Much information on concentrations, distributions and chemical forms of stable isotopes in marine organisms is important to predict the behaviour of radionuclides in the sea or to study metal metabolism in the body of marine organisms. Approximately 40 elements corresponding to important radionuclides in more than 300 species of marine organisms, collected off the coast of Japan, were analyzed with ICP-AES, ICP-MS and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The concentrations of Mn and Zn in the dried granules of the kidney of a marine bivalve were 44,200 and 22,800 μg/g, respectively. The high accumulation of certain elements in the kidney resulted from the existence of metal containing granules. (author)

  11. A Multi Size-Level Assessment of Benthic Marine Communities in a Coastal Environment: Are They Different Sides of the Same Coin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Claudia; Volpi, Marta; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Organism body size has been demonstrated to be a discriminating element in shaping the response of living beings to environmental factors, thus playing a fundamental role in community structuring. Despite the importance of studies elucidating relations among communities of different size levels...... have no (or very low) influence on the community composition at other size-levels. Moreover, each community responds in a different way to the environmental parameters and with a degree of sensitivity which seems to increase with organism size. Therefore, our data indicate that the characterization...... in ecosystems, the attempts that have been made in this sense are still very scarce and a reliable approach for these research still has to be defined. We characterized the benthic communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, meiofauna and macrofauna in a coastal environment, encompassing a 10000-fold...

  12. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  13. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  14. Valuation of the marine and coastal resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark Umbreit, Federico; Santos Acevedo, Marisol

    2002-01-01

    The paper it is about the current state of the marine and coastal resources, a diagnostic is done in fisheries and aquaculture and on the cultivation of bivalve in the Colombian Caribbean; the authors mention that the use conflicts have been given by ignorance of the structure and the natural operation of highly dynamic and complex ecological systems as the marine and coastal areas, which has propitiated the accumulative environmental deterioration, incorporating elements of ecological risk permanently in the ecosystems

  15. Transuranic behaviour in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    This document summarizes the following specific studies concerning the transuranic behaviour in marine environment: 1. Radionuclides in deep sea amphipods; 2. Actinides, 55 Fe and 137 Cs in N. pacific water columns; 3. Vertical profile of artificial radionuclide concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean; 4. Bioturbation and the distributions of fallout radionuclides in Pacific Ocean sediments

  16. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  17. Microplastics Monitoring in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the need for future spatiotemporal comparisons of microplastic abundance across marine environment, through standardized methods for microplastic sampling and analysis in sea water, beach and seabed sediment and marine organism. Pretreatment of the sample prior to the elimination of organic matter should be done using appropriate reagents was also described. Extraction of microplastics from environmental matrices is based on the different density of targeted microplastics with saturated salt solutions (NaCl, NaI, CaCl2, ZnCl2 and lithium metatungstate. Quantification can be achieved by microscopic techniques (binocular, stereomicroscope, fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope and discussion on identification methods including FTIR, Pyr-GC/MS and Raman spectroscopy will be provided. This review also endorses the importance of further study regarding the fate and impact of microplastics on marine biota and human health, especially when we acknowledge that co-pollution may occur during the transport on microplastic in marine environment.

  18. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND CIVIL SOCIETIES AT PEMUTERAN VILLAGE, BALI IN COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Mudana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on questions (1 what factors caused the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village? (2 What was the social capital invested by the economic, political, and civil societies in the preservation of coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village like? (3 What was done to discipline the maintenance of the social capital invested in the preservation of the coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village? Some critical theories were used to analyze the answers to the problems. Qualitative research method with the approach of cultural studies was employed in this study. The data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and library research. The data were qualitatively and descriptively analyzed. The result of the study showed that the cooperation among the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of the marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village was based on the awareness of the condition of the natural environment, ecological smartness, meaningfulness which was economic, political, sociological, and socio-religious in nature, and developmental policy. The social capital invested by the economic, political and civil societies was in the forms of the ideologies of tri hita karana, nyegara-gunung, menyama braya, kinship system, neighborhood relation, traditional village, and administrative village. It was maintained through cultural socialization process, and physical and spiritual disciplining process.

  19. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide (radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes is widely distributed on the ground primarily in marine environments. Nowadays, more than 340 isotopes has been identified exist in our earth especially in marine environment. From that total, 80 isotopes was radioactive. The existence of radioactivity in the marine environment is through the direct and indirect distribution of radionuclides

  20. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  1. MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the Marine Environment--Primary Science Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of marine educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of coastal and marine environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and communities during a number…

  2. Ecological aspects of nuclear power plants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, P.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented about ecological effects of giant nuclear Power Plants (ca. 5,000 MWe) on coastal environment. From short to long time, the problems concern the following points of view: - physical: (sitology; necessity of ecological mapping); - mechanical: (the cooling systems. 'Courantology'. Disturbance of marine micro- and macro-organisms); - thermal: (the heated discharges; thermal pollution. Effects on dissolved chemicals and marine organisms. Acquaculture and its limits); - chemical and radiochemical: (synergistic pollutions. Chlorine vs. fouling. Acute or chronic radioactive effluents; concentration by food chains). The conclusions emphasize the necessity of 'pluridisciplinarity' and 'zero-point' definition. Three ecological categories can be distinguished on the basis of water physical turn-over; to this categories correspond various standards and recommandations for management of nuclear Power Plants in coastal zones [fr

  3. Microplastics in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L

    2011-08-01

    This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to an editorial by Dr. Goldberg (Mar. Pollut. Bull.; 8:49 (1977)) in which he proposed that concerned scientists should combine their expertise both to gather information of radioactive disposal to the marine environment and to assess the implications of such pollution on marine resources. It is here stated that such data on their own, unsupported by any guidance as to their significance in environmental terms, may simply cause unwarranted alarm and provide yet another source of uninterpreted data to feed uninformed environmental discussion. Some examples of such observations and commentary are cited. In a reply Dr. Goldberg asserts that the possible misinterpretations of either the data or their evaluation is a small risk compared to the benefits to be gained from joint efforts by scientists of many nations to describe and predict possible jeopardies to the ocean system. (U.K.)

  5. Marine environment news. Vol. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is the first issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter which is hoped to inform Member States, research partners, visitors and other stakeholders of highlights of the marine projects, surveys, hot issues, discoveries and training programmes being delivered by the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. In this issue the mission of the MEL and its various activities are presented

  6. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    In this issue of the IAEA's Marine Environment Newsletter topics including radiotracers as new barometers of ocean-climate coupling, bio-indicatos species in detecting marine radioactvity and pollution as well as training activities are covered

  7. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine Occupations in the Texas Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnerney, Beryl; Clark, Donald L.

    Marine career information is provided, intended for use by high school students, counselors, teachers, and curriculum developers. Material was gathered from a review of occupational publications, including extended use of the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" (D.O.T.), and from interviews of persons employed in marine occupations in…

  9. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  10. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelcich, S.; Hughes, T.P.; Olsson, P.; Folke, C.; Defeo, O.; Fernandez, M.; Foale, S.; Gunderson, L.H.; Rodriguez-Sickert, C.; Scheffer, M.; Steneck, R.S.; Castilla, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal

  11. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  12. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  13. Marine outfalls monitoring at the CSIR: Evaluating the impact of wastewater discharge on our marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arabi, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is used in coastal cities throughout the world and, if correctly managed, is recognised as an acceptable disposal option from multiple perspectives, including human and environmental health, social acceptability, and economic prudence. However..., wastewater contains contaminants that can affect the ecological functioning of the marine environment and compromise human health. The impact of wastewater discharge therefore requires careful monitoring. The CSIR uses a wide suite of indicators...

  14. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  15. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  16. Geomorphology of coastal environments from satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rocha Ribeiro, R.; Velho, L.; Schossler, V.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at recognizing coastal environments supported by data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite. The digital processing of images, System Information Geographic (SIG) techniques and field observation in one section of the “Província Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul” between the Rio Grande and the São Gonçalo channels - resulted in a geomorphologic profile and mapping

  17. Coastal and marine research and capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Francis, J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available and development (R&D) expenditure (per cent of gross domestic product) of selected countries in the Western Indian Ocean compared with India, Portugal and the United States of America. Country Name 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06... the Institute of Marine Sciences in 1978. Another important event that played a key role in the development of scientific research in the region was the creation of a regional body, the Cooperative Investigations in the North and Central Western Indian Ocean...

  18. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  19. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  20. Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhorst, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from field and laboratory studies on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms of Northwest Pacific coastal ecosystems. Chemical methods for the characterization of test solutions for specific hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, and heptodecane) were developed concurrently with population and community studies of the effects of short-term and chronic exposures. Results are reported from studies on algae (Ulva), clams (protothaca staminea), crustaceans (Anomyx and Neomysis) and burrowing worms

  1. Retrospective biomonitoring of chemical contamination in the marine coastal environment of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) by environmental specimen banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Marco; Pizzini, Sarah; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Cozzi, Giulio; Piazza, Rossano; Soggia, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Antarctica offers a good opportunity to investigate planetary-scale pollution and climate change, and provides baseline values for contaminants such as Trace Elements (TEs) and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Literature data on contaminant levels in the Antarctic environment indicate that long-range atmospheric transport is the primary pathway by which pollutants from surrounding continents are carried to this pristine environment. However, local contamination sources represented by the scientific stations are also not negligible. Climate change and global warming are altering the global budget of anthropogenic contaminants and their monitoring in Antarctica ecosystems is very important to protect the global environment. In this work, eighty specimens of Adamussium colbecki (Smith, 1902), a benthic Antarctic scallop, collected from 1996 to 2009 and stored in the Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank, were analyzed to quantify TEs and POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metals concentrations were not affected by anthropogenic contributions, highlighting a natural accumulation with the age of the organism. Similarly, no temporal trend was found for PCNs, PCBs and PAHs. However, specimens collected during the summer 1997-98 showed enhanced concentration levels of PCBs and PAHs that could refer to a local anthropogenic source of contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from γ-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from γ-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and α-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between

  3. 75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...-02] RIN 0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Projects. SUMMARY...

  4. Determination of Ra natural isotopes in marine samples from Itamaraca coastal regions; Determinacao de isotopos naturais de Ra em amostras costeiras da regiao de Itamaraca (PE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Patricia B.; Valentim, Eliane; Lima, Ricardo A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: pbrandao@cnen.gov.br; Medeiros, Carmem [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia; Oliveira, Joselene [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in the transport of nutrients and pollutants to the coastal marine environment s and other surfaces water. Concentrations of {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in marine water of the Itamaraca coastal region, PE, were measured during the winter of 2004, aiming to investigate the presence of radionuclides as a tracer of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) in the environment studied. Measurements of temperature, salinity and nutrients were also carried out. (author)

  5. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advancing UAS methods for monitoring coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.; Seymour, A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Dale, J.; Newton, E.; Johnston, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), we are working to improve coastal monitoring by increasing the accuracy, precision, temporal resolution, and spatial coverage of habitat distribution maps. Generally, multirotor aircraft are preferred for precision imaging, but recent advances in fixed-wing technology have greatly increased their capabilities and application for fine-scale (decimeter-centimeter) measurements. Present mapping methods employed by North Carolina coastal managers involve expensive, time consuming and localized observation of coastal environments, which often lack the necessary frequency to make timely management decisions. For example, it has taken several decades to fully map oyster reefs along the NC coast, making it nearly impossible to track trends in oyster reef populations responding to harvesting pressure and water quality degradation. It is difficult for the state to employ manned flights for collecting aerial imagery to monitor intertidal oyster reefs, because flights are usually conducted after seasonal increases in turbidity. In addition, post-storm monitoring of coastal erosion from manned platforms is often conducted days after the event and collects oblique aerial photographs which are difficult to use for accurately measuring change. Here, we describe how fixed wing UAS and standard RGB sensors can be used to rapidly quantify and assess critical coastal habitats (e.g., barrier islands, oyster reefs, etc.), providing for increased temporal frequency to isolate long-term and event-driven (storms, harvesting) impacts. Furthermore, drone-based approaches can accurately image intertidal habitats as well as resolve information such as vegetation density and bathymetry from shallow submerged areas. We obtain UAS imagery of a barrier island and oyster reefs under ideal conditions (low tide, turbidity, and sun angle) to create high resolution (cm scale) maps and digital elevation models to assess habitat condition

  7. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  8. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Sabino, J.F.; Oliva de Sandoval, B.E.; Orozco-Chilel, R.M.; Aguilar-Sandoval, E.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 'Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala', concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying

  9. Radioactive contamination of the Guatemalan marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sabino, J F; Oliva de Sandoval, B E; Orozco-Chilel, R M; Aguilar-Sandoval, E [Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Guatemala C.A. (Guatemala)

    1999-07-01

    As part of the IAEA TC project GUA/2/005 `Radioactivity and Contamination of the Marine Environment in Guatemala`, concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides have been determined in marine water and sediments, giving important information to establish the base line of the natural radioactivity and the radioactive contamination in this area that not have been studying 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  11. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  12. Environmental impact of industrial wastes on marine area, case study: Port Sudan coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalrahman, E. A. H.

    2004-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of the industrial wastes on marine environment in Port Sudan area. A very intensive study has been made to identify types of pollutions drained in seawater at study area of Red Sea coast. Samples were taken from three stations (1, 2 and 3) at study area and the following analysis were made: Temperature, salinity, hydrogen ion concentration, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient, oil and grease. The laboratory results revealed that wastes pollute the marine environment as the cooling water from studied industries which is drain into the seawater increases the degree of temperature approximately from 6 to 12 C degree above the allowed rate, the matter which was adverse effect on the environment and living marine creatures due to the sudden change of temperature degree. Also, it was found that the great amount of oil spills discharged into seawater due to many factors such as: cooling water, oil spills from ships and loading and discharging operations of crude oil ships. Accordingly these oils spills might have a deadly effect on living marine creatures, which have been mention in details through out this research. Hence, and to minimize this adverse effect of industrial wastes and others on the marine environment, may recommend to the following: Pretreatment to the industrial wastes should be taking before its draining into the Red Sea coastal area. Surveillance all ships into the port and observing loading and discharging operations as well as those ships in the regional waters and implementing the international maritime laws. Enlightenment the industrial administrators and manpower working with them about the severity which will definitely cause the marine environmental deterioration as a result of industrial wastes. To punish every one who violates the laws of environment protection. Thus, can be safeguarding the environment from pollutions and consequently develop the natural resources and proceed

  13. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.

    2014-12-01

    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written based on the volunteers familiarity to IPW's issues, educational background, occupation and their potential to further spread awareness. Based on feedbacks, the volunteers were grateful to receive reports of their

  14. The REDCAM, institutional Cooperation for the Surveillance of the Quality of the Marine and Coastal waters in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ana Maria Velez G; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Garay T, Jesus A

    2003-01-01

    The Colombian Marine Environment Monitoring Network (REDCAM) initiated in 2001, with the purpose of grouping the institutions and the efforts necessary to evaluate the chemical and sanitary quality of the marine and estuarine waters of Colombia; it is composed of 16 nodes and main server located at INVEMAR (Santa Marta); each node counts with hardware and software for a Input and retrieval tables and cartographic information a about the quality o marine and coastal waters of Colombia. It was established a network of field stations that covers most of the Colombian coasts. In each one, since 2001, twice a year, it has been registering the values of the main physicochemical and bacteriological variables that characterize the quality of the marine and estuarine waters. Based on this information, the following zones have been identified as critical for its marine and coastal pollution: Santa Marta, Cartagena, Barranquilla, Morrosquillo, Uraba and San Andres, in the Caribbean coast and Buenaventura, Guapi and La Tola in Pacific coast

  15. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  16. Mussels as bioindicators of diclofenac contamination in coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Pena, A; Fernandes, J O

    2017-06-01

    Diclofenac a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been confirmed as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environment. Toxicology studies have revealed that harmful effects may emerge from diclofenac presence not only for human health, but also for marine organisms, which implies its monitoring. To overcome the demanding challenges of diclofenac quantification in biotic aquatic species, a novel method for the determination of diclofenac in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus edulis) and macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated according to the EC Decision 2002/657/EC. Additionally, a study was done about diclofenac contamination in mussels collected from 8 sites along the 1115 miles of coastline in Portugal in 2015. The results suggested that levels in mussels are closely related to the environmental contamination. Therefore, mussels can be a potential bioindicator of diclofenac contamination in the coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corrosion of Cellular Metals in Marine Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scully, John R

    2006-01-01

    .... The basis for this work is an interdisciplinary approach that aims to understand: (a) the electrochemical, chemical, and metallurgical conditions that corrode cellular metals in marine environments when fabricated by brazing processes, (b...

  18. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  19. Natural radioactivity aspects of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the natural radioactivity distributions and their movement in the oceans and their significance, is of considerable interest, while attempting to understand the impact of man-made radioactivity sources on the marine environment. In this context the interesting environmental behaviour of Radium isotopes ( 226 Ra and 228 Ra) and 210 Pb and 210 Po pair of radionuclides in the marine environment -occurring in 238 U and 232 Th natural radionuclides series have been the subject of considerable investigations as part of the marine biogeochemical studies, some aspects of which are discussed

  20. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, L.; Bonner, L.; Brown, R.; Francis, K.; Johanneson, D.; Canessa, R.; Paynter, R.

    2006-01-01

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  2. Microfouling communities from pelagic and benthic marine plastic debris sampled across Mediterranean coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Masó

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study used scanning electron microscopy to characterize the organisms colonizing marine plastic debris collected from pelagic and benthic habitats across Mediterranean coastal waters of Greece, Italy and Spain. A total of 42 fragments of plastic were collected during the COMSOM experimental cruise, 16 from the seafloor and 26 from surface waters. The results showed that diatoms were the most abundant organisms on both pelagic and benthic plastics. The diatom Ceratoneis closterium, frequently observed on surface plastics (73%, is a harmful microalgae associated with mucilage events in the Mediterranean. The abundance of marine plastic in coastal and oceanic waters may provide new habitats that offer an easy substrate for these invasive organisms. Furthermore, the colonization of these new environments might reduce the success of life strategies, or drive the organisms out of their essential habitat by dispersion and rafting phenomena. The results of the present work highlight the need to increase our knowledge of the consequences of colonization of plastics introduced into the marine environment, and the need to raise awareness of the potential impacts of debris accumulation on biodiversity of marine ecosystems.

  3. Radioactivity in the Norwegian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The national monitoring programme for radioactivity in the marine environment was established in 1999. The programme is coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in cooperation with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR). The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of radionuclides in the marine environment. Data regarding discharges of radionuclides from both Norwegian and other sources are collected, and assessments of the resulting radiation exposures of humans and biota will be carried out. Results from the analysis of environmental samples collected in 1999 are presented in a new NRPA report (NRPA, 2001:9 ''Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999''. Some results from the monitoring programme in 1999 are summarised below along with more recent data concerning concentrations of the radionuclide technetium-99. (author)

  4. Mercury in a coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J D; Leatherland, T M

    1971-06-18

    The problem of mercury pollution was investigated in Southampton Water and the English Channel. Mercury was determined in five specimens of the mollusk, Mercenaria mercenaria. The concentrations in whole organisms, without shell, ranged from 0.18 to 0.57 p.p.m. The amounts of mercury in the river and estuarine waters were found to be low. Yet, samples from the surface of the bottom mud in different parts of the estuary had mercury contents ranging from 0.19 to 0.64 p.p.m. The role of sediments in the transport of mercury in food chains could be significant, particularly for bottom living, suspension feeding animals. 14 references, 1 table.

  5. Aquaculture practices and the coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    . The size of the industry which is now beginning to emerge, the scale of its individual production units, raise questions concerning the high input rate of feed and chemical and a correspondingly high production of wastes. In intensive aquaculture system...

  6. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Coastal Marine Surficial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the aquatic environment without prior treatment. The demographic pressure resulting from the about 2.5 million ... by the demographic pressure, might change the future scenario. This calls for attempts to treat waste before it enters the marine environment, to reduce contamination, accompanied by regular monitoring work.

  7. Influence of fishing activity over the marine debris composition close to coastal jetty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Eduardo G G; Preichardt, Paulo R; Dantas, David V

    2018-04-23

    Worldwide, the marine debris emissions have been provoking impacts in ecosystems, generating massive mortality of different species with commercial interest. In South America, we have a lack of studies to verify the marine debris composition in transitional environments such as adjacent regions of coastal jetties. These are hydraulic engineering constructions used to maintain the navigation channel access between the sea-estuarine interface and are also used by teleost fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks like artificial shelters (reefs), being excellent fishing grounds. Therefore, the present study was devoted to qualitatively evaluate the composition of marine debris in an internal jetty portion of a Laguna Estuarine System (LES) located in South America (Brazil). Six hundred freediving were conducted to collect marine debris in the study region. The in situ campaigns were performed in 2016 during all spring season (sand substrata) in four distinct zones with 26,400 m 2 each one covering almost all adjacent jetty extension, to evaluate possible spatial changes in the marine debris composition. All material obtained was identified, measured, weighed, and ordered in eight groups, with six groups being related to the fishing activity and two groups related to the tourism/community in the study region. So, it was possible to observe possible relations between the marine debris distribution to artisanal and recreational local fishing. After 600 freediving sampling efforts, 2142 marine debris items were obtained, totaling close to 100 kg of solid waste removed from the inner portion of the coastal jetty. Notably, 1752 units (50 kg) of fishing leads were collected being this item the main marine debris residue found in the four sampled areas, corresponding to nearly 50% of the total weight of the collected waste. Ninety-eight percent of marine debris were derived from the local fishing activities, and just 2% were derived from tourism/community. Considering the total

  8. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): an integrated approach to the study of coastal oceanographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Piermattei, Viviana; Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Albani, Marta; Borsellino, Chiara; Zappalà, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The study of the physical and biological processes of the coastal environment, characterized by high spatial and time variability, requires the adoption of multidisciplinary strategies of investigation that takes into account, not only the biotic and abiotic components of coastal marine ecosystems, but also the terrestrial, atmospheric and hydrological features linked to them. The understanding of coastal environment is fundamental to face efficiently and effectively the pollution phenomena, as expected by Marine Strategy (2008/56 EC) Directive, which is focused on the achievement of GES by 2020 in all Member States. Following these lines, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (University of Tuscia) has developed a multi-platform observing network (the Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System, C-CEMS) that operates since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), where multiple uses (industrial, commercial and tourist activities) and high ecological values (Posidonia oceanica meadows, hard-bottom benthic communities, priority species, etc.) closely coexist. Furthermore, in the last years the Civitavecchia harbour, which is one of the main ports of Europe, has been subjected to a series of expansion works that could impact significantly on the coastal environment. The C-CEMS, implemented in the current configuration, is composed by five main modules (fixed stations, in-situ measurements and samplings, satellite observations, numerical models, GIS) which provide integrated informations to be used in different fields of the environmental research. The fixed stations system controls one weather, two water quality and two wave-buoy stations along the coast. In addition to the long term observations acquired by the fixed stations (L-TER), in situ surveys are periodically carried out for the monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column and marine sediments

  9. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in coastal marine water of Tamil Nadu coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Rajaram, S.; Lenka, P.; Jha, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    Very little information on the fallout 137 Cs activity exists for the Bay of Bengal. Normally the volume of sea water required for detecting fall out level of 137 Cs in coastal marine environment ranges from 100 litres to 1000 litres. The studies on distribution of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Tamil Nadu in Bay of Bengal were carried out in April 2009. On the eastern coastal lines of Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu, seven offshore locations were selected namely Chennai, Pondicherry, Karaikal, Rameshwaram, Tuticorin, Nagercoil and Kanyakumari. In situ preconcentration method was adopted and the experiments were carried out using motor boats well equipped to carry the instruments and provide power supply to operate the pump. 1000 litres of seawater was passed each time through CFCN filters at all the locations at a flow rate of 8 litres per minute. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs was in the range of 0.90 to 2.2 Bq/m 3 . These data represents reference values for coastal environment of Tamil Nadu and will be used to estimate radionuclide inventory in Indian marine environment, particularly of East Coast. The 137 Cs activity indicates that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area. (author)

  10. Recent developments in remote sensing for coastal and marine applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available at the coast is that it is in a permanent state of change. Remote sensing, whether from orbiting (space-borne) or air-borne platforms, can greatly assist in the task of monitoring coastal environments. In particular, remote sensing enables simultaneous or near...

  11. Sediment and contaminant transport in a marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Thompson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    The finite-element model FETRA is an unsteady, verically averaged two-dimensional model to simulate the transport of sediment and contaminants (radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides, etc.) in coastal and estuarine water. The model, together with the hydrodynamic model CAFE-I, was applied to the Irish Sea to predict the migration and accumulation of sediment (both cohesive and noncohesive) and of a radionuclide (dissolved and sediment-sorbed) in a tide- and wind-driven system. The study demonstrated that FETRA is a useful tool for assessing sediment and toxic contaminant transport in a marine environment

  12. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  13. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  14. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the Index...

  15. Evolution of the Lian River coastal basin in response to Quaternary marine transgressions in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhuo; Chen, Cong; Wang, Mengyuan; Chen, Bishan

    2018-04-01

    The coastal basin deposit in the Lian River plain is among the thickest Quaternary sequences along the southeastern coast of China. The clastic sediment accumulated in a variety of environmental settings including fluvial, channel, estuary/coastal and marine conditions. Detailed investigation of lithofacies, grain-size distributions, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils and chronology of marine core CN01, compared with regional cores, and combined with offshore seismic reflection profiles, has allowed us to correlate the spatial stratigraphy in the inner and outer plain and the seismic units. Grain size distribution analysis of core CN-01 through compositional data analysis and multivariate statistics were applied to clastic sedimentary facies and sedimentary cycles. Results show that these methods are able to derive a robust proxy information for the depositional environment of the Lian River plain. We have also been able to reconstruct deltaic evolution in response to marine transgressions. On the basis of dating results and chronostratigraphy, the estimated age of the onset of deposition in the Lian River coastal plain was more than 260 kyr BP. Three transgressive sedimentary cycles revealed in many regional cores support this age model. Detailed lithological and microfossil studies confirm that three marine (M3, M2 and M1) and three terrestrial (T3, T2 and T1) units can be distinguished. Spatial correlation between the inner plain, outer plain (typical cores characterized by marine transgression cycles) and offshore seismic reflectors reveals coherent sedimentary sequences. Two major boundaries (unconformity and erosion surfaces) can be recognized in the seismic profiles, and these correspond to weathered reddish and/or variegated clay in the study core, suggesting that Quaternary sediment changes on the Lian River plain were largely controlled by sea-level variations and coastline shift during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  16. Impact of oil and related chemicals on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This review updates a previous review entitled ''Impact of Oil on the Marine Environment''. It covers oil and individual hydrocarbons, used lubricating oils, chemical control agents for oil spills, and wastes from offshore petroleum operations. It considers all major knowledge generated since the mid-1970s. The review covers its topics comprehensively, from a consideration of the composition, sources and inputs of oil to its ecological and human health effects and its effects on man's use of the sea. The review addresses several key questions on the present levels of contamination, the impact of hydrocarbons and related chemicals on marine biota, the recovery potential of marine ecosystems exposed to these contaminants, the degree of protection required for marine ecosystems known to be vulnerable and sensitive, and recommended research and other actions to fill gaps in knowledge. The review describes the hazards of marine oil pollution and associated chemicals and wastes as they are understood currently, and clarifies the importance of reducing oil inputs in coastal and offshore waters. It assists in considering fundamental questions, asked by the public and decision-makers alike, such as: how much oil is entering our oceans, and how much harm is it doing? (author)

  17. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  18. Plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Linder, P.W.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The shipping of plutonium from Europe to Japan around the Cape is a contentious issue which has raised public concern that South Africa may be at risk to plutonium exposure should an accident occur. The paper describes the containers in which the plutonium (in the form of plutonium oxide, PuO 2 ) is housed and consequences of the unlikely event of these becoming ruptured. Wind-borne pollution is considered not to be a likely scenario, with the plutonium oxide particles more likely to remain practically insoluble and sediment. Plutonium aqueous and environmental chemistry is briefly discussed. Some computer modelling whereby plutonium oxide is brought into contact with seawater has been performed and the results are presented. The impact on marine organisms is discussed in terms of studies performed at marine dump sites and after the crash of a bomber carrying nuclear warheads in Thule, Greenland in 1968. Various pathways from the sea to land are considered in the light of studies done at Sellafield, a reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom. Some recent debates in the popular scientific press, such as that on the leukemia cluster at Sellafield, are described. Plutonium biochemistry and toxicity are discussed as well as medical histories of workers exposed to plutonium. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Invasions and extinctions reshape coastal marine food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrett E Byrnes

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions ( approximately 70% occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores, while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores. These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes.

  20. Spatial distribution of radium in coastal marine waters of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Jha, S.K.; Rajaram, S.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the radium activity levels in the coastal area covering the entire south eastern coast of Tamil Nadu from Chennai to Kanyakumari. Radium-226 (T 1/2 =1620 y), a α-emitter in the decay chain of elements, of the primordial uranium, is a ubiquitous component of the natural radiation in marine environment. It has a high degree of radiotoxicity, and is found in most abiotic and biotic materials, leading to direct exposure to biota and indirect human radiation exposure. Uptake of 226 Ra in biological systems depends upon the availability of the nuclide. In the light of the possible radio ecological significance in the environment, the present study has been undertaken to investigate the distribution of 226 Ra in the marine components of the Tamil Nadu coast for which no such data are available

  1. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  2. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ( 226 Ra), radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and potassium-40 ( 40 K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H in ), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption

  3. A study of copper, lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, G E; Gardner, D

    1978-07-01

    The significance of the measured changes in heavy metal distribution for different sampled environments was ascertained. The potential of a heavy metal speciation scheme to reflect differences in marine metal distributions was evaluated in a study of soluble copper, lead, and cadmium speciation in water samples from Port Hacking Estuary and one coastal Pacific station in Australia. In all samples, the percentages of metals associated with colloidal matter were high40-60% of total copper, 45-75% of total lead, and 15-35% of total cadmium. (1 map, 26 references, 4 tables)

  4. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  5. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Marine environment news. Vol. 2, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter carries articles on Tracers to reveal Global Role of Southern Oceans in Climate Change, a Technical Cooperation project on contamination in Mediterranean Sea and an article Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) and Harmful Algal Blooms: nuclear methods serving seafood toxicity management. News items on training, personnel and intercomparison exercise are also covered

  7. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  8. Natural radionuclides in the UK marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, S F.N.; Camplin, W C; Allington, D J; Young, A K [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Fisheries Radiobiological Lab.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of natural radionuclides giving rise to radiation exposure of man from marine consumption pathways has been known for some time. However, the extent of surveys of levels in marine biota has been limited. This paper presents new data on concentrations of natural radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweeds taken from coastal sampling locations in the U.K. Sampling included areas where levels due to natural sources would be predominant, but efforts were made to study potential sources of technologically enhanced discharges to seas and rivers, particularly the phosphogypsum plant at Whitehaven in Cumbria. The highest concentrations (up to 371 Bq.kg[sup -1] (wet) [sup 210]Po) were observed in winkles near Whitehaven. The general levels at sites remote from known sources were much lower. Monthly concentrations in molluscs at a single location were elevated by approximately a factor of 2 during the summer months. An assessment of the expected doses to members of the public from marine consumption pathways is made. (author).

