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Sample records for coastal areas queensland

  1. Integrated Assessment of Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing change due to a range of natural and human-induced drivers. Of particular concern is climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR). In low gradient coastal areas, small changes in water levels can have profound consequences. Hence SLR is rightly considered a major threat. However, to properly diagnose a problem and find sustainable solutions, a systems approach is essential as the impacts of SLR will be modified by the other drivers. This paper will consider these issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective drawing on examples from around the world.

  2. Coastal Geomorphology of Selinunte area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Porcaro, A.

    2010-05-01

    Coast erosion is a widespread phenomenon, resulting a considerable issue for the dwellers of the coastal areas today. Our study is based on the archaeological area of Selinunte in which we have noticed a process of erosion in progress. Particularly, in this area we have considered a coast portion around 8 Km long, since our purpose is the individuation of anthropic elements as ports and natural elements as rivers. In this area we have set some point of reference using historical and recent cartography as paper in 1:25.000 scale dated back to 1971, regional technical paper in 1: 10.000 scale since 1994, and aerial pictures since 2000 and 2008, that we have geo-related starting from previously geo-related paper, locating some Ground Control Point visible in all the considered paper. We have used a GIS support and the software program ARCVIEW. We have done a comparison between the actual shoreline and its trend in the previous years. In fact we have measured the distance between the points considered stable in the space and traceable in every used graphic support and the shoreline, that is changing in the time. In this way we have noticed the course of the coastline, appraising its advancement or withdrawal. The obtained data show that considering 24 stable points, in the 70% of cases there has been coast withdrawal since 1994 to 2000; in the 60% there has been erosion since 2000 to 2008. From the administrative point of view, the studied area includes the territory of Castelvetrano (TP) and involves a coastline extending around 8 Km, from the beach of Triscina-Selinunte, fraction of Castelvetrano, until east of the river Belice's mouth. This extension has been defined how thoroughly as possible, in order to include the river Belice, east of the archaeological park. The two analyzed rivers are Belice and Modione, both belonging to the hydrographic basin River Modione and in the area between River Modione and River Belice. From the geo-morphological point of view two

  3. Health advice obtained by tourists travelling to Magnetic Island: a risk area for 'Irukandji' jellyfish in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Harrison, Simone L; Fenner, Peter J; Durrheim, David N; Swinbourne, Anne L

    2005-02-01

    Little is known about the travel health advice obtained by tourists travelling to Magnetic Island, which is a known risk area for the potentially fatal 'Irukandji' jellyfish on the Great Barrier Reef coast of north Queensland, Australia. Structured interviews were conducted with 208 ferry passengers (93% response) travelling between Townsville (Latitude 19 degrees S) and Magnetic Island. Less than half of the international tourists (21, 46%) had obtained travel health advice before coming to north Queensland, although they were significantly more likely to have done so than domestic tourists (pjellyfish was (pjellyfish. Most of the international tourists travelled to north Queensland by bus (30, 65%), while most domestic tourists arrived by private car (12, 40%) or plane (10, 33%). Only a small proportion of international tourists knew about Irukandji jellyfish and most tourists had not received travel health advice. The majority of tourists had not received further information about Irukandji jellyfish risk whilst on the island. All travellers to popular north Queensland tourist areas need travel health advice, which includes advice on avoiding contact with Irukandji and Chironex box jellyfish. Health promotion campaigns directed at providing this advice need to be aware that most tourists to north Queensland arrive by bus or car and the only 'shared' vehicle, at least to Magnetic Island, is the passenger ferry.

  4. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  5. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola) control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    OpenAIRE

    David Cook; Shuang Liu; Jacqueline Edwards; Oscar Villalta; Jean-Philippe Aurambout; Darren Kriticos; Andre Drenth; Paul De Barro

    2013-01-01

    The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana p...

  6. Consumers Perception Of Organic Food In A Peri-Urban Area In Queensland Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong T. Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand peri-urban areas consumers perception of organic food and the importance of organic certification in customers decisions for obtaining insights into their consumption of organic food. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey at two main supermarkets in Gatton town Queensland Australia. This research showed that 42.4 of consumers purchase organic food at least once per month. Health protection was found the most important reason for Australian peri-urban consumers to purchase organic food. Most of them 89.5 were interested in organic food but only around 59 of consumers were confident with the claimed benefits of the food and 42 trust in the organic certification. The more consumers are interested in trust and are confident with the claimed benefits the more likely will they purchase organic food. In addition organic labels and certification turned out to be important for the consumers when shopping organic food. This research was the first study to investigate the consumers perception of organic food in an Australian peri-urban area especially relationships between the frequency of purchase and consumers level of knowledge and their behaviors toward organic food. Both practical and theoretical contributions of this study are also discussed.

  7. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  8. Management of the coastal biophysical environment in tropical Queensland under conditions of heavy developmental pressure: the case of tourist resorts and acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Erfurt-Haupt

    2008-09-01

    While the remarkable surface features of the tropical coastal environment such as the surf beaches, the unique dune lakes, and the coastal vegetation, as well as the prolific wildlife, are used as selling points for new settlement and above all tourism, little is known or apparently of major concern with respect to the long term environmental impact of coastal development. While the crowding effect of large numbers of visitors and their impact on the natural environment - through significant degradation, site hardening or lack of proper on-site management – has been identified as a particular problem in certain areas, there is little knowledge of impacts on the underlying coastal geomorphology. In particular, developmental choices are often made in ignorance of, or disregard of, the widespread existence of tropical acid sulfate soils in that coastal environment. Reactive soils such as these can, and do, greatly affect the biophysical outcomes of a development if they are exposed. This paper documents such impacts in the form of a case study of the acid sulfate soil problem in relation to the development of tourist resorts, and suggests that part of the solution is for the State Government to insist on enforceable standards relating to their development for tourism in the coastal zone. These would reduce the use by many resort owners of fancy golf course developments as an environmental cover up to make it look as if they put a lot of effort into protecting the environment ….

  9. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  10. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  11. Preliminary assessment of coastal erosion and local community adaptation in Sayung coastal area, central Java – Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marfai, Muh Aris

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic environment in coastal area, especially due to coastal erosion process, has negative impact on human environment. Sayung coastal area, located in Central Java-Indonesia, has experienced severe impact of coastal erosion. As the result of the coastal erosion, hundreds of settlement located in coastal area has been destructed. Moreover, fishponds as the land use dominated in the coastal area also has been severely destroyed. Besides the coastal erosion, increasing of inundated area due t...

  12. Coastal areas mapping using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Kozarski, Dimitrios; Kogkas, Stefanos

    2017-10-01

    The coastal areas in the Patras Gulf suffer degradation due to the sea action and other natural and human-induced causes. Changes in beaches, ports, and other man made constructions need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution in the future. Thus, reliable spatial data acquisition is a critical process for the identification of the coastline and the broader coastal zones for geologists and other scientists involved in the study of coastal morphology. High resolution satellite data, airphotos and airborne Lidar provided in the past the necessary data for the coastline monitoring. High-resolution digital surface models (DSMs) and orthophoto maps had become a necessity in order to map with accuracy all the variations in costal environments. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) photogrammetry offers an alternative solution to the acquisition of high accuracy spatial data along the coastline. This paper presents the use of UAV to map the coastline in Rio area Western Greece. Multiple photogrammetric aerial campaigns were performed. A small commercial UAV (DJI Phantom 3 Advance) was used to acquire thousands of images with spatial resolutions better than 5 cm. Different photogrammetric software's were used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. In order to achieve the best positional accuracy signalised ground control points were measured with a differential GNSS receiver. The results of this coastal monitoring programme proved that UAVs can replace many of the conventional surveys, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the accuracy.

  13. Weather Effect on Photovoltaic Module Adaptation in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    emetere, moses; akinyemi, marvel

    2016-01-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar PV module and its lifecycle. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  14. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  15. Developing and sustainably utilize the coastal mudflat areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Li-Ping; Shao, Tian-Yun; Shao, Hong-Bo; Liu, Zhao-Pu

    2016-11-01

    Coastal mudflat areas are regarded as the important reserve land resource in China. Rational exploitation and development of the mudflat areas can relieve the stress of inadequate land resources. Probing into the developing models of resource exploitation of coastal tidal mudflats is one of the important components of achieving the sustainable development in the coastal areas. Therefore, the development history of coastal mudflats after 1950s in China is briefly introduced in this paper. Then, the status in quo of the modes of development and utilization of coastal mudflat in China the paper is reviewed with a special attention payed to the agricultural use of coastal resource, especially halophytes and improved salt-tolerant varieties planting, agricultural dyke pond and coastal saline-alkali soil remediation. Based on related research frontier, sustainable developmental prospects of these coastal areas are presented as well. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sediment measurement in estuarine and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of uses of estuarine and coastal areas is given. Problems associated with these uses are discussed, and data needs for intelligent management of these valuable areas are outlined. Suspended sediment measurements are seen to be one of the greatest needs. To help understand the complexity of the problem, a brief discussion of sediment mechanics is given, including sediment sources, characteristics, and transport. The impact of sediment mechanics on its direct measurement (sampling and analysis) is indicated, along with recommendations for directly obtaining representative data. Indirect measurement of suspended sediment by remote sensors is discussed both theoretically and in the light of some recent experiences. The need for an integrated, multidisciplinary program to solve the problem of quantitatively measuring suspended sediment with remote sensors is stressed, and several important considerations of such a program and benefits to be derived therefrom are briefly addressed.

  17. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  18. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  19. 30 CFR 256.25 - Areas near coastal States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas near coastal States. 256.25 Section 256... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Call for Information and Nominations § 256.25 Areas near coastal States. (a) At the time information is solicited for leasing of areas within 3...

  20. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  1. Consumers Perception Of Organic Food In A Peri-Urban Area In Queensland Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phuong T. Nguyen; Tuan M. Ha

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand peri-urban areas consumers perception of organic food and the importance of organic certification in customers decisions for obtaining insights into their consumption of organic food...

  2. Holistic Flood Risk Assessment In Coastal Areas : The PEARL Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vojinovic, Zoran; Abebe, Y.; Sanchez, A.; Medina Pena, N.; Nikolic, I.; Manojlovic, N; Makropoulos, C.; Pelling, M.; Abbott, M.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal floods are one of the most dangerous and harmful natural hazards affecting urban areas adjacent to shorelines. The present paper discusses the FP7-ENV-2013 EU funded PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastaL regions) project which brings together world leading expertise in both

  3. Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Selmin; Kucukakca, Emrah

    2015-04-01

    Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which is an inland sea. The city is a large metropolis having more than 15 million of population that has been subjected to heavy and unplanned urbanization due to natural growth and immigration from the Eastern regions of Turkey, in particular. This resulted in loss of green areas and gave rise to land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea in order to provide ring roads along the seaside and substitute the lost green areas by newly generated recreational areas. Therefore heavy land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea has been the major environmental concern related to the damage caused to the coastal ecosystems during the last decade. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. As widely known, coastal areas are the main housbandary and spawning areas for coastal ecosystems and pelagic species. Due to inappropriate reclamation processes, significant decrease in coastal ecosystems and species has been reported in several studies, Istanbul is no exception. Coastal zones are complex systems exhibiting specific environmental and socio-economic particularities. In recent years, many organizations, governments and policy-makers have pointed out the urgent need to develop global, regional, national and local strategies to ensure the protection and sustainable use of coastal zones. A long-term sustainable development of coastal areas cannot be achieved without the preservation of natural resources on which the development relies. The dilemma is to ensure the sustainable development of natural resources which is not the case as reported in several studies. Continuous exposure of the Istanbul coastal areas to uncontrolled, unplanned and inappropriate reclamation methods from past to present and recently experienced enhanced reclamation has been a major concern that is expressed by the scientific society. However

  4. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dijk, van H.; Bosma, R.H.; Boer, de W.F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions

  5. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in greenhouses at Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey in Samandag area of Hatay province where greenhouse production is wide spread. The work undertaken in 2007 aimed at determining general management problems, structural features and weaknesses and climate control of ...

  6. Higher cadmium burden in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea: implications for seafood intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chan-Seok; Lee, Chae Kwan; Hong, Young Seoub; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    This survey was initiated to examine possible coastal-inland differences in cadmium (Cd) burden in general Korean populations. In total, 268 healthy non-smoking middle-aged women (30 to 49 years; 88 residents in 8 coastal areas and 180 residents in 15 inland areas) participated in the study. They offered peripheral blood and spot urine samples so that cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as exposure markers. Determination of Cd-B and Cd-U was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With regard to Cd burden, geometric means for the coastal and inland residents were 1.70 and 1.72 μg/L for Cd-B, 1.54 and 1.00 μg/L for Cd-U as observed (Cd-U), 2.59 and 1.81 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U as corrected for creatinine (Cd-Ucr), respectively. Cd-U and Cd-Ucr were higher in the coastal areas than in inland areas. Reasons for higher Cd-U in the coastal areas than in the inland areas were are discussed in relation to major sources of Cd in daily life of the residents. Attention was paid to consumption of fish and shellfish in the coastal areas as major sources of dietary Cd intake. This study shows that Cd burdens were higher in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea.

  7. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rainfall Variability of South East Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise; Manton, Michael; Siems, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The seasonal weather of southeastern Queensland (SEQ) is commonly described by a wet and a dry season. Rainfall in this area has been declining for the past fifty years and climate projections indicate decreasing trends in annual rainfall and increases in temperature. These factors combined with population growth suggest a need for Queensland to re-evaluate its water management. In order to understand the rainfall variability of SEQ, it is useful to consider the impact of the different weather patterns or synoptic regimes on the regional rainfall. Previous studies have examined the synoptic patterns associated with extreme wind and rainfall events in SEQ and the correlation between rainfall in northern Queensland and atmospheric variables, but a comprehensive climatology for the SEQ region is missing. Analysis of routine soundings is found to reveal relationships between surface precipitation and atmospheric structure. Cluster analysis was performed on daily radiosonde data for Brisbane Airport spanning the period 01/01/1990-11/11/2009. The clustering was initially performed on seven atmospheric variables: total-totals, 850mb winds, wind shear between 850mb and 500mb, moisture flux and total water calculated from the sounding data. A sensitivity study reveals that the moisture flux parameters followed by total water and total-totals are the key variables in determining the regimes. The clusters were combined with daily rainfall records spanning the period 01/01/1995 - 01/06/2008 to determine the contribution of each regime to monthly rainfall. The seven-cluster case describes three separate southeasterly regimes, three westerly regimes and an easterly regime. The contribution of each regime to annual rainfall was also determined. The regimes for SEQ can be divided into ‘wet' and ‘dry' cases. It is apparent that the rainfall is largely limited to the coastal strip, with maxima near regions with steep terrain. The main rainfall period is from November through to

  9. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS IN COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caprioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell’Orso and Sant’ Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy. The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan. The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  11. Numerical Experiments for Storm Surge Inundation in Korean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.; Shim, J.; Jun, K.

    2012-12-01

    Sea-level rising due to climate change following the global warming and the increased intensity of typhoon are magnifying inundation hazards up to the unpredictable level, resulting from the typhoon surge in Korea and other coastal states around the world. Typhoon is the most serious natural disaster in Korean coastal area. Many people died by storm surge inundation every year. And typhoon caused a lot of damage to property. Climate changes due to global warming are producing a stronger natural disaster. Coastal zones have been damaged by typhoons and accompanying storm surge. Especially, the most serious loss of life and terrible property damage caused by typhoon Maemi in 2003. The typhoon Maemi invaded Korean Peninsula leaving property loss of $ 4 Billion and killing 131 people. After then, there has been an increased interest in these coastal zone problems. If storm surges coincide with high tides, the loss of life and property damage due to high waters arc even worse. Therefore it is desirable to accurately forecast the amount water level increase. In this study, using a numerical model FVCOM(finite volume coastal circulation model, Chen et al.,2004), storm surge was simulated to examine its fluctuation characteristics for the coastal area behind Masan, Yeosu and Busan city in Korea. In the numerical model, a moving boundary condition(wet-dry treatment) was incorporated to explain wave inundation. To simulate the inundation scenario, the model grids were extended up to the area inside the lowland in application of the digital elevation data(DEM) made by precisely combining the aero-LiDAR survey data and bathymetry data for the 3 demonstration regions of Busan, Masan and Yeosu. Minimum grid of 300 m unstructured triangular mesh applied to calculate the storm surge was adopted as a grid system. And the minimum grid size of 30 m was built near Busan, Masan and Yeosu area which are the fine coastal regions and where the inundation is simulated. Numerically

  12. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  13. Registered nurses as members of interprofessional primary health care teams in remote or isolated areas of Queensland: Collaboration, communication and partnerships in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane Elizabeth; Francis, Karen; Birks, Melanie; Coyle, Meaghan; Henderson, Sue; Jones, Jan

    2010-09-01

    Nurses represent the largest occupational group of health care professionals in Australia. The ratio of nurses to population is relatively consistent, unlike other health care professional groups (including medical doctors and allied health staff) whose numbers decline as population density and distance from metropolitan areas increases. Nurses working in areas where other health care professionals are limited or absent have expanded scopes of practice with their work being more generalist than specialist. The role of nurses in remote and isolated areas of Queensland, Australia was the focus of a commissioned multi-case research project. Findings reported in this paper relate to the position of registered nurses as part of an interprofessional team. These findings indicated that, in some instances, local health care teams were limited to a single nurse and Indigenous health care worker/s, while in others the teams were more diverse. In all cases collegial support was available either locally or via telecommunication technology. Understanding the role of each team member, having useful strategies to enhance communication and work collaboratively were identified as essential criteria for "good practice".

  14. UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J. A.; Henriques, R.

    2015-06-01

    Coastal areas suffer degradation due to the action of the sea and other natural and human-induced causes. Topographical changes in beaches and sand dunes need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution of these natural environments. This is an important application for airborne LIDAR, and conventional photogrammetry is also being used for regular monitoring programs of sensitive coastal areas. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map and monitor sand dunes and beaches. A very light plane (SwingletCam) equipped with a very cheap, non-metric camera was used to acquire images with ground resolutions better than 5 cm. The Agisoft Photoscan software was used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. The processing, which includes automatic aerial triangulation with camera calibration and subsequent model generation, was mostly automated. To achieve the best positional accuracy for the whole process, signalised ground control points were surveyed with a differential GPS receiver. Two very sensitive test areas on the Portuguese northwest coast were analysed. Detailed DSMs were obtained with 10 cm grid spacing and vertical accuracy (RMS) ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 cm, which is very similar to the image ground resolution (3.2-4.5 cm). Where possible to assess, the planimetric accuracy of the orthoimage mosaics was found to be subpixel. Within the regular coastal monitoring programme being carried out in the region, UAVs can replace many of the conventional flights, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the quality of topographic and aerial imagery data.

  15. Land area change in coastal Louisiana (1932 to 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Beck, Holly; Schoolmaster, Donald; Fischer, Michelle

    2017-07-12

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands are one of the most critically threatened environments in the United States. These wetlands are in peril because Louisiana currently experiences greater coastal wetland loss than all other States in the contiguous United States combined. The analyses of landscape change presented here have utilized historical surveys, aerial, and satellite data to quantify landscape changes from 1932 to 2016. Analyses show that coastal Louisiana has experienced a net change in land area of approximately -4,833 square kilometers (modeled estimate: -5,197 +/- 443 square kilometers) from 1932 to 2016. This net change in land area amounts to a decrease of approximately 25 percent of the 1932 land area. Previous studies have presented linear rates of change over multidecadal time periods which unintentionally suggest that wetland change occurs at a constant rate, although in many cases, wetland change rates vary with time. A penalized regression spline technique was used to determine the model that best fit the data, rather than fitting the data with linear trends. Trend analyses from model fits indicate that coastwide rates of wetland change have varied from -83.5 +/- 11.8 square kilometers per year to -28.01 +/- 16.37 square kilometers per year. To put these numbers into perspective, this equates to long-term average loss rates of approximately an American football field’s worth of coastal wetlands within 34 minutes when losses are rapid to within 100 minutes at more recent, slower rates. Of note is the slowing of the rate of wetland change since its peak in the mid- 1970s. Not only have rates of wetland loss been decreasing since that time, a further rate reduction has been observed since 2010. Possible reasons for this reduction include recovery from lows affected by the hurricanes of 2005 and 2008, the lack of major storms in the past 8 years, a possible slowing of subsidence rates, the reduction in and relocation of oil and gas extraction and

  16. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  17. Integrated wave-current-sediment numerical tools in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, S.; Bever, A.; Tondello, M.; Kantha, L. H.; Sclavo, M.

    2010-09-01

    The possibility of employing complex, integrated wave-current-sediment numerical models to correctly simulate near-shore processes requires the high-fidelity description of relevant issues such as wave-current interactions, turbulent mixing, wetting and drying processes, bottom-boundary layer interactions and sediment re-suspension and transport. The achievement of these capabilities is mostly welcome in a variety of applications ranging from beach protection to "search and rescue" activities and support to maritime engineering operations. In the last decade there has been a considerable advance in the development of these integrated models, both thanks to improvements in the theoretical background and to recent advances in the computer performances that allowed higher-resolution, long-term integrations and ensemble runs. The growing availability of long time-series and large forcing from meteorological and sea-state numerical models are now allowing to employ complex, integrated numerical tools to model coastal dynamical processes and to support decision makers in the field of coastal erosion and vulnerability. The contribution aims at presenting an application focused on the western Adriatic context, with appropriate links to state-of-the-art and cutting-edge research issues that represent the challenges for the next decades. Namely, the morphological modeling of a river outlet area near Ravenna (Northern Adriatic Sea) will be discussed. The numerical model adopted is ROMS,in its 3-D coupled version with the wave model SWAN and a sediment transport module, including wetting/drying and wave current interactions. The coupled model adopts a very high horizontal resolution, order of 5 meters, to model the hydrodynamic and morphological conditions of the river mouth under synthetic but realistic forcings, i.e. tidal cycle, river flooding and severe wind storms. Model results show how it is becoming possible to provide useful support for planning effective management

  18. Geometry analysis for landscape fragmentation in coastal areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhai; Yu, Ning; Mu, Hongdu; Tuo, Tao

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the continuous expansion of urban-transport networks in China has aggravated the fragmentation of regional landscapes and led to the degradation of multiple ecological functions. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, patch size of fragmentation geometry were used to identify and monitor spatial distribution patterns of landscape fragmentation due to urban-transport networks in Fujian Province. This network has caused serious damage to regional ecological functions, and risks to the persistence of animal populations and biodiversity. This analysis revealed that the smallest patch class (0-15 km2) occurred with a much greater frequency than all other larger patch sizes. In the coastal cities of Xiamen, Zhangzhou and Quanzhou, the percentage of the number of patches less than 300 km2 was higher than in the western cities of Nanping, Sanming and Longyan, and the percentage of the area of patches less than 300 km2 was also higher. Based on a holistic identification of the structure of the network and its landscape division, we found that: Fujian Province has a spatial pattern of landscape fragmentation, with less fragmentation in western and northern regions, and most fragmentation in southern and eastern regions. Coastal regions and areas close to the main transport routes were more seriously fragmented and contained most of the small patches.

  19. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  20. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  1. Identification and prioritization of areas with high environmental risk in Mediterranean coastal areas: A flexible approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignani, Michela; Bruschi, Daniele; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Frondoni, Raffaella; Carli, Emanuela; Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cumo, Fabrizio; Gugliermetti, Franco; Saatkamp, Arne; Doxa, Aggeliki; Queller, Emi Martín; Chaieb, Mohamed; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; El Zein, Rana; El Jeitani, Sarah; Khater, Carla; Mansour, Sophie; Al-Shami, Anwar; Harik, Ghinwa; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Blasi, Carlo

    2017-07-15

    Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are the cornerstone for the future management of coastal ecosystems with many vulnerability and hazard indexes developed for this purpose, especially in the engineering literature, but with limited studies that considered ecological implications within a risk assessment. Similarly, the concept of prioritization of sites has been widely examined in biodiversity conservation studies, but only recently as an instrument for territory management. Considering coastal plant diversity at the species and community levels, and their vulnerability to three main potential hazards threatening coastal areas (oil spills, Hazardous and Noxious Substances pollution, fragmentation of natural habitats), the objective of this paper is to define an easy-to-use approach to locate and prioritize the areas more susceptible to those stressors, in order to have a practical instrument for risk management in the ordinary and extra-ordinary management of the coastline. The procedure has been applied at pilot areas in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, France, Lebanon and Tunisia). This approach can provide policy planners, decision makers and local communities an easy-to-use instrument able to facilitate the implementation of the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) process in their territory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eco-Geography of Coastal Areas: Sosio-Economy Dynamic of Land Ownership of Coastal Areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia constitute an archipelagic state which passesses resource of ocean, ecosystem of coast area and social economy dynamics of various maritime society. The nation of Indonesia had ever been welknown as a maritime nation which dominated Nusantara territorial waters as far as neighbour state. Fish cultivation in embankruent  system has been being known since the era of Mojopahit Kingdom and likewise boat industry was held along the north-oast of Java which was ever glorius in the beginning of Dutch Colonialism. But, up to now why a large part of Indonesian fishermen are still using simple technology and method in fishery and fish cultivation? Change in policy within Dutch era development. Which was farm land oriented and plantation had influenced the maritime tradition slip off. Opening of railway and land tract transportation in Java had changed economic ativity pattern of the oast area to hinterland. Investment and human resource were councentrated to farmland development and plantation was directed to export so that it affected the coast area slip off which was basically fishery activity. Development after independence, mainly in the era of New Order, it started from farming activity raised to industry society. Coastal area came back to develop with industrial growth in the urbans of Java north coast. Nevertheless development in fishery does not yet return to show the sign of glorious untill the end of this age. It is  hoped that, with properly judment of the islands coastal area out of Java, goverment will direct  its policy and investment to develop the new maritime society to go against the glorious in the 21st century.

  3. A multi-omics based ecological analysis of coastal marine sediments from Gladstone, in Australia's Central Queensland, and Heron Island, a nearby fringing platform reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, D J; Crosswell, J; Karpe, A V; Ahmed, W; Williams, M; Morrison, P D; Metcalfe, S; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Palombo, E A; Steven, A D L

    2017-12-31

    The impact of anthropogenic factors arising from point and non-point pollution sources at a multi commodity marine port and its surrounding ecosystems were studied using sediment samples collected from a number of onshore (Gladstone Harbour and Facing Island) and offshore (Heron Island and Fitzroy Reefs) sites in Australia's Central Queensland. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals, organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emerging chemicals of concern (ECC) and sterols. Similarly, the biological and biochemical interaction between the reef and its environment was analyzed by the multi-omic tools of next-generation sequencing characterization of the bacterial community and microbial community metabolic profiling. Overall, the trace elements were observed at the lower end of the Australian environmental guideline values at the offshore sites, while higher values were observed for the onshore locations Nickel and copper were observed above the high trigger value threshold at the onshore sites. The levels of PAH were below limits of detection across all sites. However, some of the ECC and sterols were observed at higher concentrations at both onshore and offshore locations, notably, the cholesterol family sterols and 17α-ethynylestradiol. Multi-omic analyses also indicated possible thermal and photo irradiation stressors on the bacterial communities at all the tested sites. The observed populations of γ-proteobacteria were found in combination with an increased pool of fatty acids that indicate fatty acid synthesis and utilisation of the intermediates of the shikimate pathways. This study demonstrates the value of applying a multi-omics approach for ecological assessments, in which a more detailed assessment of physical and chemical contaminants and their impact on the community bacterial biome is obtained. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter

  5. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.11 Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will consider...

  6. 75 FR 63447 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Louisiana Coastal Area--Plaquemines Parish, LA, Medium Diversion With Dedicated Dredging at Myrtle Grove... Statement (EIS) for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Medium Diversion at Myrtle Grove with... effected area of the Barataria Basin, which is located in the Ascension, Assumption, Jefferson, Lafourche...

  7. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah,

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  8. Factors controlling phosphorus release from sediments in coastal archipelago areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttonen, Irma; Kohonen, Tuula; Mattila, Johanna

    2016-07-15

    In coastal archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea, significantly higher phosphate concentrations (6.0±4.5μmol/l, mean±SD) were measured in water samples close to the sediment surface compared with those from 1m above the seafloor (1.6±2.0μmol/l). The results indicated notable phosphate release from sediments under the bottom water oxygen concentrations of up to 250μmol/l, especially in areas that had experienced recent temporal fluctuation between oxic and hypoxic/anoxic conditions. No single factor alone was found to control the elevated PO4-P concentrations in the near-bottom water. In addition to the oxygen in the water, the contents of potentially mobile phosphorus fractions, grain-size, the organic content at the sediment surface, and the water depth were all important factors controlling the internal loading of phosphorus. The complexity of this process needs to be accounted for in assessments of the internal loading of phosphorus and in potential mitigation plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  10. Monitoring and analysis of coastal reclamation from 1995-2015 in Tianjin Binhai New Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wengang; Wang, Dongchuan; Huang, Yong; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Wei, Xiangwang; Sang, Mengqin; Wang, Feicui; Liu, Jinya; Hu, Bingxu

    2017-06-20

    Increasing coastal reclamation activities have been undertaken to solve the conflict between people and land resources, creating significant challenges for coordinating coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection. This paper analyzes the effects of coast reclamation on Gross Domestic Product growth and the quality of inshore seawater in the Tianjin Binhai New Area. Remote sensing and a Geographic Information System were used to extract the information of coastal reclamation. The correlation between the area of coastal reclamation, GDP growth and the quality of inshore seawater was analyzed and a decoupling elasticity model was used to explore trends in the relationship between economic development and coastal reclamation. Results showed that coastal reclamation activities played an important role in promoting economic development, but greatly damaged the ecological environment. Although the relationship between coastal reclamation and economic development has weakened during the last three periods, the influence on the environment will continue because of the cumulative effects of pollution. To maintain a balance between coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection, (1) coastal reclamation planning must address both economic and environmental outcomes; (2) environmental deficiencies from existing coastal reclamation projects must be rectified; and (3) the legal system regulating coastal reclamation needs to be refined and strengthened.