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  10. Scientific Forum: The Blue Planet - Nuclear Applications for a Sustainable Marine Environment. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Forum brought together scientists, experts and policy makers from different fields to initiate dialogue and build new partnerships and cooperation to protect and preserve the ecological balance that is vital for the survival of the coastal regions and marine environment

  11. Coastal sea radiation environment and biodiversity protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Senming; Shang Zhaorong

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterizes the types, trend and the potential of radiation contamination in the sea against the development of nuclear power stations. Combined with the present status of radioactive contamination and marine biodiversity in China seas, it is pointed out that non-human radiation protection should be considered on the bases of marine biodiversity protection. Besides, the reference species for marine radiation protection and some viewpoints on the work of marine radiation protection in China are pro- posed. (authors)

  12. Actinide isotopes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of actinide isotopes in the environment are important not only from the viewpoint of their radiological effects on human life, but also from the fact that they act as excellent biochemical and geochemical tracers especially in the marine environment. For several of the actinide isotopes there is still a lack of basic data on concentration levels and further investigations on their chemical and physical speciation are required to understand their behaviour in the marine environment. The measured and estimated activity concentration levels of artificial actinides are at present in general a few orders of magnitude lower than those of the natural ones and their concentration factors in biota are relatively low, except in a few species of macroalgae and phytoplankton. The contribution from seafood to total ingestion of actinides by the world population is a few per cent and, therefore, the dose to man from these long-lived radionuclides caused by seafood ingestion is usually low. (orig.)

  13. Marine fish diversity at Kalpakkam coastal sites of Tamilnadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amrata; Ponnusamy, K.; Das, Subhashree; Munil Kumar, S.; Rajaram, S.; Lakra, W.S.; Pal, Asim K.; Sreedevi, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    In present study the marine fish diversity of Kalpakkam coastal sites of Tamil Nadu around Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) have been studied. The sampling was done seasonally viz post monsoon (January - March), Summer (April-June), and Premonsoon (July-September), for one year within 30 kilometer of MAPS. Total 69 species belonging to 10 order, 31 families and 42 genera were recorded. Different families such as Narcinidae -(1), Rhinobatidae-(1), Dasyatidae- (4), Clupeidae -(4), Pristigasteridae-(1), Engraulidae-(4), Ariidae-(1), Platycephalidae- (2), Polotosidae- (1), Ambassidae- (1), Sillaginidae- (1), Carangidae- (7), Sphyraenidae- (1), Scombridae- (1), Haemulidae- (1), Leiognathidae-(6), Lutjanidae-(3), Gerridae-(2), Sciaenidae- (8), Scatophagidae- (1), Mugilidae- (2), Ephippidae- (2), Mullidae- (3), Drepanidae- (1), Siganidae- (1), Paralichthyidae- (2), Trichiuridae- (1), Polynemidae- (1), Soleidae- (1), Cynoglossidae- (3), and Tetraodontidae- (1) were observed around Kalpakkam coastal sites. Among the collected species, order Perciformes was most dominant followed by Clupeiformes and Pleuronectiformes. The maximum fish collection was done during June to September and minimum during February to March. (author)

  14. Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs

  15. Contamination of the Gulf marine environment following the war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readman, J.W.; Fowler, S.W.; Villeneuve, J.-P.; Cattini, C.; Oregioni, B.; Mee, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Following the Gulf war, controversy and speculation have surrounded the extent to which the massive spillage of petroleum and the burning of oil wells in Kuwait have damaged marine ecosystems in the region. We report here the results of a rapid assessment survey of hydrocarbon contamination undertaken in the coastal marine environment from Kuwait to Oman during mid-1991. Our results show that severe oil pollution was restricted primarily to the Saudi Arabian coastline within ∼ 400km from the spillages, and that during the four months following the conflict and preceding our survey, the spilled oil had extensively degraded. Surprisingly, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments and bivalve molluscs from Bahrain in June 1991 were lower than those recorded from our pre-war (1983-86) surveys at the same site, probably as a result of decreased tanker traffic and associated deballasting during and after the conflict. As for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during burning of the oil wells, we found that concentrations in sediments from even the most heavily contaminated sites were relatively low, and comparable to levels reported for the Baltic Sea, coastal locations of the northeastern United States and United Kingdom estuaries. (author)

  16. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  17. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudjord, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Brungot, A.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Helldal, H.E.; Brown, J.; Iosjpe, M.; Christensen, G.

    2001-07-01

    A new, comprehensive national programme for monitoring of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment (RAME) was established in 1999. This program is based on a proposal developed by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), the Directorate for Nature Conservation (DN) and the State pollution authorities (SFT) on behalf of the Ministry of Environment. NRPA, as the responsible authority on radiation protection, co-ordinates the programme whilst sampling at sea is conducted in close co-operation with IMR as part of the regular monitoring of the marine environment and its living resources. The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and along the Norwegian coast. The programme also collects updated information on both Norwegian and other sources of radioactive contamination, and carries out assessments of radiation exposures of humans and biota. This new national monitoring programme has been co-ordinated with existing programmes funded by the Ministry of Fisheries. The monitoring programme for Marine Fish and Seafood was established in 1994. In previous reports from the programme established in 1994, (Sickel et al, 1995; Brungot et al, 1997, 1999) information regarding radioactivity in sea water, sediments and seaweed was included. However, the main purpose of this program is to document levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and other seafood caught in Norwegian waters. This information is then made available to the relevant authorities, fishing industries and the general public as documentation regarding the quality of the marine products. The work in this programme is performed as a co-operation between the NRPA and the Directorate of Fisheries. In addition, results from the monitoring program conducted by the National Food Control Authority are also included

  18. Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudjord, A.L.; Foeyn, L.; Brungot, A.L.; Kolstad, A.K.; Helldal, H.E.; Brown, J.; Iosjpe, M.; Christensen, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new, comprehensive national programme for monitoring of Radioactivity in the Marine Environment (RAME) was established in 1999. This program is based on a proposal developed by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), the Directorate for Nature Conservation (DN) and the State pollution authorities (SFT) on behalf of the Ministry of Environment. NRPA, as the responsible authority on radiation protection, co-ordinates the programme whilst sampling at sea is conducted in close co-operation with IMR as part of the regular monitoring of the marine environment and its living resources. The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and along the Norwegian coast. The programme also collects updated information on both Norwegian and other sources of radioactive contamination, and carries out assessments of radiation exposures of humans and biota. This new national monitoring programme has been co-ordinated with existing programmes funded by the Ministry of Fisheries. The monitoring programme for Marine Fish and Seafood was established in 1994. In previous reports from the programme established in 1994, (Sickel et al, 1995; Brungot et al, 1997, 1999) information regarding radioactivity in sea water, sediments and seaweed was included. However, the main purpose of this program is to document levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and other seafood caught in Norwegian waters. This information is then made available to the relevant authorities, fishing industries and the general public as documentation regarding the quality of the marine products. The work in this programme is performed as a co-operation between the NRPA and the Directorate of Fisheries. In addition, results from the monitoring program conducted by the National Food Control Authority are also included

  19. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  1. Preface: Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments” presents a wide range of articles focusing on a variety of remote sensing models and techniques to address coastal issues and processes ranging for wetlands and water quality to coral reefs and kelp habitats. The SI is comprised of twenty-one papers, covering a broad range of research topics that employ remote sensing imagery, models, and techniques to monitor water quality, vegetation, habitat suitability, and geomorphology in the coastal zone. This preface provides a brief summary of each article published in the SI.

  2. Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Noronha, L.; Lourenco, N.; Lobo-Ferreira, J.P.; Lieopart, A.; Feoli, E.; Sawkar, K.; Chachadi, A.

    This book is among the products of a research project entitled "Measuring, monitoring and managing sustainability: The coastal dimension" INCO-DC programme over the period 1998-2002. The contributions reflect a range of disciplines including...

  3. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The impacts of radionuclide releases into the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The impact of radiation on the marine environment has been of interest to the international community since the advent of nuclear fission. This interest continues with the increasing industrial use of nuclear power and the associated need for the disposal of nuclear waste. Continued dumping of low-level waste into the sea and direct discharge of liquid effluents into coastal waters, as well as potential radionuclide additions to the deep ocean from other sources, dictates that the possible long-term effects on the seas must be closely watched. By means of field studies in contaminated environments, our knowledge of long-lived radionuclides, especially the transuranium elements, is increasing. We are far from the goal, however, of being able to predict the behaviour of these elements in the marine environment, particularly in the deep sea. We know even less about other long-lived radionuclides such as technetium, whose inventory may be as high as 170 000 kg by the year 2000 according to some projections. Clearly, attempts to unravel the behaviour and fate of these long-lived radionuclides introduced into the sea will present a challenge to the environmental scientist during the next decade. In addition, the new philosophy of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as set out in Publication No.26, emphasizes justification and optimization both in the release of radioactive effluents into the sea and in the sea-dumping of radioactive solid wastes. To satisfy the demands of this new philosophy requires a broader range of environmental information than has previously been available. The papers assembled for this symposium represent an authoritative account of the subject's global status in 1980. The object of the meeting was to review the origins, measurements, behaviour, fate and impacts of artificial radioactive additions to the marine environment

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  6. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic

  7. bioSearch : A glimpse into marine biodiversity of Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kakodkar, A.P.; Alornekar, A.; DSouza, R.; Thomas, T.R.A.; Divekar, R.; Nath, I.V.A.; Kavlekar, D.P.; Ingole, B.S.; Bharathi, P.A.L.

    bioSearch is a database application developed to digitize marine biodiversity of Indian coastal waters. A user can obtain information on organism’s binomial and common names, synonyms, taxonomy, morphology, ecology, economic importance, geographical...

  8. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  9. Developmental stages of chaetognaths in the coastal environs of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Nair, V.R.

    Abundances of developmental stages-juveniles, developing and mature-of Sagitta bedoti, S. oceania, S. enflata and S. robusta were recorded from the coastal, estuarine and creek environs of Bombay (Maharashtra, India) from October 1985 to September...

  10. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer

  11. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  12. Detection of a Planktothrix agardhii Bloom in Portuguese Marine Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Churro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria blooms are frequent in freshwaters and are responsible for water quality deterioration and human intoxication. Although, not a new phenomenon, concern exists on the increasing persistence, scale, and toxicity of these blooms. There is evidence, in recent years, of the transfer of these toxins from inland to marine waters through freshwater outflow. However, the true impact of these blooms in marine habitats has been overlooked. In the present work, we describe the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, which is a common microcystin producer, in the Portuguese marine coastal waters nearby a river outfall in an area used for shellfish harvesting and recreational activities. P. agardhii was first observed in November of 2016 in seawater samples that are in the scope of the national shellfish monitoring system. This occurrence was followed closely between November and December of 2016 by a weekly sampling of mussels and water from the sea pier and adjacent river mouth with salinity ranging from 35 to 3. High cell densities were found in the water from both sea pier and river outfall, reaching concentrations of 4,960,608 cells·L−1 and 6810.3 × 106 cells·L−1 respectively. Cultures were also established with success from the environment and microplate salinity growth assays showed that the isolates grew at salinity 10. HPLC-PDA analysis of total microcystin content in mussel tissue, water biomass, and P. agardhii cultures did not retrieve a positive result. In addition, microcystin related genes were not detected in the water nor cultures. So, the P. agardhii present in the environment was probably a non-toxic strain. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on a P. agardhii bloom reaching the sea and points to the relevance to also monitoring freshwater harmful phytoplankton and related toxins in seafood harvesting and recreational coastal areas, particularly under the influence of river plumes.

  13. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  14. Some topics on radioecological research in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, systematic researches on marine environmental radioactivity started in 1954 when 'Bikini incidence' occurred. After several years of handling emergency situations, basic studies were carried out to understand processes and mechanisms of contamination of aquatic organisms by radionuclides. At this period 'Hiyama Group' had a large contribution to the development of this new field of research. Important concepts and items have already been dealt with in this Grant Group. Toward the end of 'Hiyama Group', a new project started in Nuclear Safety Research Association. This project, so-called 'Kaihohtoku', aimed at gathering necessary information for safety assessment on the release of low-level radioactive liquid wastes from a newly planned spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Tokai. NIRS-Nakaminato Branch was established first as Marine Radioecological Station in this project. The term 'radioecology' got popularity also in this period. Many important results were obtained and scientific basis of the safety assessment was established in this project. Today we have not any urgent matter to be handled concerning radioecology in our coastal environment. Nuclides found are exclusively of fallout and of a quite low level. We have also established methodology of radiological assessment. So, what is the problem? The problem is 'from conservative to realistic', which is the trend in the world. Here, from this viewpoint, some topics such as models and parameters including concentration factors and their validation and verification in the natural environment were discussed. (author)

  15. Spread, Behavior, and Ecosystem Consequences of Conventional Munitions Compounds in Coastal Marine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Beck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal marine environments are contaminated globally with a vast quantity of unexploded ordnance and munitions from intentional disposal. These munitions contain organic explosive compounds as well as a variety of metals, and represent point sources of chemical pollution to marine waters. Most underwater munitions originate from World Wars at the beginning of the twentieth century, and metal munitions housings have been impacted by extensive corrosion over the course of the following decades. As a result, the risk of munitions-related contaminant release to the water column is increasing. The behavior of munitions compounds is well-characterized in terrestrial systems and groundwater, but is only poorly understood in marine systems. Organic explosive compounds, primarily nitroaromatics and nitramines, can be degraded or transformed by a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms. These reaction products exhibit a range in biogeochemical characteristics such as sorption by particles and sediments, and variable environmental behavior as a result. The reaction products often exhibit increased toxicity to biological receptors and geochemical controls like sorption can limit this exposure. Environmental samples typically show low concentrations of munitions compounds in water and sediments (on the order of ng/L and μg/kg, respectively, and ecological risk appears generally low. Nonetheless, recent work demonstrates the possibility of sub-lethal genetic and metabolic effects. This review evaluates the state of knowledge on the occurrence, fate, and effect of munition-related chemical contaminants in the marine environment. There remain a number of knowledge gaps that limit our understanding of munitions-related contaminant spread and effect, and the need for additional work is made all the more urgent by increasing risk of release to the environment.

  16. Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in coastal marine biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates.

  17. Sources of atmospheric methane from coastal marine wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriss, R.C.; Sebacher, D.I.; Bartlett, K.B.; Bartlett, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis in wetlands is believed to be one of the major sources of global tropospheric methane. The present paper reports measurements of methane distribution in the soils, sediments, water and vegetation of coastal marine wetlands. Measurements, carried out in the salt marshes Bay Tree Creek in Virginia and Panacea in northwest Florida, reveal methane concentrations in soils and sediments to vary with depth below the surface and with soil temperature. The fluxes of methane from marsh soils to the atmosphere at the soil-air interface are estimated to range from -0.00067 g CH 4 /sq m per day (methane sink) to 0.024 g CH 4 /sq m per day, with an average value of 0.0066 g CH 4 /sq m per day. Data also demonstrate the important role of tidal waters percolating through marsh soils in removing methane from the soils and releasing it to the atmosphere. The information obtained, together with previous studies, provides a framework for the design of a program based on in situ and remote sensing measurements to study the global methane cycle

  18. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 226Ra chronology of a coastal marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Bruland, K.; Goldberg, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    Unsupported 226 Ra (tsub (1/2) = 1620 years) in marine sediments can provide a basis for measuring rates of accumulation of the order of centimeters per thousand years. The excess radium apparently enters the sediments incorporated in phytoplankton. The sensitivity of the method depends upon the initial value of the unsupported 226 Ra and of the value of 230 Th, a parent of 226 Ra, in the sedimentary components. 226 Ra dating was applied to a sediment taken from the slope of the San Clemente Basin in the Southern California coastal region. Rates of sedimentation over two half-lives of the nuclide were found to be either 5.2 or 5.3 cm/1000 years depending upon which of two models for the geochronology is used. One model assumes that the 230 Th brings to the deposit an amount of 226 Ra in equilibrium with it. The other is based upon the growth of the 226 Ra from the 230 Th in the sedimentary components. 238+239 Pu and 210 Pb levels in the upper strata indicated sedimentation rates of the order of 100-500 cm/1000 years, i.e. much faster accumulations. It is suggested that these derived rates are spurious and reflect bioturbative activities of surface-living organisms. (Auth.)

  20. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1978): Marine Bird Habitats (F040) (NODC Accession 0014159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Habitats (F040) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1978). Each dataset uses the...

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1983): Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) (NODC Accession 0014155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1983)....

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) (NODC Accession 0014156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Standard Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975...

  3. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979): Marine Bird Surveys (F041) (NODC Accession 0014160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Surveys (F041) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1979). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  4. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis d...

  5. Marine and coastal ecosystem services on the science-policy-practice nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakou, Evangelia G.; Kermagoret, Charlène; Liquete, Camino; Ruiz-Frau, Ana; Burkhard, Kremena; Lillebø, Ana I.; Oudenhoven, van Alexander P.E.; Ballé-Béganton, Johanna; Rodrigues, João Garcia; Nieminen, Emmi; Oinonen, Soile; Ziemba, Alex; Gissi, Elena; Depellegrin, Daniel; Veidemane, Kristina; Ruskule, Anda; Delangue, Justine; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Boon, Arjen; Wenning, Richard; Martino, Simone; Hasler, Berit; Termansen, Mette; Rockel, Mark; Hummel, Herman; Serafy, El Ghada; Peev, Plamen

    2017-01-01

    We compared and contrasted 11 European case studies to identify challenges and opportunities toward the operationalization of marine and coastal ecosystem service (MCES) assessments in Europe. This work is the output of a panel convened by the Marine Working Group of the Ecosystem Services

  6. Mercury in the atmospheric and coastal environments of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Delgado-Alvarez, Carolina; Frías-Espericueta, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, published studies relating to the occurrence of Hg in the environment are limited. Among the main sources of Hg in Mexico are mining and refining of Auand Hg, chloralkali plants, Cu smelting, residential combustion of wood, carbo electric plants, and oil refineries. Hg levels are highly variable in the atmospheric compartment because of the atmospheric dynamics and ongoing metal exchange with the terrestrial surface. In atmospheric studies, Hg levels are usually reported as total gaseous Hg (TGM). In Mexico, TGM values ranged from 1.32 ng m-3 in Hidalgo state (a rural agricultural area) to 71.82 ng m-3 in Zacatecas state (an area where brick manufacturers use mining wastes as a raw material).Published information on mercury levels in the coastal environment comprise 21 studies, representing 21 areas, in which sediments constituted the substrate that was analyzed for Hg. In addition, water samples were analyzed for Hg in nine studies.Few studies exist on Hg levels in the Caribbean and in the southwest of the country where tourism is rapidly increasing. Hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury in these increasingly visited areas. In regions where studies have been undertaken, Hg levels in sediments were highly variable. Variations in Hg sediment levels mainly result from geological factors and the varying degree of anthropogenic impacts in the studied areas. In areas that still have pristine or nearly pristine environments (e.g., coast, Baja California, Todos Santos Bay, and La Paz lagoon), sediment Hg levels ranged from Mexico, it is clear that Hg fluxes to sediments have increased from2- to 15-fold in recent years. Since the 1940s, historical increases of Hg fluxes have resulted from higher agricultural waste releases and exhaust from the thermo electric plants. The levels of Hg in water reveal a moderate to elevated contamination of some Mexican coastal sites. In Urias lagoon (NW Mexico), moderate to high levels were found in

  7. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  8. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  9. Radioecological data concerning La Hague marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Bovard, P.

    1979-01-01

    New radioecological observations have been made in the environment of the La Hague (North-West Cotentin) spent fuel processing plant to supplement earlier studies on the transfer of sea-borne radioactive wastes and on radioactivity levels found in the North-West sector of the Cotentin and some distance away on the channel coasts. Of the radionuclides discharged by the plant, ruthenium-106 and cerium-144 account for most of the artificial γ activity found in living species and sediments. Together with plutonium they tend to disperse less than a radionuclide present in essentially soluble form such as cesium-137. Certain coastal deposits moreover tend to be more pronounced South-West than East-South-East of the discharge point. Finally the radioactivity levels observed and their repercussions on public health show good agreement with the results of the previsional study carried out before the plant was started up [fr

  10. HEAVY METAL AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE BACTERIA IN MARINE SEDIMENT OF PAHANG COASTAL WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaima Azira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria in the marine sediment may indicate heavy metal pollution and antibiotic abuse present in the environment. In this study, a total of 89 bacteria isolated from sediment collected in Teluk Chempedak and Pantai Batu Hitam of Pahang coastal water underwent heavy metal resistance test against Chromium, Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Cobalt. Previously, these isolates were found to exhibit antibiotic resistance capabilities to at least 5 antibiotics tested. Heavy metal resistance pattern for isolates from Teluk Chempedak was in the form of Cr > Ni >Co >Cd = Cu while for isolates from Pantai Batu Hitam showed a pattern of Cr = Ni >Co >Cu >Cd. Further investigation on the identity of selected isolates that exhibited both antibiotic and heavy metals resistance capabilities using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed isolates with closest similarities to Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Brevundimonas vesicularis..

  11. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  13. Pesticides in tropical marine environments: Assessing their fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.

    1993-01-01

    While forecasts of economic and population trends are notoriously contentious, it seems to be fairly widely accepted that there will be approximately 11,000 million people to feed in the year 2050, which is about twice as many as there were in 1990. There seems little doubt that pesticides will remain an essential component of many agricultural systems. Although it is estimated that insect pests alone still destroy about one-third of the world's crops, yields would probably decline by a further 30% to 75% without crop protection chemicals. It is hardly surprising therefore that worldwide pesticide usage is on the order of 5 million tons per year with a value of US $26 billion. Data on the behaviour of pesticides in the tropical marine environment are very limited in comparison with information on the fate of pesticides in temperate regions. Preliminary surveys carried out be the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in coastal lagoons in Central America indicate the presence of high concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in sediments and aquatic organisms. OP compounds, such as chlorpyrifos, were also found to be widespread contaminants in these lagoons. To develop relevant studies, the IAEA is organizing a co-ordinated research programme (CRP) through its Laboratory at Monaco and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The CRP is entitled the Distribution, Fate, and Effects of Pesticides in Biota in the Tropical Environment; support has been offered by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). It will concentrate on various aspects of the problem. 2 figs

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  15. Integration of wave energy and other marine renewable energy sources with the needs of coastal societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Manasseh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine renewable energy has the potential to solve both the energy-security and coastal-protection problems affecting coastal societies. In this article, the potential benefits arising from the combination of marine renewable energy technologies with infrastructural needs for coastal protection and other local needs are analysed. Classifications of technologies are developed to inform future coastal planning. Explanations of the resources and technologies are presented in layperson’s term. The threat of coastal inundation under climate-change scenarios is a major global issue. The investment in new infrastructure demanded by cities, ports and communities at risk of inundation could very substantially reduce the levelised cost of electricity from renewable sources, provided the infrastructure is designed with the dual purpose of power generation and coastal protection. Correspondingly, the sale of electricity from such infrastructure could defray the long-term cost of installing coastal protection. Furthermore, many marine renewable energy technologies provide a platform on which other forms of renewable energy generation could be mounted. It is noted that the complex geophysical and engineering issues arising from this opportunity must be assessed considering socio-economic factors.

  16. Bacteria and plutonium in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, A.E.; Bowen, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    Microbes are important in geochemical cycling of many elements. Recent reports emphasize biogenous particulates and bacterial exometabolites as controlling oceanic distribution of plutonium. Bacteria perform oxidation/reduction reactions on metals such as mercury, nickel, lead, copper, and cadmium. Redox transformations or uptake of Pu by marine bacteria may well proceed by similar mechanisms. Profiles of water samples and sediment cores were obtained along the continental shelf off Nova Scotia and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Profiles of water samples, and sediment cores were obtained. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to view bacteria (from water or sediment) after concentration on membrane filters and staining with acridine orange. Radiochemical analyses measured Pu in sediments and water samples. Studies of 237 Pu uptake used a strain of Leucothrix mucor isolated from a macroalga. Enumeration shows bacteria to range 10 4 to 10 5 cells/ml in seawater or 10 7 to 10 8 cells/gram of sediment. These numbers are related to the levels and distrbution of Pu in the samples. In cultures of L. mucor amended with Pu atom concentrations approximating those present in open ocean environments, bacterial cells concentrated 237 Pu slower and to lower levels than did clay minerals, glass beads, or phytoplankton. These data further clarify the role of marine bacteria in Pu biogeochemistry

  17. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  18. A marine eutrophication impacts assessment method in LCIA coupling coastal ecosystems exposure to nitrogen and species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Characterisation modelling in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) aims at quantifying potential impacts of anthropogenic emissions. It delivers substance-specific Characterisation Factors (CF) expressing ecosystem responses to marginal increments in emitted quantities. Nitrogen (N) emissions from e.......g. agriculture and industry enrich coastal marine ecosystems. Excessive algal growth and dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion typify the resulting marine eutrophication. LCIA modelling frameworks typically encompass fate, exposure and effect in the environment. The present novel method couples relevant marine...... biological processes of ecosystem’s N exposure (Exposure Factor, XF) with the sensitivity of select species to hypoxia (Effect Factor, EF). The XF converts N-inputs into a sinking carbon flux from planktonic primary production and DO consumed by bacterial respiration in bottom waters, whereas EF builds...

  19. Plastic pollution in the marine environment. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse effects of synthetic polymers on oceans and beaches. The citations examine the impact of discarded plastics upon fish, seabirds, and other aquatic animals. The sources of plastic litter and the efforts of coastal communities to manage plastics pollution are referenced. International agreements designed to protect the marine environment by banning ocean dumping of plastics are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 145 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Sequeira, A. M. M.; Rodrí guez, J. P.; Eguí luz, V. M.; Harcourt, R.; Hindell, M.; Sims, D. W.; Duarte, C. M.; Costa, D. P.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, J.; Ferreira, L. C.; Hays, G. C.; Heupel, M. R.; Meekan, M. G.; Aven, A.; Bailleul, F.; Baylis, A. M. M.; Berumen, Michael L.; Braun, C. D.; Burns, J.; Caley, M. J.; Campbell, R.; Carmichael, R. H.; Clua, E.; Einoder, L. D.; Friedlaender, Ari; Goebel, M. E.; Goldsworthy, S. D.; Guinet, C.; Gunn, J.; Hamer, D.; Hammerschlag, N.; Hammill, M.; Hü ckstä dt, L. A.; Humphries, N. E.; Lea, M.-A.; Lowther, A.; Mackay, A.; McHuron, E.; McKenzie, J.; McLeay, L.; McMahon, C. R.; Mengersen, K.; Muelbert, M. M. C.; Pagano, A. M.; Page, B.; Queiroz, N.; Robinson, P. W.; Shaffer, S. A.; Shivji, M.; Skomal, G. B.; Thorrold, S. R.; Villegas-Amtmann, S.; Weise, M.; Wells, R.; Wetherbee, B.; Wiebkin, A.; Wienecke, B.; Thums, M.

    2018-01-01

    The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle). Strikingly, movement patterns show a remarkable convergence, being strongly conserved across species and independent of body length and mass, despite these traits ranging over 10 orders of magnitude among the species studied. This represents a fundamental difference between marine and terrestrial vertebrates not previously identified, likely linked to the reduced costs of locomotion in water. Movement patterns were primarily explained by the interaction between species-specific traits and the habitat(s) they move through, resulting in complex movement patterns when moving close to coasts compared with more predictable patterns when moving in open oceans. This distinct difference may be associated with greater complexity within coastal microhabitats, highlighting a critical role of preferred habitat in shaping marine vertebrate global movements. Efforts to develop understanding of the characteristics of vertebrate movement should consider the habitat(s) through which they move to identify how movement patterns will alter with forecasted severe ocean changes, such as reduced Arctic sea ice cover, sea level rise, and declining oxygen content.

  1. Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Sequeira, A. M. M.

    2018-02-26

    The extent of increasing anthropogenic impacts on large marine vertebrates partly depends on the animals\\' movement patterns. Effective conservation requires identification of the key drivers of movement including intrinsic properties and extrinsic constraints associated with the dynamic nature of the environments the animals inhabit. However, the relative importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors remains elusive. We analyze a global dataset of ∼2.8 million locations from >2,600 tracked individuals across 50 marine vertebrates evolutionarily separated by millions of years and using different locomotion modes (fly, swim, walk/paddle). Strikingly, movement patterns show a remarkable convergence, being strongly conserved across species and independent of body length and mass, despite these traits ranging over 10 orders of magnitude among the species studied. This represents a fundamental difference between marine and terrestrial vertebrates not previously identified, likely linked to the reduced costs of locomotion in water. Movement patterns were primarily explained by the interaction between species-specific traits and the habitat(s) they move through, resulting in complex movement patterns when moving close to coasts compared with more predictable patterns when moving in open oceans. This distinct difference may be associated with greater complexity within coastal microhabitats, highlighting a critical role of preferred habitat in shaping marine vertebrate global movements. Efforts to develop understanding of the characteristics of vertebrate movement should consider the habitat(s) through which they move to identify how movement patterns will alter with forecasted severe ocean changes, such as reduced Arctic sea ice cover, sea level rise, and declining oxygen content.