  11. Numerical Modeling to Support Floodplain Mapping in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik, K.; Shrestha, P. L.; Hamilton, D.; Rezakhani, M.; Scheffner, N.; Lenaburg, R.

    2009-12-01

    A hurricane-induced flood mapping study was conducted for the State of Hawaii encompassing the six major Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. The objective of the study was to use numerical methods to compute storm surge frequency relationships using the Empirical Simulation Technique (EST). This paper describes the EST methodology. Ultimately, the storm surge frequency data and water surface elevations determined through the modeling effort define coastal inundation areas to revise Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FRIMs). Such information guides coastal development and highlights flood risks in coastal areas. To perform a realistic storm surge analysis, historical events impacting the islands in the study area were selected from the National Hurricane Center’s Eastern and Central North Pacific Basin Hurricane database. The database consists of hurricanes, tropical storms, and tropical depressions impacting the Hawaiian Islands from 1949 through 2005 and includes records of the latitude, longitude, maximum wind speed, and, often, the central pressure of the eye of the storm. For this study, candidate events were selected based on two criteria. Storms were required to pass within 200 nautical miles of at least two of the islands with maximum winds at that point of at least tropical storm-strength (39 mph.) Of the 794 storm events in the database, 11 events met these criteria and were used to generate wind and pressure fields for the modeling effort. An assumption of the EST analysis is that each of the 11 events has an equal probability of impacting the islands within the 200 nautical mile ellipse. Therefore, the 11events were translated by one Radius-to-Maximum winds across the ellipse so that each event impacted each island, generating 102 impacting events. The hypothetical events were used to generate wind and pressure fields for input to the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) long-wave hydrodynamic model to compute storm surge at defined

  12. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  13. Environmental Predictors of Seabird Wrecks in a Tropical Coastal Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Castro Tavares

    Full Text Available Beached bird surveys have been widely used to monitor the impact of oil pollution in the oceans. However, separating the combined effects of oil pollution, environmental variables and methodological aspects of beach monitoring on seabird stranding patterns is a challenging task. The effects of a comprehensive set of oceanographic and climatic variables and oil pollution on seabird strandings in a tropical area of Brazil were investigated herein, using two robust and innovative methods: Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Structural Equation Modeling. We assessed strandings of four resident seabird species along 480 km of beaches divided into 11 sampling areas, between November 2010 and September 2013. We found that increasing the distance from the nearest breeding island reduce the seabird stranding events. Storm activity and biological productivity were the most important factors affecting the stranding events of brown boobies Sula leucogaster, Cabot's terns Thalasseus acuflavidus and kelp gulls Larus dominicanus. These species are also indirectly affected by warm tropical waters, which reduce chlorophyll-a concentrations. Beach surveys are, thus, useful to investigate the mortality rates of resident species near breeding sites, where individuals are more abundant and exposed to local factors associated with at-sea mortality. In contrast, conservation actions and monitoring programs for far-ranging seabird species are needed in more distant foraging areas. Furthermore, beach monitoring programs investigating the impact of oil pollution on seabirds need to account for the effects of environmental factors on stranding patterns. The present study also demonstrated that seabirds inhabiting tropical coastal waters are sensitive to climate conditions such as adverse weather, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in next decades.

  14. Criteria for Incorporating the Guidelines of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Territorial Land Use Planning: Study Case for the Colombian Pacific Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela López Rodrí­guez; Paula Cristina Sierra-Correa; Pilar Lozano-Rivera

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been implemented through the “National Environmental Policy of the Oceanic Spaces and Coastal and Insular Areas of Colombia-PNAOCI” (Acronyms in Spanish), whose guidelines have considered the need to include marine and coastal ecosystems in land use planning. ICZM, as a special planning approach, can contribute to territorial land use planning of the municipalities located in coastal areas, because it can provide guidelines for the co...

  15. COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PAPELA AND ADJACENT AREA, ROTE ISLAND, EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nineu Yayu Gerhanae

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal typhology as data base that describes the result of interaction among geophysical element to geological elements and anthropogenic aspects. This data can provide any information of morphological development processes which is reflected in the coastal characteristics map. Identification of the Papela coastal area, Rote Island, about 60 km length, based on indirect and direct methods. Direct method is done by field observation such as : geological condition, relief, shoreline character and dominant process. While indirect method is done by imagery satellite interpretation and related previous data. Observation results of coastal condition, that the study area is divided into four coastal types, there are rocky cliff, sandy pocket beach, muddy and sandy beach. Coastal geology of study area composed of Holocene Alluvium, Quaternary Coral Limestone and Tertiary Bobonaro Complex that has low to high rocks resistance. Coastal morphology form by alluvium plain until slope rugged hills with low-high relief. The coastline characters consist of the rocky cliff, sandy pocket, sandy and muddy beach, with dominant process that influenced by fluviatil which is characterized by mangrove. Beach face material composed of sand and float stone, from 15-30 meters width with 5O-15O slope. Although the coastal area is relatively stable but erosion active process occurs at some places. It is characterized by float stone, and notches accompanied by rock fall. While, accretion occur in muddy coastal type that is characterized by mangrove plants.

  16. Methods for Sustainable Management of Contamination Sources in Urban Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevik, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Managing contaminated urban coastal areas is an important issue in today’s society. Harbor areas are transformed from industrial sites and shipyards, to housing areas with high environmental requirements. The use of coastal areas for aquaculture and fishing activities increases the need for cleanup of previous contamination sources. High environmental standards when handling dredged material from harbors and industrial activities are also required in our society today. Many countries incl...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (vanadium concentrations ranged 0.66-1.96 microg/L, chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  18. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Areas 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  19. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  20. Design of water pumping system by wind turbine for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Tasnim, Tamanna; Doha, Umnia

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a theoretical analysis has been carried out to analyze the prospect of Wind Pumping System (WPS) for using in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Wind speed data of three coastal areas of Bangladesh-Kutubdia, Patenga and Sathkhira has been analyzed and an optimal wind turbine viable for this wind speed range has been designed using the simulation software Q-blade. The simulated turbine is then coupled with a rotodynamic pump. The output of the Wind Pumping System (WPS) for the three coastal areas has been studied.

  1. 77 FR 17037 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study AGENCY... Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management restoration study. This... the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana, Ecosystem Restoration Study (LCA Study). The record of...

  2. 77 FR 60319 - Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Reduction Plan; Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area Established With a Temporary Shift of Its Effective Date...), Commerce. ACTION: Establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area; temporary shift of its effective... establishment of the Coastal Gulf of Maine Closure Area under the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Plan (Plan...

  3. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Shilu; Qi Xin; Hu Wenbiao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Meth...

  5. Integrated coastal area management: The case of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    for cheap transport of building materials, raw materials and finished products by the sea, and the availability of an unlimited source for water and of a dynamic sink for wastes. Moreover, hazardous industries will have half of their danger circle (sterile.... Ibidem. Swamy, G.N. (1994). Dispersion characteristics of Indian coastal waters at selected sites. PhD Thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology. Swamy. G.N. and Desai, RN. (1993). Some aspects of planning development of coastal zone in maritime...

  6. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  7. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Gateway National Recreation Area (gate_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gateway National Recreation Area in New...

  8. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  9. Zonation and Density of Intertidal Communities at Coastal Area of Batu Hijau, Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianda, Fredinan; Yusuf, Muhamad Salamuddin; Prayogo, Windy

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of coastal tidal areas of Batu Hijau vary from sandy substrate type, sandy to rocky reef with a wide expanse of intertidal ranges from 100 meters to 350 meters. To find out zoning intertidal community,the observation conducted at five locations intertidal beach, each consisting of three zones: the high tide, middle tide and low tide. Living structure in tidal areas of coastal Batu Hijau, Sumbawa consists of the main communities and associated biota. The main intertidal communi...

  10. Monitoring The Land Accretion Development at Coastal Area of Blanakan, Subang Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi; Meriana, Ginna; Somantri, Lili

    2016-11-01

    A land accretion is formed by deposition in estuaries. Recently, a land development in Subang coastal area has raised an increase. Beside its potential, coastal areas are also threatened with damage including abrasion, accretion, loss of mangrove forests, and sea water intrusion. One of the coastal areas that have been arising in very extensive land is Blanakan coastal in Subang Regency. This study aims to monitor the development of a land accretion that have been arise during the period of 1990 to 2015 and also to examine the use of a land accretion and analyze the impact of a land accretion to the social and economic conditions in the Blanakan Coastal Areas. The method used in this research was descriptive quantitative method. In this research, The Landsat imageries were overlaid came from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 to determine the development of a land accretion. Based on the results of Landsat imagery overlaid over the period 1990-2015. Overall, during the period 1990-2015, accreted land formed was an area of 782.9 hectares and abrasion area of 73.3 hectares with changes in the most far reaching 1580.3 m. The use of land accretion in the Blanakan Coastal mostly used for a fishpond with a key commodity is Milkfish and Bago shrimps. The impact of land accretion to the social and economic conditions was reflected through the five indicators such as livelihoods, income, education, health, and ownership of assets.

  11. Improved satellite observations in coastal areas from altimetry and SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Martin, Adrien; Gommenginger, Christine; Calafat, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The coastal environment is under constant pressure by natural forces and anthropogenic activities and is very sensitive to climate change. Observations of many physical and biological parameters are critical for its monitoring and management. Satellite observations constitute an efficient way to observe the global coastal environment, but ocean satellite observations have often been designed and optimised for the open ocean: algorithms and processing techniques need to be revisited and adapted for application in the coastal zone. A case in point is that of satellite altimetry, which over the oceans is regarded as one of the most successful remote sensing techniques, as it has allowed an unprecedented mapping of the ocean surface dynamics at the large- and meso-scale. With the improvements in orbit models, radar processing, atmospheric and geophysical effect corrections that have emerged over the years, altimetry gives today also a very accurate estimation of the rate of sea level rise and its geographical variability. However, altimetric data in the near-land strip (0 to 50 km from the coastline) are often flagged as bad and left unused, essentially owing to 1) difficulties with the corrections; and/or 2) the modification of the radar returns due to the presence of land in the footprint, which makes the fitting of the altimetric echoes with a waveform model (the so-called "retracking") problematic. Techniques to recover meaningful estimates of the altimeter-derived parameters (height, significant wave height and wind) in the coastal zone have been developed and lead to a number of new applications, which will be presented here. The new observation from coastal altimetry are highly synergistic with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR imagers measure the backscattered signal from the ocean surface at spatial resolution better than 100m. This backscattered signal gives knowledge on the sea surface roughness, which is related to wind and waves. The very high resolution

  12. Storm surge modeling and applications in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shisir K.; Murty, Tad S.; Feyen, Jesse C.; Cabrera, Reggina; Harper, Bruce A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Amer, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to a wide spectrum of storm surge modeling systems used to assess the impact of tropical cyclones, covering a range of numerical methods, model domains, forcing and boundary conditions, and purposes. New technologies to obtain data such as deployment of temporary sensors and remote sensing practices to support modeling are also presented. Extensive storm surge modeling applications have been made with existing modeling systems and some of them are described in this chapter.The authors recognize the importance of evaluating river-ocean interactions in coastal environments during tropical cyclones. Therefore, the coupling of hydraulic (riverine) and storm surge models is discussed. In addition, results from studies performed in the coast of India are shown which generated maps to help emergency managers and reduce risk due to coastal inundation.

  13. 15 CFR 930.98 - Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. 930.98 Section 930.98 Commerce and Foreign... Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. State agencies... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED...

  14. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  15. On the importance of coastal areas in the survival of Neanderthal populations during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution of Neanderthal populations across Europe and the Middle East. Key geographical variables are used to identify major population strongholds. Four are identified: southern Iberia, Atlantic Europe, Black Sea-Aegean and coastal Italy. Neanderthal site density in each stronghold was found to correspond closely with the predicted suitability of each area. A strong correlation was found between area suitability and last Neanderthal dates and the process of population fragmentation and extinction was found to affect continental areas first and coastal ones last. Oceanic influence, inter-area connectivity and proximity to coasts were found to be key variables in the Neanderthal extinction process. The functional ecological significance of coastal areas to Neanderthals is discussed.

  16. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kaluza

    Full Text Available The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  17. Revitalization of Coastal Area Pasie Nan Tigo Padang City for Hazard Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryani Haryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal neighborhood of Pasie Nan Tigo, city of Padang after the earthquake of 2007 and 2009 is threatened by various disasters. Therefore, the efforts should be made in comprehensive way to reduce the risk of the disasters through community participation. The study conducted by Haryani (2013 on the mitigation efforts in coastal areas shows that the environmental revitalization with active disaster mitigation model needed to be done before the disaster occurred. The method used in the revitalization of disaster mitigation in coastal areas is the Active Hazard Mitigation Model (non-physical with community participation and Passive Mitigation Models (physical with community empowerment. The results of the study are that the communities of the coastal areas, Pasir Nan Tiga have a better knowledge and understanding on the threat of coastal disasters and on the disaster mitigation. In addition, the communities also have a better knowledge on the importance of revitalizing the market place and settlements after the earthquake. The results of the implementation of passive mitigation models to the community empowerment are: (a basic map / forum administration, (b a map of evacuation routes, (c a map of problems mainly related to the disaster, (d a disaster vulnerability map of Pasie Nan Tigo Village, and (e trees-barriers to avoid erosion / abrasion in the coastal neighborhood of Pasie Nan Tigo, city of Padang.

  18. Dissolved Platinum Concentrations in Coastal Seawater: Boso to Sanriku Areas, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashio, Asami Suzuki; Obata, Hajime; Gamo, Toshitaka

    2017-08-01

    Platinum, one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust, is now widely used in a range of products, such as catalytic converters in automobiles and anticancer drugs. Increasing use and dispersal of platinum has the potential to affect aquatic environments. Platinum concentrations in open ocean seawater have been found to be very low (approximately 0.2 pmol/L); however, Pt distributions and biogeochemical cycles in coastal areas are unknown. In this study, we investigated Pt concentrations in coastal waters between the Boso and Sanriku areas, Japan, after the 2011 tsunami. We determined sub-picomolar levels of dissolved Pt using isotope-dilution Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after column preconcentration with an anion exchange resin. Dissolved Pt concentrations were found to be in the range 0.20-1.5 pmol/L, with the highest concentration in bottom water of the Boso coastal area, and at stations close to Tokyo Bay. Assuming thermodynamical equilibrium, Pt was determined to be present in the form PtCl 5 (OH) 2- , even in low-oxygen coastal waters. Vertical profiles indicated Pt levels increased toward seafloors near coastal stations and were similar to those of the open ocean at trench stations. High concentrations of dissolved Pt are thought to be derived from coastal sediments.

  19. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  20. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  1. Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of ligurian coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picollo, A.; Frache, R.; Magi, E.; Ianni, C. [Genua Univ., Genua (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry

    2000-08-01

    A study on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Fe, Cr, V, Mn, Cu) in the sediments of the Ligurian coast was carried out. The data are interpreted by the Principal Component Analysis and related, for Cr and Fe, to the fluvial sediments. The comparison between the data obtained from the present study and similar matrices of Mediterranean coastal environment has allowed the determination of values due chiefly to natural input. [Italian] Il lavoro riguarda la distribuzione e la concentrazione di alcuni metalli pesanti (Zn, Pb, Fe, Cr, V, Mn, Cu) nei sedimenti costieri della Liguria. I dati ottenuti sono stati interpretati con l'ausilio dell'analisi delle componenti principali (PCA) e i valori di concentrazione del Cr e del Fe sono risultati correlati agli apporti fluviali. Il confronto tra i dati ottenuti con matrici similari di ambienti costieri del Mediterraneo ha permesso di riscontrare valori dovuti principalmente ad apporti naturali.

  2. GIS based risk assessment of oil spill in the coastal areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the total loss and damages that may result from oil spill constitutes risk assessment. The study area is the coastal Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Akwa Ibom State, located in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The delta generates the greatest proportion of foreign exchange and internal revenue earnings of the country ...

  3. Impact of salinity on the production of tomato along the coastal areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coast of Benin lies on a wide bay in the Gulf of Guinea called the Bight of Benin, about 125 km between Togo and Nigeria. The coastal areas of Benin cover part of the cultivable lands of the country. A total of 15 tomato varieties were recorded in the areas of study. The characteristics of each variety grown under salinity ...

  4. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  5. MARGINALIZATION OF FISHERMEN FROM UTILIZING COASTAL AREA AFTER RECLAMATION AT SERANGAN SUBDISTRICT, DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suryawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographically, Serangan Subdistrict, South Denpasar District, Bali Province, used to be separated from the Bali’s mainland. However, now it is not isolated any longer after a bridge was constructed and reclamation was conducted by the Bali Turtle Island (abbreviated to BTID in 1996. At that time 379 hectares of the coastal areas were victimized. The investor’s existence and the other businesses utilizing the coastal areas as their operating areas physically changed them, which were entirely coastal. It was this which was directly and indirectly responsible for marginalizing the fishermen. In relation to that, how the fishermen at Serangan subdistrict were marginalized from utilizing the coastal areas after being reclaimed was the focus of the present study. Qualitative method and the approach of cultural studies were used in the present study. The data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and documentary study. The data were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed.   To sum up, the present study showed that there were several forms of marginalization undergone by the fishermen at Serangan Subdistrict after reclamation; they were marginalized from utilizing the coastal environment; economic difficulty resulting from the fact that the sources of fish were getting scarce causing their income to go down; and their powerlessness in overcoming the problem they encountered to improve their standard of living.

  6. [Status and influencing factors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in the coastal areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Xia; Yang, Yu-Yi; Li, Qing-Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This review focused on the distribution, pollution status, sources and influencing factors of PCBs in the coastal areas (seawater, surface sediments and biota) in China. A few main points are listed as follows: (1) For coastal seawater, concentrations of PCBs were increasing from the north to the south and the highest concentrations of PCBs were observed in the developed east coastal areas. The concentrations of PCBs in most coastal areas were higher than the seawater standard of U. S. EPA (30 ng x L(-1)), indicating that there was a high potential risk. (2) Only a small part of surface sediments had PCBs concentrations higher than the ISQG (interim sediment quality guideline) and ERL (effects range-low) values, suggesting little probability of causing biological adverse effects and potential risk in surface sediments. (3) High-molecular-weight PCBs (4, 5 and 6 chlorinated biphenyl) were bio-accumulated in marine biota. The concentrations of PCBs in organisms were generally lower than 2000 ng x g(-1), which may have negligible effects on human health. (4) The main sources of PCBs were wastewater discharged from factories and the leakage of dismantling PCBs from electronic wastes. Factors influencing the concentrations and distribution of PCBs in the coastal areas included distance from land, flow exchange situation, water-carrying capacity, season, sediment particle size and total organic carbon content.

  7. The relationship between climate change and the endangered rainforest shrub Triunia robusta (Proteaceae) endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Kimura, Yoko; Accad, Arnon; Shapcott, Alison

    2017-04-01

    Threatened species in rainforests may be vulnerable to climate change, because of their potentially narrow thermal tolerances, small population sizes and restricted distributions. This study modelled climate induced changes on the habitat distribution of the endangered rainforest plant Triunia robusta, endemic to southeast Queensland, Australia. Species distribution models were developed for eastern Australia at 250 m grids and southeast Queensland at 25 m grids using ground-truthed presence records and environmental predictor data. The species’ habitat distribution under the current climate was modelled, and the future potential habitat distributions were projected for the epochs 2030, 2050 and 2070. The eastern Australia model identified several spatially disjunct, broad habitat areas of coastal eastern Australia consistent with the current distribution of rainforests, and projected a southward and upslope contraction driven mainly by average temperatures exceeding current range limits. The southeast Queensland models suggest a dramatic upslope contraction toward locations where the majority of known populations are found. Populations located in the Sunshine Coast hinterland, consistent with past rainforest refugia, are likely to persist long-term. Upgrading the level of protection for less formal nature reserves containing viable populations is a high priority to better protect refugial T. robusta populations with respect to climate change.

  8. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  9. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  10. Monitoring of geomorphological changes for planning reclamation work in coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M. N.; Maajid, S.

    2004-01-01

    The coastal zones form an important segment and play a vital role in the economy of the country. The land-water interface comprising of coastal zone is modified all the time by oceanic currents, waves and tidal oscillations. The sediments are brought into the creeks from the erosion prone open coast beaches as well as through small rivers and inlets, and dispersed and deposited along the coast. Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) due to its repetitive, multi-spectral and synoptic nature provides a unique view to recognize various features on land and sea. SRS techniques can be of great help in collection of continuous wave currents, wind, tides, suspended matter, shallow water area, wetlands, mangroves, mudflats and other coastal features and coastal changes, like land accretion or erosion. Therefore, a study has been undertaken to monitor geomorphological changes along the coast of Karachi using multi-temporal Landsat MSS and TM data from 1978 to 1998. SRS data were processed using interactive digital image processing/enhancement techniques like colour enhancement, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and by Colour draping techniques and different enhanced products of the area have been prepared. The multi-temporal PC analysis results were integrated with each other and with navigational map of the area by GIS technique. The geomorphological changes occurring at the middle part of the coast of Karachi along Bundal and Buddo Islands and in Korangi-Phitti Creek area were delineated. The integrated techniques applied on multi-temporal SRS data in this study were found very useful for monitoring and mapping the land accretion and erosion processes. The analyses provided the old as well as the most recent data base of coastal environmental conditions of the study area, which may led for better understanding of coastal processes and help for planning reclamation work in this area.

  11. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  12. Flood protection structure detection with Lidar: examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trmal Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting different topographic analysis conducted with GIS software in order to detect flood protection structures, natural or artificial, in river floodplains but also in coastal zones. Those computations are relevant because of the availability of high-resolution lidar digital terrain model (DTM. An automatic detection permits to map the footprint of those structures. Then detailed mapping of structure crest is achieved by implementing a least cost path analysis on DTM but also on other terrain aspects such as the curvature. On coastal zones, the analysis is going further by identifying flood protected areas and the level of protection regarding sea level. This article is illustrated by examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas.

  13. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  15. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  16. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.

  17. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Notice of Study Findings. Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Spotted seatrout Atlantic sharpnose shark Spot Scalloped hammerhead Southern kingfish Tarpon Gulf kingfish Gulf menhaden Atlantic croaker Atlantic thread...commercial or recreational importance in the study area. Species Bull shark Sheepshead Blacktip shark Silver perch Tiger shark Sand seatrout Lemon shark

  18. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Land Loss and Marsh Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Blacktip shark Silver perch Tiger shark Sand seatrout Lemon shark Spotted seatrout Atlantic sharpnose shark Spot Scalloped hammerhead Southern kingfish...list of common estuarine and marine fishes and shellfishes of commercial or recreational importance in the study area. Species Bull shark Sheepshead

  19. Four large coastal upwelling areas are created by eastern boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1991, Christensen and Pauly 1993, Jarre-Teichmann 1998). Such trophic flow models were developed for four ecosystems in upwelling areas, namely off northern and central. Peru in the Humboldt Current (4–14°S), off California and Oregon in the California Current (28–42°N), south of Cape Blanc in the Canary Current.

  20. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Heating of the greenhouses was only for frost protection purpose which adversely affected crop yields and quality. Only 2% of the greenhouses present in the area was .... Baytorun (1995) recommended either galvanization or painting the structural material for prevention of corrosion. Types of greenhouse ...

  1. Assessment of Subsurface Conditions in a Coastal Area of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated geophysical and geotechnical survey was carried out at Magodo Estate, Lagos, Nigeria. The buildings in this area are either sinking or intensively affected by severe cracks showing structural instability. The survey was aimed at characterizing the shallow subsurface in order to delineate features that may have ...

  2. Assessment of Subsurface Conditions in a Coastal Area of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    construction in civil engineering (Soupios, et al, 2007). Engineering ... geophysical methods to investigate the subsurface setting of the area. ..... International. Journal of Energy Science and Engineering, 1 (2): 40 -48. Coker, S. J., Ejedawe, J. E. and Oshiorienua (1983). Hydrocarbon source potentials of Cretaceous rocks of.

  3. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen : Pearl by the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a

  4. Impact of salinity on the production of tomato along the coastal areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ishola

    and direct watering of crop with saline water. The wetted foliage of growing tomato absorbed the salts directly. The results obtained also show that salinity in the coastal areas of Benin affected tomato growth, leaf length, and number of .... development and yield of tomato, sensitivity to other stress, salinity and flooding control ...

  5. Trend Analysis of Hydro-meteorological variables in the coastal area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT; This paper presents the application of Mann-Kendall trend test and Standard. Anomaly index onhydro-meteorological variables in the coastal area of Lagos state in order to determine the nature of trend and level of significance. The hydro-meteorological data such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind ...

  6. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  7. Arsenic speciation in fish from Greek coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzi, Ioanna; Mylona, Kyriaki; Sofoulaki, Katerina; Tsapakis, Manolis; Pergantis, Spiros A

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted on fish samples (sardine and anchovy) collected from six areas along the Greek coastline, i.e. Artemisium Straits, Thermaikos Gulf, Amvrakikos Gulf, Strymonian Gulf, Thracian Sea, and Elefsina Gulf. Total arsenic levels ranging from 11.8 to 62.6mg As/kg dry weight were determined. Arsenobetaine, a non-toxic form of arsenic, was found to be the main arsenic species, present at 8.6 to 58.8mg As/kg dry weight, accounting for 67-95% of the total arsenic. Also detected in all fish samples was dimethylarsinic acid, although at considerably lower concentrations, ranging from 0.072-0.956mg As/kg dry weight. Monomethylarsonic acid was detected at low levels in all anchovy samples, and only in sardines from one area. Finally, inorganic arsenic in the form of arsenate was detected only in fish at one area, indicating the possible effect of an environmental parameter on its presence at detectable amounts. Statistical analysis revealed the environmental variables, such as salinity, total organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and pressure index, are potentially correlated to As species concentrations. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, the biological parameters, such as fish weight, lipids, protein and ash content, that are correlated to As species concentrations of fish were also identified. The interrelationship of arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations within each fish species was evaluated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  9. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E; Hughes, George R

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (orcoastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  10. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  11. Spatiotemporal variations and regional differences of extreme precipitation events in the Coastal area of China from 1961 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Hou, Xiyong; Wang, Yuandong

    2017-11-01

    Coastal area of China (CAC) is of high ecological vulnerability and extremely sensitive to global climate change. Based on daily precipitation dataset of 156 station records, spatial and temporal variations of extreme precipitation events from 1961 to 2014 in the coastal area of China were investigated using a set of mathematical and statistical methods including trend analysis, R/S analysis, wavelet analysis, Mann-Kendall test, accumulative anomaly analysis and Pettitt test. Results revealed that there was a generally insignificant upward and downward tendency of extreme precipitation events in the southern and northern coastal area, respectively. Persistent of tendency suggested that trends of extreme precipitation events in Huabei, Huanghuai, Jiangnan and Huanan coastal areas would continue but trends in Dongbei and Jianghuai coastal areas would mostly present contrary to the past in the future. Multi-year averages of all extreme precipitation indices except consecutive dry days (CDD) varied largely in the coastal area of China, generally highest in Huanan coastal area and lowest in Huabei coastal area. The primary period of extreme precipitation indices varied from 2- to 7-year in the sub-regions. The abrupt change of extreme precipitation indices occurred mainly in the 1990s and the 1970s in the CAC.

  12. Marine and Coastal Morphology: medium term and long-term area modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn

    evolution model and apply them to problems concerning coastal protection strategies (both hard and soft measures). The applied coastal protection strategies involve morphological impact of detached shore parallel segmented breakwaters and shore normal impermeable groynes in groyne fields, and morphological...... solution has a two dimensional nature. 1.5D shoreline model A so-called “1.5D” implementation which introduces redistribution of sediment within a coastal profile in response to horizontal 2D currents makes it possible to simulate the morphological development in areas where 2D evolution occurs....... The 1.5D model is seen to produce reasonable results when subject to cases with detached breakwaters and groynes. The computational efficiency of the model is however reduced compared to the 1D model, because the increased freedom of the model reduces the maximum stable morphological time step. Bar...

  13. Coastal Wind Profiles In The Mediterranean Area From A Wind Lidar During A Two Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullì, Daniel; Avolio, Elenio; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2017-04-01

    Reliable measurements of vertical profiles of wind speed and direction are the basis for testing models and methodologies of use for wind energy assessment. Modelling coastal areas further introduce the challenge of the coastal discontinuity, which is often not accurately resolved in meso-scale numerical model. Here, we present the analysis of two year of 10-minute averaged wind speed and direction vertical profiles collected during a two-year period from a Wind- lidar ZEPHIR 300® at a coastal suburban area. The lidar is located at the SUPER SITE of CNR-ISAC section of Lamezia Terme, Italy and both dataset and site are unique in the Mediterranean area. The instrument monitors at 10 vertical levels, from 10 m up to 300 m. The analysis is classified according to season, and wind directions for offshore and offshore flow. For onshore flow, we note an atmospheric layer at around 100 m that likely represents the effect an internal boundary layer caused by the sharp coastal discontinuity of the surface characteristics. For offshore flows, the profiles show a layer ranging between 80m and 100m, which might be ascribed to the land night time boundary layer combined to the impact of the building around the mast.

  14. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall), socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  15. MODELING OF OIL POLLUTION OF ARTIC SEA COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the elastic filtration oil drive of oil in a layer based on the estimation of risks of environmental oil pollution because of accidental releases. The model of oil spillage and resorption by the precoat is based on continuity equation and Darcy rule as well as on equations of state taking into account fluid compressibility due to pressure. Filtering area is a line between the precoat and air. Oil filtering area is limited by soil surface below and by free surface above, its equation is known beforehand and is to be defined. The case of soil pollution from the point source, which is the point of fracture of pipeline or borehole, is considered. Upper and approximate estimates of the oil pollution radius due to different types of underlying terrains and to oil characteristics as well as to environmental conditions. The dynamics of oil free sur- face depending on spillage radii is calculated and presented. The estimates of temporary duration of oil filtering by the pre- coat in terms of light ends and soil type are made. The thickness of the oil film and the square of the spill upon condition of constant speed of oil spillage, horizontal position of underlying terrain and the proximity of pressure to normal are deter- mined. For the numerical implementation of the model different cases of oil spillage were considered. Under given values of air temperature, soil porosity and filtration speed the pollution radii according to light end, the time from the moment of accident till the leakage suppression and the speed of oil spillage was calculated.

  16. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  17. Extraction of shoreline changes in Selangor coastal area using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, S. N.; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Jaafar, O.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, coastal zones are facing shoreline changes that stemming from natural and anthropogenic effect. The process of erosion and accretion will affect the physical environment of the shoreline. Therefore, the study of shoreline changes is important to identify the patterns of changes over time. The rapid growth of technology nowadays has facilitated the study of shoreline changes. Geographical Information System (GIS) alongside Remote Sensing (RS) technology is a useful tool to study these changes due to its ability to generate information, monitoring, analysis and prediction of the shoreline changes. Hence, the future projection of the trend for a specific coastal area can be done effectively. This study investigates the impact of shoreline changes to the community in Selangor area which mainly focus on the physical aspects. This study presents preliminary result using satellite image from SPOT 5 to identify the shoreline changes from the year 1984 to 2013 at Selangor coastal area. Extraction of shoreline from satellite image is vital to analyze the erosion and accretion along the shoreline area. This study shows that a shoreline change for the whole area is a categorized as a medium case. The total eroded and accretion of Selangor area from 1984 to 2013 is 2558 hectares and 2583 hectares respectively. As a result, Kapar, Jugra, Telok Panglima Garang and Kelanang are categorized as high risk erosion area. Shoreline changes analysis provides essential information to determine on the shoreline changes trends. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as essential information for conservation and preservation of coastal zone management.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL URBAN AREA OF KALLITHEA IN ATTICA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

  19. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Nel

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or1700 nests pa (index area especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area, but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality. Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  20. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  1. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  2. Surface and Airborne Measurements of Organosulfur and Methanesulfonate Over the Western United States and Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K

    2015-08-27

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime, and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur (TS) is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 μm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥ 84%) in sub-micrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas, and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  3. Forecasting ecological impacts of sea-level rise on coastal conservation areas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the mounting empirical data on direct implications of climate change for natural and human systems, evidence is increasing for indirect climate change phenomena such as sea-level rise. Rising sea levels and associated marine intrusion into terrestria.htm"l environments are predicted to be among the most serious eventual consequences of climate change. The many complex and interacting factors affecting sea levels create considerable uncertainty in sea-level rise projections: conservative estimates are on the order of 0.5-1.0 m globally, while other estimates are much higher, approaching 6m. Marine intrusion associated with 1-6 m sea-level rise will impact species and habitats in coastal ecosystems severely. Examining areas most vulnerable to such impacts may allow design of appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. We present an overview of potential effects of 1m and 6m sea level rise for coastal conservation areas in the Indian Subcontinent. In particular, we examine the projected magnitude of areal losses in relevant biogeographic zones, ecoregions, protected areas (PAs and important bird areas (IBAs. In addition, we provide a more detailed and quantitative analysis of likely effects of marine intrusion on 22 coastal PAs and IBAs that provide critical habitat for birds in the form of breeding areas, migratory stopover sites and overwintering habitats. Several coastal PAs and IBAs are predicted to experience higher than 50% areal losses to marine intrusion. We explore consequences of such inundation levels for species and habitats in these areas.

  4. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  5. Goitre and urinary iodine in coastal and inland areas with low and high iodized salt coverage in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhe; Wang, Xiao F; Mao, Guang M; Zhu, Wen M; Xu, Pei W; Zou, Yan; Wang, Yuan Y; Lou, Xiao M

    WHO recommended that iodized salt are more than 90% of households in USI programs, which may not be suitable for all regions, especially in coastal areas. This study intended to find out levels of iodine nutrition and give advice from the USI programs for areas with different iodized salt coverage. Coastal and inland areas were selected according to geographical regions in Zhejiang Province, China. The water iodine concentration (spectrophotometer analysis), salt iodine concentration (the colorimetric titration method), salt intake, urinary iodine concentration (spectrophotometer analysis), and thyroid volume examination (ultrasonography), as well as questionnaire, were measured in the two areas. Mean Urinary Iodine concentration (MUIs) of children in coastal areas was 149 μg/L, which was significantly lower than that in inland areas (191 μg/L). MUIs of pregnant women in coastal and inland areas were111 and 138 μg/L, respectively. Pregnant women who consumed iodine-containing supplements had higher MUIs (207 μg/L) than those did not (134 μg/L) in inland areas. Prevalence of goitre in children reached 7.0% and 6.6% in coastal and inland areas, respectively. The lowest prevalence of goitre was reached when the urinary iodine concentration was approximately 120-160 μg/L in coastal areas. Iodine levels of coastal and inland areas were in the adequate range. Advice from the USI program should be specialized for different areas to appropriately reduce the salt iodine concentrations in inland areas and to determine an appropriate proportion of households using iodized salt in coastal areas. Moreover, iodine supplement intake during pregnancy should officially be recommended.

  6. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  7. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  8. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  9. Image object-based water body types identification in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Yongyue; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Peng; Hao, Zengzhou

    2017-10-01

    Water body is one of the most important natural elements in coastal zone. Water bodies in coast are subdivided into offshore sea, aquaculture ponds, inland water bodies, river and so on. Remote sensing is an effective tool to obtain coastal typical objects with high spatial resolution imageries. This paper aims at existing problems of object-based image analysis application to monitor resources and environment in coastal area. For object-based recognition for water body types, relevant works have been carried out by adding spatial semantic features to the extraction process. Through analyzing the spectral, spatial and texture features of water body, the rule set for extracting water body type is established based on the topological and contextual relationship between segments. The recognition method of water body types proposed in this paper gets rid of the traditional object-based classifications based on statistical law. Using prior knowledge to construct knowledge rules with spatial semantic information makes spatial distribution characteristics in coastal zone effective in improving the accuracy of type identification.

  10. Nekton migration and feeding location in a coastal area - A stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to investigate nekton movements and feeding location in a coastal area adjacent to a major European river, the Tagus, Portugal. Particulate organic matter isotopic signatures presented a gradient from the river towards the sea. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, polychaetes and the crab, Polybius henslowii, provided evidence of the incorporation of terrestrial organic matter into the lower levels of the food web, reflecting local isotopic signatures. Two fish species reflected the coastal isotopic gradient in δ13C, Diplodus vulgaris and Arnoglossus imperialis and the latter also presented isotopic differerences among the sites for δ15N. Alloteuthis subulata, Trisopterus luscus and Callionymus lyra were isotopicaly distinct among sites for δ15N. An increase of δ15N with length was detected for T. luscus and C. lyra, possibly showing ontogenic trophic level changes. Since A. subulata did not present differences in length and still showed isotopic distinction for δ15N, among areas, it was concluded that local biogeochemical factors may also have an influence. Diplodus bellottii and Dicologlossa cuneata did not reflect any isotopic signature reflecting their wide migration and feeding across the coastal area. Central isotopic ranges, defined as the site mean values for δ13C and δ15N ± 1‰ were determined for each species and site and those deviating from these were considered transient individuals. Central isotopic ranges accounted for 87% of A. imperialis, 80% of A. subulata, 77% of T. luscus, 67% of C. lyra and 50% of D. vulgaris. The number of individuals within each central isotopic range was surprisingly high for an open coastal area and comparable to those of more structured environments.

  11. Length-weight relationship of mudskippers (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae) in the coastal areas of Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khaironizam, M.Z.; Norma-Rashid, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship (LWR) were estimated for eleven species of mudskippers caught in the coastal areas of Selangor, Malaysia. The values of b ranged from 2.56 to 3.50 with the mean b equal to 2.95 (n=11; sd=0.302). A normal distribution of the calculated LWR exponent (b) was obtained.

  12. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

      Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the main...

  13. Web Application for Coastal Area Planning through Analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzoni, Giulio; Debiasi, Alberto; Eccher, Matteo; De Amicis, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and rapid climatic changes are producing dramatic effects on coastal area of Mediterranean countries. Italian coastal areas are one of the most urbanized zones of the south western Europe and the extensive use of soil is causing a consistent impact on the hydrogeological context. Moreover, soil consumption combined with extreme meteorological events, facilitates the occurrence of hazardous landslide events. Environmental policy makers and data managers in territorial planning need to face such emergency situation with appropriate tools. We present an application service with the aim of advising user through environmental analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption impact. This service wants also to improve the sharing of environmental harmonized datasets/metadata across different organizations and the creation of a collaborative environment where the stakeholders and environmental experts can share their data and work cooperatively. We developed a set of processing services providing functionalities to assess impact of landslide on territory and impact of land take and soil sealing. Among others, the service is able to evaluate environmental impacts of landslide events on Cultural Heritage sites. We have also designed a 3D WebGL client customized to execute the processing services and visualize their outputs. It provides high usability in terms of navigation and data visualization. In this way the service provides not only a Spatial Data Infrastructure to access and visualize data but a complete Decision Support Systems for a more effective environmental planning of coastal area.

  14. NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALOPHYTE Salicornia bigelovii (TOR. IN COASTAL AREA OF SONORA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas (north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter. Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2.23 to 6.33 kg (dry weight m-2 and is composed primarily of surface components. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively. The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by 233.6%. The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.

  15. Evaluation of tsunami run-up on coastal areas at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ernesto Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Gutiérrez, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is commonly tackled by means of numerical model simulations, giving as a result, the areas that are flooded by the tsunami wave inland. To achieve this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulation are still excessive. Besides, an important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate the run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we propose an extension of these second method, including the consideration of realistic profiles and the numerical simulation of tsunami events. To get this, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. The coastal parameterized coastal profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in a numerical flume formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape, realistic tsunami waves, and optimized numerical

  16. Index based regional vulnerability assessment to cyclones hazards of coastal area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Q. A.; Kervyn, M.; Khan, A. U.

    2016-12-01

    Cyclone, storm surge, coastal flooding, salinity intrusion, tornado, nor'wester, and thunderstorms are the listed natural hazards in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh was hit by devastating cyclones in 1970, 1991, 2007, 2009, and 2016. Intensity and frequency of natural hazards in the coastal area are likely to increase in future due to climate change. Risk assessment is one of the most important steps of disaster risk reduction. As a climate change victim nation, Bangladesh claims compensation from green climate fund. It also created its own climate funds. It is therefore very important to assess vulnerability of the coast of Bangladesh to natural hazards for efficient allocation of financial investment to support the national risk reduction. This study aims at identifying the spatial variations in factors contributing to vulnerability of the coastal inhabitants of Bangladesh to natural hazards. An exploratory factor analysis method has been used to assess the vulnerability at each local administrative unit. The 141 initially selected 141 socio-economic indicators were reduced to 41 by converting some of them to meaningful widely accepted indicators and removing highly correlated indicators. Principle component analysis further reduced 41 indicators to 13 dimensions which explained 79% of total variation. PCA dimensions show three types of characteristics of the people that may lead people towards vulnerability. They are (a) demographic, education and job opportunities, (b) access to basic needs and facilities, and (c) special needs people. Vulnerability maps of the study area has been prepared by weighted overlay of the dimensions. Study revealed that 29 and 8 percent of total coastal area are very high and high vulnerable to natural hazards respectively. These are distributed along sea boundary and major rivers. Comparison of this spatial distribution with the capacities to face disaster show that highly vulnerable areas are well covered by cyclone

  17. Public Administration: Main Factor in Successful Management of Coastal Area Development in Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Jugović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern society requires a rational, professional, stable and socially accountable public administration that serves its citizens. Analysis of the status and functioning of the Croatian public administration shows that there are still many shortcomings and problems that must be solved. This paper outlines the basic characteristics of public administration as a set of structures and processes aiming to start and implement the policies in accordance with the public interest. Also, it explores the way and the level of success of managing the common good, with special attention given to the management of the coastal area, whereas the management of the coastal area is defined as an activity comprising different levels of management – local, regional, national and international. The author stresses the need to coordinate the different levels and emphasize the importance of organizing the work process and the capabilities of the managing structure. This is necessary because the public administration often makes decisions directly influencing the citizens’ quality of life on a local and individual level. Given that the public administration has a great amount of power in all countries, it must be controlled. The author states that beside self control of public administration it is also needed to conduct the additional control. That kind of control is necessary due to the inestimable value of Croatia’s coastal and other resources. Based on the results of the research the author suggests measures to improve a continued and efficient control.

  18. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  19. Seasonal Trend of PAHs Concentrations in Farmed Mussels from the Coastal Areas of the Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Perugini, Monia; Lambiase, Sara; Conte, Annamaria; Baldi, Loredana; Amorena, Michele

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the results about the chemical pollution pressure in the Gulf of Naples and nearby coastal areas. Farmed mussels were analysed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results documented a decreasing trend in the PAHs levels respect to the past years. The Bay of Pozzuoli remains as the most contaminated site within the Lucrino area with the highest reported number of samples exceeding the benzo(a)pyrene and PAHs sum limits. All the samples with concentrations above the European regulatory limit were collected in the winter period illustrating a seasonal trend of PAHs distribution in mussels during the 4 years investigated.

  20. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  1. Artificial factors influencing groundwater flows in the industrial complexes at the coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Kue-Young; Woo, Nam C.

    2015-04-01

    Underground structures of the industrial complexes constructed along the coastal areas are vulnerable to the chemical degradations by the sea-water intrusion. Thus it is important to understand how the groundwater system has been altered after the facility construction. Based on the analysis of the groundwater fluctuations in the monitoring wells, the study area was divided into two sections, the rainfall impact areas and the tidal impact areas. Tidal impact section shows the hydraulic diffusivity(T /S, m2d-1) ranging from 9.6×102 to 4.6×104, with the minimum and maximum values for PZ-8 and PZ-5 affected by the underground structure and the excavation-backfill materials, respectively. Then, the storage coefficient was estimated from the hydraulic diffusivity using the results of single-well pumping tests. Transmissivities(T) ranged from 1.4×10 to 4.7×102 m2d-1, and the storage coefficients(S) from 0.002 to 0.052. The highest and the lowest transmissivities of PZ-5 and PZ-6 appeared to reflect the hydraulic property of backfill materials used for construction. Therefore, for hydrogeological characterization of the coastal region with large-scale constructions, field data from various tests should be carefully analyzed considering the impact and the interference of the construction activities, including the distance between underground structures and the monitoring wells, the array of structures, locations and depths of excavation and backfill, hydraulic property of backfill material, etc. Key word : hydrogeological characterization, coastal area, construction activity, tidal method, hydraulic diffusivity

  2. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  3. A comparative study on mesozooplankton abundance and diversity between a protected and an unprotected coastal area of Andaman Islands.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pillai, H.U.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Biju, A.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, V.R.; Revichandran, C.; Menon, N.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    The study was carried out to understand the variability in phytoplankton production (Chlorophyll a) and mesozooplankton diversity from two different shallow coastal regions of south Andaman viz. Port Blair Bay (PBB), the only real urban area among...

  4. Trends in the incidences of acute myocardial infarction in coastal and inland areas in Japan: The Yamagata AMI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanezaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Arimoto, Takanori; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that there are regional differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in regional differences in AMI incidence and dyslipidemia between coastal and inland areas. We investigated trends in AMI incidence and risk factors in 5325 first-ever AMI patients residing in a coastal area (n=1817), a rural inland area (n=1959), or an urban inland area (n=1549) for the periods 1994-2002, and 2003-2010, using data from the Yamagata AMI Registry. Patients in the coastal area were significantly older than those in rural and urban inland areas and had a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia. The age-adjusted incidence rate of AMI was significantly lower in coastal and rural inland areas patients than those from urban inland area (males: 43.3, 42.2, and 51.3/10(5) person-years; females: 17.4, 20.0, and 23.7/10(5) person-years, respectively) during 2 observation periods. Due to a large increase in AMI incidence in younger males of the coastal area and a decrease in AMI incidence in late elderly females of the urban inland area, no significant regional differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates of AMI were observed during the 2003-2010 period in both genders. The increase in AMI incidence in males in the coastal area was associated with an increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia. There were no longer any regional differences observed in AMI incidence, which was considered to be associated with increased dyslipidemia especially in the coastal area. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geoid determination in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HongZhi

    Coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico are important for many reasons. This part of the United States provides vital coastal habitats for many marine species; the area has seen-ever increasing human settlement along the coast, ever increasing infrastructure for marine transportation of the nation's imports and exports through Gulf ports, and ever increasing recreational users of coastal resources. These important uses associated with the Gulf coast are subject to dynamic environmental and physical changes including: coastal erosion (Gulf-wide rates of 25 square miles per year), tropical storm surges, coastal subsidence, and global sea level rise. Coastal land subsidence is a major component of relative sea level rise along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. These dynamic coastal changes should be evident in changes to the geoid along the coast. The geoid is the equipotential gravity surface of the earth, which the best fits the global mean sea level. The geoid is not only been seen as the most natural shape of the Earth, but also it serves as the reference surface for most of the height systems. By using satellites (GRACE mission) scientists have been able to measure the large scale geoid for the Earth. A small scale geoid model is required to monitor local events such as flooding, for example, flooding created by storm surges from hurricanes such as Katrina (2005), Rita (2005), and Ike (2008). The overall purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the local coastal geoid. The more precise geoid will enable to improve coastal flooding predictions, and will enable more cost effective and accurate measurement of coastal topography using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The main objective of this study is to devise mathematical models and computational methods to achieve the best possible precision for evaluation of the geoid in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico. More specifically, the numerical objectives of this study are 1) to obtain a

  6. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  7. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SELF-SUPPORT STILT-HOUSES TOWARDS THE DISASTER POTENTIALITY AT THE CAMBAYA COASTAL AREA, MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfa Sastrawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-support stilt-houses at the coastal area have environment characteristics that are different from inland houses, and they have the disaster potentiality such as hurricanes, tidal waves, abrasion, earthquakes, and even tsunami. The stilt houses are very adaptable to climatic conditions and coastal disasters. The shape of the stilt houses at the coastal area must comply with aspects of safety, security, comfort, and health. This paper examines the characteristics of the stilt houses at the coastal area of Cambaya, Makassar, especially in terms of safety and security aspects. The aspects of safety and security include the resistance of the building construction towards disasters. Along with the development of the urban area, the demanding needs and limited financial-abilities, the owners of the houses at the Cambaya coastal area develop their houses by utilizing the empty space at the coastal area and the space under floor of the stilt house. The change of the building shape gives an effect on the poor quality of the building, building safety, and security. However, there are several stilt houses at Cambaya which could reduce the impacts of disasters on the safety of the residents through their local wisdom.

  8. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  9. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  10. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  11. Shell alterations in limpets as putative biomarkers for multi-impacted coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begliomini, Felipe Nincao; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; de Almeida, Sérgio Mendonça; Abessa, Denis Moledo; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Pereira, Camilo Seabra; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete; Castro, Ítalo Braga

    2017-07-01

    During the last years, shell alterations in gastropods have been proposed as tools to be used in monitoring programs. However, no studies were so far performed investigating the relationships among shell parameters and classical biomarkers of damage. The relationship between shell alterations (biometrics, shape and elemental composition) and biomarkers (LPO and DNA strand break) was evaluated in the limpet L. subrugosa sampled along a contamination gradient in a multi-impacted coastal zone from southeastern Brazil. Statistically significant differences were detected among sites under different pollution levels. The occurrence of shell malformations was consistent with environmental levels of several hazardous substances reported for the studied area and related to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. In addition, considering the low mobility, wide geographic distribution, ease of collection and abundance of limpets in coastal zones, this putative tool may be a cost-effective alternative to traditional biomarkers. Thus, shell alterations in limpets seem to be good proxies for assessing biological adverse effects in multi-impacted coastal zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term variability of fish condition and growth in estuarine and shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Irina A; Vasconcelos, Rita P; França, Susana; Batista, Marisa I; Tanner, Susanne; Cabral, Henrique N; Fonseca, Vanessa F

    2018-03-01

    Short-term variability in condition factor: relative condition factor Kn; biochemical condition: RNA:DNA and protein content; and instantaneous growth rates were determined in estuarine and coastal fish. Dicentrarchus labrax, Solea senegalensis and Pomatoschistus microps were sampled in the Tejo estuary, while Trachurus trachurus was sampled in an adjacent shallow coastal area. Variation of condition indices was more frequent at the week scale (sampling periods with fortnight intervals) than at the daily scale (consecutive days in each sampling period) in all species. Water temperature was correlated with biochemical indices, while salinity showed no effect, evidencing the influence of environmental short-term variation (temperature) on biochemical condition in natural populations. Yet, decreasing individual variability in fish condition was observed along the sampled weeks, resulting in a more homogeneous condition of populations, particularly for T. trachurus likely due to a more stable coastal environment. Biochemical indices proved to be sensitive to short-term environmental variability, despite species-specific responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndenga, Bryson Alberto; Mutuku, Francis Maluki; Ngugi, Harun Njenga; Mbakaya, Joel Omari; Aswani, Peter; Musunzaji, Peter Siema; Vulule, John; Mukoko, Dunstan; Kitron, Uriel; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. This study aimed to characterize the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes from rural and urban sites in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors in two western (urban Kisumu and rural Chulaimbo) and two coastal (urban Ukunda and rural Msambweni) sites in Kenya. Sampling was performed using quarterly human landing catches, monthly Prokopack automated aspirators and monthly Biogents-sentinel traps. A total of 2,229 adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected: 785 (35.2%) by human landing catches, 459 (20.6%) by Prokopack aspiration and 985 (44.2%) by Biogents-sentinel traps. About three times as many Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected in urban than rural sites (1,650 versus 579). Comparable numbers were collected in western (1,196) and coastal (1,033) sites. Over 80% were collected outdoors through human landing catches and Prokopack aspiration. The probability of collecting Ae. aegypti mosquitoes by human landing catches was significantly higher in the afternoon than morning hours (Pareas (Pareas (P = 0.008) and in western than coastal sites (P = 0.006). The probability of exposure to Ae. aegypti bites was highest in urban areas, outdoors and in the afternoon hours. These characteristics have major implications for the possible transmission of arboviral diseases and for the planning of surveillance and control programs.

  14. Economics of Surveillance: a Bioeconomic Assessment of Queensland Fruit Fly

    OpenAIRE

    White, Benedict; Sadler, Rohan; Florec, Veronique; Dominiak, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Regional management of endemic pests of trade significance typically requires a surveillance system, border controls, eradication protocols and conditions for market closure and reopening. An example is the systems for managing Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) in south east Australia where the preferred approach for intensive production areas is an Area Wide Management (AWM) scheme. An AWM, such as the Greater Sunraysia PFA (GSPFA) in northern Victoria and western New South Wales, depends for its ...

  15. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionable European beach resort right next to a medieval fishing village with a Kurhaus Spa and Casino accessible to the general public. At the end of the 20th century the bathing resort lost its image and most of the fishing industry moved away leaving the coastal zone in a crisis. The municipality decided to give the coastline an economic impulse. Not only that, their ambitions were grandiose. In 2005 they got the idea to make Scheveningen the Second International Center of The Hague with impressive architecture and town planning. The beach, the old fishing village, and the fishery at the harbor were connected into a close urban ensemble by the North Sea by a splendid boulevard. However, the financial crisis in 2008 put an end to extravagant developmental plans, to the great relief of coastal residents. They especially feared the expansion of tourism into the residential areas even though tourism had brought and would continue to bring prosperity to the area. The old fishing village was kept intact while the harbor transformed quite differently than sketched and the seaside decayed, losing to its rival the First International Center: the old town of The Hague. How could this have happened to the Pearl on the Sea? Was it the crisis or the stubbornness of residents and entrepreneurs? Or was it the unworldliness of administrators?  

  16. Potential inundated coastal area estimation in Shanghai with multi-platform SAR and altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guanyu; Yang, Tianliang; Zhao, Qing; Kubanek, Julia; Pepe, Antonio; Dong, Hongbin; Sun, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    As global warming problem is becoming serious in recent decades, the global sea level is continuously rising. This will cause damages to the coastal deltas with the characteristics of low-lying land, dense population, and developed economy. Continuously reclamation costal intertidal and wetland areas are making Shanghai, the mega city of Yangtze River Delta, more vulnerable to sea level rise. In this paper, we investigate the land subsidence temporal evolution of patterns and processes on a stretch of muddy coast located between the Yangtze River Estuary and Hangzou Bay with differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) analyses. By exploiting a set of 31 SAR images acquired by the ENVISAT/ASAR from February 2007 to May 2010 and a set of 48 SAR images acquired by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) sensors from December 2013 to March 2016, coherent point targets as long as land subsidence velocity maps and time series are identified by using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm. With the DInSAR constrained land subsidence model, we predict the land subsidence trend and the expected cumulative subsidence in 2020, 2025 and 2030. Meanwhile, we used altimetrydata and densely distributed in the coastal region are identified (EEMD) algorithm to obtain the average sea level rise rate in the East China Sea. With the land subsidence predictions, sea level rise predictions, and high-precision digital elevation model (DEM), we analyze the combined risk of land subsidence and sea level rise on the coastal areas of Shanghai. The potential inundated areas are mapped under different scenarios.

  17. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  18. Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Nadia B E; El-Fiky, Anwar A; Mostafa, Alaa R; Al-Mur, Bandr A

    2009-08-01

    In the last three decades, the industrial and human activities in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia have increased dramatically and resulted in the continuous invasion of different types of pollutants including heavy metals. Seven sediment cores were collected from three major industrialized areas; Jeddah, Rabigh and Yanbu, along the coast of Saudi Arabia to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of metals and to assess the magnitude of pollution and their potential biological effects. Sediments were analyzed for texture, calcium carbonate contents, organic matter and metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Some metals like, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn, were enriched in the upper 15 cm of core samples (recent deposition of sediments). Cadmium concentrations showed high fluctuations with depth and reverse pattern to that for Al, Fe and Mn which indicated land based sources of this element to the studied areas. Elevated concentrations of lead were recorded in the bottom layers of cores in Jeddah that indicated the most dramatic increase in usage of gasoline in early 1970s. The calculated contamination factors (CF's) were found in the following sequences: Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn for all studied areas. Results of Pollution Load Index (PLI) revealed that Jeddah is the most polluted area, followed by Rabigh while Yanbu is the least contaminated area. Except for Ni, the concentrations of most metals in the majority of sediment samples were believed to be safe for living organisms. As no data were available on the concentration of metals in core sediments in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia, the results of this study would serve as a baseline against which future anthropogenic effects can be assessed.

  19. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  20. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  1. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  2. Genotypic Characterization of Enterococci Collected from a Coastal Area Using PFGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    Development of microbial source tracking (MST) is crucial to ensure public health and bacteriological safety in coastal areas. In this study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) , utilized for pollution source tracking of hospital infections, was applied to the aquatic environment as a MST method. Enterococcus faecium and Entecococcus faecalis, fecal indicator bacterias, were isolated and identified from a port area, and the genotype was analyzed by PFGE. A total of 230 enterococcal strains were isolated by PFGE, and forty strains were identified as E. faecium using both PCR and the Api 20 Strep test. Dendrogram analysis of the PFGE types revealed that all the 40 E. faecium strains can be classified separately into 7 different groups at a 0.7 similarity level. The genotypic characterization of E. faecium from the coastal port area revealed diverse types. It is suggested that PFGE can be used to differentiate and characterize fecal pollution indicating bacteria by applying it to the aquatic environment, as well as provide detailed information to specify the pollution source.

  3. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  4. Sources and levels of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in Kuwait's coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Talat; Al-Jandal, Noura; Abusam, Abdalla; Taqi, Hameeda; Al-Khabbaz, Ahmad; Zafar, Jamal

    2017-05-15

    The sources and levels of endocrine disrupting compounds in Kuwait's coastal areas were investigated. Phthalates, alkylphenols and estrogens were measured in the inflows and outflows of three sewage treatment plants as well as in the seawater and sediments from the sewage impacted coastal areas. Phthalate levels in the inflow of the treatment plants ranged from 8.9 to 78.3μg/l; alkylphenols from 0.7 to 279ng/l and estrogens from 30 to 368ng/l. On average, the treatment plants removed about 80% of these compounds. The outflows, however, contained significant levels of all three classes of compounds. The seawater from the sewage impacted area also contained detectable levels of these compounds. Sediment samples from these locations contained elevated levels of phthalates (ranging from 2145 to 15,722μg/kg) and lower levels of alkylphenols (ranging from 2.49 to 15.14μg/kg) and estrogens (ranging from 4.1 to 214μg/kg, dry wt.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coastal Areas Division and Coverage with Multiple UAVs for Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balampanis, Fotios; Maza, Iván; Ollero, Aníbal

    2017-04-09

    This paper tackles the problems of exact cell decomposition and partitioning of a coastal region for a team of heterogeneous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with an approach that takes into account the field of view or sensing radius of the sensors on-board. An initial sensor-based exact cell decomposition of the area aids in the partitioning process, which is performed in two steps. In the first step, a growing regions algorithm performs an isotropic partitioning of the area based on the initial locations of the UAVs and their relative capabilities. Then, two novel algorithms are applied to compute an adjustment of this partitioning process, in order to solve deadlock situations that generate non-allocated regions and sub-areas above or below the relative capabilities of the UAVs. Finally, realistic simulations have been conducted for the evaluation of the proposed solution, and the obtained results show that these algorithms can compute valid and sound solutions in complex coastal region scenarios under different setups for the UAVs.

  6. Numerical simulation and analysis of characteristics of atmospheric diffusion in coastal area of a site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongzhen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xinjie; Chen, Shuyang

    2017-05-01

    A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and random walk model have been used to numerical simulate and analysis the characteristics of meso-micro scale wind field and atmospheric diffusion in coastal area of a sit. The results indicated that the atmospheric dispersion in this area is determined both by synoptic scale system and land-sea breeze circulation. Spatial variation of wind field is not obvious in synoptic scale system situation, which leads to the straight dispersion plume. Temporal variation of wind field, particularly the wind direction transition caused by transient of land-sea breezes is obvious. The method of random walk simulation better reflects the characteristics of the air pollutants transportation and diffusion. The atmospheric diffusion parameters obtained with numerical simulation experiment may reflect well the characteristics of the air diffusion in local area.