  2. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, O.A.; Phillips, M.R.; Williams, A.T.; Gheith, A.M.; Bantan, R.A.; Rasul, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = − 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ► New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ► Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ► Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ► Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  3. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  4. Marine environment news Vol. 3, no. 2, December 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This issue is MEL's fifth Marine Environment News. Over the last 6 months MEL's programmes have been subjected to detailed evaluation first by an External Expert Panel that scrutinised our 5 year outputs and reported to the Director General, then by IAEA's Standing Advisory Group on Nuclear Application (SAGNA) which looked at our future marine programmes and challenges. Overall, both panels commended MEL for the volume, quality and relevance of MEL's outputs including our research findings, peer reviewed publications, training expertise and services to Member States. They also welcomed our decision to integrate our studies and services on non-nuclear contaminants with nuclear and isotopic projects, thereby providing Member States with value-added information on sources, fluxes and fates of contaminants in the coastal environment. They re-iterated previous recommendations for regular budget support to stabilise and re-launch a strategy for new extra budgetary partnerships. The reviews also welcomed the consolidation of MEL's carbonbased projects into a new Subprogramme H3 Ocean Climate Coupling and Carbon Cycling (OC4) for 2006-2007. (See our Website for New Subprogrammes). The Philippines Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) was officially designated as an IAEA Collaborating Centre for their work on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We plan joint research on tracking the food-chain mobility, impact and fate of HABs biotoxins using radiolabelled analogues. We were pleased to offer support to HSH Prince Albert II's Centenary Expedition to Spitzbergen and so contribute in a modest but symbolic way to the Centenary legacy of Oceanography in Monaco

  5. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  6. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brischoux

    Full Text Available The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1 without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging. More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  7. Performance of concrete blended with pozzolanic materials in marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Asad-ur-Rehman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concretes structures located at or near the coast line needs to be repaired more frequently when compared to structures located elsewhere. This study is continuation of previous studies carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan to study the performance of concrete made up of cements blended by pozzolonic materials. Different pozzolanic materials (blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume were used in the study. Tests conducted during the study to compare the performance of samples cast from concrete of different mix designs were Compressive Strength Test (ASTM C 39, Flexural Strength Test (ASTM C 293, Rapid Migration Test (NT Build 492, Absorptivity of the oven-dried samples (ASTM C 642 and Half Cell Potential (ASTM C 876. Use of cements blended with pozzolanic materials, used during the study, proved to be effective in enhancing the performance of the concrete exposed to marine environment. Use of pozzolans in concrete not only provides a sustainable and feasible solution to the durability problems in coastal areas, it also helps in conservation of natural resources and reduction of pollution and energy leading to a green environment.

  8. Hierarchical Synthesis of Coastal Ecosystem Health Indicators at Karimunjawa National Marine Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danu Prasetya, Johan; Ambariyanto; Supriharyono; Purwanti, Frida

    2018-02-01

    The coastal ecosystem of Karimunjawa National Marine Park (KNMP) is facing various pressures, including from human activity. Monitoring the health condition of coastal ecosystems periodically is needed as an evaluation of the ecosystem condition. Systematic and consistent indicators are needed in monitoring of coastal ecosystem health. This paper presents hierarchical synthesis of coastal ecosystem health indicators using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Hierarchical synthesis is obtained from process of weighting by paired comparison based on expert judgments. The variables of coastal ecosystem health indicators in this synthesis consist of 3 level of variable, i.e. main variable, sub-variable and operational variable. As a result of assessment, coastal ecosystem health indicators consist of 3 main variables, i.e. State of Ecosystem, Pressure and Management. Main variables State of Ecosystem and Management obtain the same value i.e. 0.400, while Pressure value was 0.200. Each main variable consist of several sub-variable, i.e. coral reef, reef fish, mangrove and seagrass for State of Ecosystem; fisheries and marine tourism activity for Pressure; planning and regulation, institutional and also infrastructure and financing for Management. The highest value of sub-variable of main variable State of Ecosystem, Pressure and Management were coral reef (0.186); marine tourism pressure (0.133) and institutional (0.171), respectively. The highest value of operational variable of main variable State of Ecosystem, Pressure and Management were percent of coral cover (0.058), marine tourism pressure (0.133) and presence of zonation plan, regulation also socialization of monitoring program (0.53), respectively. Potential pressure from marine tourism activity is the variable that most affect the health of the ecosystem. The results of this research suggest that there is a need to develop stronger conservation strategies to facing with pressures from marine tourism

  9. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unusual rise in mercury-resistant bacteria in coastal environs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; De, J.

    A sharp rise in mercury-resistant bacteria (MRB) capable of tolerating very high concentration of Hg was observed over the last 3-4 years in the coastal environs of India. While none or negligible colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria were counted...

  11. Behaviour and fate of artificial redionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Behaviour of artificial radionuclides in the marine environment, effect of the physico-chemical forms of the radionuclides. Behavior of radionuclides in the physical and biological environments and general evaluation of transfers [fr

  12. Technological enhancement of natural radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Baxter, M.S.; Scott, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review summarizes aspects of technologically enhanced radioactivity in the UK marine environment, considers briefly related investigations in western Europe and then discusses some models for the kinetics of series decay and ingrowth which can be applied to technological inputs of series members to the marine environment and to their differential elemental biogeochemistries. (author)

  13. Advancing Sustainable Development through Understanding the Coastal Environment: The Garolim Bay in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal environment worldwide is increasingly more populated and developed in recent years. As a result, the natural coastal environment which often provides habitats for various plants and animals and nursery grounds for fishes has become scarce. However, it is well-known that the natural coastal environment is important for the well-being of the ecosystem including human. In addition, it may contribute to the local economy by attracting many visitors who like to appreciate and enjoy the nature. Although there may be efforts to preserve the natural coastal environment by governments and environmental groups, there may be also needs to develop the coastal environment. In order to preserve the natural environment without sacrificing the local economy, it would be important to appreciate the unique characteristics of the coastal environment that may contribute to attracting many visitors. In this study, we discuss some unique characteristics of the coastal environment located in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea. The Garolim Bay is a semi-enclosed bay with the narrow opening of about 2 km and the length of about 20 km, and has a spring tidal range over 6 m. It is well known for vast tidal flats and healthy ecosystems that supports high productive and diverse marine lives including spotted seals. The tidal wave propagates north along the eastern Yellow Sea and currents become strong off the Garolim Bay due to the promontory effect and mixing of the water column results in cooling of surface water. Due to its characteristic offshore environment, narrow opening and abrupt turning over 120 degrees in the midst of acceleration of strong currents, the Garolim Bay presents the unique physical and geological environment resulting in characteristic physical, biological and geological features. In fact, the name of the bay `Garolim' meaning 'Dew-induced Forest', may have resulted from these unique physical and geological characteristics of the bay.

  14. Radioactivity in the sea. Scientific publications of the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (1991-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document provides list of scientific publications of the IAEA Marine Environmental Laboratory (IAEA-MEL). The studies cover a broad spectrum of environmental issues of behaviour of radioactive substances as well as fate of non-nuclear pollutants in the marine environment. Studies of the Gulf war aftermath, the carbon cycle and the Greenhouse Effect, Chernobyl radioactivity in the oceans, the consequences of nuclear testing on the South Pacific and of nuclear dumping in the Arctic Seas and in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and of pesticide tun-off and toxicity to coastal fisheries are just a few areas in which the IAEA-MEL has recently been active. Increasingly, the emphasis is placed on the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to improve understanding of the marine environment and of pollutant behaviour

  15. Studies of the DOM aqueous extracts from coastal marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, F.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major exchangeable organic pool playing an outstanding role in the ocean carbon cycle. It has a complex chemical structure made up of a wide range of organic molecules. The composition of DOM depends on the sources proximity and the exposure to any sort of degradation mechanism. The coloured (or chromophoric) dissolved organic matter (CDOM), representing the optically active fraction of DOM, consists of aromatic rings able to absorb light in the visible and UV regions (Kirk, 1994) and fluorophoric molecules that emit light. The main fluorophoric moieties of CDOM are humic material with a blue fluorescence and protein material with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (Mopper and Schultz, 1993). Dissolved organic matter interacts with pollutants either by enhancing their bioavailability or by influencing their transportation to the soluble phase. In addition, DOM affects the remineralisation of carbon and its preservation in marine sediments. Referring to its origin, it can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine one. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique widely applied for the identification and characterization of organic matter, being fast, simple, non-destructive and sensitive. In addition, the fluorescence analysis for the physico-chemical characterization of organic matter requires a small amount of aqueous sample at a low concentration, in comparison with the large sample volumes needed for conventional techniques. At the present study coastal sediment samples were collected from Messiniakos gulf in the south western Peloponnese in South Greece. Messiniakos gulf has a seabed dominated by very abrupt inclinations reaching depths of more than 1000m. All samples, according to their grain size, are classified as fine clayey silt. Dissolved organic matter was extracted under gentle extraction conditions (4 mM CaCl2 solution). The various classes of organic components present at the DOM aqueous extracts were characterised by

  16. Geophysical detection of marine intrusions in Black Sea coastal areas (Romania) using VES and ERT data

    OpenAIRE

    CHITEA, Florina; GEORGESCU, Paul; IOANE, Dumitru

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Communities living in coastal areas depend in a great extent on the fresh water resources exploited from aquifers which are usually in a natural hydrodynamic equilibrium with the sea water. The contamination of fresh water with marine saltwater determines a significant increase in the aquifers electric conductivity, allowing an efficient application of resistivity methods in detecting and monitoring the marine intrusions. We present case studies from Romania (Costinesti and Vama Vec...

  17. Middle Holocene marine flooding and human response in the south Yangtze coastal plain, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghua; Ryves, David B.; Lei, Shao; Nian, Xiaomei; Lv, Ye; Tang, Liang; Wang, Long; Wang, Jiehua; Chen, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Coastal flooding catastrophes have affected human societies on coastal plains around the world on several occasions in the past, and are threatening 21st century societies under global warming and sea-level rise. However, the role of coastal flooding in the interruption of the Neolithic Liangzhu culture in the lower Yangtze valley, East China coast has been long contested. In this study, we used a well-dated Neolithic site (the Yushan site) close to the present coastline to demonstrate a marine drowning event at the terminal stage of the Liangzhu culture and discuss its linkage to relative sea-level rise. We analysed sedimentology, chronology, organic elemental composition, diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts for several typical profiles at the Yushan site. The field and sedimentary data provided clear evidence of a palaeo-typhoon event that overwhelmed the Yushan site at ∼2560 BCE, which heralded a period of marine inundation and ecological deterioration at the site. We also infer an acceleration in sea-level rise at 2560-2440 BCE from the sedimentary records at Yushan, which explains the widespread signatures of coastal flooding across the south Yangtze coastal plain at that time. The timing of this mid-Holocene coastal flooding coincided with the sudden disappearance of the advanced and widespread Liangzhu culture along the lower Yangtze valley. We infer that extreme events and flooding accompanying accelerated sea-level rise were major causes of vulnerability for prehistoric coastal societies.

  18. Collections management plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Data Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Kelleen M.; Buczkowski, Brian J.; McCarthy, Linda P.; Orton, Alice M.

    2015-08-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center has created a Data Library to organize, preserve, and make available the field, laboratory, and modeling data collected and processed by Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center staff. This Data Library supports current research efforts by providing unique, historic datasets with accompanying metadata. The Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center’s Data Library has custody of historic data and records that are still useful for research, and assists with preservation and distribution of marine science records and data in the course of scientific investigation and experimentation by researchers and staff at the science center.

  19. Estimates of oil entering the marine environment in the past decade : GESAMP Working Group 32 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; Grey, C.; Wells, P.; Koefoed, J.; Nauke, M.; Meyer, T.; Campbell, J.; Reddy, S.

    1998-01-01

    A meeting of the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Protection (GESAMP), Working Group 32, was held to discuss a new approach for evaluating available data sources on the input of oil into the marine environment from sea-based activities. GESAMP Working Group on Estimates of Oil Entering the Marine Environment, Sea Based Activities (Working Group 32) will collect and analyze data on oil inputs over the last decade from shipping, offshore and coastal exploration and production, pipelines, atmospheric emissions from sea-based activities, coastal refineries and storage facilities, oil reception facilities, materials disposed of at sea, and natural seepage. The group will compare its oil input estimate model to estimates made by the National Research Council, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and GESAMP in previous decades, to evaluate the efficacy of IMO conventions and other pollution reduction efforts in the last 10 years. The group will also consider the amounts of oil entering the sea through operational and accidental spillage in relation to the quantities of oil transported by ship and through pipelines, and in relation to offshore and coastal oil production. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  1. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliscek Carolan, Jessica; Hughes, Catherine E.; Hoffmann, Emmy L.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131 I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131 I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131 I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131 I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively.

  2. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-18

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  3. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  4. Monitoring the drastic growth of ship breaking yards in Sitakunda: a threat to the coastal environment of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hasan Muhammad; Mahboob, M Golam; Banu, Mehmuna R; Seker, Dursun Zafer

    2013-05-01

    The vast coastal and marine resources that occur along the southern edge of Bangladesh make it one of the most productive areas of the world. However, due to growing anthropogenic impacts, this area is under considerable environmental pressure from both physical and chemical stress factors. Ship breaking, or the dismantling and demolition of out-of-service ocean-going vessels, has become increasingly common in many coastal areas. To investigate the extent of ship breaking activities in Bangladesh along the Sitakunda coast, various spatial and non-spatial data were obtained, including remote sensing imagery, statistical records and published reports. Impacts to coastal and marine life were documented. Available data show that ship breaking activities cause significant physical disturbance and release toxic materials into the environment, resulting in adverse effects to numerous marine taxonomic groups such as fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, plants, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. Landsat imagery illustrates that the negatively impacted coastal area has grown 308.7 % from 367 ha in 1989 to 1,133 ha in 2010. Physicochemical and biological properties of coastal soil and water indicate substantially elevated pollution that poses a risk of local, regional and even global contamination through sea water and atmospheric transport. While damage to the coastal environment of Bangladesh is a recognized hazard that must be addressed, the economic benefits of ship breaking through job creation and fulfilling the domestic demand for recycled steel must be considered. Rather than an outright ban on beach breaking of ships, the enterprise must be recognized as a true and influential industry that should be held responsible for developing an economically viable and environmentally proactive growth strategy. Evolution of the industry toward a sustainable system can be aided through reasonable and enforceable legislative and judicial action that takes a balanced

  5. Radiochronology of marine sediments and its application to the knowledge of the process of environmental pollution in coastal Cuban ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Bolaños-Alvares, Yoelvis; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain; Morera-Gómez, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    The results achieved in the implementation of the radiochronology of marine sediments for the reconstruction of databases and knowledge of the evolution of environmental pollution in four coastal ecosystems of national significance are presented in this paper Fluxes of selected heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are discussed for the Cienfuegos and Havana bays and Sagua and La Coloma estuaries. Finally, is showed the effectiveness of radiochronology of sediments as a useful tool for environmental management and knowledge of temporal processes of pollution in the aquatic environment. (author)

  6. Biogeochemical cycle of mercury species in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branica, M.

    1987-10-01

    Mercury contamination of the coastal marine environment is an important concern as highly toxic methyl-mercury may be formed biogenically in sediments rich in organic matter. The present study was conducted using a highly sensitive adaptation of Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (CVAAS) in which mercury was re-mineralised from a variety of marine matrices (water, sediments and organisms), separated and concentrated by ion-exchange chromatography, trapped as an amalgam in gold wool and subsequently re-released by heating to 900 deg. C. Total and organomercury forms were detected respectively by measuring, in the case of seawater, sample extracts treated and untreated with uv light and, in the case of solid matrices, by ''total digestion'' and 6M HCl extractions. Detection limits were 0.1 ng/1 from a 200 ml water sample and 0.2 μg/kg for a lg solid sample. Water, sediments and organisms were collected by scuba diving from the unpolluted Sibenik aquatorium (including the Krka river estuary), Yugoslavia, and the polluted Kastela Bay, which receives discharge from a chlor-alkali plant. Mercury levels were low in the Sibenik aquatorium (0.34-2.4 ng/dm 3 water, 78-1522 μg/kg sediments and 24-39 μg/kg w.w. in mussels). Organo-mercury was generally below detection limits in water and represented below 0.5% of the total Hg in sediments but 13-88% of the mercury in mussels and fish. In the Kastela Bay, up to 90 ng/dm 3 (water), 11870 μg/kg w.w. (mussels) and 48600 μg kg w.w. (oysters) of Hg was detected. Fortunately methyl-mercury was below 0.5% of this total in all matrices. Hg levels in mussels decreased to 41.3 μg/kg w.w. at 600 m from the source. Further research will now be conducted on the biogeochemical cycle of Hg in estuarine and marine environments, with special attention being paid to the fresh/saline water interface. 9 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  8. Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 1: Temporal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis was conducted using long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and particulate phase mercury (HgP at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF, marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI, and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM sites from the AIRMAP Observatories in southern New Hampshire, USA. Decreasing trends in background Hg0 were identified in the 7.5- and 5.5-yr records at TF and PM with decline rates of 3.3 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv yr−1 and 6.3 ppqv yr−1, respectively. Common characteristics at these sites were the reproducible annual cycle of Hg0 with its maximum in winter-spring and minimum in fall, comprised of a positive trend in the warm season (spring – early fall and a negative one in the cool season (late fall – winter. Year-to-year variability was observed in the warm season decline in Hg0 at TF varying from a minimum total (complete seasonal loss of 43 ppqv in 2009 to a maximum of 92 ppqv in 2005, whereas variability remained small at AI and PM. The coastal site TF differed from the other two sites with its exceptionally low levels (as low as below 50 ppqv in the nocturnal inversion layer possibly due to dissolution in dew water. Measurements of Hg0 at PM exhibited the smallest diurnal to annual variability among the three environments, where peak levels rarely exceeded 250 ppqv and the minimum was typically 100 ppqv. It should be noted that summertime diurnal patterns at TF and AI were opposite in phase indicating strong sink(s for Hg0 during the day in the marine boundary layer, which was consistent with the hypothesis of Hg0 oxidation by halogen radicals there. Mixing ratios of RGM in the coastal and marine boundary layers reached annual maxima in spring and minima in fall, whereas at PM levels were generally

  9. [Identification of marine and coastal biodiversity conservation priorities in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Juan José; Herrera, Bernal; Corrales, Lenin; Asch, Jenny; Paaby, Pía

    2011-06-01

    Costa Rica is recognized as one of the most diverse countries in species and ecosystems, in their terrestrial realm as well as in the marine. Besides this relevance, the country presents a delay on conservation and management of marine and coastal biodiversity, with respect to terrestrial. For 2006, the marine protected surface was 5,208.8 km2, with 331.5 km of coastline, in 20 protected areas. The country has made progress on the conservation priority sites identification for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity, with few efforts on marine planning. This research presents the analysis and results of the gap identification process, for marine and coastal biodiversity conservation in the protected areas system of Costa Rica. The analysis was built with the spatial information available on the presence and distribution of coastal and marine biodiversity, the establishment of the conservation goals and a threat analysis over the ecological integrity of this biodiversity. The selection of high-priority sites was carried out using spatial optimization techniques and the superposition over the current shape of marine protected areas, in order to identify representation gaps. A total of 19,076 km2 of conservation gaps were indentified, with 1,323 km2 in the Caribbean and 17,753 km2 in the Pacific. Recommendations are aimed at planning and strengthening the marine protected areas system, using the gaps identified as a framework. It is expected that the results of this study would be the scientific base needed for planning and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in the country.

  10. The Development of a Finite Volume Method for Modeling Sound in Coastal Ocean Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Wen; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-28

    : As the rapid growth of marine renewable energy and off-shore wind energy, there have been concerns that the noises generated from construction and operation of the devices may interfere marine animals’ communication. In this research, a underwater sound model is developed to simulate sound prorogation generated by marine-hydrokinetic energy (MHK) devices or offshore wind (OSW) energy platforms. Finite volume and finite difference methods are developed to solve the 3D Helmholtz equation of sound propagation in the coastal environment. For finite volume method, the grid system consists of triangular grids in horizontal plane and sigma-layers in vertical dimension. A 3D sparse matrix solver with complex coefficients is formed for solving the resulting acoustic pressure field. The Complex Shifted Laplacian Preconditioner (CSLP) method is applied to efficiently solve the matrix system iteratively with MPI parallelization using a high performance cluster. The sound model is then coupled with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for simulating sound propagation generated by human activities in a range-dependent setting, such as offshore wind energy platform constructions and tidal stream turbines. As a proof of concept, initial validation of the finite difference solver is presented for two coastal wedge problems. Validation of finite volume method will be reported separately.

  11. Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkema, Katie K; Wood, Spencer A; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Verutes, Gregory; Rosenthal, Amy; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; McField, Melanie; De Zegher, Joann

    2014-01-01

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios. (letter)

  12. Use of fish parasite species richness indices in analyzing anthropogenically impacted coastal marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, R.; Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.

    2003-10-01

    The diversity of fish parasite life history strategies makes these species sensitive bioindicators of aquatic ecosystem health. While monoxenous (single-host) species may persist in highly perturbed, extreme environments, this is not necessarily true for heteroxenous (multiple-host) species. As many parasites possess complex life cycles and are transmitted through a chain of host species, their dependency on the latter to complete their life cycles renders them sensitive to perturbed environments. In the present study, parasite communities of grey mullet Liza aurata and Liza ramada (Mugilidae) were investigated at two Mediterranean coastal sites in northern Israel: the highly polluted Kishon Harbor (KH) and the relatively unspoiled reference site, Ma'agan Michael (MM). Both are estuarine sites in which grey mullet are one of the most common fish species. The results indicate that fish at the polluted site had significantly less trematode metacercariae than fish at the reference site. Heteroxenous gut helminths were completely absent at the polluted sampling site. Consequently, KH fish displayed lower mean parasite species richness. At the same time, KH fish mean monoxenous parasite richness was higher, although the prevalence of different monoxenous taxa was variable. Copepods had an increased prevalence while monogenean prevalence was significantly reduced at the polluted site. This variability may be attributed to the differential susceptibility of the parasites to the toxicity of different pollutants, their concentration, the exposure time and possible synergistic effects. In this study, we used the cumulative species curve model that extrapolates "true" species richness of a given habitat as a function of increasing sample size. We considered the heteroxenous and monoxenous species separately for each site, and comparison of curves yielded significant results. It is proposed to employ this approach, originally developed for estimating the "true" parasite

  13. The green turtle Chelonia mydas as a marine and coastal environmental sentinels: anthropogenic activities and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Guarnier Domiciano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The green turtle Chelonia mydas is a widely distributed, slowly maturing species with a complex life cycle, using both oceanic and coastal environments. The species is exposed to different threats and is considered an environmental sentinel that indicates variation among, and the severity of hazards to marine ecosystems. This study aimed to describe both anthropogenic impacts, and infectious and parasitic diseases in C. mydas - including cases along the Brazilian coast - and implications for conservation. Bycatch is reported as the main threat to the conservation of this species, followed by debris ingestion, collisions with boats, dredging, and chronic environmental contamination. All of these impacts may directly or indirectly cause death, by facilitating contact with pathological agents and by increasing vulnerability to secondary diseases. The pathological agents associated with lesions include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Fibropapillomatosis is an example of a chronic disease characterized by cutaneous and visceral tumors that affects mostly juvenile C. mydas worldwide and is associated with the Chelonid herpesvirus 5. The bacterias Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas fluorescens are found in the aquatic environment and among C. mydas lesions in various organs. Trematode adults and eggs of the family Spirorchiidae are also frequent in systemic cardiovascular diseases of C. mydas. The direct impacts of anthropogenic activities and diseases are synergistic and may affect the specie’s health and conservation. Therefore, the monitoring and systematic diagnosing of diseases and causes of death - including necropsy, histopathology, and molecular exams - are necessary to assess a population’s health, to support appropriate decisions of coastal management and to target future research topics that optimize C. mydas conservation.

  14. The impact of nuclear waste disposals to the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report provides a critical review of current scientific literature concerning the environmental impact of discharges and dumping of radioactive waste to the coastal marine and deep ocean environments. It concludes that although knowledge of the effects of dispersed radioactivity has greatly increased in the last two decades, there are still significant areas of uncertainty which have major implications for current and future nuclear waste management policy. For example, there is now evidence of discharged plutonium formerly thought to be locked on sediments returning to man via biogeochemical cycles. Discharges of this extremely toxic element have been banned elsewhere because of this eventuality, and the report recommends elimination of plutonium discharges, and in the light of recent radiobiological evidence, a fivefold reduction in exposures to the public as a result of the other Windscale discharges. In the case of ocean dumping, the report acknowledges that there is no evidence of health effects from past disposals. However, recent monitoring shows contamination of the ocean bed due to leaking containers, and it is argued that oceanographic and radioecological data are insufficient to predict future effects, especially having regard to the steadily increasing quantities dumped. (author)

  15. Contamination of butyltin compounds in Malaysian marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ismail, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Concentration of butyltin compounds (BTs), including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) and total tin (ΣSn) were determined in green mussel (Perna viridis), 10 species of muscle fish and sediment from coastal waters of Malaysia. BTs were detected in all these samples ranging from 3.6 to 900 ng/g wet wt., 3.6 to 210 ng/g wet wt., and 18 to 1400 ng/g dry wt. for mussels, fish and sediments, respectively. The concentrations of BTs in several locations of this study were comparable with the reported values from some developed countries and highest among Asian developing nations. Considerable concentration of BTs in several locations might have ecotoxicological consequences and may cause concern to human health. The parent compound TBT was found to be highest than those of its degradation compounds, DBT and MBT, suggesting recent input of TBT to the Malaysian marine environment. Significant positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation: r 2 =0.82, P<0.0001) was found between BTs and ΣSn, implying considerable anthropogenic input of butyltin compounds to total tin contamination levels. Enormous boating activities may be a major source of BTs in this country, although aquaculture activities may not be ignored. - Lack of any regulation of TBT clearly resulted in a heavy contamination of BTs in Malaysia

  16. Contamination of butyltin compounds in Malaysian marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ismail, Ahmad

    2004-08-01

    Concentration of butyltin compounds (BTs), including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) and total tin ({sigma}Sn) were determined in green mussel (Perna viridis), 10 species of muscle fish and sediment from coastal waters of Malaysia. BTs were detected in all these samples ranging from 3.6 to 900 ng/g wet wt., 3.6 to 210 ng/g wet wt., and 18 to 1400 ng/g dry wt. for mussels, fish and sediments, respectively. The concentrations of BTs in several locations of this study were comparable with the reported values from some developed countries and highest among Asian developing nations. Considerable concentration of BTs in several locations might have ecotoxicological consequences and may cause concern to human health. The parent compound TBT was found to be highest than those of its degradation compounds, DBT and MBT, suggesting recent input of TBT to the Malaysian marine environment. Significant positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation: r{sup 2}=0.82, P<0.0001) was found between BTs and {sigma}Sn, implying considerable anthropogenic input of butyltin compounds to total tin contamination levels. Enormous boating activities may be a major source of BTs in this country, although aquaculture activities may not be ignored. - Lack of any regulation of TBT clearly resulted in a heavy contamination of BTs in Malaysia.

  17. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted......, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib...

  18. The Marine Realms Information Bank family of digital libraries: access to free online information for coastal and marine science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

    2007-01-01

    Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

  19. Role of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling in coastal marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipsewers, Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    SummaryThe role of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms has been considered to be of minor importancein coastal marine sediments although it has not been investigated in depth. Additionally,the impact of seasonal hypoxic/anoxic conditions on microbial chemolithoautotrophy in coastalmarine sediments

  20. Colwellia agarivorans sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, yellowish and agar-digesting marine bacterium, designated strain QM50**T, was isolated from coastal seawater in an aquaculture site near Qingdao, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the novel isolate represented...

  1. Sponge species composition, abundance, and cover in marine lakes and coastal mangroves in Berau, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Cleary, D.F.R.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the species composition, abundance, and cover of sponges in 2 marine lakes (Kakaban Lake and Haji Buang Lake) and adjacent coastal mangroves on the islands of Kakaban and Maratua in the Berau region of Indonesia. We recorded a total of 115 sponge species, 33 of which were restricted to

  2. Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatley, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities. The threats to coastal biodiversity are numerous and include air and water pollution; over exploitation and harvesting; the introduction of exotic species; the dramatic loss of habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other land use changes; and the potentially serious effects of global climate change. These threats suggest the need for swift action at a number of jurisdictional and governmental levels. Major components of such an effort are identified and described. These include the need for comprehensive management approaches, the expansion of parks and protected areas, restoration and mitigation, multinational and international initiatives, and efforts to promote sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles. Suggestions for future research are also provided

  3. Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences Lab., Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Arsenic has a complex marine biogeochemistry that has important implications for its toxicity to marine organisms and their consumers. The average concentration of total arsenic in the ocean is about 1.7 {micro}g/L, about two orders of magnitude higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency`s human health criterion value of 0.0175 {micro}g/L. The dominant form of arsenic in oxygenated marine and brackish waters in arsenate (As V). The more toxic and potentially carcinogenic arsenite (As III) rarely accounts for more than 20% of total arsenic in seawater. Uncontaminated marine sediments contain from 5 to about 40 {micro}g/g dry weight total arsenic. Arsenate dominates in oxidized sediments and is associated primarily with iron oxyhydroxides. In reducing marine sediments, arsenate is reduced to arsenite and is associated primarily with sulfide minerals. Marine algae accumulate arsenate from seawater, reduce it to arsenite, and then oxidize the arsenite to a large number of organoarsenic compounds. The algae release arsenite, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid to seawater. Dissolved arsenite and arsenate are more toxic to marine phytoplankton than to marine invertebrates and fish. This may be due to the fact that marine animals have a limited ability to bioconcentrate inorganic arsenic from seawater but can bioaccumulate organoarsenic compounds from their food. Tissues of marine invertebrates and fish contain high concentrations of arsenic, usually in the range of about 1 to 100 {micro}g/g dry weight, most of it in the form of organoarsenic compounds, particularly arsenobetaine. Organoarsenic compounds are bioaccumulated by human consumers of seafood products, but the arsenic is excreted rapidly, mostly as organoarsenic compounds. Arsenobetaine, the most abundant organoarsenic compound in seafoods, is not toxic or carcinogenic to mammals. Little of the organoarsenic accumulated by humans from seafood is converted to toxic inorganic arsenite.