  7. Impact of Stormwater Discharges on Water Quality in Coastal Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Kenneth; Luk, Brenda; Gregorio, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    Marine protected areas worldwide limit harvest to protect sensitive fisheries, but rarely do they address water quality goals that may have equally demonstrable impacts. California has over 500 coastal shoreline miles of marine protected areas designated as Areas of Special Biological Significance (ASBS), but receives untreated wet weather runoff discharges from over 1600 storm drain outfalls. The goal of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of water quality impacts in ASBS following storm events. A stratified probabilistic design was used for sampling receiving water shorelines near (discharge) and far (non-discharge) from storm drain outfalls. In general, reasonably good water quality exists in California's ASBS following storm events. Many of the target analytes measured did not exceed water quality standards. The post-storm concentrations of most constituents in discharge and non-discharge strata of ASBS were similar. The three potentially problematic parameters identified were total PAH, chromium, and copper.

  8. Modeling coastal aquifers in a Mediterranean area: the example of Taranto gulf (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Water resources stored in coastal aquifers are of strategic relevance for several regions throughout the world and in particular in the Mediterranean basin. They are extremely important in areas characterized by heavy urbanization, active industrial or touristic systems, where the need for fresh water is very acute and, sometimes, they are the only water resources available. This in turn can lead to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion because of aquifer overexploitation to satisfy the demand of an increasing population in coastal plains. Furthermore, karstic aquifers are well known for their specific vulnerability to natural and human-induced contamination, due to their particular characteristics such as thin soils, point recharge in dolines and swallow holes and increased hydraulic conductivity. Within this framework, the Taranto gulf is an example of paramount importance. In fact the presence of a wide industrial area close to the city of Taranto and the numerous maritime and military activities in the harbor area favored the increase of population density in the XX century. Moreover, they constitute factors of great concern for the protection of groundwater quality and quantity, in particular for the presence of the highly-vulnerable basins of Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande. In this area, groundwater resources are stored in a karst multilayered aquifer, which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphic point of view. Furthermore, the presence of highly water-demanding activities makes the seawater intrusion phenomenon very serious, especially along the coastline. In order to characterize the groundwater dynamic in the study area, we discuss the hydraulic relationships between the different hydrostratigraphic units and between the sea and the aquifer system by developing a numerical groundwater model to test and refine the preliminary conceptual model and estimate the most uncertain hydraulic parameters. To achieve these objectives, we used different data-sets to

  9. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D

    2012-12-30

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's Health in Queensland Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Belinda; Smith, Catrin; Ransley, Janet; Allard, Troy

    2017-04-01

    Internationally, best practice for prison health care recommends transferring health service provision from corrections to health authorities. Although it is expected that this change will result in improved health care, there is little evidence of evaluation. This article used qualitative interviews with health service providers to gain insight into the health needs of women's prisons in Queensland, Australia, both prior to and after the transition in health care service provision. We found that service providers identified that problems persisted regardless of service provider and that improvement required increased resources and more fundamental structural changes within prison environments.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Mubashir; Nisar, Nighat; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-05-10

    Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS.

  12. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  13. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  14. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  15. Association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton in coastal areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Partida, M L; Mendez-Gómez, E; Rivas-Montaño, A M; Vargas-Hernández, E; Portillo-López, A; González-Ramírez, A R; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    2009-01-01

    The El Niño event of 1997/1998 provided an opportunity to carry out a field experiment in which the relationship of sea surface temperature and the association of Vibrio cholerae with marine plankton could be assessed in Mexican coastal and estuarine areas. Plankton samples were collected from May 1997 through June 1999. Sites included the Mexican ports of Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos and Frontera in the Gulf of Mexico and Ensenada, Guaymas, Mazatlán, Manzanillo, Acapulco and Oaxaca in the Pacific Ocean. Sampling was also accomplished during two oceanographic cruises in the Yucatan channel of the Caribbean Sea. Bacteriological analyses for V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 were carried out. Also, the taxonomic structure of the plankton populations was determined. Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected only in Veracruz samples collected during April, May and June 1999, when La Niña climatic conditions prevailed. It is concluded that V. cholerae O1 in Mexico derives from its marine and estuarine origin and not from sewage contamination. The significant number of Acartia tonsa copepodites and V. cholerae copepodite-positive samples suggests a significant role of this copepod in the occurrence and distribution of V. cholerae in coastal areas of Mexico.

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  17. Influence the condition land subsidence and groundwater impact of Jakarta coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S.; Sumotarto, U.; Pramudito, H.

    2018-01-01

    Jakarta has been experiencing land subsidence for ten years due toerecting weight building and intensive extraction of groundwater for society drink water through ground water wells. Many groundwater extraction for drinkingwater has caused intensive scouring of land rock and further triggering land subsidence developed widely in coastal area of Jakarta. Measurement of the land subsidence has been performed by various experts and institutes. Between 1974 to 2010 subsidence has happened between 3 to 4.1 meters especially in Jakarta coastal area. Two major causes of the subsidence are identified. The first major cause is a result of erecting weight building such as hotels, appartments, and various human activities buildings. The second major cause is extracting ground water from aquifers bellow Jakarta land due to water deep wells down to the aquifer and traditional shallow water well of shallow or subsurface uncovered ground water. Weighter building and higher debit of water flow from deep water wells has fastened and deepened the land subsidence. Continuous measurement of land subsidence by means of geodetic as well as geophysical earth behaviour measurements need to be performed to monitor the rate, location as well as mapping of the land subsidence.

  18. Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ 0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils. PMID:25197699

  19. Breast milk fatty acid composition of women living far from the coastal area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Renata Y; Castro, Gabriela S F de; Jordão, Alceu A; Sartorelli, Daniela S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the fatty acid composition of mature human milk of women living far from the coastal area of Brazil. Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 47 lactating women aged between 18 and 35 years, who delivered their babies at term and who exclusively or predominantly breastfed. Milk collection took place after the fifth week postpartum by hand expression. The fatty acid composition of the milk was determined by gas chromatography. It was observed that the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.08%) was higher than that observed in previous studies in Brazil. However, the content of docosahexaenoic acid (0.09%) found in human milk was one of the lowest verified in the world. The content of trans fatty acids (2.05%) was similar to that reported in national studies previous to the mandatory declaration of this fatty acid content in food labels, suggesting that this measure had no effect on reducing the content of this fatty acid in the usual diet of women. Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid and high concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in mature breast milk of women living far from the coastal area in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a GNSS Buoy for Monitoring Water Surface Elevations in Estuaries and Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Pin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS buoy that utilizes a Virtual Base Station (VBS combined with the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK positioning technology was developed to monitor water surface elevations in estuaries and coastal areas. The GNSS buoy includes a buoy hull, a RTK GNSS receiver, data-transmission devices, a data logger, and General Purpose Radio Service (GPRS modems for transmitting data to the desired land locations. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to test the capability of the buoy and verify the accuracy of the monitored water surface elevations. For the field tests, the GNSS buoy was deployed in the waters of Suao (northeastern part of Taiwan. Tide data obtained from the GNSS buoy were consistent with those obtained from the neighboring tide station. Significant wave heights, zero-crossing periods, and peak wave directions obtained from the GNSS buoy were generally consistent with those obtained from an accelerometer-tilt-compass (ATC sensor. The field tests demonstrate that the developed GNSS buoy can be used to obtain accurate real-time tide and wave data in estuaries and coastal areas.

  1. Machine learning algorithms for meteorological event classification in the coastal area using in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Gengembre, Cyril; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    The problem is considered of classification of local atmospheric meteorological events in the coastal area such as sea breezes, fogs and storms. The in-situ meteorological data as wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity and turbulence are used as predictors. Local atmospheric events of 2013-2014 were analysed manually to train classification algorithms in the coastal area of English Channel in Dunkirk (France). Then, ultrasonic anemometer data and LIDAR wind profiler data were used as predictors. A few algorithms were applied to determine meteorological events by local data such as a decision tree, the nearest neighbour classifier, a support vector machine. The comparison of classification algorithms was carried out, the most important predictors for each event type were determined. It was shown that in more than 80 percent of the cases machine learning algorithms detect the meteorological class correctly. We expect that this methodology could be applied also to classify events by climatological in-situ data or by modelling data. It allows estimating frequencies of each event in perspective of climate change.

  2. Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  3. Predicted infiltration for sodic/saline soils from reclaimed coastal areas: sensitivity to model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng; Chen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm(3). A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ₀ was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  4. Development of a GNSS Buoy for Monitoring Water Surface Elevations in Estuaries and Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Pin; Huang, Ching-Jer; Chen, Sheng-Hsueh; Doong, Dong-Jiing; Kao, Chia Chuen

    2017-01-18

    In this work, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) buoy that utilizes a Virtual Base Station (VBS) combined with the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning technology was developed to monitor water surface elevations in estuaries and coastal areas. The GNSS buoy includes a buoy hull, a RTK GNSS receiver, data-transmission devices, a data logger, and General Purpose Radio Service (GPRS) modems for transmitting data to the desired land locations. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to test the capability of the buoy and verify the accuracy of the monitored water surface elevations. For the field tests, the GNSS buoy was deployed in the waters of Suao (northeastern part of Taiwan). Tide data obtained from the GNSS buoy were consistent with those obtained from the neighboring tide station. Significant wave heights, zero-crossing periods, and peak wave directions obtained from the GNSS buoy were generally consistent with those obtained from an accelerometer-tilt-compass (ATC) sensor. The field tests demonstrate that the developed GNSS buoy can be used to obtain accurate real-time tide and wave data in estuaries and coastal areas.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dulal; Misra, Jiban; Mitra, Malay; Bhattacharya, Bhashwar; Bagchi, Anandamoy

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997) to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired 't' test. Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05). The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  6. Spatial variations of b-values in the coastal area of Guangdong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengxiang; Xia, Shaohong; Sun, Jinlong; Cao, Jinghe; Xu, Huilong; Zhao, Fang; Chen, Chuanxu

    2018-02-01

    We used earthquake catalogs recorded by Guangdong Seismological Network from 2008 to 2014 to resolve the spatial variations of b-values in the coastal area of Guangdong, particularly in three key research areas (Yangjiang, Heyuan, and offshore Nanao Island) with strong seismicity. Our results revealed that b-values exhibited significant spatial variations, and zones with low b-values could indicate the most likely seismogenic area of large earthquakes. We observed three clear low b-value patches in the offshore Nanao Island. We found a distinct high b-value peak at the depth of 11 km and two minimum peaks at about 14 and 7-8 km in the Yangjiang area. The overall b-values generally decrease with depth in the Heyuan area. The spatial variations of b-values reflect tectonic anomalies; that is, the `low-high-low' distribution of b-values in the offshore Nanao Island and the Yangjiang area may indicate the anomaly of the crustal structure with a weak layer. The b-values of reservoir-induced seismicity are obviously lower than that induced by tectonism. This finding indicates that the reservoir area is generally at high stress state under the condition of high pore pressure. We inferred that large earthquakes might be prone to occur at 10-12 km depth in the offshore Nanao Island, at 12-15 km depth in the Yangjiang area, and at the lower part of the seismic activity zone in the Heyuan area. Moreover, the upstream area of the Xinfengjiang reservoir is the most likely area of future large earthquakes in the Heyuan area.

  7. Reducing microbial contamination in storm runoff from high use areas on California coastal dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Pereira, M D G; Miller, W A; Conrad, P A; Tate, K W

    2009-01-01

    High use areas are a fundamental part of California coastal dairies and grazing livestock ranches as feeding areas, nurseries, and sick pens. High stocking densities and daily use in these areas lead to soil surfaces devoid of vegetation and covered in manure, with high potential for manure transport during winter rains to receiving waters regulated for shellfish harvesting and recreation. We characterized the association between California's Mediterranean climate and a series of existing and proposed management practices on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport from high use areas on dairies and ranches. Results from 351 storm runoff samples collected below 35 high-use areas indicate that removal of cattle during winter, locating high use areas on level ground, application of straw and seeding, and vegetative buffer strip implementation were significantly associated with FCB concentration and load reductions. These results complement our findings for reductions of specific pathogens in runoff from these areas. These findings have practical significance because they document surface water quality benefits that the studied management practices provide in application on working farms and ranches. This direction is critical and timely for on-farm management efforts seeking to reduce microbial pollution in runoff and comply with indicator bacteria water quality criteria.

  8. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Sabine; Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  9. Disconnects Between Audiences, Resources, and Initiatives: Key Findings of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Gilbes, F.; Trotz, M.; McKayle, C.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Meisels, G.; Peterson, M.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership focused on defining a plan for effective education on climate change and its salient issues in coastal communities Florida and the US Caribbean territories. The approach included assessing perceptions and needs of stakeholders, evaluating the nature of available educational and information resources, and establishing a partnership that includes the public and professional organizations most relevant in planning and in addressing the resiliency of coastal communities. Information gathering activities included surveys among K-12 educators and students on climate change perceptions and current classroom activities in both Florida and the Caribbean territories; surveys of professional urban and land-use planners across Florida regarding their understanding of related in their professional practice; and conducting an inventory of relevant educational materials and information resources. Survey results showed a range of misperceptions about climate change, its causes and its likely impacts. At present, students and teachers in high and middle schools show poor understanding of climate science, and minimal time is spent in instruction on climate change in science courses in Florida and Puerto Rico schools. Also, there has to be professional development efforts and access to rich instructional content in a continuum spanning schools and professional communities including planners (which we surveyed). Architects and engineers are communities that also need to be surveyed and included in future efforts. A major obstacle to efforts at providing continuing education for planners and municipal officials is the lack of consensus on and access to regionally-specific scientific data regarding climate impacts and the relevant instructional content. It is difficult for professionals to prepare for climate change if they cannot define impacts in the Florida-Caribbean region and its coastal urban areas. Across over 1000

  10. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO), Alaska Coastal Marine Area, Valdez Marine Area, Valdez, Cape Hinchinbrook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    0 15. *9.P60 029 HAY PERIOD’ (OVER-ALL) 1963-1976 VALDEZ MARINE AREA TAILE 18 ICONT) ’,.IN 146. 3, PCT FRIED O WIND SPER 0 (ATS) AND OLELCIION VISUS...AIR-SEA TEMPERATURE L)PIRENGE (16 F) AIR-SIA 03 09 13 17 21 2 29 30 37 41 43 49 52 37 61 63 69 73 TOT W 62 TIpO |F 06 I . 16 I ZO 4 IS 12 36 4 u 44

  12. Distribution and area of mangrove forest in Pising Bay coastal area North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salam Tarigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available esearched of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi was carried out on April 2006. Data digital Landsat 7ETM+ parth/raw 113/064 was used for mangrove mapping. Classification method was done is multispectral supervised with artificial neural networks algortms. Analysis and data validation from field survey, it is estimated that distribution and areas of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi is 152.128 Ha. Mangrove in Pising Bay dominated by rhizophora apiculata, rhizophora mucronata; and the forest is relatively in good condition.

  13. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  14. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  15. Multibeam Bathymetry Surveys in Fjords and Coastal Areas of West-Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Kuijpers, A.; Klaucke, I.; Fink, M.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetric maps are not available for many of the sparsely populated fjords in West-Greenland as those areas are remote and difficult to navigate. During a recent (2007) cruise of RV Maria S. Merian large coastal areas of West-Greenland including some of these fjords were mapped in detail with multibeam bathymetry, among them many parts which never had been investigated before. The surveys covered the Godthabfjord, Nordre Stroemfjord, Disko Bay, Vaigat, Uumannaq-Fjord and the Marmorilik area. The data acquired by a Kongsberg EM120 deep water multibeam and a Kongsberg EM1002 shallow water multibeam system were of very good quality. In summer 2008 the survey in the Disko Bay area was extended far into the Ilulissat Icefjord using a local boat and a portable Seabeam 1180 multibeam system. The seafloor in these areas is intensively shaped by glacial processes which create characteristic submarine landforms. Revealing the morphology helps to understand these processes, high-resolution bathymetry displays the relief and morphology of the seafloor. In particular, rims and sills which may mark ancient ice margins have been identified in the bathymetry. Multibeam mapping was continued also during transits off the coast in the Davis Strait. Here areas sculptured intensively by iceberg plough marks were found. Several distinct patterns of directions can be identified which probably represent different phases of drift. The water depth here is generally greater than 240 m documenting rather deep going icebergs.

  16. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  17. Territorial Vulnerability Assessment Supporting Risk Managing Coastal Areas Due to Tsunami Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leandro Barros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s coastline extends 1187 km. It is characterized by social, economic and physical conditions that differentiate it from the rest of the territory, including population density, location of infrastructure and support of tourism activities. Therefore, it has a significant exposure if a tsunami occurs. Six coastal study sites with varying characteristics were selected for evaluation in this paper, including two core beach-use areas, two residential areas and two industrial areas. These sites are located in the municipalities of Figueira da Foz, Setúbal and Vila do Bispo. The analysis began with the calculation of the potential tsunami inundation area for each site using the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Next, a methodology distinguished by its multidimensional character was applied to assess local vulnerability to tsunamis. This methodology assesses vulnerabilities associated with morphological, structural, social and tax factors. These four vulnerability components were combined to obtain a Composite Vulnerability Index (CVI, which enabled us to identify the most vulnerable areas and to determine the distinguishing characteristics of each area.

  18. Socio-economic differences in public opinion regarding water fluoridation in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummery, W Kerry; Duncan, Mitchell; Kift, Ryan

    2007-08-01

    To describe public opinion relating to the fluoridation of drinking water in a sample of the Queensland population. Data were collected by means of a computer-assisted telephone interview survey from a sample of the Queensland population. Descriptive statistics and logistical regression were used to examine associations between variables. Seventy per cent of the total sample supported water fluoridation of their local supply. More than 71% of the total sample agreed that water fluoridation was safe. People living in areas of higher socio-economic/relative socio-economic advantage were more likely to support the addition of fluoride to local drinking water and agree that it was safe. Opinions about fluoridation varied by respondent age and gender. General support was found in this sample of the Queensland population for fluoridation of drinking water. In Queensland, fluoridation of the water supply is now a political decision. Information about public opinion on fluoridation may assist decision makers in the final determination.

  19. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  20. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  1. Rainfall declines over Queensland from 1951-2007 and links to the Subtropical Ridge and the SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, D A [Bureau of Meteorology, 700 Collins St, Docklands, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ribbe, J, E-mail: a.cottrill@bom.gov.a [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Much of southern and eastern Australia including Queensland have experienced rainfall declines over recent decades affecting agricultural production and accelerating water infrastructure development. Rainfall declines from southern Australia have now been directly related to changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the subtropical ridge. In southern and coastal Queensland, the rainfall declines have occurred mostly in the austral summer and autumn. Observations from this region reveal the rainfall decline is correlated to an increase in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) at many stations. The largest increases in MSLP are over southeast Queensland and coastal regions, where some of the largest rainfall declines occur. This study indicates the subtropical ridge as one of the main factors in the rainfall decline over this region. SAM is also likely to be important, although its seasonal influence, apart from winter, is harder to determine.

  2. Social Capital and Public Participation on Planning in Coastal Area Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.

  3. Investigation of coastal areas in Northern Germany using airborne geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miensopust, Marion; Siemon, Bernhard; Wiederhold, Helga; Steuer, Annika; Ibs-von Seht, Malte; Voß, Wolfgang; Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Since 2000, the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) carried out several airborne geophysical surveys in Northern Germany to investigate the coastal areas of the North Sea and some of the North and East Frisian Islands. Several of those surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG). Two helicopter-borne geophysical systems were used, namely the BGR system, which collects simultaneously frequency-domain electromagnetic, magnetic and radiometric data, and the SkyTEM system, a time-domain electromagnetic system developed by the University of Aarhus. Airborne geophysical surveys enable to investigate huge areas almost completely with high lateral resolution in a relatively short time at economic cost. In general, the results can support geological and hydrogeological mapping. Of particular importance are the airborne electromagnetic results, as the surveyed parameter - the electrical conductivity - depends on both lithology and groundwater status. Therefore, they can reveal buried valleys and the distribution of sandy and clayey sediments as well as salinization zones and fresh-water occurrences. The often simultaneously recorded magnetic and radiometric data support the electromagnetic results. Lateral changes of Quaternary and Tertiary sediments (shallow source - several tens of metres) as well as evidences of the North German Basin (deep source - several kilometres) are revealed by the magnetic results. The radiometric data indicate the various mineral compositions of the soil sediments. This BGR/LIAG project aims to build up a geophysics data base (http://geophysics-database.de/) which contains all airborne geophysical data sets. However, the more significant effort is to create a reference data set as basis for monitoring climate or man-made induced changes of the salt-water/fresh-water interface at the German North Sea coast. The significance of problems for groundwater extraction

  4. Nutrient flows and related impacts between a Mediterranean river and the associated coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markogianni, Vassiliki; Varkitzi, Ioanna; Pagou, Kalliopi; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Taking into consideration the Water Framework Directive's requirements, water samples were collected monthly and/or bimonthly between 2014 and 2015 from Spercheios River, its estuary and the adjacent Maliakos Gulf in order to assess the quality of these water bodies. A study on dissolved nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations was carried out, to investigate the impact between the river and the associated coastal area and assess the nutrient loads based on water flows from Spercheios River into the marine system.Furthermore a seasonal distribution of nutrient concentrations have been studied, dividing the sampling period into dry and wet season according to the river's discharges. Correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis among the available chemical data were conducted in order to enhance the detection of the two systems' interaction. Nutrients' concentrations increased from upstream to downstream sampling stations, particularly in areas where human-induced activities are detected. Marine samples were characterized by lower nutrient concentrations than the river ones, and the ecological quality of Maliakos Gulf, based on chlorophyll-a values, is characterized as moderate, except for the stations close to the river, which constantly presented poor quality. Chemical analyses and statistical analysis indicated high nutrient flows and a strong impact between the freshwater and marine systems, accompanied by the profound effect of the adjacent aquafarming areas and the wastewater treatment plant of Lamia city. The highest nutrients' and chlorophyll-a values of the coastal stations were detected close to the river mouth and they were decreasing towards the outer Maliakos Gulf.

  5. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  6. [Ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in coastal area of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ming; Li, Chunhou; Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanhua; Chen, Ruiwen

    2004-08-01

    Five cruises of phytoplankton survey were made in costal area of Pearl River estuary in 1998-1999. The results showed that 239 species were identified, 72.4% of which belonging to Bacillariophyta, 23.8% to Pyrrophyta, and 3.8% to others. The dominant species were warm and eurythermic species Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, Nitzschia delicatissima, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii and Thalassiosira subtilis, and changed with an obvious seasonal succession. The cell density ranged from 0.2 x 10(4) to 2,767.1 x 10(4) cell x m(-3), with an average of 98.7 x 10(4) cell x m(-3), and the mean cell density was obviously higher in summer and winter than in spring and autumn. The regional variation revealed that the cell density in shore area was visibly higher than that in offshore area, and the largest density area was at the southeast of Shangchuan Island all the year around. The range of mean Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou evenness index and biodiversity threshold was 2.63-3.17, 0.53-0.71 and 1.74-2.23, respectively. According to the diversity index, it was concluded that the diversity level of phytoplankton community in coastal area of Pearl River estuary was relatively high and stable.

  7. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  8. [Cardiovascular disease risk and vascular damage status in pre- and hypertension population in coastal areas of Fujian province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Zhu, Peng-li; Xiao, Hua-zhen; Lin, Fan; Yuan, Yin; Gao, Zhong-hai; Li, Jian-wei; Chen, Fa-lin

    2013-10-01

    To observe the cardiovascular risk factors and vascular damage status of pre- and hypertensive population in the coastal areas of Fujian province. This cross-sectional study surved 3344 Fujian coastal people aged older than 30 years. Glycolipids, uric acid, urine, microalbumin, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(baPWV) and central retinal arteriolar equivalent(CRAE) measurements were performed. Variance analysis and binary logistic regression were applied to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and vascular damage of prehypertensive as well as hypertensive population. (1) The morbidity of prehypertension as well as hypertension was 30.0% in coastal population of Fujian Province, there were more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors in 65.5% (909/1388) of the hypertensive population and 37.5% of the prehypertensive population.(2) The abnormal rates of creatinine ratio(UACR), baPWV, and CRAE in hypertensive [25.7% (357/1388) , 84.2% (1169/1388) , 29.5% (409/1388) ] and prehypertensive population [20.0% (176/880) , 29.1% (256/880) , 25.6% (225/880)] were significantly higher than those of normotensive individuals [8.5% (91/1076), 8.9% (96/1076), 18.8% (202/1076), all P coastal area of coastal areas of Fujian province and there is more morbidity of vascular damage in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals compared to normotensive subjects in these areas.

  9. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Obinwanne; Cletus Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lea...

  10. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  11. Trends in the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of china: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zou, Safeng; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Bo; Fu, Lingyu; Wang, Hailong; Shi, Jingpu

    2014-12-01

    With the economic development in recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hypertension in some coastal cities of China; however, the number of reports regarding the prevalence of hypertension based on a nationwide study of island and coastal areas of China is limited. We estimated the prevalence and described the trends of hypertension during the last 3 decades in these specific areas. Authoritative databases were searched for cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of China published in the past 3 decades, and 37 studies that involved 760,428 individuals representing 22 different locations were identified and included in our analysis. The estimated prevalence of hypertension was 9.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3%-14.9%) in the 1980s, 18.5% (95% CI = 13.6%-24.8%) in the 1990s, and 30.0% (95% CI = 26.7%-33.6%) in the 2000s (χ(2) for trend: P = 0.00). In the 2000s, adjusted prevalence estimate of hypertension was 21.6% according to the national standard population composition in 1990, and the pooled prevalence estimate for the northern region in coastal areas of China was significantly higher than the southern region (36.2% vs. 26.2%; P = 0.002). Thus, the prevalence of hypertension in the island and coastal areas of China appears to have increased 21.5% in the last 3 decades; the increasing trend was observed in men and women. Our findings highlight the urgent need for public health strategies with more emphasis on improvement of primary health care in the island and coastal areas of China. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-07-14

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO₂. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg-1 and 0.21 g·kg-1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg-1 and 1.3 g·kg-1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg-1 and 1.49 g·kg-1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg-1 and 0.86 g·kg-1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m-2, 1.52 kg·C·m-2, and 3.31 kg·C·m-2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m-2, 0.23 kg·N·m-2, and 0.38 kg·N·m-2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.

  13. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-01-01

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO2. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg−1 and 0.21 g·kg−1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg−1 and 1.3 g·kg−1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg−1 and 1.49 g·kg−1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg−1 and 0.86 g·kg−1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m−2, 1.52 kg·C·m−2, and 3.31 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m−2, 0.23 kg·N·m−2, and 0.38 kg·N·m−2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils. PMID:28708078

  14. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  15. Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

    2008-12-01

    Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively

  16. Assessment of Groundwater Quality to Achieve Sustainable Development in Semarang Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, T. T.; Widiarso, D. A.; Susanto, N.

    2017-07-01

    Semarang is growing fast particularly in the industrial and commercial sectors. Hydrogeological mapping and spatial analysis were used to assess groundwater quality in Semarang coastal areas. Results conduct that water table varies from 0.03 to 17.5 m depth and flows from the south to the north which is following topography i.e. higher to the south. pH values range from 6.05 to 8.17 while DO is up to 1.5 mg/L. EC values reach up to 6,370 μS/cm in the north as well as the maximum salinity value is around 3,600 mg/L related to the excessive groundwater used and sea water intrusion.

  17. Experiment on Chloride Ion Content of Concrete Structure in Coastal Salt-fog Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper chose the south-east coastal salt-fog area Shantou to carry out the experiment study on chloride ion content of concrete structure, through the chloride ion content field test on reinforced concrete structure in Shantou, respectively for the slat-fog atmosphere zone and the splash zone in marine environment, discuss the corrosion by chloride ion of long-time existing concrete structure.And then measure the chloride ion content of concrete cover in different depth, and determine the chloride ion diffusion model in different conditions concrete through comparative analysis.The result of study, can be used in directing the selection of design scheme for building in planning, and also it will help predict the corrosion time of reinforcement inside the concrete on different positions for existing structure.

  18. Intersexuality of Scomberomorus niphonius from the Coastal Area around Jeju Island, Korea (Teleostei: Scombridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Bin; Chang, Dae Soo; Kim, Hyejin; Jeon, Mi Ae; Ku, Kayeon; Lee, Jung Sick

    2013-01-01

    This study histologically describes the intersexuality of Scomberomorus niphonius collected from the coastal area near Jeju Island. A total of 126 S. niphonius, collected from March to July 2012 with a total length of 62.4 cm (±17.5) and a total weight of 1,701.9 g (±1,528.9) were used for analyses. From a histological perspective, two types of intersex were confirmed. One type had scattered germ cells from the opposite sex within the gonad. The second type developed germ cells from the opposite sex in the connective tissue of the outer gonadal membrane. The intersexuality was 14.3% (n=18/126), with females (21.3%; n=16/75) exhibiting a higher rate than males (3.9%; n=2/51). There was no displayed correlation between intersexuality and the total length and weight. PMID:25949123

  19. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  20. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro; Ellis, Joanne; Cúrdia, João; Payumo, Richard; Langner, Ute; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-10-15

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm -2 and 160piecesm -2 ) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz Compean, Pedro Javier

    2017-09-12

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  2. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-10

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  3. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord...

  4. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  5. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  6. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  8. Analysis of relationships between NDVI and land surface temperature in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jicai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    Using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor imagery of the Yellow River Delta, this study analyzed the relationships between NDVI and LST (land surface temperature). Six Landsat images comprising two time series were used to calculate the land surface temperature and correlated vegetation indices. The Yellow River Delta area has expanded substantially because of the deposited sediment carried from upstream reaches of the river. Between 1986 and 2015, approximately 35% of the land use area of the Yellow River Delta has been transformed into salterns and aquaculture ponds. Overall, land use conversion has occurred primarily from poorly utilized land into highly utilized land. To analyze the variation of land surface temperature, a mono-window algorithm was applied to retrieve the regional land surface temperature. The results showed bilinear correlation between land surface temperature and the vegetation indices (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Adjusted-Normalized Vegetation Index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Generally, values of the vegetation indices greater than the inflection point mean the land surface temperature and the vegetation indices are correlated negatively, and vice versa. Land surface temperature in coastal areas is affected considerably by local seawater temperature and weather conditions.