  4. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  5. Ambient radioactivity monitoring V: Marine environment, fish and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, C.; Kanisch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The sea, originally thought to have an almost unlimited capacity of uptake of pollutants due to its water volumes available for dilution, was shown by growing insight into the physical, chemical and ecologic interdependencies to be a sensitive ecosystem. Its limits to cope with growing pollution are increasingly becoming clear, and this is a particular reason to perform radioactivity monitoring of the sea water, as radioactivity is transferred to the marine organisms. Organisms selected for monitoring are fish and crustaceans. (orig.) [de

  6. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine pollution monitoring and coastal processes off Andhra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    plants are some of them. ESSAR group is going to invest Rs.1000 crores to set up industries in this belt. In view of the above, regular monitoring of pollution concentration in the harbour and coastal waters is being done by NIO, RC, Visakhapatnam under...

  8. Radioactive waste in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The introduction of radionuclides into near-shore marine areas is considered in relation to Federal Regulations and to the hazards posed to man and to marine organisms living near the site of introduction of the contaminants. The use of the critical pathway concept, for evaluating hazards to man from radionuclides in his food, is discussed and the specific activity concept is applied to demonstrate the degree of hazard to man which could result from normal reactor operation using sea water for the coolant. The relative hazards to marine organisms from naturally occurring and reactor-produced radionuclides are also evaluated. (U.S.)

  9. A multi-sensor oceanographic measurement system for coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna A.; Strahle, William J.

    1993-01-01

    An instrument system has been developed for long-term sediment transport studies that uses a modular design to combine off the shelf components into a complete and flexible package. A common data storage format is used in each instrument system so that the same hardware can be assembled in different ways to address specific scientific studies with minimal engineering support and modification. Three systems have been constructed and successfully deployed to date in two different coastal environments.

  10. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  11. Marine Corps Private Cloud Computing Environment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    leveraging economies of scale through the MCEITS PCCE, the Marine Corps will measure consumed IT resources more effectively, increase or decrease...flexible broad network access, resource pooling, elastic provisioning and measured services. By leveraging economies of scale the Marine Corps will be able...IaaS SaaS / IaaS 1 1 LCE I ACE Dets I I I I ------------------~ GIG / CJ Internet Security Boundary MCEN I DISN r :------------------ MCEN

  12. Tracing biogeochemical subsidies from glacier runoff into Alaska's coastal marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Hobson, Keith A.; Webber, D'Arcy N.; Piatt, John F.; Hood, Eran W.; Fellman, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of the freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska originates from landscapes draining glacier runoff, but the influence of the influx of riverine organic matter on the trophodynamics of coastal marine food webs is not well understood. We quantified the ecological impact of riverine organic matter subsidies to glacier-marine habitats by developing a multi-trophic level Bayesian three-isotope mixing model. We utilized large gradients in stable (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H) and radiogenic (Δ14C) isotopes that trace riverine and marine organic matter sources as they are passed from lower to higher trophic levels in glacial-marine habitats. We also compared isotope ratios between glacial-marine and more oceanic habitats. Based on isotopic measurements of potential baseline sources, ambient water and tissues of marine consumers, estimates of the riverine organic matter source contribution to upper trophic-level species including fish and seabirds ranged from 12% to 44%. Variability in resource use among similar taxa corresponded to variation in species distribution and life histories. For example, riverine organic matter assimilation by the glacier-nesting seabirds Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) was greater than that of the forest-nesting marbled murrelet (B. marmoratus). The particulate and dissolved organic carbon in glacial runoff and near surface coastal waters was aged (12100–1500 years BP 14C-age) but dissolved inorganic carbon and biota in coastal waters were young (530 years BP 14C-age to modern). Thus terrestrial-derived subsidies in marine food webs were primarily composed of young organic matter sources released from glacier ecosystems and their surrounding watersheds. Stable isotope compositions also revealed a divergence in food web structure between glacial-marine and oceanic sites. This work demonstrates linkages between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and facilitates a greater understanding of how climate-driven changes

  13. Tracking the Fate of Explosive-Trinitrotriazine (RDX) in Coastal Marine Ecosystems Using Stable Isotopic Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarathna, T. S.; Ballentine, M.; Vlahos, P.; Smith, R. W.; Bohlke, J. K.; Tobias, C. R.; Fallis, S.; Groshens, T.; Cooper, C.

    2017-12-01

    It has been estimated that there are hundreds of explosive-contaminated sites all over the world and managing these contaminated sites is an international challenge. As coastal zones and estuaries are commonly impacted zones, it is vital to understand the fate and transport of munition compounds in these environments. The demand for data on sorption, biodegradation and mineralization of trinitrotriazine (RDX) in coastal ecosystems is the impetus for this study using stable nitrogen isotopes to track its metabolic pathways. Mesocosm experiments representing subtidal vegetated, subtidal unvegetated and intertidal marsh ecocosms were conducted. Steady state concentrations of RDX were maintained in the systems throughout two-week time duration of experiments. Sediment, pore-water and overlying water samples were analyzed for RDX and degradation products. Isotope analysis of the bulk sediments revealed an initial rising inventory of 15N followed by a decay illustrating the role of sediments on sorption and degradation of RDX in anaerobic sediments respectively. Both pore-water and overlying water samples were analyzed for 15N inventories of different inorganic nitrogen pools including ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide and nitrogen gases. RDX is mineralized to nitrogen gas through a series of intermediates leaving nitrous oxide as the prominent metabolite of RDX. Significant differences in RDX metabolism were observed in the three different ecosystems based on sediment characteristics and redox conditions in the systems. Fine grained organic carbon rich sediments show notably higher mineralization rates of RDX in terms of production of its metabolites. Quantification of degradation and transformation rates leads to mass balances of RDX in the systems. Further analysis of results provides insights for mineralization pathways of RDX into both organic and inorganic nitrogen pools entering the marine nitrogen cycle.

  14. Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnbladh, Erik; Jönsson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

    2006-12-01

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phytobenthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem.

  15. Marine Ecosystem Modeling Beyond the Box: Using GIS to Study Carbon Fluxes in a Coastal Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnbladh, Erik; Joensson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phyto benthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem

  16. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and Multispectral Scanner (MSS Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Charles Kerfoot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR, coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS, has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques.

  17. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.P.; Raghu, K.; Sherkhane, P.D.; Murthy, N.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14 C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14 C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14 C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14 C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14 C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14 C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14 C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14 C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  18. Structural Acoustic UXO Detection and Identification in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    a thick steel wall, is cylindrical, and has an aspect ratio of about 5:1. Further, the interior water can support acoustic waves as does the epoxy...FINAL REPORT Structural Acoustic UXO Detection and Identification in Marine Environments SERDP Project MR-2103 MAY 2016 B. H...NUMBER Structural Acoustic UXO Detection and Identification in Marine Environments- Final report for Follow-on Work- MR-2103 Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc

  19. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  20. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  1. Secondary production in shallow marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recommendations are discussed with regard to population ecology, microbial food webs, marine ecosystems, improved instrumentation, and effects of land and sea on shallow marine systems. The control of secondary production is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; research needs for studies on dominant secondary producers, food webs that lead to commercial species, and significant features of the trophic structure of shallow water marine communities. Secondary production at the land-water interface is discussed with regard to present status of knowledge; importance of macrophytes to secondary production; export to secondary consumers; utilization of macrophyte primary production; and correlations between secondary production and river discharge. The role of microorganisms in secondary production is also discussed

  2. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  3. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL, formerly the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR)) was founded in the premises of the Musee oceanographique de Monaco. In 1961, at the time the IAEA laboratory was founded, there was indeed very little information on what happens when radionuclides enter the sea and whether their concentration (if any) through the marine food chain would represent a risk to man or to the integrity of the marine environment itself. The awakening of international concern for the marine environment was not restricted to radioactive substances. During the 1960s public attention was turned to the threats of oil spills, bioaccumulation of pesticides in marine and terrestrial birds and poisoning by heavy metals in industrial effluents. The growing concern regarding the deleterious environmental impact of some forms of development and the lack of a co-ordinated international response led to the United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm in June 1972. This international activity, which gave the IAEA-MEL new partners, was important because it would have been virtually impossible to disconnect the study of marine radioactivity from that of other contaminants associated with economic development. Moreover, nuclear techniques (such as neutron activation analysis) had already proven to be invaluable for the study of non-radioactive contaminants and natural and man-made radionuclides were yielding quantitative information on oceanic and sea floor processes which could not be obtained by other means

  4. Determination of distribution coefficient (Kd's) of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclide in fresh and marine coastal water sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S; Haleem, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Distribution coefficients of artificial and natural radionuclides in fresh and marine water sediment are used in modeling radionuclide dispersion in water system, and the radiation risk and environmental investigating of impact of radioactive emissions, due to routine operations of nuclear plants or disposal and burial of radioactive waste in the environment. In the present work, distribution coefficient of uranium, lead, polonium, radium (naturally occurring radionuclides that may be emitted into the Syrian environment by the phosphate and oil industry with relatively high concentrations) and caesium 137 and strontium 85, in fresh water sediment (Euphrates River, Orantos River and Mzzerib Lake) and marine coastal water (Lattakia, Tartous and Banias). Distribution coefficients were found to vary between (5.8-17.18)*10 3 , (2.2-8.11)*10 3 , (0.22-2.08)*10 3 , (0.16-0.19)*10 3 , (0.38-0.69)*10 3 and 49-312 for polonium, lead, uranium, radium, cesium and strontium respectively. Results have indicated that most measurement distribution coefficients in the present study were lower than those values reported in IAEA documents for marine coastal sediment. In addition, variations of Kd's with aqueous phase composition and sediment elemental and mineralogical composition and its total organic materials content have been studied, where liner correlation coefficients for each isotope with different parameters have been determined. The obtained data reported in this study can be used for radioactive contaminants dispersion and transfer in Syrian river, lake and coast to assess risks to public due to discharges of the phosphate and oil industry into the Syrian environment. (Authors)

  5. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  6. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  7. Widespread detection of a brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane, in expanded polystyrene marine debris and microplastics from South Korea and the Asia-Pacific coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The role of marine plastic debris and microplastics as a carrier of hazardous chemicals in the marine environment is an emerging issue. This study investigated expanded polystyrene (EPS, commonly known as styrofoam) debris, which is a common marine debris item worldwide, and its additive chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). To obtain a better understanding of chemical dispersion via EPS pollution in the marine environment, intensive monitoring of HBCD levels in EPS debris and microplastics was conducted in South Korea, where EPS is the predominant marine debris originate mainly from fishing and aquaculture buoys. At the same time, EPS debris were collected from 12 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and HBCD concentrations were measured. HBCD was detected extensively in EPS buoy debris and EPS microplastics stranded along the Korean coasts, which might be related to the detection of a quantity of HBCD in non-flame-retardant EPS bead (raw material). The wide detection of the flame retardant in sea-floating buoys, and the recycling of high-HBCD-containing EPS waste inside large buoys highlight the need for proper guidelines for the production and use of EPS raw materials, and the recycling of EPS waste. HBCD was also abundantly detected in EPS debris collected from the Asia-Pacific coastal region, indicating that HBCD contamination via EPS debris is a common environmental issue worldwide. Suspected tsunami debris from Alaskan beaches indicated that EPS debris has the potential for long-range transport in the ocean, accompanying the movement of hazardous chemicals. The results of this study indicate that EPS debris can be a source of HBCD in marine environments and marine food web. - Highlights: • A brominated flame retardant, HBCD, was assessed in EPS debris and microplastics. • HBCD was widely detected in EPS debris from the Asia-Pacific coastal region. • Additive HBCD are dispersed via EPS pollution in marine environments. • EPS debris can be a

  8. The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Roman

    Full Text Available It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.

  9. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Several freshwater and terrestrial invertebrate species emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The N2O production associated with these animals was ascribed to incomplete denitrification by ingested sediment or soil bacteria. The present study shows that many marine invertebrates also emit N2......O at substantial rates. A total of 19 invertebrate species collected in the German Wadden Sea and in Aarhus Bay, Denmark, and 1 aquacultured shrimp species were tested for N2O emission. Potential N2O emission rates ranged from 0 to 1.354 nmol ind.–1 h–1, with an average rate of 0.320 nmol ind.–1 h–1...... with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine...

  10. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rech

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus. The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a

  11. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J.; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  12. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Sabine; Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  13. Event driven software package for the database of Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) (Developed in 'C')

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, RC, Visakhapatnam, India) had taken up the Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) project funded by Department of Ocean Development (DOD), New Delhi, India. The main objective of this project...

  14. From nitrogen enrichment to oxygen depletion: a mechanistic model of coastal marine ecosystems response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Nitrogen (N) emissions from anthropogenic sources may enrich coastal waters and lead to marine eutrophication impacts. Processes describing N-limited primary production (PP), zooplankton grazing, and bacterial respiration of sinking organic carbon, were modelled to quantify the potential dissolved...... oxygen (DO) consumption as a function of N input. Such indicator is the basis for an eXposure Factor (XF) applied in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) to estimate impacts from N enrichment. The Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) biogeographical classification system was adopted to address the spatial...

  15. Dynamic habitat corridors for marine predators; intensive use of a coastal channel by harbour seals is modulated by tidal currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Gordon D; Russell, Deborah J F; Benjamins, Steven; Moss, Simon; Wilson, Ben; Thompson, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that predators utilise habitat corridors to ambush prey moving through them. In the marine environment, coastal channels effectively act as habitat corridors for prey movements, and sightings of predators in such areas suggest that they may target these for foraging. Unlike terrestrial systems where the underlying habitat structure is generally static, corridors in marine systems are in episodic flux due to water movements created by tidal processes. Although these hydrographic features can be highly complex, there is generally a predictable underlying cyclic tidal pattern to their structure. For marine predators that must find prey that is often patchy and widely distributed, the underlying temporal predictability in potential foraging opportunities in marine corridors may be important drivers in their use. Here, we used data from land-based sightings and 19 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina ) tagged with high-resolution GPS telemetry to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of seals in a narrow tidal channel. These seals showed a striking pattern in their distribution; all seals spent a high proportion of their time around the narrowest point of the channel. There was also a distinctive tidal pattern in the use of the channel; sightings of seals in the water peaked during the flood tide and were at a minimum during the ebb tide. This pattern is likely to be related to prey availability and/or foraging efficiency driven by the underlying tidal pattern in the water movements through the channel. To maximise foraging efficiency, predators often make use of narrow constrictions in habitat to intercept prey using these corridors for movement. In the marine environment, narrow channels may act as corridors, and sightings of predators suggest that they may target these for foraging. Despite this, there is little information on how individual predators use such areas. Here, we investigate how individual harbour seals use a

  16. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3 forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  17. Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-12-28

    Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.

  18. External dose rates in coastal urban environments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    A long term activity aiming on assessing the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation is being developed at IRD/CNEN. Several research groups within IRD work in this activity, although mostly as a parallel work associated to main research lines followed by researches of the institution. One main activity is related to the raise of external gamma dose rates throughout the country. The objective of this work is to present results from recent surveys performed as part of the emergency preparedness for radiological emergencies during major public events in Brazil, such as the the World Youth Day, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2013, and the Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup soccer games, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In this work, only the recent (2014) coastal urban environments measurements were included. Average kerma rates for Fortaleza is 80 ± 23 nGy/h, for Vitoria is 96 ± 33 nGy/h and for Angra dos Reis is 147 ± 16 nGy/h. These results are then compared to previous results on other coastal urban towns (Rio de Janeiro, Niterói and Salvador), and with the high background coastal area of Guarapari town. (authors)

  19. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    modification of Streeter–Phelps (SP) model to calculate longitudinal profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration for two major river-impacted coastal hypoxic areas of the United States, i.e. the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) along the Louisiana–Texas coasts...-resolution, depth-integrated, two- dimensional (2D) model and a large water quality database (1994–2010) to quantify the estuarine-shelf exchanges of carbon and nutrients in the Barataria Estuary of the Mississippi–Gulf of Mexico System, and to test the outwelling...

  20. Heavy metals in marine coastal sediments: assessing sources, fluxes, history and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Examples are presented from the Adriatic Sea, the Ligurian Sea and the Venice Lagoon to illustrate different approaches to the study of anthropogenic metals in marine coastal sediments. These examples refer to studies of areal distribution and transport mechanisms, individuation of the sources, sediment dating, chronology of the fluxes, present and past trends. In particular, some of the findings achieved in studying the Venice Lagoon are discussed from the point of view of anthropogenic changes both in sediment composition and contaminant fluxes.

  1. Durability of composites in a marine environment

    CERN Document Server

    Rajapakse, Yapa

    2014-01-01

    Composites are widely used in marine applications. There is considerable experience of glass reinforced resins in boats and ships but these are usually not highly loaded. However, for new areas such as offshore and ocean energy there is a need for highly loaded structures to survive harsh conditions for 20 years or more. High performance composites are therefore being proposed. This book provides an overview of the state of the art in predicting the long term durability of composite marine structures. The following points are covered: •       Modelling water diffusion •       Damage induced by water •       Accelerated testing •       Including durability in design •       In-service experience. This is essential reading for all those involved with composites in the marine industry, from initial design and calculation through to manufacture and service exploitation. It also provides information unavailable elsewhere on the mechanisms involved in degradation and how to t...

  2. Marine metagenomics: strategies for the discovery of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications from marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobson Alan DW

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metagenomic based strategies have previously been successfully employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the unculturable component of microbial communities from various terrestrial environmental niches. Both sequence based and function based screening approaches have been employed to identify genes encoding novel biocatalytic activities and metabolic pathways from metagenomic libraries. While much of the focus to date has centred on terrestrial based microbial ecosystems, it is clear that the marine environment has enormous microbial biodiversity that remains largely unstudied. Marine microbes are both extremely abundant and diverse; the environments they occupy likewise consist of very diverse niches. As culture-dependent methods have thus far resulted in the isolation of only a tiny percentage of the marine microbiota the application of metagenomic strategies holds great potential to study and exploit the enormous microbial biodiversity which is present within these marine environments.

  3. The Use of Stimulable Bioluminescence from Marine Dinoflagellates as a Means of Detecting Toxicity in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    FROM MARINE PR: ME65 DINOFLAGELLATES AS A MEANS OF DETECTING TOXICITY IN THE PE: 060372N MARINE ENVIRONMENT WU: DN288604 6ý AUTHOR(S) Accesion For I...measure the acute and sublethal effects of heavy metals ( tributyltin , copper, and zinc) and storm drain effluent on the light output from marine...Grovhoug 3 THE USE OF STIM1ULABLE BIOLUMINESCENCE FROM MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES AS A MEANS OF DETECTING TOXICITY IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. REFERENCE

  4. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  5. Mapping coastal marine debris using aerial imagery and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Kirsten; Neilson, Brian; Chung, Anne; Meadows, Amber; Castrence, Miguel; Ambagis, Stephen; Davidson, Kristine

    2017-12-19

    This study is the first to systematically quantify, categorize, and map marine macro-debris across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including remote areas (e.g., Niihau, Kahoolawe, and northern Molokai). Aerial surveys were conducted over each island to collect high resolution photos, which were processed into orthorectified imagery and visually analyzed in GIS. The technique provided precise measurements of the quantity, location, type, and size of macro-debris (>0.05m 2 ), identifying 20,658 total debris items. Northeastern (windward) shorelines had the highest density of debris. Plastics, including nets, lines, buoys, floats, and foam, comprised 83% of the total count. In addition, the study located six vessels from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami. These results created a baseline of the location, distribution, and composition of marine macro-debris across the MHI. Resource managers and communities may target high priority areas, particularly along remote coastlines where macro-debris counts were largely undocumented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J.

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment and coastal groundwater from reclamation areas in Shenzhen were examined. The gradually decreased concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in sediment and relatively higher concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd) in groundwater within reclamation areas were observed. The increase of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Cd concentrations in groundwater within reclamation areas subsequently after land reclamation should be resulted from the mobilization of these metals accumulated in the sediment. These metals appear to be easily mobilized from solid phase to solution phase after reclamation. The physico-chemical changes such as reduction in pH and salinity in water environment induced by land reclamation appear to be responsible for metal mobility in the sediment-groundwater system. - Metals in coastal groundwater and marine sediment are affected by land reclamation

  7. Concentration factors for Cs-137 in marine algae from Japanese coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Koyanagi, Taku.

    1994-01-01

    Concentration factors (CF: Bq·kg -1 in wet algae/Bq·kg -1 in filtered seawater) for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae, were investigated during 1984-1990. Cs-137/Cs (stable) atom ratios were also examined to clarify the distribution equilibrium of Cs-137 in marine algae and sea water. The CFs in marine algae were within the range of 5.4-92, and the geometric mean of CF was 28±2 (standard error) in Japanese coastal species. The CFs in edible species were within the range of 5.4-67, and the geometric means of CF was 26±4 (standard error). The values of Cs-137/Cs atom ratios in marine algae and sea water indicated that Cs-137 reached an equilibrium state in partition between algae and sea water. Therefore, the CF value obtained in the present study can be regarded as an equilibrated value. Our results showed that hte CF for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae were consistent with the Japanese guideline CFs, but were smaller than the recommended value by IAEA. (author)

  8. Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Fauziah, S H

    2017-05-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine environment news Vol. 4, no. 2, December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This issue covers the the Director's summary on Marine Environment Laboratories' (MEL) activities that featured prominently in the Agency's General Conference. Other major articles include Workshop on measurements of short-lived radium isotopes, Study of submarine groundwater discharges near Monaco, and TC Project GUA/7/002: Strengthening the National Environmental Monitoring System in the Marine Ecosystem: Training course in Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala, and Nutrient analyses and quality assurance/quality control: training course in the Philippines.

  10. Marine environment news Vol. 4, no. 2, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This issue covers the the Director's summary on Marine Environment Laboratories' (MEL) activities that featured prominently in the Agency's General Conference. Other major articles include Workshop on measurements of short-lived radium isotopes, Study of submarine groundwater discharges near Monaco, and TC Project GUA/7/002: Strengthening the National Environmental Monitoring System in the Marine Ecosystem: Training course in Puerto Quetzal, Guatemala, and Nutrient analyses and quality assurance/quality control: training course in the Philippines

  11. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Pavitran; C.B. Jagtap; S. Bala Subramanian; Susan Titus; Pradeep Kumar; P.C. Deb

    2006-01-01

    Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-...

  12. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiu; Huang, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaotian; Wu, Pengcheng; Guo, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    Experimental work was carried out to develop information about mechanical properties of recycled concrete (RC) in marine environment. By using the seawater and dry-wet circulation to simulate the marine environment, specimens of RC were tested with different replacement percentages of 0%, 30%, and 60% after immersing in seawater for 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, respectively. Based on the analysis of the stress-strain curves (SSCs) and compressive strength, it is revealed that RC' peak value and elastic modulus decreased with the increase of replacement percentage and corroding time in marine environment. And the failure of recycled concrete was speeded up with more obvious cracks and larger angles of 65° to 85° in the surface when compared with normal concrete. Finally, the grey model (GM) with equal time intervals was constructed to investigate the law of compressive strength of recycled concrete in marine environment, and it is found that the GM is accurate and feasible for the prediction of RC compressive strength in marine environment.

  13. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stern, R. F.; Horák, Aleš; Andrew, R. L.; Coffroth, M. A.; Andersen, R. A.; Kupper, F. C.; Jameson, I.; Hoppenrath, M.; Véron, B.; Kasai, F.; Brand, J.; James, E. R.; Keeling, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2010), e13991 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Keywords : RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENE * FREE-LIVING STRAIN * SP-NOV DINOPHYCEAE * TOXIC DINOFLAGELLATE * MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY * COASTAL WATERS * NATURAL-ENVIRONMENT * RDNA SEQUENCES * SYMBIODINIUM Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2010

  14. Marine Oil-Degrading Microorganisms and Biodegradation Process of Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Marine Environments: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianliang; Yu, Yang; Bai, Yu; Wang, Liping; Wu, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Due to the toxicity of petroleum compounds, the increasing accidents of marine oil spills/leakages have had a significant impact on our environment. Recently, different remedial techniques for the treatment of marine petroleum pollution have been proposed, such as bioremediation, controlled burning, skimming, and solidifying. (Hedlund and Staley in Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:61-66, 2001). This review introduces an important remedial method for marine oil pollution treatment-bioremediation technique-which is considered as a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly method. First, the necessity of bioremediation for marine oil pollution was discussed. Second, this paper discussed the species of oil-degrading microorganisms, degradation pathways and mechanisms, the degradation rate and reaction model, and the factors affecting the degradation. Last, several suggestions for the further research in the field of marine oil spill bioremediation were proposed.

  15. Marine and coastal ecosystem services on the science–policy–practice nexus: challenges and opportunities from 11 European case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drakou, E.G.; Kermagoret, C.; Liquete, C.; Ruiz-Frau, A.; Burkhard, K.; Lillebø, A.I.; van Oudenhoven, A.P.E.; Ballé-Béganton, J.; Rodrigues, J.G.; Nieminen, E.; Oinonen, S.; Ziemba, A.; Gissi, E.; Depellegrin, D.; Veidemane, K.; Ruskule, A.; Delangue, J.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Boon, A.; Wenning, R.; Martino, S.; Hasler, B.; Termansen, M.; Rockel, M.; Hummel, H.; El Serafy, G.; Peev, P.

    2017-01-01

    We compared and contrasted 11 European case studies to identify challenges and opportunitiestoward the operationalization of marine and coastal ecosystem service (MCES) assessments inEurope. This work is the output of a panel convened by the Marine Working Group of theEcosystemServices Partnership

  16. A review of the influence of biogeography, riverine linkages, and marine connectivity on fish assemblages in evolving lagoons and lakes of coastal southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K; Weerts, Steven P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-09-01

    The Holocene evolution of eight South African coastal lakes and lagoons is examined and related to changes in fish composition over that period. Historical and current connectivity with riverine and marine environments are the primary determinants of present-day fish assemblages in these systems. A small and remarkably consistent group of relict estuarine species have persisted in these coastal lakes and lagoons. The loss or reduction of connectivity with the sea has impacted on the diversity of marine fishes in all eight study systems, with no marine fishes occurring in those water bodies where connectivity has been completely broken (e.g. Sibaya, Groenvlei). In systems that have retained tenuous linkages with the sea (e.g., Verlorenvlei, Wilderness lakes), elements of the marine fish assemblage have persisted, especially the presence of facultative catadromous species. Freshwater fish diversity in coastal lakes and lagoons is a function of historical and present biogeography and salinity. From a freshwater biogeography perspective, the inflowing rivers of the four temperate systems reviewed here contain three or fewer native freshwater fishes, while the subtropical lakes that are fed by river systems contain up to 40 freshwater fish species. Thus, the significantly higher fish species diversity in subtropical versus temperate coastal lakes and lagoons comes as no surprise. Fish species diversity has been increased further in some systems (e.g., Groenvlei) by alien fish introductions. However, the impacts of fish introductions and translocations have not been studied in the coastal lakes and lagoons of South Africa. In these closed systems, it is probable that predation impacts on small estuarine fishes are significant. The recent alien fish introductions is an example of the growing threats to these systems during the Anthropocene, a period when human activities have had significant negative impacts and show potential to match the changes recorded during the

  17. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  19. ANALYSIS OF SEA WATER POLLUTION IN COASTAL MARINE DISTRICT TUBAN TO THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF SEA WATER WITH USING STORET METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana Ixbal Spanton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea water is a component that interacts with the terrestrial environment, where sewage from the land will lead to the sea. Waste containing these pollutants will enter into coastal waters and marine ecosystems. Partially soluble in water, partially sinks to the bottom and was concentrated sediment, and partly into the body tissues of marine organisms. This study was conducted to determine the level of pollution of sea water on the coast in the district of Tuban. This research was conducted in the Coastal Water Tuban, East Java. The main material used in research on Analysis of Water Pollution in Coastal Sea on Tuban. The method used in this research is using storet method and compared to the quality standards of the Environment Decree No. 51 in 2004. Based on the analysis of testing at five sampling point’s seawater around Bodies Tuban, obtained by sea water quality measurement results either in physics, chemistry, and microbiology varied. The level of pollution of sea water around Coastal Tuban obtained by using Storet Method average value of analysis is -4.2 included in class B are lightly blackened, while using values obtained Pollution Index average pollution index of 3.60 is included in the category lightly blackened. Keywords: Analysis of the pollution level of seawater on the coast in Tuban, Quality Standards of Sea Water, Storet Method.

  20. The potential for a fish ladder to mitigate against the loss of marine-estuarine-freshwater connectivity in a subtropical coastal lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Weerts, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water demand in coastal regions has resulted in the construction of weirs and barrages in coastal freshwaters. These form barriers to migrations of estuarine and euryhaline marine fishes and crustaceans. This study assessed the impact...

  1. The hazardous priority substances in Italy: National rules and environmental quality standard in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, Chiara; Onorati, Fulvio; Lamberti, Claudia Virno; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Article number 16 of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) lays down the community strategy for establishment of harmonised quality standards for the priority substances and other substances posing a significant risk to the aquatic environment. In order to achieve the protection objectives of the Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of the Environment proposed the quality standards for surface water, sediments and biota related to the priority substances listed in the decision No. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 20 (2001) [Decision N. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. The list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, p. 5]. Particularly, for the protection of the marine environment, the proposed Italian rules state that, from 1 January 2021, the concentrations of the hazardous priority substances in Italian marine and lagoon waters must be near the natural background for natural substances, like metals, and near zero for the anthropogenic one. According to Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of Environment issued in 2003 Decree 367 in which has derived 160 Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water and 27 Environmental Quality Objective (EQO) for sediment of marine coastal area, lagoons and coastal ponds. Biota quality standards have still to be fixed. The paper illustrates the criteria applied for the definition of the quality standards and some comments are presented

  2. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  3. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Technetium-99 in the Irish marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Ryan, T.P

    2001-07-01

    Technetium-99 activity concentrations in seawater and biota from Irish coastal waters are presented. Time series measurements of {sup 99}Tc in seawater and Fucus vesiculosus from the western Irish Sea show that activity concentrations have increased in line with the increase in discharges of {sup 99}Tc from Sellafield. The peak in activity concentrations in both seawater and Fucus vesiculosus occurred in 1997 approximately two years after the peak in {sup 99}Tc discharges. The highest activity concentration recorded in Fucus vesiculosus showed a 29-fold increase over the mean concentration for the period 1988-1993. Technetium-99 activity concentrations were measured in fish, lobsters, prawns, mussels and oysters landed at major fishing ports on the east and northeast coasts of Ireland between 1996 and 1998. Concentration factors for {sup 99}Tc in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and certain species of fish, crustaceans and molluscs from the Irish Sea were estimated. In general, these concentration factors were higher than those in the literature which were derived from laboratory studies, but agreed well with values which were based on field studies. The mean committed effective doses to Irish typical and heavy seafood consumers due to {sup 99}Tc in the period 1996-1998 were 0.061 and 0.24 {mu}Sv, respectively.

  5. Underwater noise pollution in a coastal tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, L; Carvalho, R R; Lailson-Brito, J; Azevedo, A F

    2014-06-15

    Underwater noise pollution has become a major concern in marine habitats. Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, is an impacted area of economic importance with constant vessel traffic. One hundred acoustic recording sessions took place over ten locations. Sound sources operating within 1 km radius of each location were quantified during recordings. The highest mean sound pressure level near the surface was 111.56±9.0 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency band of 187 Hz. Above 15 kHz, the highest mean sound pressure level was 76.21±8.3 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency 15.89 kHz. Noise levels correlated with number of operating vessels and vessel traffic composition influenced noise profiles. Shipping locations had the highest noise levels, while small vessels locations had the lowest noise levels. Guanabara Bay showed noise pollution similar to that of other impacted coastal regions, which is related to shipping and vessel traffic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  7. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  8. Polonium-210 and Lead-210 in marine biota from a coastal region with high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrul Kabir, M.; Deeba, Farah; Hossain, Sushmita; Fharim, Massoud; Md Moniruzzaman; Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, M.; Silva, L.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal sediments and marine fish from a region with high natural radioactivity in Cox Bazar Bangladesh, were analyzed in order to investigate the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Sediment from the sea shore in high ambient radiation dose rate areas contained naturally occurring radionuclides at high concentrations. These sediments displayed 226 Ra, 232 Th and 235 U activity concentrations of 2184 ± 88 Bq kg -1 dry weight (d.w.), 3808 ± 200 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) and 123 ± 15 Bq kg -1 (d.w.), respectively. In contrast with these high values, radionuclide concentrations in sand from other areas of the Cox's Bazar coast were as low as 42 ± 3, 70 ± 4 and < 8 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) for the same radionuclides, respectively, which are comparable to concentrations determined in many coastal areas elsewhere. The presence of sand deposits with high concentration of uranium series radionuclides could potentially originate high accumulation of alpha emitting radionuclides such as 210 Po in marine biota, and food chain transfer to man. 210 Po is a major contributor to the radiation dose both in marine organisms and sea food consumers. Determination of 210 Po in marine fish and shrimp from the area lead to concentration values ranging from 4.5±0.3 to 124±3 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in fish and 82.9±1.6 Bq kg -1 (d.w.) in shrimp. Similar concentrations are commonly reported in marine biota from several regions. Therefore, in spite of the deposits of heavy mineral sands containing high concentrations of radionuclides such as 210 Pb and 210 Po no significant raise in the accumulation of these radionuclides in biota seems to occur, which suggests that radionuclides are tightly bound in sediment grains and are not significantly bioavailable. (author)

  9. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) (NODC Accession 0014154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1980)....

  10. Tsunami induced transportation of the coastal marine sediments to distant onshore regions: Some indications from foraminiferal and microbenthic studies of new Wandoor region (Andaman & Nicobar)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    regions near New Wandoor (Andaman and Nicobar) suggested the areal extent of marine transgression due to tsunami waves on December 26, 2004. There is a need to investigate coastal marine sediments with multi-disciplinary approach to understnd impact...

  11. Marine and coastal environmental education in the context of global climate changes - synthesis and subsidies for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto S. Berchez

    Full Text Available Abstract As changes in coastal and marine environments are expected to negatively affect Brazilian ecosystems, the importance of Marine Environmental Education (MEE comes to the fore. However, so far only 32 contributions related to this issue have been published in Brazil. The MEE workgroup of ReBentos aims at promoting EE and the communication of marine ecological research to the scholastic public as a whole, as well as to groups which exert an influence on general perception, such as the media, politicians, and scientists. This paper presents an overview of the initiatives of MEE in Brazil, with emphasis on the ReBentos projects and guidelines. The conceptual background of action is based on the Rio'92 Treaty on Environmental Education, thereby implying an MEE with Transdisciplinar, emancipatory and reflexive characteristics, directed to changes in values, principles and attitudes. During the period 2011 to 2015, 10 projects were developed from Alagoas to Santa Catarina States, involving the development, implementation and testing through scientific research of 16 MEE activity-models. The didactic material subsequently produced comprised three books and 21 book-chapters. A public of around 6,500 Conservation Unit visitors, 250 public school teachers and 800 high school students have been impacted to date. To act as monitors and multipliers, 250 undergraduate students and professionals were trained. Research project evaluation generated the publication of nine papers. As a further step, the need for protocol elaboration for each model is placed in evidence, in order to direct and facilitate future initiatives.

  12. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.

    - or minor – radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MWth reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen release fractions in the study were: iodine 20% (of the total core inventory), caesium 10%, tellurium 10%, strontium 0...

  13. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Ecophysiol_Occup_Health_14_71.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Ecophysiol_Occup_Health_14_71.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Some aspects of pollution of coastal marine environment of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.

    stream_size 159 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Rokade_MSc_thesis.pdf.txt stream_source_info Rokade_MSc_thesis.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marine sediments along Nagapattinam - Pondicherry coastal waters, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, K; Balakrishnan, S; Sampathkumar, P

    2017-04-15

    In this present study, petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analyzed in three different coastal sediment cores viz., (N1, P1 and P2) from the Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, India to examine the viability of PHCs. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt+clay+sand) and PHC unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of PHCs. Cluster analysis was used to discriminate the sediment samples based on their degree of contamination. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of PHC in marine sediments. This baseline PHCs data can be used for regular ecological monitoring and effective management for the mining and tourism related activities in the coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  17. Marine environment news. Vol. 5, no. 1, September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) new programmes and strategic outreach efforts (e.g. Mission visits, Newsletter, displays at IAEA's 50th General Conference) have resulted this year in a record number of Marine Technical Co-operation (TC) projects. They increased from 17 in 2006 to 28 in 2007/08 and included 9 regional and 3 interregional projects, now directly benefiting 64 Member States (MS). This is clear evidence of increased interest by Member States to fully utilize the Agency's expertise to better understand and protect their diverse marine environments and resources. I would also like to thank MEL staff for rising to the challenge of supporting these new TC projects. We are also pleased to report that in June 2007, we had a record number of Vienna-based Missions (22 representatives) including the Chairman of the IAEA Board of Governors, the DDG, Mr. W. Burkart, and two Ministers from Monaco visiting MEL in Monaco. The VIP delegates toured MEL's world class laboratories and concluded with a round table discussion on training MS in marine radioactivity and radioecology, on applying new isotopic tools for marine pollution and ocean climate change studies, and on investing in essential equipment at MEL. I am also pleased to report that the IAEA Board of Governors have just approved the replacement of MEL's ageing High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) now planned for 2008

  18. Improving the Coastal Marine Gravity from CryoSat-2 Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulaitijiang, A.; Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The 7 years of CryoSat-2 satellite altimetry data can be potentially used to extract the high frequency components of the Earth gravity field beyond the Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) which corresponds to a resolution of 9.2 Km at the degree 2160. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode of the CryoSat-2 produced high precision along track observations and pushed the limits (qualified observations) to even closer to the coast by several kilometers. The conventional FFT method in deriving the marine gravity anomalies requires the input height anomalies to be gridded, and gridding in the irregular coastal zones (land-ocean transition zone) could introduce high frequency noise to the inversion. Therefore, Least Square Collocation (LSC) is preferred for the inversion. As part of a phd project, in this work, we will make use of the covariance function of the height anomalies in the coastal zones to derive the marine gravity anomalies. Using the conventional remove-compute-restore (only considering the GGMs) technique, the theoretical assumption of homogeneity and isotropy in the LSC algorithm is not always satisfied in the coastal regions and mountainous regions. Hence, the Topographic Correction (TC) using high resolution topographic grids is a critical step in the reduction of the gravity functionals (e.g., height anomaly and gravity anomaly), to comply with the theoretical assumption of LSC. In this work, the TC computation (both w.r.t. the height anomalies and gravity) will be conducted to test the performance of the signal reduction in several regions (patches) around Mediterranean, Chile, islands of Indonesia and Australian coast where the true gravity data is available. The derived marine gravity will be cross-validated against the ship-borne gravity observations. Earlier studies show that due to the presence of additional altimetry observations, 4 mGal accuracy can be achieved in the Greenland fjords, and equally good accuracy is expected from this work.

  19. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Sergi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: sdsqam@cid.csic.es; Lacorte, Silvia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Viana, Paula [Direcao Geral do Ambiente, Ministerio do Ambiente, Rua da Murgueira, Zambujal, 2720 Amadora (Portugal); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments.

  20. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Sergi; Lacorte, Silvia; Viana, Paula; Barcelo, Damia; Bayona, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L -1 (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 μg kg -1 (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 μg kg -1 (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments

  1. Physiochemical and environmental stable isotope profile of marine coastal water, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Javed, T.; Fazil, M.; Latif, Z.; Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Physiochemical and environmental stable isotope (delta /sup 13/C, delta /sup 18/O delta /sup 2/H, delta /sup 34/S) analysis of seawater samples collected from selected locations off Pakistan. Coast was performed to assess pollution scenario during 2002. Objective of the study was to establish a baseline data profile of Pakistan coastal waters. Coastal location includes: Indus Delta, Karachi Harbour, Southeast Coast Karachi, Northwest Coast Karachi, Sonmiani, Ormara. Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani. In-situ physiochemical parameters such as: pH, electrical conductivity (E.C), salinity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were performed with portable meters. Stable isotope of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur was performed on GD -150 modified Mass Spectrometer. Values of delta /sup 18/O along the Sindh Coast (Indus Delta, Karachi Harbour High Tide, Karachi Harbour Low Tide, North West Coast South East Coast, Gadani), lie in range of -6.3 to -2.4 , -0.17 to -0.2, -0.13 to + 1.16, + 0.65 to + 1.25, + 0.88 to +0.93, and 1.14 %. SMOW respectively. The values of delta /sup 18/O along Baluchistan Coast (Sonmiani, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar, and Jiwani) lie in the range of 0.74 to 1.08,0.77 to 0.82, 0.96 to + 1.07,0.38 to 1.23, and 0.45 to 0.83 % SMOW respectively. Values of delta /sup 13/ C of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) along Sindh Coast lie in the range of -2.7 to 0.55, -7.0 to -2.14, -11.48 to -2.98, -1.26 to 2.12, -2.91 to -0.56, and -1.31 to -0.28 % V- PDB. Values of delta /sup 13/ C of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) off Baluchistan Coast lie in the range of - 2.65 to -0.68, -8.5 to 0.07, -1.1 to 0.01, -1.3 to 0.47 and -5.2 to 0 % V-PDB respectively. Significantly depleted delta /sup 13/C (TDIC) values observed in water samples collected off Karachi coast, Indus Delta and Armor Coast indicate pollution inputs from industrial and domestic waste drains into shallow marine environment off these coasts. Carbon Isotope data shows that the Gwadar and Pasni are

  2. Biomarkers of physiological responses of Octopus vulgaris to different coastal environments in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero-Ríos, J; Sureda, A; Capó, X; Oliver-Codorniú, M; Arechavala-Lopez, P

    2018-03-01

    The increase of pollutants in coastal seawater could produce several harmful biological effects on marine organisms related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing cellular and tissue damages through oxidative stress mechanisms. Common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) inhabiting coastal areas under high anthropogenic activity of Mallorca (W-Mediterranean Sea) have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant enzyme responses. Analyzing the digestive glands, octopuses from human-altered coastal areas showed higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to octopuses from non-influenced coastal waters (i.e. marine reserve area). Higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations and lack of malondialdehyde (MDA) variations also reflect adaptations of O. vulgaris to polluted areas. This is the first study assessing the levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers on O. vulgaris in the Mediterranean Sea, revealing their usefulness to assess diverse environmental pollution effects on this relevant ecological and commercial species.

  3. Plutonium diffusion in the marine environment: a quantitative study on marine species of the channel shores, from Brest to Honfleur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Guary, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium levels were measured on marine species of the Channel shores, from Cancale to Honfleur in 1975, from Brest to the Cap de La Hague in 1976. Measurements carried out on a lichen: Lichina pygmaea, two algae: Corallina officinalis and Fucus serratus, a spongiae: Hymeniacidon sanguinea and a crustacean: Balanus balanoides, showed the effect of waste disposal from a fuel reprocessing plant on the radioactivity levels of these organisms. This effect, decreasing progressively appeared at distances of at least 150 km from the point of release. As compared to the values observed for samples taken as the far west end of Brittany and also to the plutonium levels in the marine environment resulting from atmosphere fallout only, the levels observed in the studied area were higher and varying according to the geographic position, increasing by a factor of 100 near the emissary. These data are an actual instance of radioactive dispersal following disposal into the sea; they should bring valuable information for the assessment of the radiological capacity of a given coastal area [fr

  4. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  5. Spatial distribution of fall out 137Cs in the marine environment of Kudankulam and its comparison with Indian and Asia Pacific Regional sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Selvi, B.S.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assumes significance in view of expansion of nuclear power plants in India and the Asia-Pacific region. This paper presents a snapshot of 137 Cs activity in marine coastal water samples collected around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site across a 50 km stretch from Kanyakumari to Uvari and attempts to compare with the 137 Cs concentration observed across Indian coastal region and Asia Pacific regional sea water. 137 Cs activity of the Kudankulam coast ranges from ≤ 0.40 - 1.92 mBq/L with a GM value of 1.0 mBq/L. In general, 137 Cs activity in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 - 1.25 mBq/L, which may be considered as global fallout. (author)

  6. The coastal environment affects lead and sodium uptake by the moss Hypnum cupressiforme used as an air pollution biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Marie; Leblond, Sébastien; Meyer, Caroline; Rose, Christophe; Lequy, Emeline

    2018-02-01

    Several studies suggest that potential competition exists between marine cations and heavy metals for binding sites on the cell wall of mosses. This competition would impact the heavy metal concentration measured in mosses by biomonitoring programs, which may underestimate air pollution by heavy metals in a coastal environment. In the present study, we aim to identify possible mechanisms affecting lead uptake by mosses in a coastal environment, specifically, the competition between lead (Pb 2+ ) and sodium (Na + ) for binding sites in Hypnum cupressiforme (Hc). We also compared the response of continental and coastal Hc populations to Pb 2+ exposure by immersing the moss samples in artificial solutions that comprised six experimental treatments and subsequently locating and quantifying Pb 2+ and Na + using the sequential elution technique and X-ray microanalyses with a scanning electron microscope. We demonstrated that high concentrations of Pb 2+ prevented Na + from binding to the cell wall. We also examined the effect of the salt acclimation of Hc on Pb 2+ and Na + accumulation. Coastal Hc populations accumulated more Na and less Pb than continental Hc populations in all treatments. Moreover, our results showed treatment effects on the intra/extracellular distribution of Na + , as well as site. This feedback on the influence of salt stress tolerance on Pb 2+ uptake by mosses requires further study and can be investigated for other heavy metals, leading to a better use of mosses as biomonitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka; Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively

  8. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke [Department of General Education, The Company, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Hirai, Nobumitsu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Yokoyama, Seiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Hibarigaoka, Tenpaku, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively.

  9. Helping to protect and manage the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL), formerly known as the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity (ILMR) was founded thirty years ago. This article provides a brief historical review of the activities of the IAEA-MEL, focussing on the monitoring of pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. The contamination arising from the Chernobyl accident is discussed, and data on the distribution of pesticide residues in mussels along the northern Mediterranean cost are presented. A collaborative project with the National Autonomous University of Mexico to study pesticides in the Altata lagoon is described. 25 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory - Monaco: Biennial report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The report contains the results of the scientific tasks carried out in 1989-90 by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. The methods development and analytical quality assurance for radionuclide measurements, studies for evaluating environmental impacts of radionuclide releases into the sea, contribution to international marine pollution monitoring and research including special missions are presented. In addition, lists of the visiting consultants/experts, trainees/fellows, publications/meetings, committee/expert group membership, courses and research/technical contracts are given. Figs and tabs

  11. A concept for biological valuation in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Willem Maria Stienen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop management strategies for sustainable useand conservation in the marine environment, reliable and meaningful,but integrated ecological information is needed. Biological valuationmaps that compile and summarize all available biological andecological information for a study area, and that allocate anoverall biological value to subzones, can be used as baselinemaps for future spatial planning at sea. This paper providesa concept for marine biological valuation which is based on aliterature review of existing valuation criteria and the consensusreached by a discussion group of experts.

  12. Isolation and characterization of pigmented bacteria showing antimicrobial activity from Malaysian marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Natural products play a prominent role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs in the treatment ofhuman diseases. Much of nature remains to be explored, especially marine and microbial environments.Methodology and results: Fifty-five pigmented marine bacteria were isolated from sponges, seawater, mangrovesediment, sea cucumber and mussel from different coastal area of Malaysia. The antimicrobial activities of thesebacteria were investigated by disk diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria. Out of 55 isolates, 18 isolates exhibitedantimicrobial activity, which based on morphological characterization, 53% of them were Gram positive and 47% wereGram negative. All active isolates were able to tolerate more than 4% NaCl in the nutrient agar medium that indicatedthey were autochthonous to marine environment and moderate salt tolerant in nature. Molecular identification of isolatesby the strong antimicrobial activities indicates that isolates WPRA3 (JX020764 and SM11-3j belong to genus Serratiaand isolate SDPM1 (JQ083392 belongs to genus Zooshikella.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of present study revealed that the active isolates arepotential producer of antimicrobial secondary metabolites and might be utilized as drug candidate.

  13. Pwani Yetu: Issue 4. April 1999.Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership

    1999-01-01

    The Newsletter of the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership - Pwani Yetu - 'our coast', is produced every other month in both Kiswahili and English and circulated to all coastal management partners from national level, coastal communities and the private sector. Pwani Yetu reports on coastal and marine activities, including issues on conservation, environment, and social economic development. 'Research Group' TCMP.

  14. Methodology for impact assessment in the estuarine/marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haven, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Impacts on the estuarine/marine environment can be assessed in economic terms by tracing the impact flow out of the economic sector through the marine environment and back into the economic sector as changes in natural resource availability. An impact can then be measured by the changes created in the economic sector by changes in resource availability. Primary emphasis is placed on the development of an appropriate ecological model of the estuarine environment for this purpose. Two types, an ecological input/output model and a dynamic (difference equation) model, are proposed. Acceptability criteria for these models include the ability to track lethal and sublethal, direct and indirect (food web), and short- and long-term effects of a variety of pollutants related to the production and use of various energy resources

  15. Marine litter from beach-based sources: Case study of an Eastern Mediterranean coastal town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michelle E; Brennan, Ruth E

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter has been a serious and growing problem for some decades now. Yet, there is still much speculation among researchers, policy makers and planners about how to tackle marine litter from land-based sources. This paper provides insights into approaches for managing marine litter by reporting and analyzing survey results of litter dispersal and makeup from three areas along an Arab-Israeli coastal town in view of other recent studies conducted around the Mediterranean Sea. Based on our results and analysis, we posit that bathing beach activities should be a high priority for waste managers as a point of intervention and beach-goers must be encouraged to take a more active role in keeping beaches clean. Further, plastic fragments on the beach should be targeted as a first priority for prevention (and cleanup) of marine litter with plastic bottle caps being a high priority to be targeted among plastics. More survey research is needed on non-plastic litter composition for which amounts and geographic dispersal in the region vary greatly from place to place along Mediterranean shores. In general, findings of this study lead us to recommend exploring persuasive beach trash can design coupled with greater enforcement for short term waste management intervention while considering the local socio-economic and institutional context further for long-term efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction

  17. Regional survey of radionuclides in the marine environment of the French Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve; Arnaud, Mireille; Duffa, Celine; Charmasson, Sabine; Dimeglio, Yves [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM/ARM c/o Ifremer, CS 20330 Zone Portuaire de Bregaillon, 83507 La Seyne sur Mer Cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) runs a continuous monitoring program of the marine environment as a mandatory task. For the French Mediterranean coast, this monitoring activity focuses on two bio-indicators species: the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the red mullet (Mullus sp.) sampled on a regular basis from natural populations at ten locations along the coast. Radionuclides are measured using direct low-level gamma spectrometry as a routine technique. In addition to this long-lasting monitoring, a broad survey of radionuclide baseline levels is conducted on all compartments of the coastal zone: water, sediments and a large selection of fish species among those most currently fished and marketed. This extended data collection is necessary to fulfill the information requirements of the UE Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and its implementation by member states. This information is also essential for impact assessment of any incident or accident, included from a remote source. Levels of less commonly measured radionuclides like {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and U, Pu isotopes are investigated. Fish sampling relies mostly on scientific stock assessment campaigns. Mussel sampling is complemented by transplanted mussels on 40 specific sites. This regional survey also focuses on two possibly impacted areas: the Rhone river mouth coastal zone, with inputs from nuclear power plants along the river and the Bay of Toulon sheltering Navy harbor of nuclear-powered sub-marines and aircraft-carrier. First results show that the activity levels of artificial radionuclides are very low for most bio-indicator species, in accordance with previous monitoring trends. {sup 137}Cs is the only artificial radionuclide regularly detected by gamma spectrometry in mussel and fish samples at a level below 1 Bg.kg{sup -1} of dry weight. Values of {sup 3}H (organically bound Tritium) in the same samples lies under

  18. Eogenetic karst, glacioeustatic cave pools and anchialine environments on Mallorca Island: a discussion of coastal speleogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ginès

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal karst is characterized by special geomorphologic and hydrodynamic conditions as well as by peculiar sedimentary, geochemical, and biospeleological environments. Generally, the more distinctive karstic features produced near the coastline are strongly influenced by sea-level changes, which generate a broad set of interactions between littoral processes and karst development. The glacioeustatic rises and falls of sea level affected the littoral karst in different ways, namely: vertical and horizontal shifts in the shoreline position, changes in elevation of the local water table, and vertical displacements of the halocline. Most eogenetic karsts have been subjected over long time spans to repeated changes of a variety of vertically-zoned geochemical environments: vadose, phreatic meteoric-water, brackish mixing-waters and even marine water. Many coastal caves appear to be passively drowned by Holocene sea-level rise, and to contain glacioeustatic pools of varied size where the current water table intersects formerly air-filled chambers or passages. These coastal phreatic waters are controlled by sea level and fluctuate with tides. Significantly, features such as phreatic speleothems that are able to record ancient sea levels occur closely associated to the surface of the pools. The cave pools are brackish or even marine anchialine environments that contain remarkable communities of troglobitic stygofauna. All of these aspects can be studied in detail along the southern and eastern coast of Mallorca Island owing to the widespread outcrop of Upper Miocene calcarenites, in which the development of eogenetic karst features started approximately 6 Ma ago, at the end of Messinian times. Some outstanding coastal caves result and include the celebrated Coves del Drac (explored by E.A. Martel in 1896, the labyrinthine Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (more than 30 km in length and the recently explored Cova de sa Gleda (whose submerged passages exceed

  19. Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H.; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A.; Henríquez, Luis A.; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:22905164

  20. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro H Buschmann

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  1. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TS std ). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TS std formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on Polonium-210 and Lead-210 aspects in a near shore coastal environment at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to summarize the findings from a comprehensive research investigation, related to polonium-210 and lead-210 aspects in a confined near shore coastal marine environment at the site of Kalpakkam nuclear complex. The site hosts some major nuclear installations, the main units being a nuclear power station, fast breeder reactor units, reprocessing facilities and supporting facilities. These investigation have been carried out to evaluate the natural radiation exposures of the resident human population in the neighbourhood of the site complex, and compute the additional potential doses to the community, arising from operation of nuclear facilities. An added significance, surfaced during the study, was the presence of a higher natural radiation background in the study area, due to the occurrence of monazite - a thorium mineral - bearing beach sands in vast stretches of the coastal areas

  3. Production of Metabolites as Bacterial Responses to the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in marine environments are often under extreme conditions of e.g., pressure, temperature, salinity, and depletion of micronutrients, with survival and proliferation often depending on the ability to produce biologically active compounds. Some marine bacteria produce biosurfactants, which help to transport hydrophobic low water soluble substrates by increasing their bioavailability. However, other functions related to heavy metal binding, quorum sensing and biofilm formation have been described. In the case of metal ions, bacteria developed a strategy involving the release of binding agents to increase their bioavailability. In the particular case of the Fe3+ ion, which is almost insoluble in water, bacteria secrete siderophores that form soluble complexes with the ion, allowing the cells to uptake the iron required for cell functioning. Adaptive changes in the lipid composition of marine bacteria have been observed in response to environmental variations in pressure, temperature and salinity. Some fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, have only been reported in prokaryotes in deep-sea bacteria. Cell membrane permeability can also be adapted to extreme environmental conditions by the production of hopanoids, which are pentacyclic triterpenoids that have a function similar to cholesterol in eukaryotes. Bacteria can also produce molecules that prevent the attachment, growth and/or survival of challenging organisms in competitive environments. The production of these compounds is particularly important in surface attached strains and in those in biofilms. The wide array of compounds produced by marine bacteria as an adaptive response to demanding conditions makes them suitable candidates for screening of compounds with commercially interesting biological functions. Biosurfactants produced by marine bacteria may be helpful to increase mass transfer in different industrial processes and in the bioremediation of

  4. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  6. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  7. Marine natural hazards in coastal zone: observations, analysis and modelling (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira

    2010-05-01

    Giant surface waves approaching the coast frequently cause extensive coastal flooding, destruction of coastal constructions and loss of lives. Such waves can be generated by various phenomena: strong storms and cyclones, underwater earthquakes, high-speed ferries, aerial and submarine landslides. The most famous examples of such events are the catastrophic tsunami in the Indian Ocean, which occurred on 26 December 2004 and hurricane Katrina (28 August 2005) in the Atlantic Ocean. The huge storm in the Baltic Sea on 9 January 2005, which produced unexpectedly long waves in many areas of the Baltic Sea and the influence of unusually high surge created by long waves from high-speed ferries, should also be mentioned as examples of regional marine natural hazards connected with extensive runup of certain types of waves. The processes of wave shoaling and runup for all these different marine natural hazards (tsunami, coastal freak waves, ship waves) are studied based on rigorous solutions of nonlinear shallow-water theory. The key and novel results presented here are: i) parameterization of basic formulas for extreme runup characteristics for bell-shape waves, showing that they weakly depend on the initial wave shape, which is usually unknown in real sea conditions; ii) runup analysis of periodic asymmetric waves with a steep front, as such waves are penetrating inland over large distances and with larger velocities than symmetric waves; iii) statistical analysis of irregular wave runup demonstrating that wave nonlinearity nearshore does not influence on the probability distribution of the velocity of the moving shoreline and its moments, and influences on the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline (runup). Wave runup on convex beaches and in narrow bays, which allow abnormal wave amplification is also discussed. Described analytical results are used for explanation of observed extreme runup of tsunami, freak (sneaker) waves and ship waves on different coasts

  8. Methodology for assessing the concentrations of the primary marine aerosol in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, P.; Briganti, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Marri, P.

    2009-01-01

    European and Italian regulations (DM 60/2002) fix for atmospheric particulate matter PM10 the threshold of 50 μg/m 3 as limit not to be exceeded more than 35 times per year (24 hour mean); unfortunately, such prescriptions do not distinguish anthropic contributions from natural ones (sea salt, Saharan sand, coastal erosion, volcanic ashes, etc.). The aim of this study is to set up a methodology in order to estimate sea salt emissions, both from open sea and surf zone, and to model atmospheric dispersion of marine aerosols. The proposed methodology, applied to the coastal zone between Massa Carrara and Viareggio (Tuscany, Italy), shows specific open sea emissions are generally very low in comparison with the surf zone ones: they are not negligible only with strong winds, but such meteorological conditions are neither persistent nor very frequent in the selected area. On the contrary, sea surf contributions are much more strong (at least 1 order of magnitude), peak-shaped and persistent then the first ones, and can lead to high PM10 concentration fields up to few kilometres inland. The comparison between model outputs and observations, in two points placed at 2000 and 4000 m from the shoreline, has shown an amount of sea salt in total PM10 even greater then 70% in mass. The existence of a surf zone, which can persist many hours or days even after a storm, can produce both elevated PM concentrations and gradients, mainly for light winds perpendicular to the shoreline. This work, supported by MINNI Project (www.minni.org), is suitable for other coastal areas as well and it is aimed to furnish an overview of marine particulate production and atmospheric dispersion processes; it is the starting point of an experimental investigation program, supported by institutional air quality authorities [it

  9. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 0 28' N and 13 0 15' N longitudes 100 0 35' E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C 14 , Sr 90 , Pu 239,240 , Po 210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  10. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapanyawong, S; Sonsuk, M; Polphong, P; Milintawisamai, M; Panyatipsakul, Y

    1993-12-31

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  11. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapanyawong, S.; Sonsuk, M.; Polphong, P.; Milintawisamai, M.; Panyatipsakul, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9 degree 28 minute N and 13 degree 15 minute N longitudes 100 degree 35 minute E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C-14, Sr-90, Pu-239,240, Po-210 etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea

  12. Long-lived radionuclides in the marine environment of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapanyawong, S; Sonsuk, M; Polphong, P; Milintawisamai, M; Panyatipsakul, Y

    1993-12-31

    Natural and artificial radionuclides in the environment of the Gulf of Thailand were studied during 1989-1991. In the study, surface water, sediment at 5 locations between latitudes 9{sup 0} 28` N and 13{sup 0} 15` N longitudes 100{sup 0} 35` E. and 5 species of marine biota were collected in 1989. In 1990 and 1991, 9 and 7 species of marine biota were collected from the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea respectively. These samples were prepared and analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides as well as some beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides such as C{sup 14}, Sr{sup 90}, Pu{sup 239,240}, Po{sup 210} etc. The results indicate the present status of radioactivity level of the environment of the gulf and the sea.

  13. A retrospect of anthropogenic radioactivity in the global marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1998-01-01

    . The IAEA's IASAP study has evaluated the radiological consequences of these dumpings. In a recent international study (MARDOS) by the IAEA it was concluded that the doses to man from anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment are generally one to two orders of magnitude less than the doses from......Man-made radionuclides were introduced into the marine environment in the mid forties with the exploitation of nuclear fission for military purposes. Plutonium production reactors at Hanford, USA, released radioactivity to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia River. In the former Soviet Union (FSU......) the military nuclear establishment at Cheliabinsk (later MAYAK) a few years later began direct discharging of fission products to the nearby Techa River, which is a part of the Ob river system, and the Arctic Ocean received man made radioactivity. In the 1950s, when atmospheric testing of thermonuclear weapons...