  9. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in environmental waters of southwest coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, Mayuna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Boonkhao, Narongsak; Ongerth, Jerry E

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate water samples collected in coastal areas of Southern Thailand in the years of 2005 and 2008 for their contamination by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. One hundred eighteen water samples of different origin were collected from six Tsunami affected southern provinces of Thailand in early 2005, and they have been analyzed using standardized methodology. Fifteen out of 118 samples (12.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and nine (7.6%) positive for Giardia spp. Additional 42 samples from two same areas were examined 3 years later, in the early 2008. Five out of 42 (11.9%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and three out of 42 (7.1%) were positive for Giardia spp.. Both protozoans were found in reservoir, river/canal, and pond waters. It appears no significant differences (p < 0.05) between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts levels during the two monitoring periods; however, the number of the investigated areas and samples in the second period was significantly less than in the first period. This is the first description on Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in water sources of Thailand, and it suggests the need for water quality control in the interest of public health safety.

  10. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atillah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011, focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  11. A new methodology for flooding risk assessment in coastal areas. Application to Ebro Delta (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayol, Juan Manuel; Marcos, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Global sea level rise projections for the XXI century may be translated in that, by 2100, it will be approximately 50% more deltaic areas in risk of flooding. Contingency, protection and adaptation measures will depend strongly on the regional wealth, but an accurate estimation of future flooding levels is the first thing stakeholders need before taking any decision. In light of this, a new workflow to better evaluate flood hazards in coastal areas has been developed. We have accounted for the combined effect of mean sea level rise, storm surge and waves extremes under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios. The methodology consists of three basic steps: a) mean sea level rise and variability is obtained from a combination of observations and regional/global ocean models; b) joint probability of storm surge and waves is retrieved from regional ocean models and observations; c) previous a) and b) estimated sea levels are projected onshore by computing the wave run-up. Ultimately, flooding risk maps with the associated uncertainty are given for return periods and scenarios of interest. The proposed methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a muddy dominated delta located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea with a subaerial area of 320 km squares. It is considered an ideal laboratory because of its growing vulnerability, with common threats and an intensive anthropic influence directly translatable to other world's deltas.

  12. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  13. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  14. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  15. Vegetation cover, tidal amplitude and land area predict short-term marsh vulnerability in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Tommy S.; Wood, Bernard; Piazza, Sarai

    2018-01-01

    The loss of coastal marshes is a topic of great concern, because these habitats provide tangible ecosystem services and are at risk from sea-level rise and human activities. In recent years, significant effort has gone into understanding and modeling the relationships between the biological and physical factors that contribute to marsh stability. Simulation-based process models suggest that marsh stability is the product of a complex feedback between sediment supply, flooding regime and vegetation response, resulting in elevation gains sufficient to match the combination of relative sea-level rise and losses from erosion. However, there have been few direct, empirical tests of these models, because long-term datasets that have captured sufficient numbers of marsh loss events in the context of a rigorous monitoring program are rare. We use a multi-year data set collected by the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) that includes transitions of monitored vegetation plots to open water to build and test a predictive model of near-term marsh vulnerability. We found that despite the conclusions of previous process models, elevation change had no ability to predict the transition of vegetated marsh to open water. However, we found that the processes that drive elevation change were significant predictors of transitions. Specifically, vegetation cover in prior year, land area in the surrounding 1 km2 (an estimate of marsh fragmentation), and the interaction of tidal amplitude and position in tidal frame were all significant factors predicting marsh loss. This suggests that 1) elevation change is likely better a predictor of marsh loss at time scales longer than we consider in this study and 2) the significant predictive factors affect marsh vulnerability through pathways other than elevation change, such as resistance to erosion. In addition, we found that, while sensitivity of marsh vulnerability to the predictive factors varied spatially across coastal Louisiana

  16. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  17. The comparison of vernacular residences' thermal comfort in coastal with that in mountainous regions of tropical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Prianto, Eddy; Setyowati, Erni; Sunaryo

    2017-11-01

    Adaptive thermal comfort is the latest theory used to analyze thermal acceptability of the naturally ventilated buildings for occupants in tropical areas. Vernacular residences are considered capable to meet the thermal comfort for the occupants. The combination between adaptive and passive theory is still rarely conducted. This study aims to compare the adaptive and passive thermal comfort for occupants of vernacular residences in mountainous and coastal regions using AMV (Actual Mean Vote) and PMV (Predicted Mean Vote). This research uses a quantitative method with a statistical analysis on variables of air temperature, globe temperature, velocity, relative humidity, age, weight, and height. AMV data are collected based on questionnaires with ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, Air conditioning Engineering) standards. The samples consist of 100 vernacular residences of both coastal and mountainous regions. The results show that there are AMV and PMV differences in each region. The AMV values in those vernacular residences in mountainous and coastal regions are respectively -0.4982 and 0.1673. It indicates that the occupants of vernacular residences in coastal regions accept the thermal conditions better. Thus, it can be concluded that vernacular residences in coastal areas comfort the occupants more.

  18. Biomarker responses in eelpouts from four coastal areas in Sweden, Denmark and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Noomi; Albertsson, Eva; Wijkmark, Emma; Bergek, Sara; Parkkonen, Jari; Kammann, Ulrike; Holmqvist, Inger; Kristiansson, Erik; Strand, Jakob; Gercken, Jens; Förlin, Lars

    2016-09-01

    To increase our understanding of possible chemical impacts on coastal fish populations in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak, the viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was used as sentinel species in two major sampling campaigns (spring and autumn) in 16 different coastal sites. Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), gonad somatic index (GSI) were measured and the activity of the hepatic enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione reductase GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and muscular activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were assessed. PAH metabolites in bile were also analyzed. The most notable finding in the data set was the low EROD activity in eelpouts collected at the relatively polluted region in Germany compared to the other regions, which could be due to an inhibition of the CYP1A-system or to adaptation to chronic exposure of pollutants in this area. Additionally, low AChE activity was noted in the German region in the autumn campaign and low AChE activity detected in the Danish region in the spring campaign. These differences suggest possible season-specific differences in the use and release of AChE-inhibiting chemicals in the Danish and German regions. Clustering of biomarkers on site level indicated a relationship between CF and GSI and suggested that sites with a high CF contained eelpout that put a larger effort into their larvae development. Clustering of the oxidative stress markers GR, GST and CAT on the individual level reflected a possible coordinated regulation of these enzymes. Overall, the results support the importance of taking into account general regional differences and seasonal variation in biomarker activity when monitoring and assessing the effects of pollution. Despite the expected seasonal variation for most of the measured endpoint, several markers (GSI, EROD and CF) vary similarly between all selected sites in both spring and autumn. This suggests that the differences between

  19. Particulate air pollution from combustion and construction in coastal and urban areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhao, Jinping; Zhang, Fuwang

    2011-11-01

    In China, the areas that are undergoing rapid urban growth are faced with increasingly more complicated air pollution problems. Sources of air pollution need to be identified and their contributions quantified. In this study, PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters areas in Xiamen (the downtown area, an industrial park, a suburb, and one remote site). The contributions of carbonaceous aerosols to PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 20-30% and 10-20%, respectively, indicating that finer particles contained more carbonaceous aerosols. The EC concentrations in PM2.5 at the downtown, industrial, suburb, and remote sites were 2.16 +/- 0.61, 2.05 +/- 0.45, 1.69 +/- 0.54, and 0.65 +/- 0.43 microg m-3, respectively, showing a decrease from the urban and industrial hotspots to the surrounding areas. These data show that carbonaceous aerosols emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels in urban and industrial hotspots influence air quality at the regional scale. Higher levels of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were observed at the suburb site compared to the urban and industrial sites. Peak EC concentrations in PM2.5 were observed during the morning and evening rush hours. However, peak PM2.5 levels at the suburb site were observed around noon, which coincides with construction work hours, instead of the morning and evening rush hours when emissions from combustion dominated. These findings indicate that both fuel combustion and construction have exacerbated air pollution in coastal and urban areas in China.

  20. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Driraa, Z.; Kmiha-Megdichea, S.; Sahnounb, H.; Hammamic, A.; Allouched, N.; TEDETTI, Marc; Ayadia, H.

    2016-01-01

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal ar...

  1. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  2. The Albufera Initiative for Biodiversity: a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in coastal protected area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision

  3. On the Urban-Rural Differences in Classroom Environment in Compulsory Education in the Eastern Coastal Developed Areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Furong; Xie, Limin

    2008-01-01

    Totally 789 students from 18 schools (9 primary schools and 9 junior high schools) at a medium managed level from Shanghai, Wenzhou, and Aojiang, which are located in the Eastern coastal developed areas of China were investigated with the questionnaire of Hong Kong Classroom Environment Scale in this study. The result indicates that the actual…

  4. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  6. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  7. Trace metals concentrations in marine organisms from the coastal areas of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madany, I.M.; Wahab, A.A.A.; Al-Alawi, Z. [Arabian Gulf University (Bahrain)

    1996-10-01

    A total of 162 fish and shellfish samples representing important species have been collected from different coastal areas of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf, and analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The overall mean levels for Pb, Cd, Hg and As in fish samples were 0.132, 0.032, 0.084 and 1.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} wet weight, respectively, whereas for shellfish they were 0.149, 0.045, 0.042 and 3.61 {mu}g g{sup -1} wet weight. These values indicate higher levels of metals in shellfish when compared with fish, except for mercury, and reveal that generally the levels of metals in these organisms are lower than existing guidelines, except for arsenic. The provisional tolerable weekly intake of Pb, Cd, Hg and As through fish was estimated to be 0.7, 0.17, 0.45 and 9 {mu}g kg{sup -1} bodyweight per week, respectively. Our results did not reveal a clear pattern regarding variations of metals concentration between areas and species. 50 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  9. Gerisa - Using Foss in Environmental Risk Management for the Coastal Areas of w- Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewner, R.; Elbchari, F.; Theilen-Willige, B.; Ait Malek, H.; Ayt Ougougdal, M.; Chaibi, M.; Charif, A.; Nakhcha, C.; Ridaoui, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pilot region of the GeRiSa project (Gestion des risques de l'environnement dans la région de Safi) is the Sahel of Abda (Morocco) located on the Atlantic coast of western Morocco between the lagoon of Oualidia and the Tensift river basin. It belongs to the Coastal Meseta and forms an erosional platform covered by accumulations of various Meso-cenozoic sediments. Firstly, the study area is characterized by a variety of geomorphological units (depressions, plateaus, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, etc.) and shows a considerable natural richness. Secondly, it illustrates its importance for the national economy by intensive social and economic activities. During the last century, this region has been affected by intensive changes from urban growth, tourism, industrial and commercial development, inducing a considerable vulnerability to natural hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, flooding, Tsunamis and seismicity. In order to give solutions to these problems, the three-year GeRiSa project with the support of the bilateral Moroccan-German Programme of Scientific Research (PMARS) promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), will implement a knowledge pool and a risk management centre for natural hazards at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of the Cadi Ayyad University of Safi (Morocco). GeRiSa addresses fundamental scientific, environmental and anthropological problems of national importance and social relevance. The aim is a regional real-time geoinformation system with worldwide access via Internet and interdisciplinary dynamic content, enabling the communication between universities, local authorities and public organisation. In this sense, this multidisciplinary project focuses on a synthesis of various works, approaches and collaborations in-progress, previous completed projects and already existing data combining it with new research results. One of the main research targets within this project is the

  10. Cultural dimensions of risk perceptions: A case study on cross-strait driftage pollution in a coastal area of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chang; Chang, Han-Pi

    2018-01-15

    Constant exploitations of the ocean render numerous present challenges as the ocean is linked to human development. The study focused on cross-strait driftage pollution that poses a great threat to coastal environment under climate change. Several hundred packs of herbicides drifting across the Taiwan Strait were discovered along the coastline of Guanyin District of Taiwan. We compared risk perceptions of the local ethnic groups, Hakka and Fulao, residing in a coastal area of Taiwan and exposed to the herbicide coastal incident under climate change. It is of concern that society's response to every dimension of global climate change is mediated by culture. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) cause-effect framework was applied in semi-structured interviews to explore coastal sensitivity and human adaptability. As a result, we indicated that despite the presence of two ethnic groups in the same place exposed to the incident they presented very different risk perceptions on both environmental degradation (ED) and adaptive capacity (AC) due to cultural values. We argued that the herbicide coastal incident involved people's risk perceptions and subsequently influenced their opinions and attitudes towards environmental problems. We concluded that the ethnic trait contributed to adaptive behaviors during environmental change. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance risk perceptions and adaptation actions, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines towards climate resilience when designing adaptation interventions for different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  12. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Berger, T.; Gebel, J.; Münch, W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas - if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world - could capture 17-25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels at least for several decades. In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42-63 EUR per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS). In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level. In such areas, plant growth and CO2 storage could continue until permanent woodland or forest had been established. In other areas, salinization of the soil may limit plant growth to 2-3 decades whereupon irrigation could be ceased and the captured carbon stored as woody biomass.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of aquifers salinization in coastal area of Yunlin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.-C.; Tan, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    In the past, time and space characteristics often discussed separately. This study adopts regionalized variables theory, and describes the water quality in terms of its structure in time and space to assess the situation of Yunlin. This study applied the Quantum Bayesian Maximum Entropy Toolbox (QtBME), which is a spatiotemporal statistics function, can be applied to estimate and map a non-stationary and non-homogeneous spatiotemporal process under the platform of Quantum GIS (QGIS) software. Kernel smoothing method is used to divide the original process into a deterministic trend and a stationary and homogeneous spatiotemporal process, assuming that a spatiotemporal process can be divided into high and low frequency. The covariance model of the process of high frequency is selected objectively by particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Bayesian maximum entropy method is then applied to spatiotemporal mapping of the variable of interest. In this study, QtBME estimated the situation of aquifers salinization at Yunlin coastal area in 1992 to 2010. Finally, one investigated the rainfall and aquifers salinization on the degree of impact.

  14. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

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    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (i species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people and/or local government, and examination of topographic maps of Java (1963-1965 and digital satellite image of Landsat 7 TM (July-September 2001. The result indicated that northern coast of Rembang had 27 mangrove species, i.e. 12 species of major mangrove, 2 species of minor mangrove, and 13 species of associated plants. Rhizophora had been dominated mangrove ecosystem in Lasem and Pasar Bangi; while Avicennia had been dominated in Pecangakan. The most degrading factors of mangrove ecosysrems were aquaculture and salt pond, timber logging, land reclamation and soil sedimentation, and environmental pollution. Mangrove restoration by Rhizophora in coast of Pasar Bangi had been successfully, because community based management.

  15. Trophic ecology of bottom fishes assemblage along coastal areas of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisamae, Sukree

    2009-04-01

    Food preferences, feeding attributes, trophic guilds, and ontogenetic changes in diet compositions of 45 fish species collected along coastal waters in the southern areas of the South China Sea, Thailand were examined. Most species had high food intake and fed on specific ranges of food types. Shrimp was the most important food (31.7%), followed by calanoid copepod (16.8%), fish (12.7%) and gammarid amphipod (8.3%). These fishes can be categorized into six different trophic guilds and further divided into four categories namely; piscivore, zooplanktivore, zoobenthivore and miscellaneous/opportunist. Numbers of feeding guilds at each depth vary between four and five. Four of these are consistently found throughout the year at all zones; shrimp predator, piscivore, calanoid copepod feeder and a combination of polychaete and other food feeders. Ontogenetic studies indicate that fishes are more likely to group according to species rather than size. This scientific information is important when examining the complex association between fishes and identifying groups of species using similar resources.

  16. Enhanced bioremediation of oil-polluted, hypersaline, coastal areas in Kuwait via vitamin-fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, Dina M; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir

    2014-03-01

    There is no research published sofar on managements that could bioremediate hypersaline soils and water polluted with hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin amendment on hydrocarbon removal by microorganisms indigenous to such hypersaline environments. We used in this study ten hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species and five archaeal species that had been isolated by the conventional plating method on media containing oil as a sole carbon source, from a hypersaline (3-4 M NaCl) coastal area in Kuwait, and characterized by sequencing of their 16S rRNA coding genes. The oil and pure hydrocarbon consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The oil and pure hydrocarbon consumption potential of all microorganisms in media with hypersalinity was enhanced by vitamin fertilization. This was true for individual microorganisms in pure cultures as well as for microbial consortia in hypersaline soil and water samples used as inocula. Most effective vitamins were thiamin, pyridoxine and vitamin B12. Vitamin fertilization using vitamin rich wastes or byproducts could be an effective practice for enhancing bioremediation of oil contaminated hypersaline environments.

  17. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

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    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  18. Achieving Success under Pressure in the Conservation of Intensely Used Coastal Areas

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    Fiorenza Micheli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how biological conservation and socioeconomic development can be harmonized in social-ecological systems is at the core of sustainability science. We present the case of a Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA, the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA, that exhibits high ecological performance under intense pressure from fishing, tourism, and coastal development. This case study illustrates how socioeconomic development and significant conservation benefits can coexist, even in a challenging context. Based on this case study, we present a framework for what elements and interactions have determined the high ecological performance of this MPA, and highlight the key leverages that have enabled ecosystem recovery. In particular, the most critical elements underlying high performance were sufficient leadership and knowledge to identify a conservation vision and to catalyze some key actors in the implementation of this vision. Thus, success was ultimately determined by the ability of the leadership of the MPA to devise and implement an effective strategy, with the support and participation of key actors that were external to the MPA organization. The insights from this case study may be applicable to improving MPA management in other systems with similar characteristics, including high human pressures and the presence of an MPA authority.

  19. Characteristics of Paleotsunami Sediments, A Case Study in Cilacap and Pangandaran Coastal Areas, Jawa, Indonesia

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    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i4.166A paleotsunami study having been conducted in 2011 took two study cases in Cilacap and Pangandaran coastal areas. These two regions have been devastated by tsunami in the past and had the most severe damaged on 17 July 2006. Trenching, beach profiling, and sediment sampling had been carried out, and further analysis at the laboratory had been done, such as grain size and fossil analyses and dating. In Cilacap, an iron sand layer was found as a key bed suspected as a paleotsunami deposits due to the content of anthropogenic fragments. In Pangandaran, two layers of tsunami deposit candidates were found having thickness of 5 - 6 cm at the top as a 2006 tsunami deposit candidate, and 5 - 10 cm at the bottom as a paleotsunami deposit candidate. Both grain size and fossil analysis results could explain that Pangandaran’s sediments are tsunami deposits while Cilacap’s ones are assumed to be deposited by another process rather than a tsunami.

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  2. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

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    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  3. AQUACULTURE AS A MEXICAN STRATEGY FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND RURAL AREAS

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    Antonio Mártir Mendoza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYAquaculture is one of the worldwide economic activities which has grown in the last 30 years at an annual rate of 9-10.0 %. Poultry, pork, lamb and beef meat production have increased only at an annual rate of 3.0 % in the same period, and in the last five years has decreased due to aviar fever and other viral difficulties. While aquaculture growth takes place in far away countries as China near by countries as Costa Rica, Honduras, Brazil and Chile keeps the same tendency. As far as Mexico´s aquaculture is concerned, it has grown steadily, missing, even its way out. On the one hand fish catches do not grow since the middle of the 80´s when fish production reached 1.5 million tones. On the other hand aquaculture in fresh waters and in sea waters are almost staging due to the loss of authority and governmental management capacity to make decisions. The recently elected federal government which will take office next December 1st, has on its hands the opportunity to favor aquaculture production and doing so, to develop Mexican coastal and rural areas.

  4. Temporal patterns of cotton Fusarium and Verticillium wilt in Jiangsu coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Ya'nan; Ding, Changfeng; Xu, Wenhua; Wang, Xingxiang

    2017-10-03

    Cotton diseases caused by soil-borne pathogenic fungi present a major constraint to cotton production not only in China but also worldwide. A long-term field inventory was made of the prevalence of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of cotton in the Jiangsu coastal area of China from 2000 to 2014. Various factors (crop varieties, rotation and weather) were analyzed to explore the dynamics of these diseases in cotton. The results showed that the prevalence of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt increased before 2005 and that Verticillium wilt remained at a high incidence over most of the past 10 years, while Fusarium wilt began to gradually decrease after 2005. The dynamics of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt were closely associated with the introduced cotton varieties and the intensive cropping history. In addition, weather conditions occurring during some of the years appeared to coincide with a substantial variation in the wilt diseases. Our study highlighted epidemiological dynamics of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt in a long-term survey.

  5. A Study to Understand the Potential Vulnerabilities to the Foundations of Historic Structures in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. L.; Curran, B.; Jefferson, M.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Sea level rise, one of the most important manifestations of climate change is expected to result in increased coastal erosion and storm surge flooding. This work reports on a project undertaken to assess the vulnerability of foundations of historic structures in coastal areas to the potential consequences from climate change resulting from increased storm surge flooding. Foundations of historic buildings are especially vulnerable to the seepage and ground water intrusion. Many historic structures themselves are used to house valuable historic collections making it all the important to preserve and protect these structures. Data collected from a field subsurface geophysical survey, geospatial field survey, and a simulation to understand the hydrological conditions of the site useful to build an understanding of threats to foundations of historic structures located on the coast. The study site chosen for this project is the Strawbery Banke Living History Museum, in Portsmouth, NH. Located very close to the banks of the Piscataqua River at its meeting point with the Atlantic Ocean, it consists of many buildings of historical importance dating as far back as 1690. Upstream of the river is the tidal estuary system, the Great Bay which itself is formed by a confluence of seven major rivers, making it a highly dynamic, tide-dominated body of fresh and saltwater. Strawbery Banke is representative of historic structures, located on the Northeastern coast of the US, that will likely be impacted by climate change. The primary threat to the sub-structures for the site is Puddle Dock; a tidal inlet , that lies at the heart of the facility, that once provided direct river access to Strawbery Banke (and since filled around 1900). Results from the long term deployment of in -situ water level loggers in test wells, temperature and relative humidity sensors, and a ground penetration radar survey of the Puddle Dock, along with the detailed fine-scale elevation survey of the site

  6. Population dynamics of soil bacteria in some areas of Midnapore coastal belt, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Afrin; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-06-01

    In this present study the population dynamics of the soil bacteria of some coastal villages, namely Padima, Jatimati, Chanpabani, Palsandapur, Bhagibaharampur, Duttapur, Gangadharpur, Gobindabasan, Somaibasan of Digha, West Bengal, India, was determined. In these villages the aerobic heterotrophic, Gram-negative, spore-forming, starch-hydrolyzing, Pseudomonas, nitrate-reducing, denitrifying, asymbiotic N 2 fixing, nitrifying, phosphate-solubilizing bacterial populations ranged from 1.22 to 2.67 × 10 6 , 0.09-1.63 × 10 5 , 1.53-3.68 × 10 5 , 2.22-4.06 × 10 5 , 0.02-0.04 × 10 5 , 0.35-1.33 × 10 5 , 0.07-0.82 × 10 5 , 0.58-2.50 × 10 5 , 0.13-2.35 × 10 5 , 0.05-1.9 × 10 5 cfu/g dry soil, respectively. The organic carbon content of the soil samples ranged from 0.61 to 0.93 %. The available nitrogen and phosphate in the soils of the study area varied from 11.2 to 29.5 and 230.8-503.09 mg/kg, respectively. The one-way ANOVA revealed significant variations (p < 0.05) in the microbial diversity with respect to different locations of the study site. Shannon-Wiener and Simpson Index of the study areas ranged from 1.56 to 1.88 and 3.85-5.73, respectively. Jatimati showed comparatively higher diversity index among the villages of the study area. From principal component analysis, three components were extracted having the Eigen values of 3.541, 1.603 and 1.391, respectively. Agglometric hierarchial cluster analysis in respect of the number of different bacterial groups in different places of the study area showed that the denitrifying, nitrate reducing, asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing and spore-forming bacteria formed a cluster while Pseudomonas differed from them forming another cluster and nitrifying, Gram negative, phosphate-solubilising and starch-hydrolyzing bacteria formed another different cluster. This variation of the soil bacteria might be dependent on the microhabitat present in different locations of the study area.

  7. Ecological Security and Ecosystem Services in Response to Land Use Change in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu, China

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    Caiyao Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, and the resulting land use/cover change, is a primary cause of the degradation of coastal wetland ecosystems. Reclamation projects are seen as a way to strike a balance between socioeconomic development and maintenance of coastal ecosystems. Our aim was to understand the ecological changes to Jiangsu’s coastal wetland resulting from land use change since 1977 by using remote sensing and spatial analyses. The results indicate that: (1 The area of artificial land use expanded while natural land use was reduced, which emphasized an increase in production-orientated land uses at the expense of ecologically important wetlands; (2 It took 34 years for landscape ecological security and 39 years for ecosystem services to regain equilibrium. The coastal reclamation area would recover ecological equilibrium only after a minimum of 30 years; (3 The total ecosystem service value decreased significantly from $2.98 billion per year to $2.31 billion per year from 1977 to 2014. Food production was the only one ecosystem service function that consistently increased, mainly because of government policy; (4 The relationship between landscape ecological security and ecosystem services is complicated, mainly because of the scale effect of landscape ecology. Spatial analysis of changing gravity centers showed that landscape ecological security and ecosystem service quality became better in the north than the south over the study period.

  8. Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

  9. Dissolved organic and inorganic matter in bulk deposition of a coastal urban area: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia S M; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2014-12-01

    Bulk deposition can remove atmospheric organic and inorganic pollutants that may be associated with gaseous, liquid or particulate phases. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been carried out, which simultaneously analyse the presence of organic and inorganic fractions in rainwater. In the present work, the complementarity of organic and inorganic data was assessed, through crossing data of some organic [DOC (dissolved organic carbon), absorbance at 250 nm (UV250nm), integrated fluorescence] and inorganic [H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-), non sea salt sulphate (NSS-SO4(2-))] parameters measured in bulk deposition in the coastal urban area of Aveiro. The organic and inorganic parameters analysed were positively correlated (pinorganic parameters with the precipitation amount suggest that organic and inorganic fractions were incorporated into the rainwater partially by below-cloud scavenging of airborne particulate matter. This is in accordance with the high values of DOC and NO3(-) found in samples associated with marine air masses, which were linked in part to the contribution of local emissions from vehicular traffic. DOC of bulk deposition was the predominant constituent when compared with the constituents H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-) and NSS-SO4(2-), and consequently bulk deposition flux was also highest for DOC, highlighting the importance of DOC and of anthropogenic ions being simultaneously removed from the atmosphere by bulk deposition. However, it was verified that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to the DOC of bulk deposition may be different for distinct urban areas. Thus, it is recommended that organic and inorganic fractions of bulk deposition are studied together. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Aerosols in coastal and inland areas in the equatorial African belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Okullo, Willy; Chen, Yi-Chun; Frette, Øvyind; Hamre, Børge; Steigen, Andreas; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob J

    2014-05-10

    Aerosols affect the climate directly through absorption and reflection of sunlight back to space and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. This paper is based on more than three decades of satellite data (1979-1994 and 1996-2012) from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and ozone monitoring instrument (OMI), which have provided measurements of backscattered radiances in the wavelength range from 331 to 380 nm. These data have been used to determine the aerosol climatology and to investigate the influence of the aerosol index (AI) on the ultraviolet index (UVI) in coastal land areas in Serrekunda (13.28°N, 16.34°W), The Gambia, and Dar-es-Salaam (6.8°S, 39.26°E), Tanzania, as well as in inland areas in Kampala (0.19°N, 32.34°E), Uganda. Heavy aerosol loadings were found to occur in the dry seasons at all three locations. To reduce the influence of clouds, we disregarded TOMS and OMI data for days during which the UV reflectivity was larger than 9% and investigated the correlation of the AI with the UVI for the remaining days at the three locations. We found a high correlation coefficient of 0.82 for Serrekunda, but poor correlation for Kampala and Dar-es-Salaam. The average AI for Serrekunda was found to be about three times higher than that for Kampala or Dar-es-Salaam, and a positive trend was found for the AI in Kampala and Dar-es-Salaam, whereas a negative trend was found for the AI in Serrekunda.

  11. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  12. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2017-11-13

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from central Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus trux sp. nov. It is similar to the recently described Strophurus congoo Vanderduys from north Queensland and apparently shares a habitat preference for Triodia hummock open woodlands. It is notably different from the latter in possessing a vivid yellow to golden eye. It is only known from one small area of the Brigalow Belt Bioregion, although it is expected to occur more widely than the one area in which it has been found. It is likely that it is endemic to the Brigalow Belt Bioregion.

  13. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  14. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Larsen Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a

  15. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  16. Modelling of upwelling in the coastal area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carbonel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1 1/2 reduced-gravity model is proposed to study the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic features of the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. The vertical structure of the model is described by an active layer overlaying a deep inert layer where the pressure gradient is set to zero. For the upper layer, the model includes the turbulent version of the momentum. continuity and heat equations. The conservation of heat is represented by a transport equation to describe the thermodynamic changes of the sea surface temperature (SST. The solution domain includes open boundaries in which weakly-retlective conditions are prescribed. Solutions are found numerically on a uniform grid and the fundamental equations are approximated by the finite difference method. Numerical experiments are performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the coastal area of Cabo Frio forced by uniform and non-uniform wind fields. The solutions differ considerably depending on the orientation of the winds. East and northeast winds correlate with colder waters in the zonal coastline of this area and the presence of tlows toward Cabo Frio correlates with north wind components. The proposed model is validated with the numerical simulation of an observed event of upwelling, where a time­-dependent and non-uniform wind ficld develops a SST pattern similar as the observations, particularly the extension of the cool water plume in south-west direction and the rapid time variation of the SST.Um modelo de gravidade reduzida de 1 1/2 camada é proposto para estudar as características hidrodinmicas e termodinmicas da área costeira de Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro ­Brasil. A estrutura vertical do modelo é descrita por uma camada ativa sobre uma camada profunda sem movimento onde o gradicnte de pressão é zero. Para a camada superior. o modelo incluí a versão turbulenta das equações de momentum, continuidade e calor. A conservação do calor é representada por uma

  17. Flooding Mitigation of seawalls and river embankments to storm surges in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Xina

    2017-04-01

    The coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China are susceptible to the destructions of tropical cyclones and storm surges. The projected global warming, coastal subsidence and sea level rise together will bring about greater flooding risk to these areas. The seawall and river embankment have played a significant role in mitigating and preventing the coastal low-land areas from the impairment of storm surges flooding and wave runup. However, few risk assessment studies in this region consider the existence of seawall and river embankment and often overestimate the risk and potential economic loss and population affected due to storm surge flooding. This study utilizes a hydraulic model to simulate the overtop flooding and compare those without seawall and river embankment using several specific tropic storm events and extreme events of tropic storm surges in different return periods of 2, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. Most seawalls are 4 or 5 meters plus another meter of wave levee above the local mean sea level. The river embankments are usually 4 or 5 meter higher than the local mean sea level as well and decrease from the outer estuary to the inner riverine. The modeling results considering seawall and river embankments and from real storm surges are in agreement with on-site survey and observations, while those without infusing seawall and river embankments overestimate the inundation condition and economic loss. Modeling results demonstrate that seawall and river embankment greatly reduce the flooding risk and prevent the low-land area from inundation for most tropic storm events, e.g., for extreme events less than 20 to 50 years, in the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, China. However, the seawall and river embankment may also cause catastrophic disasters once there is an engineering failure of seawalls and river embankment, especially once encountering with an extreme typhoon event, e.g., the 1969 super typhoon Viola in Shantou China and the 2005

  18. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas K.; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-04-01

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species.