  14. Fine-grained visual marine vessel classification for coastal surveillance and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Berkan; Gundogdu, Erhan; Karaman, Kaan; Yücesoy, Veysel; Koç, Aykut

    2017-10-01

    The need for capabilities of automated visual content analysis has substantially increased due to presence of large number of images captured by surveillance cameras. With a focus on development of practical methods for extracting effective visual data representations, deep neural network based representations have received great attention due to their success in visual categorization of generic images. For fine-grained image categorization, a closely related yet a more challenging research problem compared to generic image categorization due to high visual similarities within subgroups, diverse applications were developed such as classifying images of vehicles, birds, food and plants. Here, we propose the use of deep neural network based representations for categorizing and identifying marine vessels for defense and security applications. First, we gather a large number of marine vessel images via online sources grouping them into four coarse categories; naval, civil, commercial and service vessels. Next, we subgroup naval vessels into fine categories such as corvettes, frigates and submarines. For distinguishing images, we extract state-of-the-art deep visual representations and train support-vector-machines. Furthermore, we fine tune deep representations for marine vessel images. Experiments address two scenarios, classification and verification of naval marine vessels. Classification experiment aims coarse categorization, as well as learning models of fine categories. Verification experiment embroils identification of specific naval vessels by revealing if a pair of images belongs to identical marine vessels by the help of learnt deep representations. Obtaining promising performance, we believe these presented capabilities would be essential components of future coastal and on-board surveillance systems.

  15. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, J.; Currivan, L.

    1990-06-01

    This report represents the results of the Board's monitoring of radioactivity levels in the Irish marine environment during 1987. The principal objective of the monitoring programme is to obtain estimates of radiation doses to the Irish public arising from caesium-137 and caesium 134, the main contaminating radionuclides. Estimates are presented of the radiation doses to the Irish public arising from the consumption of fish and shellfish contaminated with radiocaesium

  16. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toque, C.; Milodowski, A.E.; Baker, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm −2 y −1 and 2.5–48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. -- Highlights: ► In-situ experiments were conducted to evaluate corrosion rates of depleted uranium. ► Samples were corroded in marine sediments, open sea water and two terrestrial soils. ► The depleted uranium titanium alloy corroded fastest in the marine environments. ► Rates of mass loss can vary through time if corrosion products are not removed.

  17. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  18. Annual cycle of the production and fate of DMS and DMSP in a marine coastal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwint, RLJ; Kramer, KJM

    The production of DMSP by phytoplankton and the fate through the marine system of both DMSP and DMS were followed for a period of 21 mo in the natural environment by studying a Wadden Sea tidal inlet. The major production and emission of DMS appeared to be Limited to a period of only 2 mo, which was

  19. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  20. Pollution in the Gulf: Monitoring the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    More than 2 years after the Gulf conflict, scientists are continuing to keep a close watch on marine pollution stemming from the war. Following the conflict in early 1991, major concern was raised worldwide when an estimated four to eight million barrels of crude oil were directly released into the Persian Gulf from the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait. Such amounts clearly made it the largest oil spill in history. The catastrophe was exacerbated when Kuwaiti oil fields were ignited. The magnitude of the pollution, and the types of toxic contaminants involved, led to a worldwide response through the United Nations system. An inter-agency plan of action was developed quickly. As one of its steps, the co-ordinating agency - the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - asked the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco to help make a preliminary assessment of the situation. The Laboratory's main goal in initial surveys was to map the extent and general degree of the war-related pollution throughout the Gulf. Since the initial surveys were done, IAEA-MEL scientists have been engaged in regional follow-up activities in ongoing attempts to obtain a clearer picture of the oil pollution's effects on the Gulf's marine environment. This article highlights the laboratory's work in the Gulf following the 1991 conflict, within the context of co-operative programmes and projects. 1 fig

  1. Degradation of Herbicides in the Tropical Marine Environment: Influence of Light and Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F; Eaglesham, Geoff; O'Brien, Jake; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Widespread contamination of nearshore marine systems, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon, with agricultural herbicides has long been recognised. The fate of these contaminants in the marine environment is poorly understood but the detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides in the GBR year-round suggests very slow degradation rates. Here, we evaluated the persistence of a range of commonly detected herbicides in marine water under field-relevant concentrations and conditions. Twelve-month degradation experiments were conducted in large open tanks, under different light scenarios and in the presence and absence of natural sediments. All PSII herbicides were persistent under control conditions (dark, no sediments) with half-lives of 300 d for atrazine, 499 d diuron, 1994 d hexazinone, 1766 d tebuthiuron, while the non-PSII herbicides were less persistent at 147 d for metolachlor and 59 d for 2,4-D. The degradation of herbicides was 2-10 fold more rapid in the presence of a diurnal light cycle and coastal sediments; apart from 2,4-D which degraded more slowly in the presence of light. Despite the more rapid degradation observed for most herbicides in the presence of light and sediments, the half-lives remained > 100 d for the PS II herbicides. The effects of light and sediments on herbicide persistence were likely due to their influence on microbial community composition and its ability to utilise the herbicides as a carbon source. These results help explain the year-round presence of PSII herbicides in marine systems, including the GBR, but more research on the transport, degradation and toxicity on a wider range of pesticides and their transformation products is needed to improve their regulation in sensitive environments.

  2. Mercury pollution for marine environment at Farwa Island, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Adel A S; Mohamed, R M S Radin; Al-Gheethi, A A S

    2016-01-01

    Farwa is an Island in Libya receives petrochemical wastes generated from General Company of Chemical Industries (GCCI) since more than 40 years. The present work aimed to determine the concentrations of mercury (Hg(+2)) in fish, marine plants and sediment collected from Farwa lagoon to evaluate effect of industrial wastewater from GCCI on the marine environment. Hundred and twelve samples of fish, pearl oyster, cuttlefish sediments and marine plants were analyzed to determine Hg(2+) concentration during the period from January to August 2014 by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The highest concentration of Hg(2+) was detected in Pinctada radiata (11.67 ± 3.30 μgg (-1)) followed by Serranus scriba (6.37 ± 0.11 μg g (-1)) and Epinephelus marginatus (6.19 ± 0.02 μg g (-1)). About 75 % of marine plants contained the maximum contaminations during the summer season. In fish samples Hg(2+) concentrations exceeded the levels provided by international standards. The fish at Farwa lagoon is heavily contaminated with Hg(2+) which may represent a source for mercury poisoning for human.

  3. Hydrochemical and physical processes influencing salinization and freshening in Mediterranean low-lying coastal environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.; Antonelli, M.; Dinelli, E.; Gabbianelli, G.; Greggio, N.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ground- and surface water chemistry and stable isotope data from the coastal zone near Ravenna (Italy) have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur and their implications for fresh water availability in the various brackish/saline coastal environments. Fresh

  4. Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds in Singapore's marine environment: Influence of hydrodynamics and physical–chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Zhang, Hui; Desai, Malan Manish; Ooi, Seng Keat; Kelly, Barry C.

    2013-01-01

    The fate and exposure risks of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in marine environments are not well-understood. In this study we developed a multi-residue analytical method for quantifying concentrations of forty target compounds in seawater from Singapore. Analyses of samples (n = 24) from eight sites showed the occurrence of several compounds, including gemfibrozil ( R ). Principal Components Analysis revealed a strong relationship between t R and contaminant concentrations. While source emissions are undoubtedly important, proximate distance to a wastewater treatment plant had little influence on concentrations. The site with the greatest t R , which exhibited the highest concentrations, is adjacent to Singapore's largest protected wetland reserve. The results highlight an important linkage between hydrodynamic behavior and contaminant exposure risks in complex coastal marine ecosystems. Highlights: •A field study of emerging contaminants in Singapore's coastal marine environment was conducted. •PhACs such as gemfibrozil, triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen were frequently detected. •Site proximity to WWTP had little influence on ambient concentrations. •Contaminant concentrations were highly correlated to hydrodynamic residence time. •Coastal hydrodynamic behaviour greatly influences contaminant exposure risks. -- A field study demonstrates the influence of hydrodynamic residence time and physical–chemical properties on exposure risks of PhACs and EDCs in coastal marine ecosystems

  5. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  6. Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

  7. Task-specific sensor settings for electro-optical systems in a marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Broek, S.P. van den; Kemp, R.A.W.; Lensen, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day naval operations take place in coastal environments as well as narrow straits all over the world. Coastal environments around the world are exhibiting a number of threats to naval forces. In particular, a large number of asymmetric threats can be present in environments with cluttered

  8. Marine environment news Vol. 4, no. 1, June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The last six months have been a frenetically busy time for us in Monaco. Our Marine Programmes have been positively reviewed by the Standing Advisory Group on Nuclear Applications (SAGNA) and by an External Evaluation of our Programme. Both Groups report to the Director General, Mr Mohammed ElBaradei, and we hope that new investment in personnel and equipment may eventually result from their evaluations and feedback. We were honoured by the visit of His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco in March 2006 to our facilities. HSH continues to take a personal interest in MEL's isotopic and pollutant analyses of biota and environmental samples from the Arctic environment which we sampled during His Highness' cruise in June 2005 (see Vol. 3. No 2. MEL Newsletter). This issue also shows that MEL has hosted several important workshops and meetings. The US Research Vessel Endeavour visited the port of Monaco in April and MEL hosted an informal reception for the crew. The visit was in connection with ongoing, joint MEL-US studies in ocean carbon sinks in the Mediterranean (the MEDFLUX programme). More recently, MEL has been involved in discussion with Gulf Member States for a Marine Radioactivity Baseline Study. Finally, I am pleased to note that our MEL Newsletter is clearly having a positive outreach with Member States, since we are currently witnessing a doubling in Member States requests through the TC Concept Proposals (2007-2008) for fellowships, courses and capacity building in marine environment

  9. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1993 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.; Long, S.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.; McGarry, A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland during the period 1993 to 1995. The principal objective of this programme is to assess the exposure to the Irish population arising from radioactive contamination in the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to human health arising from such exposure. In addition, the programme aims to assess the distribution of the significant contaminating radionuclides in the marine environment and to identify tends with a view to assessing possible future effects. The results show that by 1995 the mean concentration of caesium-137 in fish landed at north-east ports had fallen to 1.6 Bq/kg, from a figure of 68 Bq/kg in 1979-82 and 3.0 Bq/kg in 1993. A similar decline is evident for seawater, sediment and seaweed. In addition, the Irish Sea data show the progressive dilution of artificial radioactivity with increasing distance from Sellafield

  10. Analyzing coastal environments by means of functional data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Flor-Blanco, Germán; Ordoñez, Celestino; Flor, Germán; Gallego, José R.

    2017-07-01

    Here we used Functional Data Analysis (FDA) to examine particle-size distributions (PSDs) in a beach/shallow marine sedimentary environment in Gijón Bay (NW Spain). The work involved both Functional Principal Components Analysis (FPCA) and Functional Cluster Analysis (FCA). The grainsize of the sand samples was characterized by means of laser dispersion spectroscopy. Within this framework, FPCA was used as a dimension reduction technique to explore and uncover patterns in grain-size frequency curves. This procedure proved useful to describe variability in the structure of the data set. Moreover, an alternative approach, FCA, was applied to identify clusters and to interpret their spatial distribution. Results obtained with this latter technique were compared with those obtained by means of two vector approaches that combine PCA with CA (Cluster Analysis). The first method, the point density function (PDF), was employed after adapting a log-normal distribution to each PSD and resuming each of the density functions by its mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. The second applied a centered-log-ratio (clr) to the original data. PCA was then applied to the transformed data, and finally CA to the retained principal component scores. The study revealed functional data analysis, specifically FPCA and FCA, as a suitable alternative with considerable advantages over traditional vector analysis techniques in sedimentary geology studies.

  11. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Caroline Marianne Haaijer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite-oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifiying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (AOB and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmoles of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on FISH and metagenomic data converting a maximum of 3 mmoles of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species.

  12. Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the contaminant's potential bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water run-off. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. However, the application to marine environments is only just being explored. This paper discusses the potential use of EZVI in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailed. Laboratory studies were performed in 2005 to establish the effectiveness of EZVI to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in saltwater. Headspace vials were setup to determine the kinetic rate of TCE degradation using EZVI in seawater. The reaction vials were analyzed by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) for ethene production after a 48 day period using a GC/FID Purge and Trap system. Analytical results showed that EZVI was very effective at degrading TCE. The reaction by-products (ethene, acetylene and ethane) were produced at 71% of the rate in seawater as in the fresh water controls. Additionally, iron within the EZVI particles was protected from oxidation of the corrosive seawater, allowing EZVI to perform in an environment where zero-valent iron alone could not compete. Laboratory studies were also performed to establish the effectiveness of emulsified zero-valent metal (EZVM) to remove dissolved-phase cadmium and lead found in seawater. EZVM is comprised of a combination of magnesium and iron metal surrounded by the

  13. Annual variations in zooplankton from a polluted coastal environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Menon, P.G.; Madhupratap, M.

    Seasonal changes in the composition and distribution of zooplankton from the coastal waters of Trivandrum were studied. The study indicated that the effluent discharged from a nearby titanium dioxide factory did not affect the zooplankton abundance...

  14. Changes of hydrological environment and their influences on coastal wetlands in the southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Sun, Hongxia; Xia, Dongxing

    2006-08-01

    The structure and function of the coastal wetland ecosystem in the southern Laizhou Bay have been changed greatly and influenced by regional hydrological changes. The coastal wetlands have degraded significantly during the latest 30 years due to successive drought, decreasing of runoff, pollution, underground saline water intrusion, and aggravating marine disasters such as storm tides and sea level rising. Most archaic lakes have vanished, while artificial wetlands have been extending since natural coastal wetlands replaced by salt areas and ponds of shrimps and crabs. The pollution of sediments in inter-tidal wetlands and the pollution of water quality in sub-tidal wetlands are getting worse and therefore "red tides" happen more often than before. The biodiversity in the study area has been decreased. Further studies are still needed to protect the degraded coastal wetlands in the area.

  15. Impact of thermal discharge on marine environment - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, A.G.; Rameshwari, S.; Sukumaran, N.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal pollution has been used to indicate the detrimental effects of heated effluents discharged by power plants and other industries. It denotes the impairment of quality and deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial environment through heated effluent and fly ash. Various industrial plants like thermal, atomic, nuclear, coal fired plants, oil field generators, factories and mills utilize water for cooling purposes. In India, there are about 60 thermal power plants, which produce 30 million tonnes of fly ash every year. The heated effluents from power plants is discharged at a temperature, which is 8-10 degC higher than that of intake marine water. The adverse effect of thermal discharge are visible in microorganism, fish, biotic life and the over all ecosystems. The discharge of heated effluents actually affects the fish respiration, metabolism and other physiological activities of marine organisms, which ultimately leads to death. This could be due to synergism because of toxic chemical such as copper, nickel, chromium and chlorine, which are used to remove slimes in the pipelines. The major waste material from thermal power station is the fly ash that creates enormous pollution problem to air, water and soil environment. Fly ash possess large amounts of lead, cobalt, chromium, cadmium etc. When this fly ash is released out through water carriage system it leads to turbidity, over deposition and flood also. Tuticorin Thermal Power Station (TTPS) has installed five power generation units each of 250 MW capacities. About 1.35 lakhs m 3 /hr water is drawn from the sea, utilized for cooling and then the heated effluent is discharged into the same environment. Therefore, this paper deals with various impacts associated with thermal discharge on marine environment. (author)

  16. Real-time surveillance system for marine environment based on HLIF LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, Sergey; Sobolev, Innokenti; Aleksejev, Valeri; Sõro, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The operational monitoring of the risk areas of marine environment requires cost-effective solutions. One of the options is the use of sensor networks based on fixed installations and moving platforms (coastal boats, supply-, cargo-, and passenger vessels). Such network allows to gather environmental data in time and space with direct links to operational activities in the controlled area for further environmental risk assessment. Among many remote sensing techniques the LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based on Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is the tool of direct assessment of water quality variations caused by chemical pollution, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton composition. The Hyperspectral LIF (HLIF) LiDAR acquires comprehensive LIF spectra and analyses them by spectral pattern recognition technique to detect and classify the substances in water remotely. Combined use of HLIF LiDARs with Real-Time Data Management System (RTDMS) provides the economically effective solution for the regular monitoring in the controlled area. OCEAN VISUALS in cooperation with LDI INNOVATION has developed Oil in Water Locator (OWL™) with RTDMS (OWL MAP™) based on HLIF LiDAR technique. This is a novel technical solution for monitoring of marine environment providing continuous unattended operations. OWL™ has been extensively tested on board of various vessels in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea and Caribbean Sea. This paper describes the technology features, the results of its operational use in 2014-2017, and outlook for the technology development.

  17. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toque, C; Milodowski, A E; Baker, A C

    2014-02-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm(-2) y(-1) and 2.5-48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Weddellian marine/coastal vertebrates diversity from a basal horizon (Ypresian, Eocene of the Cucullaea I Allomember, La Meseta formation, Seymour (Marambio Island, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Reguero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Meseta Formation crops out in Seymour/Marambio Island, Weddell Sea, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula and contains one of the world's most diverse assemblages of Weddellian marine/coastal verte-brates of Early Eocene (Ypresian age. The La Meseta Formation is composed of poorly consolidated, marine sandstones and siltstones which were deposited in a coastal, deltaic and/or estuarine environment. It includes marine invertebrates and vertebrates as well as terrestrial vertebrates and plants. The highly fossiliferous basal horizon (Cucullaeashell bed, Telm 4 of Sadler 1988 of the CucullaeaI Allomember is a laterally extensive shell bed with sandy matrix. The fish remains, including 35 species from 26 families, of the Ypresian Cucullaeabed represent one of the most abundant and diverse fossil vertebrate faunas yet recorded in southern latitudes. Stratigraphic distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the Weddellian sphenisciforms are consistent with a first radiation of this group in the Early Eocene. The first inquestionable archaeocete from Antarctica is recorded in this unit and is referred to a new taxon.

  19. Current status and future prospects for the assessment of marine and coastal ecosystem services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

    2013-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies.

  20. Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:23844080

  1. In hot water: the future of Australia's coastal and marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Anthony J; Poloczanska, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Marine ecosystems are extremely important economically and ecologically to Australia in terms of tourism, coastal defence, resources, and ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and waste disposal. Australia is also a globally important repository of biodiversity. Here we describe the observed and potential future impacts of climate change on Australia's marine diversity. Climate simulations project oceanic warming, an increase in stratification, a strengthening of the Eastern Australian Current, increased ocean acidification, a rise in sea level, and altered storm and rainfall regimes, which taken collectively will fundamentally change marine ecosystems. There has already been widespread bleaching of tropical corals, poleward shifts of temperate fish and plankton populations, and a decline in cold-water giant kelp off Tasmania. Future changes are likely to be even more dramatic and have considerable economic and ecological consequences, especially in 'hot spots' of climate change such as theTasman Sea and the Great Barrier Reef area. Corals are likely to bleach more frequently and decline in abundance in response to both warming and ocean acidification. Planktonic animals with calcium carbonate shells, such as winged pteropod snails and coccolithophorid phytoplankton, are likely to decline as increased ocean acidification impairs their ability to maintain carbonate body structures. The projected high warming off south-east Australia is of particular concern. Marine ecosystems in this region are already stressed by high metal concentrations, sewage pollution, and overfishing, and climate models project that this region will warm more than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere this century because of enhanced southerly penetration of the East Australian Current. Venomous jellyfish and harmful algal blooms, which are major threats to human health, will potentially extend further south and occur more frequently. Temperate species

  2. Vertical activity distribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in coastal marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, A.; de Beer, D.; Stief, P.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of two dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, denitrification (DEN) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), was investigated in intact sediment cores from five different coastal marine field sites (Dorum, Aarhus Bight, Mississippi Delta, Limfjord...... reduction was clearly dominated by DEN (59-131% of the total NO3- reduced) rather than by DNRA, irrespective of the sedimentary inventories of electron donors such as organic carbon, sulfide, and iron. Highest ammonium production via DNRA, accounting for up to 8.9% of the total NO3- reduced, was found...... was detected accounting for 37-77% of the total NO3- reduced. These contradictory results might be explained by enhanced NO3- availability for DNRA bacteria in the sediment slurries compared to the core-incubated sediments in which diffusion of NO3- from the water column may only reach DEN bacteria...

  3. Effects of dredged sediment disposal on the coastal marine macrobenthic assemblage in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Angonesi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the deposition impact of dredged material from Patos lagoon estuary on a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in an adjacent coastal marine area. Nine sampling stations were chosen at random in the disposal area, and nine others in the same way in an adjacent control area. Samples were collected at a 19 m depth before sediment disposal (11 July 2000, during dredging and disposal operations (25 Oct. 2000, and three months thereafter (24 Aug. 2001. Statistical analysis indicated that sampling periods presented similar characteristics in both the control and disposal sites. Disposal of dredged sediment from Patos lagoon had no detectable detrimental effects upon macrobenthic faunal assemblage at the dumping site. This result is attributed both to adaptation of resident biota to dynamic sedimentary conditions and to the fine estuarine sediment dredged, the dispersion of which in the water column might have minimized sediment deposition and consequent damage to the benthic fauna.

  4. Proceedings of a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Workshop for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman; Hirsch, Derrick; Helweg, David; Dhanju, Amardeep; Barmenski, Joan; Ferrero, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific and ocean policy assessments demonstrate that a fundamental change in our current management system is required to achieve the long-term health of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes in order to sustain the services and benefits they provide to society. The present (2011) species- and sector-centric way we manage these ecosystems cannot account properly for cumulative effects, sustaining multiple ecosystem services, and holistically and explicitly evaluating the tradeoffs associated with proposed alternative and multiple human uses. A transition to an ecosystem-based approach to management and conservation of coastal and marine resources is needed. Competing uses and activities such as commerce, recreation, cultural practices, energy development, conservation, and national security are increasing pressure for new and expanded resource usage in coastal marine ecosystems. Current management efforts use a sector-by-sector approach that mostly focuses on a limited range of tools and outcomes [for example, oil and gas leases, fishery management plans, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)]. A comprehensive, ecosystem-based, and proactive approach to planning and managing these uses and activities is needed. Further, scientific understanding and information are essential to achieve an integrated decision-making process that includes knowledge of ecosystem services, existing and possible future conditions, and potential consequences of natural and anthropogenic events. Because no single government agency has executive authority for coastal or ocean resources, conflicting objectives around competing uses abound. In recent years, regional- and state-level initiatives in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) have emerged to coordinate management activities. In some respects, the components and steps of the overall CMSP process are similar to how existing ocean resources are regulated and managed. For example, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation

  5. Whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, trapped in a freshwater coastal lagoon: a natural comparison of freshwater and marine influences on otolith chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Q. de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Strontium and barium incorporation into otoliths was compared between whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, collected from an entrapped freshwater population (Mirim Lagoon and a normal marine/estuarine population in southern Brazil. Chemical analysis was performed using LA-ICPMS with the objective of validating the effects of marine and freshwater environments on Sr and Ba incorporation as a basis for further investigation of marine and freshwater connectivity of M. furnieri. The freshwater population was dominated by older fish with mean ±SD age of 34±1 y, whereas the coastal samples were dominated by younger fish of 14±7 y. Comparison of strontium and barium incorporation among otolith life-history profiles indicated significantly higher barium and lower strontium for the freshwater population compared to the marine population. Furthermore, comparison of otolith material deposited in the freshwater, estuarine and marine life-history phases demonstrated clear differences among these environments. Mean concentrations of strontium and barium in otoliths of M. furnieri were respectively 710 and 112 µg g-1 for freshwater, 2069 and 16.7 µg g-1 for estuarine, and 2990 and 2.7 µg g-1 for marine life-history phases. Barium concentrations in otoliths from the freshwater population of M. furnieri appeared high relative to other freshwater species. Strontium levels across life-history profiles of marine fish increased with age from 2000 to 2900 µg g-1, possibly indicating more time spent in marine than estuarine waters with age. In contrast, for the freshwater population, strontium levels decreased during the first year of life approximately to 700 µg g-1, and remained low and stable thereafter, consistent with the early life-history occurring in an estuarine environment prior to entrapment in Mirim Lagoon. The results confirm the strong and opposite effects of marine and freshwater environments on incorporation of barium and strontium into

  6. Quantum Fingerprint-Based Air Quality Monitoring in Coastal Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coastal environments vital to our nation are strongly impacted by natural and human factors and are also sensitive to global climate change. A need exists for...

  7. Radiological assessment of coastal marine sediment and water samples, Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Akram, M.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shafiq, M.; Javed, T.; Aslam, M.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of selective natural radionuclides (/sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, /sup 40/K) in shallow marine coastal sediments and sea water off Karachi coast, Pakistan, were measured with a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer. Sediment and water samples were collected from polluted Layari and Malire River downstream (pre-out fall), Gizri Creek, Layari River out fall in Karachi harbor, Karachi Harbor/ Manora Channel Mains, as well as from open sea (South-East Coast and North-West Coast) within the 10m depth contour. No artificial radionuclides (e.g. /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 134/Cs were detected in both water and sediment samples at any of these locations. The activity of /sup 226/Ra in coastal river sediments is found below its limit of detection (<18.35 Bqkg/sup -1/). Activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments off Karachi Coast ranges between 11.80 +- 3.60 to 37.27+- 4.31 Bqkg/sup -1/. The highest activity was found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) and the lowest activity was found in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea). The /sup 226/Ra activity ranges from 19.40+- 5.88 to 67.14 +- 10.02 Bqkg/sup -1/. The activity of /sup 228/Ra in sediments of Manora Channel, South-east Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA-135 (/sup 228/Ra = 36.7 +- 3 Bqkg/sup -1/). The activity of /sup 226/Ra for the South East Coast of Karachi and the North west coast of Karachi are also in agreement with the IAEA marine sediment standard namely: IAEA 135(/sup 226/Ra=23.9 +- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/) and Pacific Ocean sediment standard namely: IAEA-368 (/sup 226/Ra=21.4+- 1.1 Bqkg/sup -1/). The /sup 40/K activity in sea sediments varies from 197.7+- 44.24 to 941.90 +- 39.00 Bqkg-1). The highest activity is observed in the vicinity of Oyster Rocks (open sea) along the Clifton coast (South-East Cost of Karachi) and the lowest activity is found south of Nuclear Power Station (KANUPP) along the

  8. Larval dispersion of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata in coastal marine waters of the Southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Claudia; Luppi, Tomás; Spivak, Eduardo; Schejter, Laura

    2009-08-01

    The estuarine brachyuran crab Neohelice granulata export their larvae from the parental intertidal population of the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, and probably other populations, to marine waters. The degree of larval dispersion or self-recruitment of populations is unknown. We evaluated the presence of all larval stages of N. granulata in coastal waters of Argentina between 37.9° and 35.8° S, at two different spatial scales: a broad scale of tens to hundreds of kilometers from the Río de la Plata estuary in the north, to Mar Chiquita lagoon in the south, and a small scale of hundreds of meters to some kilometers around the mouth of Mar Chiquita, during spring and summer. Additionally, we registered the larval composition and density at San Clemente creek population, in Samborombon Bay (Río de la Plata estuary), every 3 h along a 30-hour period. Evidence indicates that larval release of N. granulata is temporally synchronized with nocturnal ebb tides and all development from Zoea I to Zoea IV occur in areas close to the parental population, even with very different oceanographic characteristics. A possible mechanism based on salinity selection and wind-driven transport is proposed for such behavior, and some considerations related to the connectivity of present populations are made.

  9. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  10. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden); Joensen, H.P. [Froskaparsetur Foeroya. Faroe Islands, Torshavn (Denmark); Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Logemann, K. [Univ. of Iceland (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir Rikisins (Iceland); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Suolanen, V. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW{sub th} reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the

  11. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.; Lahtinen, J.; Logemann, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Roos, P.; Suolanen, V.

    2013-02-01

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW th reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen

  12. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Cunningham, J.D.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  13. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Long, S.; Dowdall, A.

    2000-09-01

    The safety of the food chain and the protection of the environment are prime concerns of the Irish public. This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1998 and 1999. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilization from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 1998 and again in 1999. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites between 1994 and 1999. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser

  14. An 'artificial mussel' for monitoring heavy metals in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Lau, T.C.; Fung, Wendy K.M.; Ko, P.H.; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new chemical sampling device, artificial mussel (AM), has been developed for monitoring metals in marine environments. This device consists of a polymer ligand suspended in artificial seawater within a Perspex tubing, and enclosed with semi-permeable gel at both ends. Laboratory and field experiments were carried out to examine the uptake of five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) by the AM. Uptake of metals by AM was proportional to the exposure metal concentrations, and the AM was able to accumulate the ASV labile fractions of metals. Uptake and release of the metals of AM are similar to those of the mussel Perna viridis, but less affected by salinity and temperature. Field studies demonstrated that the AM can not only provide a time-integrated estimate of metals concentrations, but also allows comparisons of metal levels in different environments and geographical areas beyond the natural distribution limits of biomonitors. - A new monitoring device to provide a time-integrated estimate for monitoring metals in marine environments

  15. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  16. Path Planning Method in Multi-obstacle Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Sun, Hanxv

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm for particle swarm optimization is proposed for the application of underwater robot in the complex marine environment. Not only did consider to avoid obstacles when path planning, but also considered the current direction and the size effect on the performance of the robot dynamics. The algorithm uses the trunk binary tree structure to construct the path search space and A * heuristic search method is used in the search space to find a evaluation standard path. Then the particle swarm algorithm to optimize the path by adjusting evaluation function, which makes the underwater robot in the current navigation easier to control, and consume less energy.

  17. The breakup of oil spills in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, E.; Zahariev, K.; Li, M.; Garrett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Existing theories of oil slick disintegration under stormy conditions were examined. A novel empirical model suitable for use in oil spill models was developed in an effort to demonstrate the many difficulties encountered in modeling the emulsification process. Chief among the difficulties is the prediction of the onset and extent of oil spill emulsification. The empirical model was described in some detail using surface active constituents and energy available from wind and waves as the controlling parameters. The resulting chart, if used in the marine environment, can predict localized emulsification and a more realistic behaviour of oil spills. 43 refs., 6 figs

  18. Effects of environment temperature rise on marine life. Bibliographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Eustache, M.; Vilquin, A.