  19. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas K; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-04-04

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species.

  20. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  1. Mapping and quantifying habitat fragmentation in small coastal areas: a case study of three protected wetlands in Apulia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Valeria; Tenerelli, Patrizia; Sciandrello, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean Region, habitat loss and fragmentation severely affect coastal wetlands, due to the rapid expansion of anthropogenic activities that has occurred in the last decades. Landscape metrics are commonly used to define landscape patterns and to evaluate fragmentation processes. This investigation focuses on the performance of a set of landscape pattern indices within landscapes characterized by coastal environments and extent below 1,000 ha. The aim is to assess the degree of habitat fragmentation for the monitoring of protected areas and to learn whether values of landscape metrics can characterize fine-resolution landscape patterns. The study areas are three coastal wetlands belonging to the Natura 2000 network and sited on the Adriatic side of Apulia (Southern Italy). The Habitat Maps were derived from the Vegetation Maps generated integrating phytosociological relevés and Earth Observation data. In the three sites, a total of 16 habitat types were detected. A selected set of landscape metrics was applied in order to investigate their performance in assessing fragmentation and spatial patterns of habitats. The final results showed that the most significant landscape patterns are related to highly specialized habitat types closely linked to coastal environments. In interpreting the landscape patterns of these highly specialized habitats, some specific ecological factors were taken into account. The shape indices were the most useful in assessing the degree of fragmentation of habitat types that usually have elongated morphology along the shoreline or the coastal lagoons. In all the cases, to be meaningful, data obtained from the application of the selected indices were jointly assessed, especially at the class level.

  2. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Heavy metals contamination and distribution of benthic foraminifera from the Red Sea coastal area, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Youssef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of benthic foraminifera was studied in two stations in the coastal area, located around Jeddah, Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia. Thirty-three species belonging to 15 genera, 14 families and three suborders were recorded in twenty samples. Some foraminiferal tests display abnormalities in their coiling, general shape of chambers and apertures. On the other hand, concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd were measured in the tests of the two most common living species of benthic foraminifera (Sorites marginalis and Peneroplis planatus. Significant spatial differences in the metal concentrations of benthic foraminifera were recorded at the two sites. Benthic foraminifera yielded significantly high concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb and Cu, which may attribute to anthropogenic activities at the studied coastal areas. The anthropogenic activities have a considerable impact, besides other factors, in the abnormalities of foraminiferal test.

  4. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the

  5. A rapid decision-making method for the evaluation of pollution-sensitive coastal areas in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Michael O; Kamizoulis, George

    2005-06-01

    Places of natural beauty and/or cultural value in the Mediterranean Sea are presenting adverse effects due to pollution. These environmental threats caused by point and nonpoint sources are mainly the reason why these areas represent "pollution-sensitive areas," where the risk of deterioration is immediate. However, the risk will decrease and eventually disappear if protective measures are applied. In the present article, a multicriteria decision-making method is proposed for the prioritization of the Mediterranean sensitive coastal areas, taking into consideration criteria of pollution risk such as impact on human health, aquatic ecosystems, and socioeconomic value of the area. Weighting factors were then attributed to the different criteria according to their regional priorities, and a total pollution risk score was calculated for every sensitive area. However, some sensitive areas are more vulnerable than others because of their natural characteristics. Therefore, the total pollution risk score was then multiplied by a vulnerability weighting factor and a Total Sensitivity Score was calculated for every sensitive area. With this method, Mediterranean sensitive areas in coastal zones can be ranked on a priority list and then categorized according to their "sensitivity," in a way that decision-makers can select the most urgent cases to direct their attention for the effective protection of the Mediterranean marine environment. The method is rapid and practicable and has already been used with existing data and information in several Mediterranean countries.

  6. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  7. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  8. Improvement of Armor Stone Performance for Protection of Great Lakes Coastal Navigation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, M.; Harrelson, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock's behavior in the field may vary greatly from the laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of armor stone sizes is complex and various factors must be considered in order to fully understand how the design parameters have an indirect effect on stone performance. Numerous investigators have studied to develop relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors affecting the armor stone durability. The effects of scaling on the test results of various samples of rock types used in Great Lakes coastal projects have been investigated. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, testing have been done to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. The stone quarries and sites were evaluated and sampled to determine the stone sources, and their surrounding environments. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the modification of the mass distribution and reduction at the project site. The paper presentation will describe and illustrate the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. We will introduce new approaches that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity.

  9. Numerical simulation of the effect of groundwater salinity on artificial freezing wall in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Liu, Quan

    2017-04-01

    During the engineering projects with artificial ground freezing (AFG) techniques in coastal area, the freezing effect is affected by groundwater salinity. Based on the theories of artificially frozen soil and heat transfer in porous material, and with the assumption that only the variations of total dissolved solids (TDS) impact on freezing point and thermal conductivity, a numerical model of an AFG project in a saline aquifer was established and validated by comparing the simulated temperature field with the calculated temperature based on the analytic solution of rupak (reference) for single-pipe freezing temperature field T. The formation and development of freezing wall were simulated with various TDS. The results showed that the variety of TDS caused the larger temperature difference near the frozen front. With increasing TDS in the saline aquifer (1 35g/L), the average thickness of freezing wall decreased linearly and the total formation time of the freezing wall increased linearly. Compared with of the scenario of fresh-water (<1g/L), the average thickness of frozen wall decreased by 6% and the total formation time of the freezing wall increased by 8% with each increasing TDS of 7g/L. Key words: total dissolved solids, freezing point, thermal conductivity, freezing wall, numerical simulation Reference D.J.Pringel, H.Eicken, H.J.Trodahl, etc. Thermal conductivity of landfast Antarctic and Arctic sea ice[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112: 1-13. Lukas U.Arenson, Dave C.Sego. The effect of salinity on the freezing of coarse- grained sand[J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2006, 43: 325-337. Hui Bing, Wei Ma. Laboratory investigation of the freezing point of saline soil[J]. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2011, 67: 79-88.

  10. Early Childhood Environmental Education in Tropical and Coastal Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    Early childhood years are the period of the greatest and most significant developments in ones’ life, and are generally regarded as the basis upon which the rest of their life is constructed. However, these early years are those that traditionally have received the least attention from environmental education. This paper was aimed to summarize several day-to-day activities that can be conducted to educate children in their early years about environment. Environmental education is an educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment, and that uses an interdisciplinary problem solving approach with value clarification. Environmental education is aimed at producing a community that is knowledgeable about the biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to solve these problems, and enthusiastic to work toward their solution. It highlights the progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. Further, environmental education can help children expand their ecological worldview, promote active care to the environment, and explain the relationship between modern life style and current environmental problems. Several types of environmental education have been identified from the literature, such as outdoor activities in natural outdoor setting, school gardening, play-based learning, and drawing activities. Each of these activities has its own characteristics and effects on children’s environmental-related attitudes and behaviors. Through these activities, the unique characteristics of tropical and coastal areas can potentially be used to facilitate children to learn about nature and environment. Recommendations for childhood education practitioners and future researchers are discussed.

  11. UHF radar signature of a tsunami approaching coastal areas: modeling, experiments and application to tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, S. T.; Dubosq, S.; Saillard, M.; Branger, H.

    2007-12-01

    Perhaps for the first time, satellite altimeters provided transects of the 12/26/04 tsunami elevation across the Indian Ocean, while the event unfolded. Here we use well-established Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radar technology, to develop a method that could provide warning of an incoming tsunami to coastal populations. When a tsunami reaches the continental shelf, the mostly depth-uniform current it induces greatly increases in speed (maybe up to 10-20 cm/s) and may induce significant Doppler shifts in ocean surface waves, particularly for those of smaller wavelength (high frequency). Given proper processing, such shifts could be identified by shore-based UHF radars as a tsunami signature and trigger a warning. Due to the tsunami slowing down with decreasing water depth, from the shelf break to shore, warning times of 5-15 minutes could be conceivable, depending on the shelf width, which could be sufficient to proceed with vertical evacuation in exposed areas. Here, we use a Higher Order Spectral (HOS) Method to model fully nonlinear sea states caused by wind, down to typical UHF wavelength of order 10 cm, as well as Doppler shifts and wave shoaling/refraction caused by slowly varying depth uniform currents. Such currents can be obtained for selected case studies, e.g., from tsunami propagation modeling, using a standard long wave model. UHF radar backscattering is modeled by a Boundary Element Method, solving Maxwell's equations, developed and validated in earlier work. We present initial results of this modeling study, in terms of spatio-temporal UHF radar signatures and their sentsitivity to governing physical parameters. We also present large-scale laboratory results for radar backscattering spectra measured during wave-current interaction experiments performed in the FIRST basin (La Seyne, France). We intend to apply our detection methodology to Southern Thailand, based on earlier modeling work we performed for the 12/26/04 tsunami propagation.

  12. Lagrangian transport in a microtidal coastal area: the Bay of Palma, island of Mallorca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; López, C.; Orfila, A.; Hernández-García, E.

    2013-10-01

    Coastal transport in the Bay of Palma, a small region in the island of Mallorca, Spain, is characterized in terms of Lagrangian descriptors. The data sets used for this study are the output for two months (one in autumn and one in summer) of a high resolution numerical model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System), forced atmospherically and with a spatial resolution of 300 m. The two months were selected because of their different wind regime, which is the main driver of the sea dynamics in this area. Finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLEs) were used to locate semi-persistent Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) and to understand the different flow regimes in the bay. The different wind directions and regularity in the two months have a clear impact on the surface bay dynamics, whereas only topographic features appear clearly in the bottom structures. The fluid interchange between the bay and the open ocean was studied by computing particle trajectories and residence time (RT) maps. The escape rate of particles out of the bay is qualitatively different, with a 32% greater escape rate of particles to the ocean in October than in July, owing to the different geometric characteristics of the flow. We show that LCSs separate regions with different transport properties by displaying spatial distributions of residence times on synoptic Lagrangian maps together with the location of the LCSs. Correlations between the time-dependent behavior of FSLE and RT are also investigated, showing a negative dependence when the stirring characterized by FSLE values moves particles in the direction of escape.

  13. Diel peroxy radicals in a semi-industrial coastal area: nighttime formation of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured by a PeRCA (Peroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier instrument in the boundary layer during the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides campaign at a coastal, forested site influenced by urban-industrial emissions in southern Spain in late autumn. Total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2 + ΣRO2 generally showed a daylight maximum between 10 and 50 pptv at 13:00 UTC, with an average of 18 pptv over the 15 days of measurements. Emissions from the industrial area of Huelva often impacted the measurement site at night during the campaign. The processing of significant levels of anthropogenic organics leads to an intense nocturnal radical chemistry accompanied by formation of organic peroxy radicals at comparable levels to those of summer photochemical conditions with peak events up to 60–80 pptv. The RO2 production initiated by reactions of NO3 with organic trace gases was estimated to be significant, but not sufficient to account for the concentrations of RO2* observed in air masses carrying high pollutant loading. The nocturnal production of peroxy radicals in those periods seems therefore to be dominated by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, in particular alkenes of industrial petrochemical origin. RO2* diurnal variations were consistent with HO2 measurements available at the site. HO2/RO2* ratios generally varied between 0.3 and 0.6, though on some occasions this ratio was likely to have been affected by instrumental artifacts (overestimated HO2 associated with high RO2 loads.

  14. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  15. Screening of Rhizosphere Bacteria From Rice Fields in The Coastal Area as Acc-Deaminase and Auxin Producer

    OpenAIRE

    Annisyia Zarina Putri; Djarot Sasongko; Dwi N Susilowati

    2015-01-01

    Salinity and drought stress results in the production of ethylene. Rhizosphere bacterial activity suppresses the production of ethylene through the activity of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. In this study,a sampel of rhizosphere bacteria from coastal rice plant area was tested. The method used was acc deaminase activity test performed on Dworkin - Foster (DF) media and PCR acdS gene using specific primers of ACC and a quantitative analysis of the production of auxin (IAA). ...

  16. Spatial Lead Pollution in Aquatic Habitats and the Potential Risks in Makassar Coastal Area of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Mallongi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead can be a poison to the environment which may affects all body systems. Lead can also affect human health especially children, lead potentially lowering level of intelligence, growth, loss, causing anemia, and disorder among children as lead is neurotoxin and accumulative. In addition lead can cause a decrease in the ability of the brain, whereas in adults may cause interference of high blood pressure and other tissue toxicity. Any increase in the levels of lead in the blood of 10 ug / dl led to a decrease in IQ of 2.5 points or 0.975 IQ. The research aims to produce a special model of health risk among elementary school children due to lead exposure in the coastal city of Makassar. Methods: This study investigate the distribution of toxic lead in Makassar coastal area namely; sea water, sediments, shells  and crab. Then investigate lead toxins around the school such as lead in soil, dust, paint, snacks and air. After create distribution maps lead risks we create analysis of environmental health risks for children. Results: Result revealed that the analysis of spatial distribution of Lead in the sediment shows that the high distribution was in station 3 in Mariso districts then coastal Tallo area and the lowest was in Tamalate District. While the analysis of the spatial Pb distribution in mussels seen that the highest distribution Pb was in  station 4 of districts Mariso then coastal waters Tallo area and the lowest was in Tamalate District 5.00 to 7.20 mg / g. Conclusion: In conclusion, it revealed the concentration of Lead at all stations of those four districts have exceeded the level of allowed standard and may potentially lead to a hazard both to environment and human being who are living in the surround area.

  17. Measurements of biochemical markers of pollution in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas of the Saronikos Gulf (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsangaris, C.; Strogyloudi, E.; E. Papathanassiou

    2004-01-01

    Alterations in a number of biochemical parameters in marine organisms represent specific markers of exposure to particular classes of contaminants. They are used as tools for the detection and monitoring of pollution. In this study, two biochemical markers of pollution, metallothionein (MT) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in indigenous and transplanted mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas within the Saronikos Gulf subject to high anthropogenic ac...

  18. Habitat features influence catch rates of near-shore bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Queensland Shark Control Program, Australia 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Jodie A.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Sumpton, Wayne D.; Mayer, David G.; Werry, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding shark habitat use is vital for informing better ecological management of coastal areas and shark populations. The Queensland Shark Control Program (QSCP) operates over ∼1800 km of Queensland coastline. Between 1996 and 2012, catch, total length and sex were recorded from most of the 1992 bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) caught on drum lines and gill-nets as part of the QSCP (sex and length was not successfully recorded for all individuals). Gear was set at multiple sites within ten locations. Analysis of monthly catch data resulted in a zero-inflated dataset for the 17 years of records. Five models were trialled for suitability of standardising the bull shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) using available habitat and environmental data. Three separate models for presence-absence and presence-only were run and outputs combined using a delta-lognormal framework for generalized linear and generalized additive models. The delta-lognormal generalized linear model approach resulted in best fit to explain patterns in CPUE. Greater CPUE occurred on drum lines, and greater numbers of bull sharks were caught on both gear types in summer months, with tropical sites, and sites with greater adjacent wetland habitats catching consistently more bull sharks compared to sub-tropical sites. The CPUE data did not support a hypothesis of population decline indicative of coastal overfishing. However, the total length of sharks declined slightly through time for those caught in the tropics; subtropical catches were dominated by females and a large proportion of all bull sharks caught were smaller than the size-at-maturity reported for this species. These factors suggest that growth and sex overfishing of Queensland bull shark populations may be occurring but are not yet detectable in the available data. The data highlight available coastal wetlands, river size, length of coastline and distance to the 50 m depth contour are important for consideration in future whole of

  19. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    The lake of Massaciuccoli (7 km2 wide and about 2 m deep) and its palustrine nearby areas (about 13 km2 wide) constitute a residual coastal lacustrine and marshy area largerly drained by 1930. In terms of hydrological boundaries, the lake watershed is bordered by carbonate to arenaceous reliefs on the east, by a sandy coastal shallow aquifer on the west (preventing groundwater salinisation), while south and north by the Serchio River and the Burlamacca-Gora di Stiava channels alignment respectively. Since reclamation of the peaty soils started, subsidence began (2 to 3 m in 70 years), leaving the lake perched and central respect the low drained area, now 0 to -3 m below m.s.l., and requiring 16 km embankment construction. During the dry summer season, the lake undergoes a severe water stress, that, along with nutrients input, causes the continuous ecosystem degradation resulting in water salinisation and eutrophication. Water stress results in a head decrease below m.s.l., causing seawater intrusion along the main outlet, and reaching its highest point at the end of the summer season (common head values between -0.40 and -0.5 a.m.s.l.). The water budget for an average dry season lasting about 100 days was computed, considering a 10% error, in order to understand and evaluate all the components leading to the above mentioned water stress by means of several multidisciplinary activities during the years 2008-2009. They started with a thoroughly literature review, continued with hydrological, hydrogeochemical monitoring and testing (both for surface water and the shallow aquifer) and agronomical investigations (to characterize cropping systems, evapotranspiration rates and irrigation schemes). All the collected data were then processed by means of statistical methods, time series analysis, numerical modelling of the shallow aquifer and hydrological modelling. The results demonstrate the presence of two interrelated hydrological sub-systems: the lake and the reclaimed

  20. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  1. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  2. Genetic and morphologic differentiation of the Lusitanian toadfish (Halobatrachus didactylus between estuarine and coastal areas in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana F. Marques

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801, is distributed from the Ghana coast to the Iberian Peninsula, being particularly abundant on the south coast of Portugal. The differentiation of this species along the Portuguese coast was assessed through the analysis of 10 samples, considering morphological characters (20 morphometric and 16 meristic and genetic markers (10 allozymes, 11 loci. Southern samples included estuaries and their adjacent coastal areas, given that this species inhabits both environments, whereas western samples only comprised estuaries. Morphometric and meristic data discriminant analysis evidenced some differentiation between estuarine and coastal populations. This was not entirely corroborated by the genetic analysis, which showed an overall pattern of low FST (0.042 and Nei’s genetic distance, even between geographically distant areas. However, higher values of these parameters were found between estuaries of the south coast and their adjacent coastal areas, suggesting that estuarine systems play a major role in such differentiation. Results are discussed regarding toadfish life-history pattern and Portuguese coast geomorphology, giving an insight into the biological and environmental factors influencing population sub-structuring.

  3. Migration Component in the Contemporary Demographic Development of Rijeka and the Coastal Area of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The significance of migration in the contemporary demographic development of Rijeka and its coastal area is discussed in the paper. The analysis has shown that the City of Rijeka presents a demographically regressive area from which the deconcentration of population, mainly to suburban areas, is taking place. At the same time, the Littoral is the area of demographic growth as a result of high immigration rates, while natural demographic trends are negative; however, this does not have such intensity as in the case of the urban population of Rijeka. The comparison of vital index and migration data indicates a high degree of correlation between immigration and natural change in population so that settlements in the nearer gravitation area, being the space of strong in-migration between the 1990s and 2000s, shows distinct demographic growth and positive population bio-dynamics. Compared with them, settlements in the broader gravitational area have weaker intensity of permanent population resettlement as well as considerably unfavourable total and natural population trends. Based on the established demographic situation, population forecasts have been made for the years 2021 and 2031 indicating continued depopulation processes in the macro-regional centre of Rijeka and further demographic progression in the coastal area.

  4. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  5. The establishment of the Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia in Queensland (1996–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction For chiropractors and osteopaths after graduation, the learning process continues by way of experience and continuing education (CE. The provision of CE and other vocational services in Queensland between 1996 and 2002 is the subject of this paper. Methods The Chiropractic & Osteopathic College of Australasia (COCA implemented a plan, which involved continuing education, with speakers from a broad variety of health provider areas; and the introduction of the concepts of evidence-based practice. The plan also involved building membership. Results Membership of COCA in Queensland grew from 3 in June 1996 to 167 in 2002. There were a total of 25 COCA symposia in the same period. Evidence-based health care was introduced and attendees were generally satisfied with the conferences. Discussion The development of a vocational body (COCA for chiropractors and osteopaths in Queensland was achieved. Registrants in the field have supported an organisation that concentrates on the vocational aspects of their practice.

  6. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  7. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  8. Multi-temporal Land Use Mapping of Coastal Wetlands Area using Machine Learning in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farda, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide ecosystem services essential to people and the environment. Changes in coastal wetlands, especially on land use, are important to monitor by utilizing multi-temporal imagery. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides many machine learning algorithms (10 algorithms) that are very useful for extracting land use from imagery. The research objective is to explore machine learning in Google Earth Engine and its accuracy for multi-temporal land use mapping of coastal wetland area. Landsat 3 MSS (1978), Landsat 5 TM (1991), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2001), and Landsat 8 OLI (2014) images located in Segara Anakan lagoon are selected to represent multi temporal images. The input for machine learning are visible and near infrared bands, PCA band, invers PCA bands, bare soil index, vegetation index, wetness index, elevation from ASTER GDEM, and GLCM (Harralick) texture, and also polygon samples in 140 locations. There are 10 machine learning algorithms applied to extract coastal wetlands land use from Landsat imagery. The algorithms are Fast Naive Bayes, CART (Classification and Regression Tree), Random Forests, GMO Max Entropy, Perceptron (Multi Class Perceptron), Winnow, Voting SVM, Margin SVM, Pegasos (Primal Estimated sub-GrAdient SOlver for Svm), IKPamir (Intersection Kernel Passive Aggressive Method for Information Retrieval, SVM). Machine learning in Google Earth Engine are very helpful in multi-temporal land use mapping, the highest accuracy for land use mapping of coastal wetland is CART with 96.98 % Overall Accuracy using K-Fold Cross Validation (K = 10). GEE is particularly useful for multi-temporal land use mapping with ready used image and classification algorithms, and also very challenging for other applications.

  9. Reconstruction of hazard-related geomorphic events from mixed-volcanoclastic sequences in the Campanian coastal area (Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Crescenzo; Esposito, Eliana; Molisso, Flavia; Porfido, Sabina; Sacchi, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Sudden emplacement of large amount of pyroclastic material from explosive eruptions represents a significant interference with the geomorphic system, both for inland and coastal areas. Large volcanocalstic activity can induce sediment overburden and consequent return to the equilibrium profile by means of land degradation and erosional processes. Volcaniclastic resedimentation and generation of mass flows and floods are common phenomena affecting wide areas near the volcanic vents, occurring either soon after volcanic eruptions and during inter-eruption periods. In volcanic coastal areas volcanic debris can enter the sea in the form of avalanche deposits, hyper-concentrated flows or as the underwater continuation of subaerial flows and surges. Rapid accumulation at sea of tephra deposits from explosive eruptions can led to seafloor failure or act as weak layers for successive gravity deformations. Yet, part of volcaniclastic material can be stored in the catchments and be available for erosion a long time after an eruption. In the study area sediment availability strictly relate to massive and intermittent volcaniclastic delivery, largely responsible for aggradation/progradation of the coastal area during the Quaternary. The discussed hazard-related sedimentary features include large aprons of avalanche deposits off volcanic structures, steep sedimentary progradations at mouth of bedrock streams and small rivers, sediment re-mobilization in pro-delta areas, and shallow slides. Marine geophysical surveys and sea-land correlations led to associate such features with volcanic processes including the Mt. Epomeo uplift at Ischia island, the collapse of the Somma-Vesuvius caldera and the emplacement of pyroclastics from Phlegrean Fields and Somma-Vesuvius.

  10. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  11. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations. Indonesian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 1. Area 1 - Southeast Sumatra. Area 2 - Christmas Island. Area 3 - Sunda Strait. Area 4 - Northwest Java Sea. Area 5 - Bangka Island Northwest. Area 6 - Natuna Island. Area 7 - Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

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  12. Sediment dynamics in the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar during an interglacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater that reach the sea bottom from below may bind to fine grained particles. When a nuclide binds to an immovable particle in the sea sediment, further transport may cease; however, if the nuclide binds to a moveable particle it may be repeatedly suspended, transported, and re-deposited. Whether the nuclide binds to a moveable or immovable particle determines the type of biota it encounters. Therefore, it is of great value to understand how bottom types are spread in the sea close to a proposed repository and how the distribution of these bottoms have changed over time, in order to predict what may happen if a nuclide leaks from a repository. In the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar, the sediment dynamics have been modelled for the period between 9500 BC and 9500 AD. The model is based on a wave model (STWAVE) included in the program package from SMS (Surface Water Modelling System). A sediment resuspension module was developed and is presented in this report. The model inputs are weather data (wind direction and wind speed) and bathymetry. The bathymetry is in a regular grid structure. The wave model is separated into two steps. The first is an outer model with coarse resolution (1000 m) that represents the whole Baltic Sea. This outer model gives border conditions to an inner model with higher resolution (100 m) that represents the coastal areas close to Forsmark and Laxemar. The outputs from the wave model are wave height, wave period and water depth for each cell in the model domains. A new program module, written in VisualBasic, reads the results from the wave module and calculates the maximum wave generated water velocity close to the sea bottom, and the maximum resuspendable grain size at that water velocity based on a semi-empirical relationship. The model is run with a time step of 500 years. Since the bathymetry is changing over time due to the positive shore displacement, a sub-model for the Baltic Sea evolution has

  13. Risk factor analysis and spatiotemporal CART model of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia

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    Mengersen Kerrie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether it is possible to develop a spatiotemporal epidemic prediction model for cryptosporidiosis disease. This paper examined the impact of social economic and weather factors on cryptosporidiosis and explored the possibility of developing such a model using social economic and weather data in Queensland, Australia. Methods Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and social economic factors in Queensland were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Three-stage spatiotemporal classification and regression tree (CART models were developed to examine the association between social economic and weather factors and monthly incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia. The spatiotemporal CART model was used for predicting the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia. Results The results of the classification tree model (with incidence rates defined as binary presence/absence showed that there was an 87% chance of an occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in a local government area (LGA if the socio-economic index for the area (SEIFA exceeded 1021, while the results of regression tree model (based on non-zero incidence rates show when SEIFA was between 892 and 945, and temperature exceeded 32°C, the relative risk (RR of cryptosporidiosis was 3.9 (mean morbidity: 390.6/100,000, standard deviation (SD: 310.5, compared to monthly average incidence of cryptosporidiosis. When SEIFA was less than 892 the RR of cryptosporidiosis was 4.3 (mean morbidity: 426.8/100,000, SD: 319.2. A prediction map for the cryptosporidiosis outbreak was made according to the outputs of spatiotemporal CART models. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that spatiotemporal CART models based on social economic and weather variables can be used for predicting the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in

  14. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts.

  15. Seasonal dynamics in the relative density of aquatic flora along some coastal areas of the Red Sea, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the producers of all autotrophic ecosystems’ and are the base of the food chain taking energy from the sun and converting it into food for all other organisms through photosynthesis. Plants grow in certain places and seasons when the environmental factors are suitable for their germination, growth and developments that influence their diversity. Environmental factors can include abiotic factors such as temperature, light, moisture, soil nutrients; or biotic factors like competition from other plants or grazing by animals. Anthropogenic perturbations can also influence distribution patterns. Monitoring of ecological habitats and diversity of some aquatic flora along some coastal areas of Red Sea has been done to understand the dynamics of aquatic plants influenced by prevailing environmental and anthropogenic perturbations The results of this research showed that the summer season is the most suitable period for the study of aquatic plant diversity along the coastal sites of Red Sea. The aquatic flora had high relative density and diversity in April, May, June and July and these four months of the summer season are best for collection of aquatic plants from the selected coastal areas of Red Sea for medicinal purposes and ecological studies.

  16. HEAVY MINERALS IN PLACER DEPOSIT IN SINGKAWANG WATERS, WEST Kalimantan, RELATED TO FELSIC SOURCE ROCK OF ITS COASTAL AREA

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    Deny Setiady

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Placer deposits are physically accumulated by fluvial and marine processes in coastal area. Thirty six samples were selected from seventy seven samples of seafloor sediment of Singkawang waters. Those samples have been analyzed microscopically for heavy mineral contents. Based on this analysis, the heavy minerals can be divided into four groups: oxyde and hydroxyde, silicate, sulphide, and carbonate. The source of most heavy minerals in the study area is commonly formed by Felsic igneous rock and finally deposited on the seafloor sediments.