    1973-12-01

    The effects of a temperature rise in the marine environment resulting from thermal wastes have already been covered by many studies. A body of data acquired on this subject, in the biological field, experimentally and in situ are reviewed. To this are added data concerning the major effects associated with the use of cooling systems, drag effect exerted on organisms by the pumping system and consequences due to the use of anti-fouling substances, as well as some ideas concerning the potential use of thermal wastes in the field of aquaculture [fr

  19. Circular Economy Development Mode of Coastal and Marine Areas in China and its Evaluation Index Research - The Example of Qingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine circular economy development and marine ecological security construction is the solution of seeking sustainable development when human beings are faced with marine ecological crisis in future period. Marine circular economy and ecological security is the subsystem of ecological, social and economic compound system. These two are mutually conditional and have been in collaborative development. Marine circular economy development is the premise and approach of securely constructing marine ecology. Constructing marine ecological security and building harmonious marine ecological environment is an important goal of developing circular economy. Circular economy is one of the important economic models for managing public resources under the principle of sustainable development, which is the guiding direction of future economic development in China. As important strategic resources, ocean is a crucial component of realizing economic sustainable development, which also needs to take the circular economy concept and basic principles as a guide for development.

  20. Plastics in the marine environment: the dark side of a modern gift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jort; Kraak, Michiel H S; Parsons, John R

    2012-01-01

    Plastics are cheap, strong, and durable and offer considerable benefits to humanity. They potentially can enhance the benefits that both medical and scientific technology will bestow to humankind. However, it has now been several decades since the use of plastics exploded, and we have evidence that our current approach to production, use, transport and disposal of plastic materials has caused, and is still causing serious effects on wildlife, and is not sustainable. Because of frequent inappropriate waste management practices, or irresponsible human behavior, large masses of plastic items have been released into the environment, and thereby have entered the world's oceans. Moreover, this process continues, and in some places is even increasing. Most plastic debris that now exists in the marine environment originated from ocean-based sources such as the fishing industry. Plastics accumulate in coastal areas, at the ocean surface and on the seabed. Because 70% of all plastics are known to eventually sink, it is suspected that ever increasing amounts of plastic items are accumulating in seabed sediments. Plastics do not biodegrade, although, under the influence of solar UV radiations, plastics do degrade and fragment into small particles, termed microplastics. Our oceans eventually serve as a sink for these small plastic particles and in one estimate, it is thought that 200,000 microplastics per km(2) of the ocean's surface commonly exist. The impact of plastic debris has been studied since the beginning of the 1960's. To date, more than 267 species in the marine environment are known to have been affected by plastic entanglement or ingestion. Marine mammals are among those species that are most affected by entanglement in plastic debris. By contrast, marine birds suffer the most from ingestion of plastics. Organisms can also be seriously absorbed by floating plastic debris, or the contaminants may derive from plastic additives that are leached to the environment

  1. Scavenging of radionuclides in the marine environment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    It is very important to predict diffusion, scavenging and accumulation of the long lives radionuclides which may be discharged from the reprocessing plant in the marine environment, for the purpose of polishing up methods of the radiation does estimation to the high quality stage. This study reports that distribution and behavior of transuranic elements, which are extremely harmful for the human beings and are discharged probably from the reprocessing plant, are investigated in both the survey of bibliography and the in-situ observation. Results of the field observation on the distribution of transuranic elements in the marine show that plutonium and americium are easily scavenged from the sea water and are accumulated on the sea bottom. Transuranic elements, which are originated from fallout and are discharged from the reprocessing plant, have generally the similar distribution in the marine and the same chemical behavior. This facts suggest that the fallout data which are probably and easily collected in the world are available for fabrication of the scavenging model for transuranic elements discharged from the reprocessing plants. (author)

  2. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  3. The hidden seasonality of the rare biosphere in coastal marine bacterioplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura

    2015-04-08

    Summary: Rare microbial taxa are increasingly recognized to play key ecological roles, but knowledge of their spatio-temporal dynamics is lacking. In a time-series study in coastal waters, we detected 83 bacterial lineages with significant seasonality, including environmentally relevant taxa where little ecological information was available. For example, Verrucomicrobia had recurrent maxima in summer, while the Flavobacteria NS4, NS5 and NS2b clades had contrasting seasonal niches. Among the seasonal taxa, only 4 were abundant and persistent, 20 cycled between rare and abundant and, remarkably, most of them (59) were always rare (contributing <1% of total reads). We thus demonstrate that seasonal patterns in marine bacterioplankton are largely driven by lineages that never sustain abundant populations. A fewer number of rare taxa (20) also produced episodic \\'blooms\\', and these events were highly synchronized, mostly occurring on a single month. The recurrent seasonal growth and loss of rare bacteria opens new perspectives on the temporal dynamics of the rare biosphere, hitherto mainly characterized by dormancy and episodes of \\'boom and bust\\', as envisioned by the seed-bank hypothesis. The predictable patterns of seasonal reoccurrence are relevant for understanding the ecology of rare bacteria, which may include key players for the functioning of marine ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Marine Phytophthora species can hamper conservation and restoration of vegetated coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Laura L; Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Meffert, Johan P; Bouma, Tjeerd J; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Heusinkveld, Jannes H T; Orth, Robert J; van Katwijk, Marieke M; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2016-08-31

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives. This is surprising, as marine plants form vital habitats in coastal zones worldwide (i.e. mangrove forests, salt marshes, seagrass beds), and disease may be an important bottleneck for the conservation and restoration of these rapidly declining ecosystems. We are the first to report on widespread infection of Phytophthora and Halophytophthora species on a common seagrass species, Zostera marina (eelgrass), across the northern Atlantic and Mediterranean. In addition, we tested the effects of Halophytophthora sp. Zostera and Phytophthora gemini on Z. marina seed germination in a full-factorial laboratory experiment under various environmental conditions. Results suggest that Phytophthora species are widespread as we found these oomycetes in eelgrass beds in six countries across the North Atlantic and Mediterranean. Infection by Halophytophthora sp. Zostera, P. gemini, or both, strongly affected sexual reproduction by reducing seed germination sixfold. Our findings have important implications for seagrass ecology, because these putative pathogens probably negatively affect ecosystem functioning, as well as current restoration and conservation efforts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. A study on the 210Po distribution in marine organisms around the coastal waters of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Preetha, J.; Madhuparna, D.; Narayani, K.; Vandana, P.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-shore environment and the surface oceans are very reactive zones with heavy geochemical and biological activity. Among the natural radionuclide, Po assumes importance as it is a good representative isotope of naturally occurring radionuclide present in the sea water which is particle reactive and high-energy alpha emitter. The source of Po is mainly from the diffusion of 222 Rn gas from its parent 238 U decay product 226 Ra. 210 Po gets accumulated in very high level in organisms and thus becomes responsible for the internal radiation dose to human. The main path for entry of the activity into human-is through consumption of marine food. This paper presents the results on the study conducted to investigate the 210 Po accumulation in the marine organism around Mumbai. The results were compared with 210 Po activity in representative marine organisms from eastern and western coastal India. Twelve different varieties of marine organisms (Fish, Crab, Prawns) consumed by the local population were collected from the catch at the shore and from the local fish markets. 210 Po was estimate in the organisms and in the sea water by standard radiochemical analysis. The edible portion of the organism were separated, freeze dried, acid digested at controlled temperature of 90℃ and the residue was extracted in 0.5M HCI. 210 Po in sea water was concentrated using Fe(OH) 3 scavenging followed by extraction by 0.5M HCI. Po was further separated from the acid extract by spontaneous deposition on to a Ag disk at 80℃. Alpha activity in the deposited sample was estimated using Alpha spectrometry. 208 Po and 209 Po tracers were used as yield monitor. 210 Po was observed to be in the range of <0.008-8.39 Bq.kg -1 in fish varieties. In prawns, activity was in the range of <0.008-1.41 Bq.kg -1 . Bioaccumulation factor was calculated and the values were compared with the IAEA reported values and discussed. (author)

  6. NRPA. Radioactivity in the marine environment 2008 and 2009. Results from the Norwegian national monitoring programme (RAME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaefvert, T.; Heldal, H. E.; Brungot, A. L.; Gwynn, J.; Svaeren, I.; Kolstad, A. K.; Moeller, B.; Straalberg, E.; Christensen, G. C.; Drefvelin, J.; Dowdall, M.; Lind, B.; Rudjord, A. L.

    2011-04-01

    The issue of present and potential radioactive contamination in the marine environment has received considerable attention in Norway. In the late 1980s several accidents and incidents involving nuclear-powered submarines,demonstrated that the risk of the release of radionuclides into the Barents Sea should be considered more carefully. In particular, it became evident that better documentation concerning the radioactivity levels in fish and other seafood was important for the seafood export industries. Furthermore, in the early 1990s, information concerning the dumping of nuclear waste emerged through bilateral environmental cooperation between Norway and Russia. In the years that followed, concern grew regarding the safety of military and civil nuclear installations in the northwest of Russia. This concern was associated not only with possible reactor accidents, but also with the prolonged or sudden release of radio-nuclides from radioactive waste facilities.In addition to the potential threats outlined above, radionuclides originating from nuclear weapons fallout, the Chernobyl accident and waste discharged from European reprocessing facilities have been detected in the Norwegian marine environment. In 1994 and 1995, the discharge of 99Tc from the reprocessing facility at Sellafield in the UK increased sharply, and although this discharge has been reduced, it continued at a high level up to 2003. There has been much public concern about the consequences of such kinds of release, as the radionuclides discharged to the Irish Sea are transported by ocean currents via the North Sea into the Norwegian coastal current and to the Barents Sea. In response to this concern, programmes for the monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment have been established. Due to the economic importance of the fishing industry and its vulnerability to contamination, as well as any rumours of radioactive contamination, one of the main objectives of these programmes is to

  7. 670 investigating changes in coastal environment using internet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    investigation of land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes. The results obtained tend ... mainstay of the people. (marine, tourism and fishing activities) has been adversely affected. ... can refer to biotic and abiotic features, including soil, topography,.

  8. Mercury in contaminated coastal environments; a case study: the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, M; Covelli, S; Faganeli, J; Logar, M; Mandić, V; Rajar, R; Sirca, A; Zagar, D

    1999-09-30

    Some general facts, uncertainties and gaps in current knowledge of Hg cycling in coastal and oceanic environments are given. As a case study the Gulf of Trieste is chosen. The Gulf is subject to substantial Hg pollution, originating from the Soca river, that drains the cinnabar deposits of the world's second largest Hg mining area, Idrija, Slovenia. The Gulf belongs to one of the most polluted areas in the Mediterranean. Apart from Hg problems, the Gulf is also a subject to industrial and sewage pollution. Due to deteriorating water quality in the Gulf there is a great concern that Hg can be remobilized from sediments to the water column as well as enhance methylation rates which may consequently increase already elevated Hg levels in aquatic organisms. The paper presents data from a recent study which aims to assess the extent of contamination of the Gulf of Trieste after the closure of the Hg mine. Mercury and methylmercury were measured in various environmental compartments (estuarine and marine waters, sediments, and organisms) during the period 1995-1997. Data obtained show that even 10 years after closure of the Hg mine, Hg concentrations in river sediments and water are still very high and did not show the expected decrease of Hg in the Gulf of Trieste. A provisional annual mercury mass balance was established for the Gulf of Trieste showing that the major source of inorganic mercury is still the River Soca (Isonzo) while the major source of methylmercury is the bottom sediment of the Gulf.

  9. Boat-Based Education for Boston Area Public Schools: Encouraging Marine Science and Technology Literacy and Awareness of the Coastal "Backyard"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. M.; Reynolds, R. M.; Wright, A. K.; Deschenes, H. A.

    2016-02-01

    Half the global population lives within 60 km of the ocean, profoundly influencing environmental quality and services to local communities. Adoption of marine science curricula creates opportunities for educators and scientists to engage and entrain K-12 students as ocean stewards. In particular, boat-based science activities facilitate hands-on inquiry. These activities reinforce key science concepts while creating a tangible connection to our shared coastal "backyard." A collaboration between Zephyr Education Foundation, the New England Aquarium, the University of Massachusetts Boston and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has taken >500 Boston, MA area students from 26 public schools on boat-based education trips in Boston Harbor. Marine science and technology professionals and educators facilitate participatory activities using modern marine technology aboard a research vessel. Trips are funded at no cost to participants by a grant from the Richard Lounsbery Foundation; cost-free outings are essential for participation from underserved public school districts. Participants perceived three important outcomes of their outings: the trips 1) enhanced in-class curricular learning and improved marine science literacy 2) increased personal connections to local marine environments, and 3) increased interest in careers in marine science, including engineering and technical positions. Despite living in close proximity to water, this was the first boat outing for many students; boat-based education trips enhanced student awareness of local environments in a way that curricular study had not. Boston trip results are being evaluated, but 3000 evaluations from similar trips in Woods Hole, MA indicate that 98% of participants gained a better understanding and appreciation of the work conducted by marine scientists, engineers, and other professionals, and 82% said their experience made them more interested in becoming involved in science at school and/or as a job. In summary

  10. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  11. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sandlund

    Full Text Available Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, whiting (Merlangius merlangus and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus. All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  12. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Nutrients and Other Environmental Factors Influence Virus Abundances across Oxic and Hypoxic Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Finke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Models of varying complexity were tested and compared for best fit with the Akaike Information Criterion, and revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, as well as prokaryote abundances, either individually or combined, had significant effects on viral abundances in all but hypoxic environments, which were only explained by a combination of physical and chemical factors. Nonetheless, multivariate models of environmental variables showed high explanatory power, matching or surpassing that of prokaryote abundance alone. Incorporating both environmental variables and prokaryote abundances into multivariate models significantly improved the explanatory power of the models, except in hypoxic environments. These findings demonstrate that environmental factors could be as important as, or even more important than, prokaryote abundance in describing viral abundance across wide-ranging marine environments

  14. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    The paper stresses the importance of training and education to the development and application of knowledge on the coastal marine environment and its resources. Present status of human resources training in India is discussed and changes...

  15. Behaviour of caesium-137 in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Laichter, Y.; Shafrir, N.H.

    1975-01-01

    The radiological impacts of radioactive release from nuclear facilities into aquatic environments can be studied by following the behaviour of fallout radionuclides in the sea, provided that they exist in the same physico-chemical state. Caesium-137 entering the sea from fallout, although found to be at extremely low levels in the marine environment, is still detectable and can be considered representative for the behaviour of 137 Cs appearing in cooling waters and effluents of nuclear installations and processing plants located near the sea. The relatively high radiotoxicity, long physical half-life and high fission yield of 137 Cs justify further investigation of its behaviour in aquatic environments. In this investigation the sampling of sea water, sediments and organisms in the Mediterranean Sea was undertaken. Caesium-137 determinations were carried out using an extremely low level Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry system specifically designed for studies of environmental marine radioactivity. The activity of 137 Cs on the surface of the sea was found to be 0.49+-0.17 pCi/1. Caesium-137 concentrations at depth profiles down to 1000 m below the surface show variations by a factor of ten (0.65-0.07), maximum concentrations being found at a depth of 100-300 m. These concentration peaks may be explained by good mixing in the upper layers and by the existence of a thermocline or pycnocline which serve as mixing barriers at depths down to approximately 300 m, at least during part of the year. Caesium-137 concentrations in a number of marine biota representing a marine food chain composed of benthic algae, invertebrates and fishes, were determined. With reference to the average 137 Cs content in the upper water layers of the sea, concentration factors for these organisms were calculated. In all the three taxonomic groups mentioned, values within the range 10-300 were found. Biological concentration factors for any particular radionuclide are independent of its content in the

  16. Detection of cadmium radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    Sediment and tissues from different marine organisms recently collected atolls of the Marshall Islands have been found to contain measurable amounts of /sup 113m/Cd previously deposited to the atolls during the testing of nuclear devices at the Pacific Proving Grounds. /sup 113m/Cd has been also detected in some internal organs of mullet collected from the east coast of the United States in an area contaminated only with global fallout debris. This is one of the few summaries to show that this long-lived radionuclide (T/sub 1/2/ = 14.6 yr) exists and persists in the marine environment. It is the dominant anthropogenic radionuclide in the liver of some pelagic fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and is found concentrated in other tissues and organs of all fish analyzed. Dose to man from /sup 113m/Cd ingestion is being assessed at the Marshall Islands and should be done at any other global site where contamination by this radionuclide is suspected in the aquatic environment

  17. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses three case studies of greatly different types of discharges of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment. The SNAP 9A satellite burnup dispersed almost pure 238 Pu into the atmosphere over the Mozambique channel at about 25 deg. S latitude in 1964. A much more heterogeneous mixture of liquids and solids containing a variety of radionuclides of low activity levels were packaged in steel drums and sunk to the sea floor near the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California, USA between 1994 and 1964. An extensive series of tests of nuclear and thermonuclear devices with a total yield of many megatons was conducted by the U.S. at the remote coral atolls of the Marshall Islands at 110 deg. N and 160-165 deg. E, making them the most radioactively contaminated parts of the marine environment. The chapter briefly summarizes each of these cases, and stresses the major points learned about radionuclide cycling and about environmental processes from each of them. (author)

  18. Detection of cadmium radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Anglin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Sediment and tissues from different marine organisms recently collected at atolls of the Marshall Islands have been found to contain measurable amounts of 113 Cdsup(m) previously deposited to the atolls during the testing of nuclear devices at the Pacific Proving Grounds. Cadmium-113m has been also detected in some internal organs of mullet collected from the east coast of the United States of America in an area contaminated only with global fall-out debris. This is one of the few summaries to show that this long-lived radionuclide (Tsub(1/2) = 14.6 years) exists and persists in the marine environment. It is the dominate anthropogenic radionuclide in the liver of some pelagic fish from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and is found concentrated in other tissues and organs of all fish analysed. Dose to man from 113 Cdsup(m) ingestion is being assessed at the Marshall Islands and should be carried out at any other global site where contamination by this radionuclide is suspected in the aquatic environment. (author)

  19. Environmental barcoding reveals massive dinoflagellate diversity in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena F Stern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known "species", as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments.In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean, including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species.COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of natural diversity in dinoflagellates. This highlights

  20. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985-86 and 2014-15) interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO) analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus) were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica). Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons) were unaffected. Centropages

  1. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lee Chew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985–86 and 2014–15 interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica. Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons were unaffected

  2. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985–86 and 2014–15) interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO) analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus) were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica). Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons) were unaffected. Centropages

  3. Pressures on the marine environment and the changing climate of ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Andrew P

    2012-12-13

    The oceans are under pressure from human activities. Following 250 years of industrial activity, effects are being seen at the cellular through to regional and global scales. The change in atmospheric CO(2) from 280 ppm in pre-industrial times to 392 ppm in 2011 has contributed to the warming of the upper 700 m of the ocean by approximately 0.1°C between 1961 and 2003, to changes in sea water chemistry, which include a pH decrease of approximately 0.1, and to significant decreases in the sea water oxygen content. In parallel with these changes, the human population has been introducing an ever-increasing level of nutrients into coastal waters, which leads to eutrophication, and by 2008 had resulted in 245,000 km(2) of severely oxygen-depleted waters throughout the world. These changes are set to continue for the foreseeable future, with atmospheric CO(2) predicted to reach 430 ppm by 2030 and 750 ppm by 2100. The cycling of biogeochemical elements has proved sensitive to each of these effects, and it is proposed that synergy between stressors may compound this further. The challenge, within the next few decades, for the marine science community, is to elucidate the scope and extent that biological processes can adapt or acclimatize to a changing chemical and physical marine environment.

  4. Role of environmental factors and microorganisms in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Robert; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in marine ecosystems and originate from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. PAHs enter the marine environment in two main ways, corresponding to chronic pollution or acute pollution by oil spills. The global PAH fluxes in marine environments are controlled by the microbial degradation and the biological pump, which plays a role in particle settling and in sequestration through bioaccumulation. Due to their low water solubility and hydrophobic nature, PAHs tightly adhere to sediments leading to accumulation in coastal and deep sediments. Microbial assemblages play an important role in determining the fate of PAHs in water and sediments, supporting the functioning of biogeochemical cycles and the microbial loop. This review summarises the knowledge recently acquired in terms of both chronic and acute PAH pollution. The importance of the microbial ecology in PAH-polluted marine ecosystems is highlighted as well as the importance of gaining further in-depth knowledge of the environmental services provided by microorganisms. PMID:28201512

  5. A review of the influence of biogeography, riverine linkages, and marine connectivity on fish assemblages in evolving lagoons and lakes of coastal southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whitfield, AK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available lakes), elements of the marine fish assemblage have persisted, especially the presence of facultative catadromous species. Freshwater fish diversity in coastal lakes and lagoons is a function of historical and present biogeography and salinity. From a...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) (NODC Accession 0014158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Migratory Sea Bird Watch (F038) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses...

  8. Marine Mammal Sighting and Census data from Coastal Alaska from 1985-05-05 to 1985-06-13 (NODC Accession 8600633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Mammal Sighting and Census data were collected from Coastal Alaska. Data were collected by Alaska Department of Fish and Game from 05 May 1985 to 13 June...

  9. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Feeding Flock (F037) (NODC Accession 0014157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Feeding Flock (F037) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  10. Marine habitat mapping, classification and monitoring in the coastal North Sea: Scientific vs. stakeholder interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Papenmeier, Svenja; Fiorentino, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Producing detailed maps of the seafloor that include both, water depth and simple textural characteristics has always been a challenge to scientists. In this context, marine habitat maps are an essential tool to comprehend the complexity, the spatial distribution and the ecological status of different seafloor types. The increasing need for more detail demands additional information on the texture of the sediment, bedforms and information on benthic sessile life. For long time, taking samples and videos/photographs followed by interpolation over larger distances was the only feasible way to gain information about sedimentary features such as grain-size distribution and bedforms. While ground truthing is still necessary, swath systems such as multibeam echo sounders (MBES) and sidescan sonars (SSS), as well as single beam acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) became available to map the seafloor area-wide (MBES, SSS), fast and in great detail. Where area-wide measurements are impossible or unavailable point measurements are interpolated, classified and modeled. To keep pace with environmental change in the highly dynamic coastal areas of the North Sea (here: German Bight) monitoring that utilizes all of the mentioned techniques is a necessity. Since monitoring of larger areas is quite expensive, concepts for monitoring strategies were developed in scientific projects such as "WIMO" ("Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight, SE North Sea"). While instrumentation becomes better and better and interdisciplinary methods are being developed, the gap between basic scientific interests and stakeholder needs often seem to move in opposite directions. There are two main tendencies: the need to better understand nature systems (for theoretical purposes) and the one to simplify nature (for applied purposes). Science trends to resolve the most detail in highest precision employing soft gradients and/or fuzzy borders instead of crisp demarcations and

  11. Degradation of plastic carrier bags in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brine, Tim; Thompson, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. → Here we investigate breakdown of oxodegradable, compostable and conventional plastic bags. → Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks. → Approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. → Fouling by marine organisms substantially reduced the amount of UV-light reaching the plastic. - Abstract: There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. Use of polymers that degrade more quickly than conventional plastics presents a possible solution to this problem. Here we investigate breakdown of two oxo-biodegradable plastics, compostable plastic and standard polyethylene in the marine environment. Tensile strength of all materials decreased during exposure, but at different rates. Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks whereas approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. Some plastics require UV light to degrade. Transmittance of UV through oxo-biodegradable and standard polyethylene decreased as a consequence of fouling such that these materials received ∼90% less UV light after 40 weeks. Our data indicate that compostable plastics may degrade relatively quickly compared to oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastics. While degradable polymers offer waste management solutions, there are limitations to their effectiveness in reducing hazards associated with plastic debris.

  12. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Smith, V.; Fegan, M.; Ryan, T.P.; Dowdall, A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out be the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 1996 and 1997. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure to the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield continue to be the principal source of this contamination. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected each year. The samples were analysed for a range of contaminating radionuclides at the Institute's radioanalytical laboratory. The results show that the radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentration of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites during the reporting period. The main pathway contributing to the exposure of the Irish public is the consumption of seafood. The committed effective dose to heavy consumers of seafood due to artificial radionuclides in 1996 was 1.6 μSv and in 1997 was 1.4 μSv. in 1996 was 1.6 μSv and in 1997 was 1.4 μSv

  13. Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in a Crowded Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J.

    2016-12-01

    Offshore aquaculture is an emerging industry predicted to contribute significantly to global seafood production and food security. However, aquaculture farms can generate conflicts by displacing existing ocean user groups and impacting ecosystems. Further, there are multiple farm types with different seafood species, productivity levels and impacts. Thus, it is important to strategically and simultaneously plan farm type and location in relation to the seascape in order to most effectively maximize aquaculture value while also minimizing conflicts and environmental impacts. We address this problem and demonstrate the value of multi-objective planning with a case study that integrates bioeconomic modeling with ecosystem service tradeoff analysis to inform the marine spatial planning (MSP) of mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture farms in the already-crowded Southern California Bight (SCB) ecosystem. We considered four user groups predicted to conflict with or be impacted by the three types of aquaculture: wild-capture fisheries, ocean viewshed from coastal properties, marine benthic habitat protection, and risk of disease outbreak between farms. Results indicate that significant conflicts and impacts, expected under conventional planning, can be reduced by strategic planning. For example, 28% of potential mussel farm sites overlap with wild-capture halibut fishery grounds, yet MSP can enable mussel aquaculture to generate up to a third of its total potential industry value without impacting halibut fishery yield. Results also highlight hotspot areas in the SCB most appropriate for each type of aquaculture under MSP, as well as particular mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture spatial plans that align with legislative regulations on allowable impacts from future aquaculture farms in California. This study comprehensively informs aquaculture farm design in the SCB, and demonstrates the value of multi-objective simultaneous planning as a key component in MSP.

  14. Natural Isotope Radium in Marine Biota at Kapar, Klang Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The activities concentration of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in marine biota at Kapar coastal area nearby Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah Power Station (SJSSAAS) had been analyzed. The techniques that had been used to determine the activities concentration of 226 Ra dan 228 Ra are radiochemistry procedures and liquid scintillation counter (LSC). Results shows that the distribution of radium isotopes depend on the location and during sampling periods. The activities concentration of 226 Rai and 228 Rai in tissue were ranged 11.82 ± 5.23 Bq/ kg - 17.67 ± 6.81 Bq/ kg and 40.42 ± 16.20 Bq/ kg - 67.86 ± 23.11 Bq/ kg, respectively. The mean activities concentration of radium isotopes in bivalvia such as cockles (anadara granosa) are 61.73 ± 24.15 Bq/ kg (226Raag) and 232.62 ± 119.44 Bq/ kg (228Raag). Meanwhile for green mussles (perna viridis), the mean activities concentration of 226Rapv dan 228Rapv are 38.24 ± 14.19 Bq/ kg dan 99.59 ± 44.91 Bq/ kg, respectively. Concentration Factor (CF) in marine biota is higher than 1 x 10 4 and it is because of the accumulated radium isotopes is low and has a high affinity for organic matter. The study also shows the effectiveness of dose in radium isotopes were measured to ensure the safety of users and it is still below the limit allowed Malaysia which is 1 mSv / year. (author)

  15. Sources and distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in different marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of the distribution in time and space radiologically important radionuclides from different sources in different marine environments is important for assessment of dose commitment following controlled or accidental releases and for detecting eventual new sources. Present sources from nuclear explosion tests, releases from nuclear facilities and the Chernobyl accident provide a tool for such studies. The different sources can be distinguished by different isotopic and radionuclide composition. Results show that radiocaesium behaves rather conservatively in the south and north Atlantic while plutonium has a residence time of about 8 years. On the other hand enhanced concentrations of plutonium in surface waters in arctic regions where vertical mixing is small and iceformation plays an important role. Significantly increased concentrations of plutonium are also found below the oxic layer in anoxic basins due to geochemical concentration. (author)

  16. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.D.; O'Grady, J.; Rush, T.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of the monitoring programme for the two-year period from January 1985 to December 1986. Information on the radioactive contamination of the marine environment is obtained from the analysis of environmental samples taken at a number of locations along the coastline and various sampling stations in the western Irish Sea. These usually include samples of surface seawater, sediment, seaweed, fish and shellfish. Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received by the Irish public from the consumption of fish and shellfish during the period 1985-1986. These doses are assessed in terms of the system of dose limitation recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and embodied in the Basic Safety Standards Directive of the European Community

  17. Exploring Marine Environments To Unravel Tolerance Mechanisms To Relevant Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nørholm, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Production of biofuels and chemicals using microorganisms has been a research driver in the last decades. The approach started with the engineering of metabolic pathways for production of compounds of interest, but it was soon realized that tolerance to the compounds being produced was one...... of interest, HPLC analyses were performed in order to distinguish between compound-degrading and tolerant bacteria. This led to the identification of seven tolerant and non-degrading isolates, the most interesting ones belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. These will be studied using genomic...... and transcriptomic approaches to identify the tolerance mechanisms used. Exploring new ecological niches, as contaminated marine environments allows the identification of naturally tolerant bacteria to the compounds of interest and most likely to the discovery of new mechanisms of tolerance....