  17. [Distribution characteristics of trace pollutants in benthic mussels from the coastal areas of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Xin; Qiu, Wei-Xun; Chen, Jiang-Lin

    2011-02-01

    Based on the recent monitoring results, the concentration and distribution of persistent toxic substances in the benthic mussels from the coastal areas of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea were determined. The results indicated that, at over 36% of the total sampling sites, the tissue concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons were higher than the Category I value (15 microg/g, wet weight) of the national marine biological quality standards, especially at the sites near Dalian Bay and Xincun in Hebei Province, the tissue concentrations even exceeded the Category III level (80 microg/g, wet weight). Moreover, higher tissue concentration of PHCs (over the Category I level) during recent years remained in the most monitoring sea areas. At minor sites (mariculture zone in Yantai and Laizhou Bay), the tissue concentrations of As and Pb were relatively higher, and the high levels of Cd (above the Category II value of 2000 ng/g, wet weight) and Hg (above the Category II value of 100 ng/g, wet weight) in mussel bodies presented at several sites situated in coastal areas near Dalian Bay and Xincun of Hebei Province. Additionally, at the sampling sites near Liaodong Bay and Shandong Peninsula, the tissue concentration of Hg showed an annual increase during recent years. At all the monitoring sites, the tissue concentrations of PCBs and HCHs were usually low, while as the case of Hg, the tissue concentrations of PCBs and HCHs in Liaodong Bay increased gradually in these years. The new monitoring results indicated that, most sites with DDTs levels in benthic mussels higher than the Category I value (10 ng/g, wet weight) were located in the coastal areas of Hebei Province belonged to Bohai Bay (such as Zhaojiapu and Xincun). The continuous monitoring in these sea areas demonstrated that, in addition to the historical residues, there may be some fresh input sources of DDT nearby. Consequently, in the neighboring sea areas of Dalian Bay and Xincun, the tissue concentrations of PHCs

  18. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TSstd). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TSstd formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling the subsidence of peat soils in the Dutch coastal area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, T.; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Brus, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    In large parts of the western coastal region of the Netherlands peat soils occur. Historic land use resulted in decomposition of organic matter and compaction of these soils and as a consequence the land surface subsided. Along with sea level rise and tectonic subsidence since the end of the

  20. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedeschi, G.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Piazzolla, J.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea–land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of

  1. The role of satellite altimetry in gravity field modelling in coastal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    global uniform gravity information with very high resolution, and these global marine gravity fields are registered on a two by two minute grid corresponding to 4 by 4 kilometres at the equator. In this presentation several coastal complications in deriving the marine gravity field from satellite...

  2. Quantification of risks to coastal areas and development: wave run-up and erosion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available on large-scale two and three-dimensional usages. Journal of Coastal Research 4 (4): 627 – 648. Caribbean Hazard Mitigation Capacity Building Programme (CHAMP): 2009. http://www.cdera.org/projects/champ/mitiplcy/vulnerb.shtml COELHO, C., SILVA, R...

  3. Vulnerability of coastal areas to sea-level rise : Some global results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, F.M.J.; Marchand, M.; Pennekamp, H.; Misdorp, R.; Bijlsma, L.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of the various resources of the world's coastal zones to an acceleration of sea-level rise (ASLR) and related climate change effects requires detailed global information on the distribution, density and state of the resources and on the impacting hazardous events. For

  4. Monitoring of PCDDs, PCDFs, DLPCBs and PAHs in marine organisms from the coastal areas of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.B.; Choi, H.G.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.S.; Choi, M. [National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan (Korea); Ok, G. [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of toxic organic contaminants is the fundamental work to study ecotoxicology. Bioaccumulative monitoring essentially can provide comprehensive information on the average variation in time and space of the concentrations of contaminants in the marine aquatic environments, assessing the extents and toxic effects of persistent organic chemicals for the coastal marine ecosystems. A large variety of organic chemicals, primarily anthropogenic pollutants, are transported into coastal marine ecosystems through various routes. Marine organisms may be exposed to toxic organic contaminants by contact with contaminated seawater and sediments, either on the seabed or through suspended sediments, or by ingestion of contaminated prey. Due to low water soulubility and high octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow) in seawater, these chemicals can retain and concentrate in fatty tissues of these marine organisms such as migrate into fish, shellfish and invertebrates. In aquatic systems, the highly lipophilic and hydrophobic organic pollutants tend to bioconcentrate from water to aquatic animal and then biomagnify up through the multistep food chain. Hence, these organisms reflect the pollution extent of persistent toxic organic pollutants and some species are used as bio-indicators at different environmental conditions and foodweb. Although several toxic microcontaminants have previously been determined in some locations for marine organisms from the Korean coastal environments, there are few reported data on levels of PCDDs/DFs, DLPCBs and PAHs in marine organisms, particularly shellfish, from the Korean coastal ecosystems. In this study, we planned to monitor the dioxins and dioxin-like contaminants pollution in marine environment of Korea.

  5. The Application and Usefulness of Economic Analyses for Water Quality Management in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic studies are increasingly sought as tools to contribute to water quality management in estuaries and coastal communities, yet little is known about how the results from existing studies have been received and utilized by the organizations who solicited them. We interviewe...

  6. Assessment of the natural radioactivity in the coastal areas of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides, namely 40K, 238U and 232Th, in the surface soils around the coastal lands of Lagos, were measured using a highly sensitive γ-ray spectrometric system coupled to a computerized ACCUSPEC multichannel analyzer system. 146 samples from 22 different locations were ...

  7. Evaluation of groundwater age using helium isotopes in the coastal area of Suruga Bay, adjacent to Mt. Fuji, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M.; Machida, I.; Koshigai, M.; Ikawa, R.; Marui, A.

    2016-12-01

    Mt. Fuji, the highest mountain in Japan, is a stratovolcano with numerous springs at the foot of mountain. A recent study reported regional groundwater flow through the slope area of Mt. Fuji to the coastal area of Suruga Bay. It also suggested that the coastal groundwater had long residence times (more than 60 years) and may discharge directly into Suruga Bay. The aim of the current study is to clarify groundwater ages in the coastal area by using helium isotopes. Groundwater samples were collected around Mt. Fuji during 2014 to 2016 from 30 industrial wells, one natural spring, and two drilled boreholes (SKB and FGB). The depths of the industrial wells ranged from 9 to 1500 m. Borehole SKB is 50 m from the coastline of Suruga Bay. The depth of SKB is 350m; ten water samples were collected from it at different depths. Borehole FGB is 160 m deep and is equipped with a single screen. Water samples for helium isotopic measurements were collected using a copper tube and clamps. A duplicate sample was also taken at each sampling site/depth. Water samples for the analysis of water quality, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes, and minor elements were collected at the same time. Helium isotopes were analyzed using quadrupole mass spectrometry and noble gas mass spectrometry. Results showed that the ratios of 3He/4H in fresh coastal groundwater were higher than those of atmospheric component and inland groundwater. Brackish water sampled from SKB and FGB had significantly higher 3He/4He compared with the fresh groundwater. In addition, the 3He/4He ratios of saltwater in SKB were more depleted with increasing depth. The result suggested that a mantle helium component is most enriched along the freshwater-saltwater interface. According to the results of groundwater age estimation by a model from an earlier study in Japan, the age of fresh coastal groundwater ranged from 200 to 300 years. In comparison, the groundwater ages of brackish/salt water ranged from approximately

  8. Landslides hazard mapping integrating remote sensing and geo-morphological data in the Sorrentina Peninsula coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    spinetti, claudia; bisson, marina; tolomei, cristiano; colini, laura; galvani, alessandro; moro, marco; saroli, michele; sepe, vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The densely inhabited Campania region (Southern Italy) is affected by numerous and dangerous landslides. In particular, the coastal area of Sorrentina Peninsula is one of the zones most subjected to two types of landslides: volcanoclastic debris flows and rock fall. The first type occurs during intensive or persistent precipitations and on significant hillslopes where carbonatic bedrock is covered by pyroclastic deposits related to the Somma-Vesuvius and Phlegrean Fields explosive activity. The second type could be triggered by seismic events and occurs in areas where outcropping bedrock with steep slopes (e.g. the cliffs) is subjected to coastal erosion generating cliff instability. In order to improve the landslides hazard zonation in the Sorrentina Peninsula coastal area, we show a multidisciplinary approach to identify the areas more prone to generate such types of landslide. Our approach involves the analyses of ERS (temporal span between 1992-2000), Envisat (2003-2010), and COSMO-SkyMed (2013-2015) SAR data elaborated applying multi-temporal InSAR techniques to obtain the ground displacement maps and the relative displacement time series, integrated by means of GPS data. These maps were used to identify the instability areas and subsequently investigated by field survey, airborne photogeological interpretation and morphometric elaborations derived from airborne Lidar information. In addition, the land cover mapping was obtained using satellite high-medium resolution data. The analysis was performed in a GIS environment allowing to identify the main parameters that influence the slope instability and to obtain the landslide hazard map. finally, the comparison with the landslides historical database provides the different landslides susceptibility degrees classes.

  9. Seasonal prevalence and blood meal analysis of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Afrin; Das, Surajit; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-09-01

    Filariasis is one of the major vector-borne diseases causing serious health problem in the tropics and subtropics. The coastal areas of Digha are known to be a filariasis prone region of West Bengal, India. The filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, the established filarial vector in West Bengal, India. The present work was aimed to determine the abundance of different mosquito species; and the frequency, distribution and blood meal analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha. During the present study, a total of 11,537 mosquitoes [Cx. quinquefasciatus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles barbirostris, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, Aedes albopictus, and Cx. vishnui (group)] were collected by hand collection method from human habitations and cattlesheds of 10 villages of Digha, West Bengal, India. The seasonal prevalence of Cx. quinquefasciatus was studied. In each season, blood meals of 300 Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from human habitations were analysed during the study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be the dominant species (88.44% of the total collection) in the study area. It was most frequently found in and around human habitations than cattlesheds. Total man hour density calculation revealed that this species was most prevalent during the rainy season. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus varied with different seasons. Blood meal analysis showed that the filarial vector preferred human blood than that of other animals. This study suggested Cx. quinquefasciatus as the dominant mosquito species in the study area; and the anthropophilic nature of Cx. quinquefasciatus might be the reason of increase in the intensity of filarial transmission in coastal areas of Digha.

  10. Application of PFGE to source tracking of faecal pollution in coastal recreation area: a case study in Aoshima Beach, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T; Yoshida, T; Suzuki, Y

    2011-03-01

    The development of a microbial source tracking (MST) method is strongly desired to ensure public health and bacteriological safety in coastal recreation areas. We try to specify the source of faecal pollution by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the study of the aquatic environment on Aoshima Beach, Japan. Enterococcus faecium, an enterococcus, was used as a faecal indicator bacterium in this study. Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated and identified from each water sample collected from Aoshima Beach and five rivers (Oyodo, Kiyotake, Kaeda, Chifuku and Tsukunami Rivers) that might be potential sources of faecal pollution. Enterococcus faecium strains collected from water samples were analysed using PFGE. The similarities of all the PFGE types of the Ent. faecium strains were compared using dendrogram analysis. The PFGE types of the strains isolated from Aoshima Beach showed a high similarity to those of the strains isolated from the Oyodo River at a 0·9 similarity level. It was suggested that the Oyodo River is the source of faecal pollution on Aoshima Beach. The PFGE analysis using enterococci is a potential tool for the MST of faecal indicator bacteria that can be applied to the study of the coastal environment. This is one of the studies that PFGE was applied to the coastal environment. The approach using PFGE could estimate the river that is source of faecal pollution in Aoshima Beach. By applying PFGE as a tool of MST method, detailed information of faecal pollution in coastal area can be provided. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The record of climatic change in the geological archives of shallow marine, coastal, and adjacent lowland areas of Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, G.; Petzelberger, B. E. M.; Scholz-Böttcher, B. M.; Streif, H.

    2003-01-01

    The record of climatic change in shallow marine, coastal, and adjacent lowland areas has been investigated by three different approaches. A mass balance study focused on the interaction between sea-level rise and Holocene sediment accumulation in the coastal lowland area between the Ems and Weser rivers on the German North Sea coast. This region, which comprises various sedimentary environments, such as barrier islands, sheltered and open tidal flats, bay flats, and estuaries, is highly suitable for such quantitative studies, which can be used to create a model for general mass transport and accumulation processes connected with transgressions over coastal lowlands. An integrated geochemical and microfacies study was made to assess the response of shallow marine, intertidal, and limnic-semiterrestrial environments to the climate-controlled Holocene sea-level rise. The factors controlling the development of various palaeoenvironments were estimated from the distribution of biomarkers, major and trace elements, diatoms, foraminifera and sedimentary structures observed at high resolution in core sections. These data complement those of conventional geological, lithostratigraphical, archaeological and geobotanical investigations. The extensive raised bogs which occur in the Pleistocene hinterland, adjacent to the coastal zone, provided an excellent opportunity to examine peat formation in response to climatic changes in the past. On the basis of a large number of 14C-age determinations special attention was paid to the onset and regional expansion of raised bogs in this region and to the question of whether or not the formation of raised bog peat started synchronously in one or in a series of different phases.

  12. Biological indicators of changes in water quality and habitats of the coastal and estuarine areas of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem; Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachnicka, Anna; Wingard, G. Lynn; Entry, James A.; Gottlieb, Andrew D.; Jayachandran, Krish; Ogram, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the application of various biological indicators to studying the anthropogenic and natural changes in water quality and habitats that have occurred in the coastal and estuarine areas of the Greater Everglades ecosystem.

  13. Extent Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two layers that depict the extent of the 2003 digital orthophoto mosaic for the coastal and nearshore areas of Bering Land Bridge...

  14. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Cape Krusenstern. These shoreline...

  15. Index Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from Approximately 1980 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two index map layers for 57 frames of orthorectified aerial photography from approximately 1980 for the coastal and nearshore areas...

  16. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge. These shoreline...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal sea water, the surface sediment and Mudskipper Boleophthalmus dussumieri from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf: source investigation, composition pattern and spatial distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaei, Mahmood; Mashinchian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Persian Gulf is an exposed and stressed area as a result of oil pollution and other fossil fuels containing PAHs. The susceptibility of using mudskippers to monitor marine pollution, like PAHs, points to the fact that mudskippers are able to accumulate and record the PAHs presented in the coastal environments. Methods Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the coastal waters, the sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) along the coast of the Persian ...

  18. Long and Short Term Variability of the Main Physical Parameters in the Coastal Area of the SE Baltic Proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingelaite, Toma; Rukseniene, Viktorija; Dailidiene, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: SE Baltic Sea, coastal upwelling, IR Remote Sensing The memory of the ocean and seas of atmospheric forcing events contributes to the long-term climate change. Intensifying climate change processes in the North Atlantic region including Baltic Sea has drawn widespread interest, as a changing water temperature has ecological, economic and social impact in coastal areas of the Europe seas. In this work we analyse long and short term variability of the main physical parameters in the coastal area of the South Eastern Baltic Sea Proper. The analysis of long term variability is based on monitoring data measured in the South Eastern Baltic Sea for the last 50 years. The main focus of the long term variability is changes of hydro meteorological parameters relevant to the observed changes in the climate.The water salinity variations in the Baltic Sea near the Lithuanian coast and in the Curonian Lagoon, a shallow and enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, were analysed along with the time series of some related hydroclimatic factors. The short term water temperature and salinity variations were analysed with a strong focus on coastal upwelling events. Combining both remote sensing and in situ monitoring data physical parameters such as vertical salinity variations during upwelling events was analysed. The coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic Sea coast, depending on its scale and intensity, may lead to an intrusion of colder and saltier marine waters to the Curonian Lagoon resulting in hydrodynamic changes and pronounced temperature drop extending for 30-40 km further down the Lagoon. The study results show that increasing trends of water level, air and water temperature, and decreasing ice cover duration are related to the changes in meso-scale atmospheric circulation, and more specifically, to the changes in regional and local wind regime climate. That is in a good agreement with the increasing trends in local higher intensity of westerly winds, and with the winter

  19. Wildfires and post-fire erosion risk in a coastal area under severe anthropic pressure associated with the touristic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Bachisio; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Valeriano Pintus, Gian; Ferrara, Roberto; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades a rapid and intense development of the tourism industry led to an increasing of anthropic pressure on several coastal areas of Sardinia. This fact not only modified the coastal aesthetics, but has also generated an increase of risk for the environment. This phenomenon affected also the ancient structure of the landscape with a negative impact mainly caused by the following factors: land abandonment, wildfire occurrence, post-fire erosion, urbanization. These regional changes can be analyzed in detail by considering the geo-diachronic dynamics. The main objectives of this work were i) to perform a diachronic analysis of land use and land cover dynamics, ii) to analyse the recent dynamics of wildfires, and iii) to predict the soil erosion risk in relation to land use change occurred between the 1950s and the 2000s. The study was realized in a coastal area located in North-East Sardinia where the geo-historical processes were summarized and organized in a geographic information system that has been employed to examine the landscape variations at three different time steps: 1954, 1977 and 2000. In addition, different scenarios of wildfire propagation were simulated by FlamMap in order to estimate the spatial pattern of fire danger factors in the study area. Afterwards, maps of post-fire soil erosion were produced to identify the temporal and spatial variations of the erosion risk. The results show how the changes in land use and the significant and rapid increase of the residential areas affect the risk of both wildfires and post-fire soil erosion. The study reveals the capabilities of this type of approach and can be used by management agencies and policy makers e in sustainable landscape management planning. This approach can be extended to other regions of the Mediterranean basin characterized by complex interactions among landscape and anthropic factors affecting the environmental risk.

  20. Efficient multiscale image fusion and feature reduction for elevation data in coastal urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sweung Won

    Technological advances in the remote sensing of elevations have made it possible to improve topographic resolutions to the 1-10 meter scale and bathymetric (underwater elevations) to the 5-90 m scale. To a large extent, however, data collected at different resolutions and from different types of sensors remain largely separate and their joint information content under-exploited. For many applications, such as flood modeling, there is a vital need to combine information from these seemingly disparate data sets and extract characteristics about the surface that can aid Earth scientists and emergency planners. The research discussed in this dissertation consists of two parts that address this need. In the first component of the work, a simplified formulation for calculating the variance of the process noise in a multiscale Kalman smoother is derived and implemented via a pruning method on the quadtree data structure. This method exploits the distribution of measurements in the finest scale to efficiently fuse multi-resolution data with different areas of spatial coverage to produce seamless single surface digital elevation models (DEMs). To further improve the accuracy of the Kalman-based fusion, a landscape-dependent measurement error is calculated for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data set, providing information on a scale intermediate to the meter-scale DEMs from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and 90-m coastal DEMs created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA). Analysis of the Multiscale Kalman filter and Smoother (MKS) residuals was employed because only a single (spatially uniform) value for the SRTM measurement error is specified by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This was done by defining a LiDAR-derived hydrologic ground surface that excludes vegetation and bridges, under which flood waters can pass. In the second component of this work, an alternative method to traditional downsampling and mesh generation (used to reduce

  1. Coastal Climate Change Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation in the Natural and Built Environments: Progress of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Herman, B.; Vernaza-Hernández, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Area Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership, funded by the National Science Foundation, seeks to develop new ways to educate citizens about global climate change. The core themes are sea level rise and impacts of climate change in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea. CACCE focuses on helping partners, educators, students, and the general public gain a fundamental and working understanding of the interrelation among the natural environment, built environment, and social aspects in the context of climate change in coastal regions. To this end, CACCE's objectives reported here include: 1) defining the current state of awareness, perceptions, and literacy about the impacts of climate change; and 2) testing a model of transdisciplinary research and learning as a means of training a new generation of climate professionals. Objective one is met in part by CACCE survey efforts that reveal Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers hold many non-scientific views about climate change and climate change science and provide inadequate instruction about climate change. Associated with objective two are five Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL) pilot projects underway in schools in Florida and Puerto Rico. In the CACCE Partnership the stakeholders include: students (K-16 and graduate); teachers and education researchers; informal science educators; scientists and engineers; business and industry; policy makers; and community members. CACCE combines interdisciplinary research with action research and community-based participatory research in a way that is best described as "transdisciplinary". Learning occurs in all spheres of interactions among stakeholders as they engage in scientific, educational, community and business activities through their legitimate peripheral participation in research communities of practice. We will describe the process of seeking and building partnerships, and call for a dialogue

  2. [Distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles of the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Shao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-04-01

    The distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles were investigated in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao estuaries and the coastal area of eastern Hainan in July 2008. The concentrations of metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES after microwave digestion. Multivariate statistical methods (e. g. correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to discuss the major factors controlling the variability of heavy metal concentrations and the pollution status in those areas. There was an obvious variability in particulate metal concentrations from upstream to estuary of both rivers. The concentrations first increased with increasing salinity and then decreased with further increase of the salinity; the concentrations were slightly higher at the coastal area in the east. The variability of particulate metal concentrations reduced significantly after the normalization by Al, indicating the effects of grain size. Enrichment factor calculation results showed that there was heavy metal pollution (especially Cu, Ni) in the Wenchang/Wenjiao River and estuary, while the situation in Wanquan River remained at pristine level. Concentrations of particulate metals in the study area were mainly controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as contamination from the discharge of waste water and biological activity.

  3. Groundwater Vulnerability to Seawater Intrusion along Coastal Urban Areas: A Quantitative Comparative Assessment of EPIK and DRASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momjian, Nanor; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment models are invariably coupled with Geographic Information Systems to provide decision makers with easier visualization of complex systems. In this study, we examine the uncertainty associated with such models (DRASTIC, EPIK) in assessing seawater intrusion, a growing threat along coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater resources associated with population growth and more recently, exacerbated by climate change impacts. For this purpose, a mapping of groundwater vulnerability was first conducted at a country level (Lebanon) and coupled with a groundwater quality monitoring program in three coastal cities for cross-validation. Then, six water quality categories were defined and mapped based on water quality standards ranging from drinking to seawater with weighted scores assigned for each category in both DRASTIC and EPIK for cross-validation. Finally, the results of groundwater quality tests were compared with vulnerability predictions at sampling points using two indicators (Chloride and TDS). While field measurements demonstrated the high vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal urbanized areas, the modelling results exhibited variations from field measurements reaching up to two water quality categories. Vertical-based vulnerability models demonstrated poor correlation when the anthropogenic impact was introduced through a process that depends on lateral groundwater flow thus highlighting (1) the limited ability of such models to capture vulnerability to lateral seawater intrusion induced primarily by vertical groundwater withdrawal, and (2) the need to incorporate depth and underlying lithology into the layers of groundwater vulnerability models when examining horizontally induced contamination such as seawater intrusion.

  4. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  5. An empirical model to quantify fecal bacterial loadings to coastal areas: Application in a Mediterranean context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Marlène; Salles, Christian; Rodier, Claire; Cantet, Franck; Marchand, Pierre; Mosser, Thomas; Cernesson, Flavie; Monfort, Patrick; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2017-10-01

    In coastal catchments, rainfall events primarily drive bacterial inputs to the sea by causing land runoff, surface leaching and sewer overflow. Under semi-arid climate, extensive dry periods are interspersed with extreme precipitation. This paper aims to assess the impact of intense summer rainstorms events on Fecal Indicator Bacteria loadings to Mediterranean seawaters. Firstly, explanatory relationships were derived between an Antecedent Precipitation Index and the loads of thermo-tolerant coliforms and intestinal enterococci measured at three catchment outlets in the Gulf of Aigues-Mortes (southern France). Secondly, fecal bacterial loadings were simulated during summer season from 2006-2016, with a confidence interval arising from measurements uncertainties. On average, more than two rainstorms per summer season elevate bacterial loads at least by one order of magnitude, potentially leading to the degradation of bathing and fishing water quality observed in regulatory monitoring data. The results highlight the crucial importance of considering hydrological conditions in coastal water quality management.

  6. Coastal upwelling in the Gelendzhik area of the Black Sea: Effect of wind and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, K. P.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Myslenkov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Long series data of a thermistor chain in the Black Sea coastal zone near Gelendzhik were analyzed. A thermistor chain installed 1 km offshore and at a depth of 22 m. There are full and incomplete upwelling events observed. The study of upwelling genesis based on: wind speed data from the NCEP/CFSR reanalysis and Gelendzhik weather station, velocity and direction of coastal currents measured by ADCP profiler moored on the bottom near the thermistor chain. Over the whole observation period (warm seasons of 2013-2015), more than 40 events of upwelling were registered four of them were full upwellings, when presence of under-thermocline water was observed near the sea surface. For every upwelling event, conditions prior to the changes in thermic structure, were analyzed. It is found that full upwelling generally occur under synergistic wind and current forcing. Fairly strong forcing of one of these factors is sufficient for partial upwelling to occur.

  7. Integrating science into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , dissemination and application of appropriate science. How then can science be integrated into strategic CSDP? We argue that two key elements are required: 1. Institutional structures to facilitate engagement and knowledge negotiation among scientists..., managers and local knowledge holders 2. Scientific tools that are appropriately designed to support the knowledge negotiation process. Figure 1: Coastal urban centres along South Africa?s coastline INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE TO FACILITATE A KNOWLEDGE...

  8. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: Synthesis and future development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, M.S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W.M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Van der Plas, A.K.

    included fish kills and mortality of benthic species (cf. Pe- tersen, 1915; Sale and Skinner, 1917; Brongersma-Sanders, 1957; Andrews and Rickard, 1980; Mirza and Gray, 1981; Justic et al., 1987; Rosenberg et al., 1987; Patrick, 1988; Gerlach, 1990...) in the coastal environment. In surface waters, high DO can be maintained by photosynthesis (hv is photon en- ergy) and exchange with the atmosphere. Advection and turbulent mixing also affect the DO concentrations for a given water mass. In the deep part...

  9. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

    OpenAIRE

    S. Manjusha; G. B. Sarita; K. K. Elyas; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine) environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia) were tested from the sampling site wit...

  10. The Study of Upper Ocean Stratification that Controls Propagation of Internal Tidal Bores in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    the upper surface layers ( Woodson et al. 2011). A series of the SeaHorse density profile data from YD 285 to YD 290 illustrates the evolving density...beneath shoaling nonlinear internal waves. J.Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2007JC004411. Bruland, K. W., E. L. Rue, and G . J. Smith, 2001: Iron and...macronutrients in California coastal upwelling regimes: Implications for diatom blooms. Limnology and Oceanography, 46, 1661–1674. Carter ,G.S

  11. High prevalence of cattle fascioliasis in coastal areas of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; Vo, Minh Duc Co; VAN Cao, Hoang; Nguyen, Ly Thi; Ho, Khanh Thi; Nguyen, Quyet Ngoc; Tran, Vui Quang; Matsumoto, Yasunobu

    2017-06-16

    In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014-2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m 2 ) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam.

  12. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  13. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  14. Mapping the gravity field in coastal areas: feasibility and interest of a new airborne planar gradiometer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douch, Karim; Panet, Isabelle; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Pajot-Métivier, Gwendoline; Diament, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Satellite missions such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE have led to an unprecedented improvement of global gravity field models during the past decade. However, for many applications these global models are not sufficiently accurate when dealing with wavelengths shorter than 100 km. This is all the more true in areas where gravity data are scarce and uneven as for instance in the poorly covered land-sea transition area. We suggest here, in line with spatial gravity gradiometry, airborne gravity gradiometry as a convenient way to amplify the sensitivity to short wavelengths and to cover homogeneously coastal region. Moreover, the directionality of the gravity gradients gives new information on the geometry of the gravity field and therefore of the causative bodies. In this respect, we analyze here the performances of a new airborne electrostatic acceleration gradiometer, GREMLIT, which permits along with ancillary measurements to determine the horizontal gradients of the horizontal components of the gravitational field in the instrumental frame. GREMLIT is composed of a compact assembly of 4 planar electrostatic accelerometers inheriting from technologies developed by ONERA for spatial accelerometers. After an overview of the functionals of the gravity field that are of interest for coastal oceanography, passive navigation and hydrocarbon exploration, we present the corresponding required precision and resolution. Then, we investigate the influence of the different parameters of the survey, such as altitude or cross-track distance, on the resolution and precision of the final measurements. To do so, we design numerical simulations of airborne survey performed with GREMLIT and compute the total error budget on the gravity gradients. Based on this error analysis, we infer by a method of error propagation the uncertainty on the different functionals of the gravity potential used for each application. This finally enables us to conclude on the requirements for a high

  15. Pygidiopsis summa (Digenea: Heterophyidae): Status of Metacercarial Infection in Mullets from Coastal Areas in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Huh, Beom-Nyung; Seok, Won-Seok

    2016-08-01

    To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes.

  16. Mental health of farmers in Southern Queensland: issues and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Delwar; Eley, Rob; Coutts, Jeff; Gorman, Don

    2008-12-01

    To inform the development of an initiative designed to support the mental well-being of farmers in Queensland. Interactive focus groups. Rural and remote Queensland. Health professionals, farmers and representatives of organisations and agencies working with farmers. Determination of factors contributing to the declining mental health of rural landholders. Content material for inclusion into mental health first aid programs held for field officers. Key areas identified to contribute to the decline in mental health of farmers were: increasing isolation in its varying forms, the ongoing drought, increased government regulations and widening of the schism between urban and rural Australians. The issues that affect farmers are recognised to have a 'knock-on' effect on the people who interact with them. In particular, rural support organisations are concerned for the well-being of their staff, prompting some to begin to put protocols in place to address their staff need for mental health support. Additional mental health training of field officers that involves awareness, recognition, communication skills, understanding and empathy was recognised by participants to be beneficial. Training of field officers was considered to be of benefit to the support of farmers. An understanding of the various and diverse issues that rural landholders face should be a fundamental component of that training.