  18. Accumulation of Mercury (Hg) and Methyl Mercury (Me Hg) Concentrations In Selected Marine Biota From Manjung Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisa Abdullah; Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Abd Khalik Wood; Masitah Alias

    2015-01-01

    Level of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (Me Hg) in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied as these toxic substances could be accumulated in the marine biota. This study is focusing on the Hg and Me Hg content in marine biota in Manjung coastal area. This area has high potential being affected by rapid socio-economic development of Manjung area such as heavy industrial activities (coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories), agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge, quarries, housing constructions. It may has a potential risk when released into the atmosphere and dispersed on the surface of water and continue deposited at the bottom of the water and sediment and being absorbed by marine biota. The concentrations of Hg and Me Hg in marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. In this study, five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. The Hg concentrations for dry and rainy season are in the range 65.13-102.12 μg/ kg and 75.75-106.10 μg/ kg respectively, while for MeHg concentrations for dry and rainy seasons are in the range 4.35-6.26 μg/ kg and 5.42-6.46 μg/ kg, respectively. These results are below the limit set by Malaysia Food Act (1983). Generally, marine biota from the Manjung coastal area is safe to consume due to low value of ingestion dose rate and health risk index (HRI) for human health. (author)

  19. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  20. The relationship between Holocene cultural site distribution and marine terrace uplift on the coast fringing Coastal Range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan

    2013-04-01

    According to the collision of Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia plate, a series of left-lateral active faults with reverse sense exists in the Longitudinal Valley of east Taiwan. The Holocene marine terraces along the east coast of the Coastal Range in Taiwan are well known for their very rapid uplift and record tectonic history of this active collision boundary. The Holocene marine terrace sequence resulting from successive sea level change and tectonic activation is subdivided into several steps where the highest and oldest terrace, back to ca 13,000yr BP, reaches up to ca 80 m above sea level, and the lower terraces are mostly erosional ones, overlain by less than 1m thick coral beds in situ. The uplift of the coast is very high, ranging from 5 to 10 m/ka. According to the fabrics of potsherds and geochronological data, the prehistoric cultures in eastern Taiwan could be classified into three stages: Fushan (ca 5000-3500yr BP), Peinan/Chilin (ca3500-2000yr BP), Kweishan (ca2000-1000 yr BP) and Jinpu (ca 1000-400yr BP) cultural assemblages respectively. A great difference exists between the various cultural stage, not only the pottery making techniques, but also the distributions of archaeological sites. Combined with the dynamic geomorphic evolution of marine terraces and the distribution of prehistoric culture sites on the east coast of the Coastal Range, a coastal migration trend could be established.

  1. Dynamics of extracellular DNA in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.H.; Jeffrey, W.H.; DeFlaun, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The production and turnover of dissolved DNA in subtropical estuarine and oligotrophic oceanic environments were investigated. Actively growing heterotrophic bacterioplankton (i.e., those capable of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation) were found to produce dissolved DNA, presumably through the processes of death and lysis, grazing by bacteriovores, and excretion. Production of dissolved DNA as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation was ≤4% of the ambient dissolved DNA concentration per day. In turnover studies, the addition of [ 3 H]DNA (Escherichia coli chromosomal) to seawater resulted in rapid hydrolysis and uptake of radioactivity by microbial populations. DNA was hydrolyzed by both cell-associated and extracellular nucleases, in both estuarine and offshore environments. Kinetic analysis performed for a eutrophic estuary indicated a turnover time for dissolved DNA as short as 6.5 h. Microautoradiographic studies of bacterial populations in Tampa Bay indicated that filamentous and attached bacteria took up most of the radioactivity from [ 3 H]DNA. Dissolved DNA is therefore a dynamic component of the dissolved organic matter in the marine environment, and bacterioplankton play a key role in the cycling of this material

  2. Benthic fluxes of mercury during redox changes in pristine coastal marine sediments from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koron, Neza [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Faganeli, Jadran [National Institute of Biology, Piran (Slovenia). Marine Biological Section; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) is an example of a coastal environment contaminated with mercury (Hg). Contamination is a consequence of nearly 500 years of activity at the Idrija Mine (western Slovenia), which is the second largest Hg mine in the world. Oxygen depletion can be common in the Gulf of Trieste due to late summer stratification of the water column and accumulation of labile organic matter. Since changing redox conditions can have an impact on Hg transformations, we studied the effect of oxygen depletion, in parallel with sulphide, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability, on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes from sediments. Materials and methods: Pore water concentrations and benthic fluxes of total dissolved Hg and MeHg were studied in situ and in microcosm laboratory experiments using flux chambers encompassing three different stages: oxic, anoxic and reoxidation. Results and discussion: Our experiments showed that in the oxic stage there were small effluxes of MeHg to the water column, which increased in the anoxic stage and dropped rapidly in a subsequent reoxic stage, showing influx. Our results support the hypothesis that MeHg desorption from reduced metal hydroxides under anoxic conditions, and co-precipitation with Fe-oxides and MeHg demethylation in the reoxidation stage, may play a major role in determining MeHg benthic fluxes. For Hg and MeHg, it appears that there is little relationship between their pore water distribution and flux and that of FDOM, i.e. humics. Conclusions: The results indicate that there was no significant difference in Hg and MeHg pore water levels and their benthic fluxes between the contaminated northern and central parts of the Gulf of Trieste and the pristine southern part. This suggests that shallow and stratified coastal marine environments, in general, represent areas with a risk of high benthic release of

  3. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  4. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect.

  5. Medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Addleman, R.S.; Davidson, J.D.; Douglas, M.; Meier, D.; Mullen, O.D.; Myjak, M.; Jones, M.E.; Woodring, M.L.; Johnson, B.; Santschi, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters. The system is designed to extract and preconcentrate isotopes of interest from natural waters prior to detection in order to eliminate signal attenuation of the gamma rays traveling through water and lower the overall background from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes ( 40 K and U-Th series radionuclides). Filtration is used to preconcentrate target isotopes residing on suspended particles, while chemosorption is employed to preferentially extract truly dissolved components from the water column. Used filter and chemosorbent media will be counted autonomously using two LaBr 3 detectors in a near 4-π configuration around the samples. A compact digital pulse processing system, developed in-house and capable of running in coincidence mode, is used to process the signal from the detectors to a small on-board computer. The entire system is extremely compact (9' dia. x 30' len.) and platform independent, but designed for initial deployment on a research buoy. A variety of commercial and in-house nano-porous chemosorbents have been selected, procured or produced, and these and filter and detector components have been tested. (author)

  6. Transfer parameters of radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To increase the accuracy of estimation of exposure dose by radionuclides in the marine, the informations of environmental parameter data in the marine were collected, arranged and discussed. The informations were discussed by 'a sectional committee of marine suspended solids and sediment'. The following problems were investigated and the studies were recorded in this report, clear explanation about the distribution factor (kd), the estimation method of kd, the fluctuating factor of kd data (properties of suspension and sediment, differences among the experimental methods), the physical and chemical behavior of radionuclides, sediment of radionuclides by means of sorption to the suspended particles in the marine, sorption of radionuclides into the marine soil (sediment), re-eluent of radionuclides sorpted in the marine soil (sediment), and relation between marine organism and marine suspended materials and sediment. (S.Y.)

  7. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment.

  8. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  9. Spatial distribution of radium in coastal marine waters of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Rajaram, S.; Jha, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation on the distribution of radium activity levels in the entire south eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, from Chennai to Kanyakumari was carried out. Insitu preconcentration technique was adopted by passing 1,000 L of seawater through MnO 2 impregnated cartridge filters at all the locations. In the coastal waters, 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentration was observed to be in the range of 1 to 1.81 and 3.1 to 7.5 mBq/L, respectively with an average of 1.52 and 4.53 mBq/L. respectively, while the sediment samples showed 226 Ra activity levels from 8.1 to 129.0 Bq/kg and 228 Ra varied from 14.7 to 430.01 Bq/kg. The Kd values for 226 Ra was observed to be from 5.3E03 to 3.5E05 L/kg and for 228 Ra it was in the range of 2.3E03 to 5.9E04. It was observed that the concentration of 228 Ra was more than 226 Ra in all the locations. The spatial distribution of the activity with respect to location is discussed in the paper. The radioactive database obtained, represents reference values for coastal environment of Tamil Nadu. (author)

  10. Fate, behaviour and weathering of priority HNS in the marine environment: An online tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Isabel; Oliveira, Helena; Neuparth, Teresa; Torres, Tiago; Santos, Miguel Machado

    2016-01-01

    Literature data and data obtained with modelling tools were compiled to derive the physicochemical behaviour of 24 priority Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS), as a proxy to improve environmental, public health and political issues in relation to HNS spills. Parameters that rule the HNS behaviour in water and those that determine their distribution and persistence in the environment, such as fugacity, physicochemical degradation, biodegradation, bioaccumulation/biotransformation and aquatic toxicity, were selected. Data systematized and produced in the frame of the Arcopol Platform project was made available through a public database ( (http://www.ciimar.up.pt/hns/substances.php)). This tool is expected to assist stakeholders involved in HNS spills preparedness and response, policy makers and legislators, as well as to contribute to a current picture of the scientific knowledge on the fate, behaviour, weathering and toxicity of priority HNS, being essential to support future improvements in maritime safety and coastal pollution response before, during and after spill incidents. - Highlights: • Fate, behaviour and weathering of priority HNS in marine environments are addressed. • Environmental and public health issues in relation to HNS spills are discussed. • Physicochemical behaviour is derived through mathematical tools and literature data. • Data produced are made available through a public online database. • Database can assist relevant bodies involved in HNS spills preparedness and response.

  11. What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Maj Ottosen, Katharina; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2015-01-01

    academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis...... also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science......Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement...

  12. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F.; Scholten, J.; Betti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  13. Advancing satellite-based solar power forecasting through integration of infrared channels for automatic detection of coastal marine inversion layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostylev, Vladimir; Kostylev, Andrey; Carter, Chris; Mahoney, Chad; Pavlovski, Alexandre; Daye, Tony [Green Power Labs Inc., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Cormier, Dallas Eugene; Fotland, Lena [San Diego Gas and Electric Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The marine atmospheric boundary layer is a layer or cool, moist maritime air with the thickness of a few thousand feet immediately below a temperature inversion. In coastal areas as moist air rises from the ocean surface, it becomes trapped and is often compressed into fog above which a layer of stratus clouds often forms. This phenomenon is common for satellite-based solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. Hour ahead satellite-based solar radiation forecasts are commonly using visible spectrum satellite images, from which it is difficult to automatically differentiate low stratus clouds and fog from high altitude clouds. This provides a challenge for cloud motion tyracking and cloud cover forecasting. San Diego Gas and Electric {sup registered} (SDG and E {sup registered}) Marine Layer Project was undertaken to obtain information for integration with PV forecasts, and to develop a detailed understanding of long-term benefits from forecasting Marine Layer (ML) events and their effects on PV production. In order to establish climatological ML patterns, spatial extent and distribution of marine layer, we analyzed visible and IR spectrum satellite images (GOES WEST) archive for the period of eleven years (2000 - 2010). Historical boundaries of marine layers impact were established based on the cross-classification of visible spectrum (VIS) and infrared (IR) images. This approach is successfully used by us and elsewhere for evaluating cloud albedo in common satellite-based techniques for solar radiation monitoring and forecasting. The approach allows differentiation of cloud cover and helps distinguish low laying fog which is the main consequence of marine layer formation. ML occurrence probability and maximum extent inland was established for each hour and day of the analyzed period and seasonal/patterns were described. SDG and E service area is the most affected region by ML events with highest extent and probability of ML occurrence. Influence of ML was the

  14. Biofouling of various metal oxides in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougo, T.; Kuroda, D.; Wada, N.; Ikegai, H.; Kanematsu, H.

    2012-03-01

    Biofouling has induced serious problems in various industrial fields such as marine structures, bio materials, microbially induced corrosion (MIC) etc. The effects of various metals on biofouling have been investigated so far and the mechanism has been clarified to some extent(1,2), and we proposed that Fe ion attracted lots of bacteria and formed biofilm very easily(3). In this study, we investigated the possibility for biofouling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various metal oxides such as Fe2O3, TiO2, WO3, AgO, Cr2O3 etc. And in addition of such a model experiment on laboratory scale, they were immersed into actual sea water as well as artificial sea water. As for the preparation of metal oxides, commercial oxide powders were used as starting material and those whose particle sizes were under 100 micrometers were formed into pellets by a press. Some of them were heated to 700 °C and sintered for 10 hours at the temperatures. After the calcinations, they were immersed into the culture of P. aeruginosa at 35 °C in about one week. After the immersion, they were taken out of the culture and the biofouling behaviors were observed by optical microscopy, low pressure scanning electron microscopy (low pressure SEM) etc. Biofouling is generally classified into several steps. Firstly, conditioning films composed of organic matters were formed on specimens. Then bacterial were attached to the specimen's surfaces, seeking for conditioning films as nutrition. Then bacteria formed biofilm on the specimens. In marine environment, more larger living matters such as shells etc would be attached to biofilms. However, in the culture media, only biofilms were formed.

  15. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  16. Monitoring coastal wetlands in a highly dynamic tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saynor, M.J.; Finlayson, C.M.; Spiers, A.; Eliot, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Region in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has been selected by government and collaborating agencies as a key study area for the monitoring of natural and human-induced coastal change. The Region contains the floodplain wetlands of Kakadu National Park which have been recognised internationally for their natural and cultural heritage value. A coastal monitoring program for assessing and monitoring environmental change in the Alligator Rivers Region has been established at the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist. This program has developed a regional capacity to measure and assess change on the wetlands, floodplains and coastline within the region. Field assessment and monitoring procedures have been developed for the program. The assessment procedures require use of georeferencing and data handling techniques to facilitate comparison and relational overlay of a wide variety of information. Monitoring includes regular survey of biophysical and cultural processes on the floodplains; such as the extension of tidal creeks and mangroves, shoreline movement, dieback in Melaleuca wetlands, and weed invasion of freshwater wetlands. A differential Global Positioning System is used to accurately georeference spatial data and a Geographic Information System is then used to store and assess information. The assessment and monitoring procedures can be applied to the wet-dry tropics in general. These studies are all particularly pertinent with the possibility of greenhouse gases causing global warming and potential sea-level rise, a major possible threat to the valued wetlands of Kakadu National Park, and across the wet-dry tropics in general

  17. Tracing the cycling and fate of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in coastal marine systems with a stable isotopic tracer, 15N-[TNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.; Vlahos, Penny; Böhlke, John Karl; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Ballentine, Mark; Cooper, Christopher; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J.; Tobias, Craig

    2015-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been used as a military explosive for over a hundred years. Contamination concerns have arisen as a result of manufacturing and use on a large scale; however, despite decades of work addressing TNT contamination in the environment, its fate in marine ecosystems is not fully resolved. Here we examine the cycling and fate of TNT in the coastal marine systems by spiking a marine mesocosm containing seawater, sediments, and macrobiota with isotopically labeled TNT (15N-[TNT]), simultaneously monitoring removal, transformation, mineralization, sorption, and biological uptake over a period of 16 days. TNT degradation was rapid, and we observed accumulation of reduced transformation products dissolved in the water column and in pore waters, sorbed to sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM), and in the tissues of macrobiota. Bulk δ15N analysis of sediments, SPM, and tissues revealed large quantities of 15N beyond that accounted for in identifiable derivatives. TNT-derived N was also found in the dissolved inorganic N (DIN) pool. Using multivariate statistical analysis and a 15N mass balance approach, we identify the major transformation pathways of TNT, including the deamination of reduced TNT derivatives, potentially promoted by sorption to SPM and oxic surface sediments.

  18. Bioindicators for monitoring radioactive pollution of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgaard, H.

    1981-05-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) are globally used as bioindicators for pollution of coastal and estuarine environments by metals and radionuclides. The aim of this work has been to improve the use of Mytilus edulis as a bioindicator by gaining knowledge on its accumulation and loss of certain radionuclides ( 65 Zn, 57 Co, 54 Mn, 51 Cr, 59 Fe and 134 Cs) under different fieldcomparable environmental conditions. A laboratory set-up in which natural concentrations of suspended phytoplankton are kept constant for weeks was evolved for the accumulation experiments with mussels. It is argued that continuous feeding at very low (natural) levels is necessary if field-comparable experiments are to be performed with suspension feeding bivalves. Accumulation via food intake was studied by comparing experiments with different concentrations of contaminated phytoplankton (Phaeodactylum tricornutum). This comparison showed no effect of varying the phytoplankton concentration. Decreasing the salinity and increasing the temperature elevated the influx (initial rate of accumulation) of the radionuclides. During one year excretion experiments were performed by weekly wholebody countings of laboratory contaminated mussels which had been re-introduced in their natural environment. A seasonal effect on the biological half life was detected for 65 Zn. It is concluded that mussels are useful bioindicators provided the variability due to environmental factors, e.g. season and salinity, is taken into consideration. Brown algae, expecially Fucus vesiculosus, were used to trace the controlled liquid discharges (mainly 60 Co, 58 Co, 65 Zn, 54 Mn and sup(110m)Ag) from two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Ringhals)> Fucus showed higher accumulation than Mytilus. Transfer factors between discharge and sample from a specified location are presented. It is argued that these transfer factors may be useful in estimating the magnitude of an uncontrolled accidental release of activity and its

  19. Comparative evaluation of analytical procedures for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae in coastal marine waters; Valutazione comparativa di procedure analitiche per il rilevamento di Enterobacteriaceae in acque marine costiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonadonna, Lucia; Chiaretti, Gianluca; Coccia, Anna Maria; Semproni, Maurizio [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    The use of quick and reliable procedures is fundamental for water quality evaluation control. In order to improve the analytical methods for microbiological examination of bathing waters, a comparison of different substrates for the recovery of Enterobacteriaceae from coastal marine waters was carried out. The medium indicated in the Italian technical normative has shown a good selectivity when the red colonies with a green metallic surface sheen were counted, as stated in the Standard Methods. On the other hand, the chronogenic substrate used in this study resulted easy to read, selective and specific for both Escherichia coli and total coliforms.

  20. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  1. The diversity and structure of marine protists in the coastal waters of China revealed by morphological observation and 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Song, Shuqun; Chen, Tiantian; Li, Caiwen

    2017-04-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene has been widely adopted to study the eukaryotic diversity in various types of environments, and has an advantage over traditional morphology methods in exploring unknown microbial communities. To comprehensively assess the diversity and community composition of marine protists in the coastal waters of China, we applied both morphological observations and high-throughput sequencing of the V2 and V3 regions of 18S rDNA simultaneously to analyze samples collected from the surface layer of the Yellow and East China Seas. Dinoflagellates, diatoms and ciliates were the three dominant protistan groups as revealed by the two methods. Diatoms were the first dominant protistan group in the microscopic observations, with Skeletonema mainly distributed in the nearshore eutrophic waters and Chaetoceros in higher temperature and higher pH waters. The mixotrophic dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium, were more competitive in the oligotrophic waters. The pyrosequencing method revealed an extensive diversity of dinoflagellates. Chaetoceros was the only dominant diatom group in the pyrosequencing dataset. Gyrodinium represented the most abundant reads and dominated the offshore oligotrophic protistan community as they were in the microscopic observations. The dominance of parasitic dinoflagellates in the pyrosequencing dataset, which were overlooked in the morphological observations, indicates more attention should be paid to explore the potential role of this group. Both methods provide coherent clustering of samples. Nutrient levels, salinity and pH were the main factors influencing the distribution of protists. This study demonstrates that different primer pairs used in the pyrosequencing will indicate different protistan community structures. A suitable marker may reveal more comprehensive composition of protists and provide valuable information on environmental drivers.

  2. GIS Assessment of Mass Tourism Anthropization in Sensitive Coastal Environments: Application to a Case Study in the Mar Menor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador García-Ayllón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the Mediterranean coast, the tourism activity which has developed since the 1950s has become a mass tourism industry in recent decades, cohabitating with natural spaces of high environmental value. These sensitive areas are thus subjected to a varied catalog of anthropizing actions (urbanization of the natural soil, modification of the dune balances by the construction of port infrastructures, alteration of marine ecosystems by recreational activities, etc.. All these inter-related elements are often difficult to analyze in a comprehensive way because of their diffuse nature. This paper proposes a methodology based on GIS analysis for the evaluation of diffuse anthropization associated to tourism in sensitive coastal environments. By using different indicators of territorial transformation, a complete method is proposed to establish the index of diffuse anthropization of a territory. This methodology, which is easily applicable in a generalized manner in different cases for developed countries, will be applied in the Mar Menor, a coastal lagoon area in the Mediterranean that has been suffering from mass tourism during recent decades. The results will show the important impact of several actions linked to tourism and the worrying inertia that the current trend can cause in the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  3. Primary versus secondary and anthropogenic versus natural sources of aminium ions in atmospheric particles during nine coastal and marine campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Yao, X.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, size-segregated dimethylaminium (DMA+) and trimethylaminium (TMA+) in atmospheric particles were measured during four coastal campaigns in Qingdao, China and five campaigns cruising over marginal seas of China and the northwest Pacific Ocean. The measured averages of DMA+ and TMA+ in PM0.056-10 (the sum of chemical concentrations from 0.056 to 10 µm) during each campaign, ranged from 0.045 to 1.1 nmol m-3 and from 0.029 to 0.53 nmol m-3, respectively. Size distributions of DMA+ and TMA+ in coastal atmospheric particles suggested that primary combustion emissions featured by mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) at 0.2 µm generally yielded appreciable contributions to their observed concentrations in PM0.056-10 and sometimes dominantly contributed. In the marine atmospheres, the 0.1-0.2 µm modes of DMA+ and TMA+ also existed and sometimes dominated while they were very likely derived from primary ocean-biogenic emissions. In most of the samples during nine campaigns, secondarily-formed DMA+ and TMA+ in droplet mode with MMAD at 0.3-2 µm dominantly contributed to DMA+ and TMA+ in PM0.056-10. Overall, our results suggested that DMA+ and TMA+ in the marine atmospheric particles overwhelmingly came from ocean biogenic sources while they were likely derived from complicated anthropogenic and natural sources at the coastal sites.

  4. Are Sediments a Source of Fukushima Radiocesium for Marine Fauna in Coastal Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Fisher, N. S.; Baumann, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 resulted in the largest accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the world's oceans. Among the fission products released in large quantities, 137Cs has the greatest potential for long-term impacts on marine biota and human consumers of seafood. In particular, some species of bottom fish near Fukushima were very contaminated and had higher radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) levels than pelagic fish in the same area, sometimes exceeding Japanese safety limits >4 years after the accident. Benthic invertebrates, many being prey items for bottom fish, show the same slow decrease in radiocesium as sediments, suggesting that contaminated sediment could be a source of radiocesium for benthic fauna. We evaluated the binding of 137Cs to sediments (Kd found to be 44-60 ml g-1) and found that bioturbation by the polychaete Nereis succinea greatly increased the initial release rate of Cs to overlying seawater. We also assessed the bioavailability of dissolved and sediment-bound Cs for deposit-feeding polychaetes, and its subsequent transfer to crabs and fish, and measured the influence of water temperature on Cs accumulation in fish. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of ingested 137Cs ranged from 16% in polychaetes ingesting sediments to 79% in fish ingesting worms. Efflux rate constants ranged from 5% d-1 for killifish to 40% d-1 for polychaetes. Animal absorption and retention of dissolved 137Cs were also measured. These parameters are used to model radiocesium bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in benthic food chains. Our results are consistent with the idea that sediments can be an important source of Cs for benthic food chains and help explain why some species of bottom fish remained more contaminated than pelagic fish in Japanese coastal waters.

  5. Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds in Singapore's marine environment: Influence of hydrodynamics and physical–chemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayen, Stéphane [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhang, Hui [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Desai, Malan Manish [Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ooi, Seng Keat [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kelly, Barry C., E-mail: bckelly@nus.edu.sg [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-11-15

    The fate and exposure risks of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in marine environments are not well-understood. In this study we developed a multi-residue analytical method for quantifying concentrations of forty target compounds in seawater from Singapore. Analyses of samples (n = 24) from eight sites showed the occurrence of several compounds, including gemfibrozil (<0.09–19.8 ng/L), triclosan (<0.55–10.5 ng/L), carbamazepine (<0.28–10.9 ng/L) and ibuprofen (<2.2–9.1 ng/L). A 3D hydrodynamic model for Singapore was used to predict residence time (t{sub R}). Principal Components Analysis revealed a strong relationship between t{sub R} and contaminant concentrations. While source emissions are undoubtedly important, proximate distance to a wastewater treatment plant had little influence on concentrations. The site with the greatest t{sub R}, which exhibited the highest concentrations, is adjacent to Singapore's largest protected wetland reserve. The results highlight an important linkage between hydrodynamic behavior and contaminant exposure risks in complex coastal marine ecosystems. Highlights: •A field study of emerging contaminants in Singapore's coastal marine environment was conducted. •PhACs such as gemfibrozil, triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen were frequently detected. •Site proximity to WWTP had little influence on ambient concentrations. •Contaminant concentrations were highly correlated to hydrodynamic residence time. •Coastal hydrodynamic behaviour greatly influences contaminant exposure risks. -- A field study demonstrates the influence of hydrodynamic residence time and physical–chemical properties on exposure risks of PhACs and EDCs in coastal marine ecosystems.

  6. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B. (ODOT); Laylor, H.M. (ODOT)

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  7. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  8. Measurements of transmission in the visible and the IR in the Baltic coastal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dion, D.; Gardenal, L.; Jong, A.N. de; Forand, L.; Vogel, H.; Hurtaud, Y.; Stein, K.

    2007-01-01

    multinational campaign was organized by the NATO SET56 Group to assess transmission in coastal environments: the VAlidation Measurements of Propagation in IR and RAdar (VAMPIRA) experiment. VAMPIRA was conducted in the Baltic Sea, near Surendorf, Germany, from 27 March to 4 April 2004. During

  9. Evaluation of the Wave Energy Conversion Efficiency in Various Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with sea waves, respectively. Some of the most representative existent wave converters were evaluated in the analysis and a second objective was to compare their performances at the considered locations, and in this way to determine which is better suited for potential commercial exploitation. In order to estimate the electric power production expected in a certain location, the bivariate distributions of the occurrences corresponding to the sea states, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, were constructed in each coastal area. The wave data were provided by hindcast studies performed with numerical wave models or based on measurements. The transformation efficiency of the wave energy into electricity is evaluated via the load factor and also through the capture width, defined as the ratio between the electric power estimated to be produced by each specific wave energy converters (WEC and the expected wave power corresponding to the location considered. Finally, by evaluating these two different indicators, comparisons of the performances of three WEC types (Aqua Buoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon in the three different groups of coastal environments considered have been also carried out. The work provides valuable information related to the effectiveness of various technologies for the wave energy extraction that would operate in different coastal environments.

  10. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  11. Adaptions of ArcGIS' Linear Referencing System to the Coastal Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstrøm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    For many years it has been problematic to store information for the coastal environment in a GIS. However, a system named "Linear referencing System" based upon a dynamic segmentation principle implemented in ESRIs ArcGIS 9 software has now made it possible to store and analyze information...

  12. The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of marine reserves on coastal ecosystems: a modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Savina

    Full Text Available We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia. The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure, and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives.

  13. Degradation of plastic carrier bags in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brine, Tim; Thompson, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    There is considerable concern about the hazards that plastic debris presents to wildlife. Use of polymers that degrade more quickly than conventional plastics presents a possible solution to this problem. Here we investigate breakdown of two oxo-biodegradable plastics, compostable plastic and standard polyethylene in the marine environment. Tensile strength of all materials decreased during exposure, but at different rates. Compostable plastic disappeared from our test rig between 16 and 24 weeks whereas approximately 98% of the other plastics remained after 40 weeks. Some plastics require UV light to degrade. Transmittance of UV through oxo-biodegradable and standard polyethylene decreased as a consequence of fouling such that these materials received ∼ 90% less UV light after 40 weeks. Our data indicate that compostable plastics may degrade relatively quickly compared to oxo-biodegradable and conventional plastics. While degradable polymers offer waste management solutions, there are limitations to their effectiveness in reducing hazards associated with plastic debris. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of marine structures with improved safety for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanac, Alan; Varsta, Petri

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for design of marine structures with increased safety for environment, considering also the required investment costs as well as the aspects of risk distribution onto the maritime stakeholders. Practically, the paper seeks to answer what is the optimal amount that should be invested into certain safety measure for any given vessel. Due to the uneven distribution of risk, as well as the differing impact of costs emerging from safety improvements, stakeholders experience conflicting ranking of alternatives. To solve this multi-stakeholder decision-making problem, in which each stakeholder is a decision-maker, the method applies concepts of group decision-making theory, namely the Game Theory. The method fosters axiomatic definition of the optimum solution, arguing that the solution, or the final selected design, should satisfy the non-dominance, efficiency, and fairness. These three are thoroughly discussed in terms of structural design, especially the latter. Considering the coupling of environmental risk and structural design, the method also builds on the preference structure of four maritime stakeholders: yards, owners, oil receivers and the public, who either share the risks or directly influence structural design. Method is presented on a practical study of structural design of a tanker with a crashworthy side structure that is capable of reducing the risk of collision. The outcome of this study outlines a number of possibilities for successful improvement of tanker safety that can benefit, concurrently, all maritime stakeholders.

  15. Marine pollution in the Libyan coastal area: Environmental and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Al-Tayeb Sharif, Ehab A; D'Agostino, Fabio; Traina, Anna; Quinci, Enza Maria; Giaramita, Luigi; Monastero, Calogera; Benothman, Mohamed; Sprovieri, Mario

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the potential adverse effects on environment and human health generated by the inputs of chemicals from the most important Libyan petrochemical plant is presented. Ecotoxicological risk associated with the presence of As, Hg, Ni, Zn and PAHs in marine sediments is low or moderate, with a probability of toxicity for ecosystem <9% and <20% for heavy metals and PAHs respectively. However, surface sediments result strongly enriched in Hg and As of anthropogenic origin. Investigation of metals in fish allowed to assess potential risks for human populations via fish intake. Target hazard quotients values indicate potential risk associated to toxic metals exposure by fish consumption and lifetime cancer risk (TR) values highlight a potential carcinogen risk associated to As intake. Noteworthy, the presented results provide an unprecedented environmental dataset in an area where the availability of field data is very scant, for a better understanding of anthropogenic impacts at Mediterranean scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 226Ra-210Pb-210Po Levels in Marine Biota and Surface Coastal Sediments from the Red Sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data on 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentration levels in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of Port sudan harbour. The analyses were performed adopting a simple time efficient method combining alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting technique. Generally speaking, surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03±1.79) and 210 Po/ 226 Ra (2.23±1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/KXg and 21.9 Bq/KXg dry weight, respectively

  17. Genetic diversity and temporal variation of the marine Synechococcus community in the subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongmei; Zhang, Rui; Pointing, Stephen B; Liu, Hongbin; Qian, Peiyuan

    2009-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the marine Synechococcus community in the subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong, China, was examined through intergenic transcribed spacer clone libraries. All the sequences obtained fell within both marine cluster A (MC-A) and B (MC-B), with MC-A phylotypes dominating throughout the year. Distinct phylogenetic lineages specific to Hong Kong waters were detected from both MC-A and MC-B. The highest Synechococcus community diversity occurred in December, but the highest Synechococcus abundance occurred in August. O