  17. Impacts of climate change on coastal benthic ecosystems: assessing the current risk of mortality outbreaks associated with thermal stress in NW Mediterranean coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairaud, Ivane Lilian; Bensoussan, Nathaniel; Garreau, Pierre; Faure, Vincent; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of climate change, the increase in ocean heat wave frequency is expected to impact marine life. Large-scale positive temperature anomalies already occurred in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea in 1999, 2003 and 2006. These anomalies were associated with mass mortality events of macrobenthic species in coastal areas (0-40 m in depth). The anomalies were particularly severe in 1999 and 2003 when thousands of kilometres of coasts and about 30 species were affected. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to assess the current risk of mass mortality associated with temperature increase along NW Mediterranean continental coasts. A 3D regional ocean model was used to obtain the temperature conditions for the period 2001-2010, for which the model outputs were validated by comparing them with in situ observations in affected areas. The model was globally satisfactory, although extremes were underestimated and required correction. Combined with information on the thermo-tolerance of a key species (the red gorgonian P. clavata) as well as its spatial distribution, the modelled temperature conditions were then used to assess the risk of mass mortality associated with thermal stress for the first time. Most of the known areas of observed mass mortality were found using the model, although the degree of risk in certain areas was underestimated. Using climatic IPCC scenarios, the methodology could be applied to explore the impacts of expected climate change in the NW Mediterranean. This is a key issue for the development of sound management and conservation plans to protect Mediterranean marine biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  18. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Yaghoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  19. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area. PMID:27847411

  20. DNA damage and metal accumulation in four tissues of feral Octopus vulgaris from two coastal areas in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Joana; Costa, Pedro M; Vale, Carlos; Costa, Maria Helena; Moura, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The alkaline comet assay has been employed for the first time to estimate the basal DNA damage in the digestive gland, gills, kidney and gonads of Octopus vulgaris. Octopuses were captured in two coastal areas adjacent to the cities of Matosinhos (N) and Olhão (S), Portugal. The area of Matosinhos is influenced by discharges of the Douro River, city of Porto, industries and intensive agriculture, while Olhão is an important fisheries port. Previous works point to contrasting metal availability in the two coastal areas. Among the analysed tissues digestive gland presented the highest levels of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Tissues of specimens from Matosinhos exhibited high levels of Cd and from Olhão enhanced Pb concentrations. The DNA damages in digestive gland, gills and kidney were more accentuated in specimens from Matosinhos than from Olhão, suggesting a stronger effect of contaminants. Elevated strand breakages were registered in digestive gland, recognised for its ability to store and detoxify accumulated metals. The DNA damages in kidney, gills and gonads were lower, reflecting reduced metal accumulation or efficient detoxification. The broad variability of damages in the three tissues may also mirror tissue function, specific defences to genotoxicants and cell-cycle turnover. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Free living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas and coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Nelly G. Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballast water is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated ballast water into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of ballast waters transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i ballast water tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ~1 to 32 oS and (iii three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. Vibrio cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms, and was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+, involved in cholera disease, were found in ballast water (2% and harbor (2% samples. These results confirm that ballast water is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in ballast water management programs.

  2. Long-term analysis of turbidity patterns in Danube Delta coastal area based on MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Constantinescu, Ștefan; Doxaran, David

    2017-06-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas is becoming an urgent necessity in the context of increased pressure over these ecosystems due to climate change and human activities. Long term evaluation of specific parameters regarding water quality can now be achieved, thanks to the increased number of archived Earth Observation satellite data, now covering decades. Within this study, 12 years of MODIS information were used to compute surface water turbidity products that were further temporal binned into composite datasets (e.g. monthly, annual). A regional algorithm, based on local in situ measurements, was used in order to inverse remote sensing reflectance values into turbidity units. The interpretation of the final maps revealed important characteristics of the processes that play a major role in the regional turbidity dynamics. Observations were made regarding the relation between surface water turbidity and Danube River's discharge rates, winds, currents and also the bottom sedimentary characteristics of the shelf area. We discuss how different regions are affected by various external factors, depending on their geographical location, and we reinforce the idea that the river solid input is not the only parameter controlling water clarity in the Danube Delta coastal area, resuspension processes playing also an important role.

  3. Free-Living and Plankton-Associated Vibrios: Assessment in Ballast Water, Harbor Areas, and Coastal Ecosystems in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Irma N. G.; Souza, Keili M. C.; Souza, Claudiana P.; Lopes, Rubens M.

    2013-01-01

    Ballast water (BW) is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated BW into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of BWs transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i) BW tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii) port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ∼1 to 32°S and (iii) three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. V. cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms and, apart from the Santos harbor, was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA+, tcpA+), involved in cholera disease, were found in BW (2%) and harbor (2%) samples. These results confirm that BW is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in BW management programs. PMID:23335920

  4. Assessment oxidative stress biomarkers and metal bioaccumulation in macroalgae from coastal areas with mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete Olivares, Hernán; Moyano Lagos, Natalia; Jara Gutierrez, Carlos; Carrasco Kittelsen, Romina; Lobos Valenzuela, Gabriela; Hidalgo Lillo, María Eliana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on seaweeds Scytosiphon lomentaria and Ulva rigida of coastal waters of sites with mining activity, using oxidative stress biomarkers and heavy metal determination both in water and in tissue. The greatest bioaccumulation factors in S. lomentaria and U. rigida were founded for iron and arsenic in Quintay. Bioaccumulation factor in S. lomentaria in descending order was Fe> Cu> Zn> Cd> Cr> As> Mo and in U. rigida, in descending order, was Fe> Cu> Cd> Zn> Cr> Mo> As. Both species had higher antioxidant activity levels in areas with high mining activities. The concentration of metals in waters such as copper and arsenic in S. lomentaria, and iron, arsenic, and cadmium in U. rigida were related with oxidative stress biomarkers measured in both species. The use of both species is proposed to monitor the bioavailability and oxidative damage in coastal areas with mining activity. This work will generate a significant knowledge about the impact of mining wastes on macroalgal community in the area of north-central Chile.

  5. Free-living and plankton-associated vibrios: assessment in ballast water, harbor areas, and coastal ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Irma N G; Souza, Keili M C; Souza, Claudiana P; Lopes, Rubens M

    2012-01-01

    Ballast water (BW) is a major transport vector of exotic aquatic species and pathogenic microorganisms. The wide-ranging spread of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from harbor areas has been frequently ascribed to discharge of contaminated BW into eutrophic coastal environments, such as during the onset of the seventh cholera pandemic in South America in the early 1990s. To determine the microbiological hazards of BWs transported to Brazilian ports, we evaluated water and plankton samples taken from (i) BW tanks of recently arrived ships, (ii) port areas along the Brazilian coastline from ∼1 to 32°S and (iii) three coastal areas in São Paulo State. Vibrio concentration and toxigenic V. cholerae O1 occurrence were analyzed. Plankton-associated vibrios were more abundant than free-living vibrios in all studied environments. V. cholerae was found in 9.5% of ballast tanks and 24.2% of port samples, both as free-living and attached forms and, apart from the Santos harbor, was absent off São Paulo State. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates (ctxA(+), tcpA(+)), involved in cholera disease, were found in BW (2%) and harbor (2%) samples. These results confirm that BW is an important carrier of pathogenic organisms, and that monitoring of vibrios and other plankton-attached bacteria is of paramount importance in BW management programs.

  6. Numerical Study on the Effect of Air–Sea–Land Interaction on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed large-eddy simulations (LES to study the effect of complex land topography on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL in coastal areas. The areas under investigation are located at three beaches in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. The sharp-interface immersed boundary method is employed to resolve the land topography down to grid scale. We have considered real-time and what-if cases. In the real-time cases, measurement data and realistic land topographies are directly incorporated. In the what-if cases, the effects of different scenarios of wind speed, wind direction, and terrain pattern on the momentum flux at the beach are studied. The LES results are compared with simulations using the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS and field measurement data. We find that the land topography imposes a critical influence on the ABL in the coastal area. The momentum fluxes obtained from our LES agree with measurement data. Our results indicate the importance of capturing the effects of land topographies in simulations.

  7. Volumetric changes of the coastal dunes in the area of Niechorze and Pogorzelica (Western Polish coast) from 1989 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoletti, F. C.; Furmanczyk, K.; Disperati, L.; Dudzinska-Nowak, J.

    2009-04-01

    With its N-NW exposure, the western part of the Polish coast, between Niechorze and Swinoujscie, is subjected, like a whole Polish coast, to the action of the storm surges. In this area two types of coast may be distinguished: Pleistocene cliff coast made-up of clay and sand and a barrier dune coast built of Holocene sands. In particular, our study area (the coastal dune section of Pogorzelica) is located at the transition between these two types of coast. For that reason this section is a very dynamic area not only due to the storm action but also for the link-side effect started after the construction of a seawall in the cliff part, built for the protection of the Niechorze lighthouse. Several works based on detailed photointerpretation provided the description of coastal changes that occurred in this area between 1951 and 1996. In these works both the dune baseline and the shoreline were chosen for comparison, assuming changes in their location to be indicative of the general trend in coast development. In this work we employed topographic maps at the scale of 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 with 1 m contour lines interval, related to 1989 and 2002, provided by the Maritime Office in Szczecin, in order to obtain the first spatio-temporal volumetric evaluation of the coastal changes in this area. 3D models of the sand dunes have been built by linear interpolation of vector contour lines and spot heights digitised from the topographic maps, as well as spot heights collected from the geodetic triangulation network. Considering the contour lines interval we can expect a vertical accuracy of approximately better than 1 m for the 3D models. This assumption has been positively checked in those areas where no morphologic change occurred from 1989-2002 (i.e. back dune area). Taking into account the above assumption, the comparison between the 3D models (1989-2002) points out loss of material in the front dune along the whole 3 km coast section under study. The results are presented

  8. Testing for Hendra virus: difficulties experienced by veterinarians in Queensland prior to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, D; Judd, J; Speare, R

    2013-08-01

    To identify the perceived barriers to Hendra virus (HeV) management by private equine veterinarians in Queensland. An exploratory qualitative study of private equine veterinarians registered and working in coastal Queensland. A questionnaire that included eight open-ended questions about the management of HeV was used in face-to-face in-depth interviews with 21 veterinary personnel working in equine or mixed private practice between Far North and South-East Queensland in 2009-10. The qualitative data was entered and analysed thematically using QSR's International's Nvivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. This study revealed key issues associated with HeV testing: (1) inadequate knowledge of testing procedures and laboratory diagnostic pathways; (2) difficulty in accessing laboratory services; (3) responsibility for cost of collection and transport of specimen; and (4) the role of government. Participants perceived these issues as reducing potential HeV case management efficiency. Although HeV management plans have been modified in part since 2009-10, this study highlights the importance of considering the perspectives of private veterinary practitioners in any biosecurity protocols. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Effect of Holocene sea level change on aeolian activity in the coastal plain of Ras El Hekma area, NW coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Enas; Torab, Magdy

    2015-04-01

    Ras El Hekma area located in north western coast of Egypt, west of Alexandria city for about 220 km, in this area, environmental changes during the Holocene can be interpreted based on morphological and sedimentological similarities between Holocene geomorphic features such as cemented beaches and fossilized dunes with recent coastal features. Sand dunes and nebkhas are the most common aeolian landforms and they occur in semi-arid climatic conditions. The active separated coastal dunes and nebkhas dunes of Ras El-Hekma area are located between the swash zone and the coastal limestone ridges as well as in the coastal sabkhas. The effect of waves during storms reaches far beyond the actual beach and can cause great changes to sandy beaches at an exceptional speed. Sand accumulated by swash drifts with the wind on open beaches and bays. The aeolian sand, which originates from fluvial-marine sediments washed by sea waves. the available sediment depends on fluvial transport to the littoral zone and on biological activity in the carbonate environments as well as on longshore and cross-shore currents. This paper treats the coastal dunes in Ras El Hekma area in their entirety and defines the effects of sea level change on coastal sand dunes and sabkhas dunes, it depends upon field geomorphic surveying, sampling and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation using ENVI software and GIS techniques.

  10. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  11. Large networks of artificial radar reflectors to monitor land subsidence in natural lowlying coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Strozzi, Tazio; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    Deltas, lagoons, estuaries are generally much prone to land subsidence. They are also very sensitive to land lowering due to their small elevation with respect to the mean sea level, also in view of the expected eustatic sea rise due to climate changes. Land subsidence can be presently monitored with an impressive accuracy by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) on the large megacities that are often located on lowlying coastlands, e.g., Shanghai (China) on the Yangtze River delta, Dhaka (Bangladesh) on the Gange River delta, New Orleans (Louisiana) on the Mississippi river delta. Conversely, the land movements of the portions of these transitional coastlands where natural environments still persist are very challenging to be measured. The lack of anthropogenic structures strongly limits the use of PSI and the difficult accessibility caused by the presence of marshlands, tidal marshes, channels, and ponds yield traditional methodologies, such as levelling and GPS, both time-consuming and costly. In this contribution we present a unique experimental study aimed at using a large network of artificial radar reflectors to measure land subsidence in natural coastal areas. The test site is the 60-km long, 10-15 km wide lagoon of Venice, Italy, where previous PSI investigations revealed the lack of radar reflectors in large portions of the northern and southern lagoon basins (e.g., Teatini et al., 2011). A network of 57 trihedral corner reflectors (TCRs) were established between the end of 2006 and the beginning of 2007 and monitored by ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X acquisitions covering the time period from 2007 to 2011 (Strozzi et al., 2012). The application has provided general important insights on the possibility of controlling land subsidence using this approach. For example: (i) relatively small-size (from 0.5 to 1.0 m edge length) and cheap (few hundred euros) TCRs suffice to be clearly detectable from the radar sensors because of the low backscattering

  12. Species-area relationships as a tool for the conservation of benthic invertebrates in Italian coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhaumon, François; Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Mouillot, David

    2012-12-01

    Over the recent decades, the preservation of coastal and estuarine waters has been recognised as a priority at national and international levels. At the European scale, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established with the aim to achieve a good ecological status of all significant water bodies by the year 2015. Among the descriptors used to define the ecological status of water bodies, taxonomic diversity (usually species richness) is a widespread metric employed across taxa and habitats. However, species richness is known to increase with area at a decelerating rate, producing the species-area relationship (SAR). Thus, removing the effect of area (even in case of low magnitude), is mandatory before comparing species richness between sites. Here we tested recently developed multi-model SARs as a standardisation tool for comparing benthic species richness (annelids, arthropods, molluscs and total species richness) in 18 Italian coastal lagoons with a surface area ranging from 0.19 to 552 km2, i.e. three orders of magnitude. However, the sampling effort was often incompletely described and certainly heterogeneous among the studies retrieved from the database. Therefore, we used the number of studies as a proxy for the sampling effort in each lagoon and estimated species richness from observed values using non-parametric occurrence-based estimators. We further corrected for bias that might be induced by sampling efforts being unrepresentative for the surface area of different lagoons. After applying these corrections, we estimated that c. 25-30% of species richness could be explained by surface area. We investigated the spatial congruence of species richness patterns across taxa and showed that molluscs could serve as a potential surrogate for total macro-invertebrate species richness. We further found that the intensity of conservation focus and the gradient of ecological status are decoupled in Italian coastal lagoons. More generally, our study pave the way

  13. MODEL SPASIAL DINAMIK GENANGAN AKIBAT KENAIKAN MUKA AIR LAUT DI PESISIR SEMARANG (Spatial Dynamic Model of Inundated area due to Sea Level rise at Semarang coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan R Suhelmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kota Semarang merupakan kota pesisir di Provinsi Jawa Tengah yang memiliki topografi datar pada wilayah laut yang biasa disebut dengan kota bawah dan bergunung pada bagian atasnya yang biasa disebut dengan kota atas. Kota bawah memiliki kerentanan yang tinggi terhadap genangan akibat kenaikan muka air laut, hal ini disebabkan olehkondisi topografi yang datar. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memberikan gambaran secara dinamik distribusi genangan akibat berbagai skenario kenaikan muka air laut. Model spasial dinamik menggunakan Flash yang berfungsi memberikan gambaran secara interaktif dan real time pada berbagai skenario kenaikan muka air laut. Skenario kenaikan muka air laut menggunakan skenario IPCC hingga tahun 2100. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa terjadi kenaikan jumlah genangan dari 599,4 ha pada tahun 2020 menjadi 4.235,4 ha pada tahun 2100.   ABSTRACT Semarang is one of coastal city located at Central Java Province. It has flatten topography at coastal area called “downside town” and hilly topography at upper area called “topside town”.  Ownside town was highly vulnerable to sea level rise caused by it’s topographic condition and the land subsidence phenomena. This research conducted to mapeed the inundated area due to sea level rise at many scenarios of sea level rise. The dynamic spatialmodel of sea level rise represented using flash techmology to showed distributed area inundated by sea level rise. The scenario of sea level rise by IPCC prediction was used at this study. The stuty showed that the inundated area increased from 599.4 ha at year 2020 to 4,235.4 ha at 2100.

  14. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  15. Climate Change Impact: The Experience of the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh Affected by Cyclones Sidr and Aila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Kabir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is considered one of the countries most at risk to the effects of climate change and its coastal area is most vulnerable. This study tries to explore the experiences of cyclones Sidr and Aila affected people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study was conducted in the cyclone Sidr affected Amtali Upazila of Barguna District and in the cyclone Aila affected Koyra Upazila of Khulna District. Primary data collection was done using Focus Group Interview and then a thematic analysis approach was used for analysis. Three core themes emerged from the analysis and they are, firstly, impacts of climate change on the socioeconomic condition of the people, secondly, the impact on the health status of the population, and finally the impact on vulnerable people. Findings show that the effects of climate change have serious consequences on the livelihood patterns of the affected population and on their overall health status. As a result, the unfavorable health condition of these affected people makes them more vulnerable to various emerging diseases.

  16. Spatial distribution of cold-season lightning frequency in the coastal areas of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurushima, Daiki; Sakaida, Kiyotaka; Honma, Noriyasu

    2017-12-01

    The coastal areas of the Sea of Japan are a well-known hotspot of winter lightning activity. This study distinguishes between three common types of winter lightning in that region (types A-C), based on their frequency distributions and the meteorological conditions under which they occur. Type A lightning occurs with high frequency in the Tohoku district. It is mainly caused by cold fronts that accompany cyclones passing north of the Japanese islands. Type B, which occurs most frequently in the coastal areas of the Hokuriku district, is mainly caused by topographically induced wind convergence and convective instability, both of which are associated with cyclones having multiple centers. Type C's lightning frequency distribution pattern is similar to that of type B, but its principal cause is a topographically induced wind convergence generated by cold air advection from the Siberian continent. Type A is most frequently observed from October to November, while types B and C tend to appear from November to January, consistent with seasonal changes in lightning frequency distribution in Japan's Tohoku and Hokuriku districts.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP in the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyi Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in population and consumption have raised concerns regarding the sustainability of the current and future use of natural resources. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP provides a useful measure for determining human-derived alterations in the amount of biomass that is available in ecosystems each year. HANPP was calculated based on vegetation modelling, agricultural statistics, and remote sensing data on land use and land cover to assess the human impacts on ecosystems in the coastal areas of Jiangsu, China. The results showed that HANPP increased from 332 g·C/m2/year in 2000 to 442 g·C/m2/year in 2010, with an average annual increase of 2.9%. The proportion of appropriated net primary production increased from 50.3% to 71.0% of NPPpot, mainly driven by HANPPharv (harvested NPP with an increase from 45.2% to 61.3% of NPPpot. Additionally, the spatial variation in average HANPP was striking among counties in the observed period with the lowest and highest values of 21.8% and 63.8% of NPPpot, respectively. Further analysis showed that observed levels of HANPP are high due to a high level of biomass harvest from cropland and the increases in fertilizer use, farmland irrigation rate and population and economic growth explain the trends in HANPP in the coastal areas of Jiangsu.

  18. Climate Change Impact: The Experience of the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh Affected by Cyclones Sidr and Aila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Russell; Khan, Hafiz T A; Ball, Emma; Caldwell, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is considered one of the countries most at risk to the effects of climate change and its coastal area is most vulnerable. This study tries to explore the experiences of cyclones Sidr and Aila affected people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. This study was conducted in the cyclone Sidr affected Amtali Upazila of Barguna District and in the cyclone Aila affected Koyra Upazila of Khulna District. Primary data collection was done using Focus Group Interview and then a thematic analysis approach was used for analysis. Three core themes emerged from the analysis and they are, firstly, impacts of climate change on the socioeconomic condition of the people, secondly, the impact on the health status of the population, and finally the impact on vulnerable people. Findings show that the effects of climate change have serious consequences on the livelihood patterns of the affected population and on their overall health status. As a result, the unfavorable health condition of these affected people makes them more vulnerable to various emerging diseases.

  19. Passive Sampling and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Profiling of French Coastal Areas with a Focus on Marine Biotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendong, Zita; Bertrand, Samuel; Herrenknecht, Christine; Abadie, Eric; Jauzein, Cécile; Lemée, Rodolphe; Gouriou, Jérémie; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp

    2016-08-16

    Passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking: SPATT) are able to accumulate biotoxins produced by microalgae directly from seawater, thus providing useful information for monitoring of the marine environment. SPATTs containing 0.3, 3, and 10 g of resin were deployed at four different coastal areas in France and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Quantitative targeted screening provided insights into toxin profiles and showed that toxin concentrations and profiles in SPATTs were dependent on the amount of resin used. Between the three amounts of resin tested, SPATTs containing 3 g of resin appeared to be the best compromise, which is consistent with the use of 3 g of resin in SPATTs by previous studies. MassHunter and Mass Profiler Professional softwares were used for data reprocessing and statistical analyses. A differential profiling approach was developed to investigate and compare the overall chemical diversity of dissolved substances in different coastal water bodies. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed for spatial differentiation between areas. Similarly, SPATTs retrieved from the same location at early, medium, and late deployment periods were also differentiated by PCA, reflecting seasonal variations in chemical profiles and in the microalgal community. This study used an untargeted metabolomic approach for spatial and temporal differentiation of marine environmental chemical profiles using SPATTs, and we propose this approach as a step forward in the discovery of chemical markers of short- or long-term changes in the microbial community structure.

  20. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes and tsunamis

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    KSR Murthy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of geophysical data of the Eastern Continental Margin of India was taken up to identify the land–ocean tectonic lineaments over the east coast of India and the possible neotectonic activity associated with them. These studies helped in delineating the offshore extension of some of the coastal lineaments. Analysis of magnetic, gravity and shallow seismic data, combined with reported seismicity data, indicates moderate seismicity associated with some of these land–ocean tectonics of the Eastern Continental Margin of India. The coastal/offshore regions of Vizianagaram (north of Visakhapatnam and Ongole of the Andhra Pradesh margin and the Puducherry shelf of the Tamil Nadu margin have been identified as zones of weakness where neotectonic activity has been established. Bathymetry data over the Eastern Continental Margin of India revealed the morphology of the shelf and slope of this margin, which in turn can be used as the baseline data for tsunami surge models. Detailed bathymetry map and sections of the Nagapattinam–Cuddalore shelf (from 10.5° to about 12°N indicate that one of the main reasons for the higher run-up heights and inundation in the Nagapattinam–Cuddalore coast during the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004 could be the concave shape of the shelf with a gentle slope, which might have accelerated the tsunami surge to flush through at a rapid force. Structural control also appears to be a contributing factor for the tsunami surge.

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  2. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  3. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Epidemiologic Patterns of Ross River Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; Toloo, Ghasem (Sam); Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001–December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  5. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

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    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  6. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

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    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  7. The Location of Lake Titicaca's Coastal Area During the Tiwanaku and Inca Periods: Methodology and Strategies of Underwater Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaere, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    For more than 30 years, numerous research projects have revealed the dense and complex human settlement of the lacustrine basin of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia and Peru. Physical evidence of such establishments has been discovered in plains, valleys, and highlands connected to the lake. These remains confirm human occupation and development in this environment, particularly during the Tiwanaku (AD 500-1150) and Inca (AD 1400-1532) Periods. The research project discussed in this paper includes consideration of submerged areas through underwater archaeology. This investigation involves analysis of two areas that have evidence of ancient human occupation but are poorly documented: the coastal and lacustrine regions. Due to its dominance in the landscape, Lake Titicaca has always been a major feature in the life and identity of populations of this vicinity. These inhabitants have developed socio-economic and ritual behaviours directly associated with the lake that have left cultural and material prints that are the foci of the present study.

  8. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  9. Trophic Status of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea: A Comparison of Coastal and Open Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmund, N.; Andrushaitis, A.; Łysiak-Pastuszak, E.; Müller-Karulis, B.; Nausch, G.; Neumann, T.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenina, I.; Postel, L.; Witek, Z.

    2001-12-01

    Primary production, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (incl. chlorophyll a) and water transparency (Secchi depth), are important indicators of eutrophication. Earlier basin-wide primary production estimates for the Baltic Sea, a shallow shelf sea, were based mainly on open-sea data, neglecting the fundamentally different conditions in the large river plumes, which might have substantially higher production. Mean values of the period 1993-1997 of nutrient concentrations (phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and silicate), phytoplankton biomass, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration, turbidity and primary production were calculated in the plumes of the rivers Oder, Vistula and Daugava and Klaipeda Strait as well as the open waters of the Arkona Sea, Bornholm Sea, eastern Gotland Sea and the Gulf of Riga. In the plumes, these values, except for primary production, were significantly higher than in the open waters. N:P ratios in the plumes were >16 (with some exceptions in summer and autumn), indicating potential P-limitation of phytoplankton growth, whereas they were <16 in the open Baltic Proper, indicating potential N-limitation. On the basis of in situ phytoplankton primary production, phytoplankton biomass and nutrient concentrations, the large river plumes and the Gulf of Riga could be characterized as eutrophic and the outer parts of the coastal waters and the open sea as mesotrophic. Using salinity to define the border of the plumes, their mean extension was calculated by means of a circulation model. Taking into account the contribution of coastal waters, the primary production in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Riga was 42·6 and 4·3×10 6 t C yr -1, respectively. Hence, an annual phytoplankton primary production in the whole Baltic Sea was estimated at 62×10 6 t C yr -1. The separate consideration of the plumes had only a minor effect on the estimation of total primary production in comparison with an estimate based on open sea data only. There is

  10. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  11. Evaluation of the Benefit of Flood Reduction by Artificial Groundwater Recharge Lake Operation in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Nuo; Tsai, Chih-Heng

    2017-04-01

    Inundation disasters often occur in the southwestern coastal plains of Taiwan. The coastal plains suffers mostly from land-subsidence, surface water is difficult to be drained during the typhoon period, leading to more severe flood disasters. Global climate warming has become more significant, which in turn has resulted in the increase in amplitude and frequency of climate change related disasters. In addition, climate change also induces a rise in sea water level year by year. The rise in sea water level does not only weakens the function of existing drainage system but also increases tidal levels and storm tide levels, which increases the probability and amount of inundation disasters. The serious land subsidence area at Linbian river basin was selected as the study area. An artificial groundwater recharge lake has been set up in Linbian river basin by Pingtung government. The development area of this lake is 58 hectare and the storage volume is 2.1 million cubic meters (210 × 104m3). The surface water from Linbian basin during a wet season is led into the artificial groundwater recharge lake by water diversion project, and then employ special hydro-geological conditions of the area for groundwater recharge, increase groundwater supply and decrease land subsidence rate, and incidentally some of the flood diversion, detention, reduce flooding. In this study, a Real-time Interactive Inundation Model is applied to simulate different flooding storage volume and gate operations to estimate the benefits of flood mitigation. According to the simulation results, the hydrograph shape, peak-flow reduction and time lag to peak of the flood reduction hydrograph into the lake are apparently different for each case of different gate operation at the same storage volume. Therefore, the effect of flood control and disaster mitigation is different. The flood control and disaster mitigation benefits are evaluated by different operation modes, which provide decision makers to

  12. Genetic diversity of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria and tet(M) genes in two major coastal areas of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germond, Arno; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to analyse the prevalence and genetic diversity of the tet(M) resistance gene as well as the species composition of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria in coastal areas of South Korea. Both culturable and non-culturable bacterial communities were sampled in 2010 and 2011 within two coastal areas (Wando and Geoje). tet(M) and 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained by PCR and sequencing and were used for phylogenetic analyses. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine the prevalence of tet(M) in sampled areas. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high heterogeneity of tet(M) sequences between Wando and Geoje areas. Sequences found in Wando were highly similar to each other and were similar to sequences found in Japanese aquaculture sites. A larger diversity of tet(M) sequences was obtained from natural assemblage in Geoje. qPCR showed a high prevalence of tet(M) in Wando's aquaculture sites (up to 10 -2 gene copies per 16S rRNA copy) and for industrial sites in Geoje (up to 10 -3 gene copies per 16S rRNA copy). 16 rRNA-based identification showed that Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. were the most representative species in Wando, whereas in Geoje a broader range of species was found, with several isolates identified as pathogenic Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Klebsiella. Altogether, these results showed a high prevalence of tet(M) in both sites, and different origins of contamination were identified. Because several pathogenic strains of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria were reported for the first time, these results strongly warrant further analyses and actions to prevent contamination events by antibiotics in South Korea. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  14. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  16. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  17. Impacts of marine debris on wild animals in the coastal area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Jang, Yong Chang; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jong; Han, Donguk; Hong, Sang Hee; Kang, Daeseok; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-01-15

    Over the last decade, marine debris has become a major factor affecting the coastal ecosystem of Korea. This study compiled information regarding how marine debris impacts wildlife in Korea. Cases of marine debris impacting wildlife were collected from experts of various fields and from local participants through an open access website from February 2010 to March 2012. A total of 21 species were affected by marine debris: 18 species of birds, 2 species of mammals, and 1 species of crustacean. Five threatened or protected species were identified: black-faced spoonbill, finless porpoise, water deer, whooper swan, and greater painted snipe. Recreational fishing gears were the types of debris that most frequently impacted wildlife, especially birds. Black tailed gulls were the most vulnerable species to recreational fishing hooks and lines. Although it was preliminary, this study revealed that recreational fishing activities should be prioritized when managing marine debris in Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil and detergent pollution on coastal areas of Dardanelles in 1996-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Kasim Cemal; Ilgar, Rüstü

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The oil and detergent pollution was determined in coastal waters and sediments in Dardanelles at entrance, Gelibolu and Lapseki; at exit, Çanakkale. The max. level of oil pollution in sea water was 154.76 µg/L at the entrance and 76.30 µ/L at the exit in 1996; 429.54 µg/L and 539.10 µg/L respectively in 1997. In sediments 51.13 µg/g at the entrance and 338.76 µg/L at the exit in 1996 and 369.56 µg/L and 339.56 in 1997. In detergent pollution the max.level was 50.51 µg/L at the ...

  19. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  20. Influence of Particle Shape on Drag Coefficient for Commonly Occuring Sandy Particles in Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Arora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A well defined relationship connecting settling velocity with sediment geometry and ambient properties is an essential pre-requisite for coastal and hydraulic engineering studies. An established relationship for settling velocity of sandy particles assuming spherical shape geometry is available in the literature. In reality, the sediment particles need not be spherical at all times, which influences settling velocity that is strongly biased to the drag coefficient. Based on quantitative comparison with measured data collected at Oahu Islands located in the Hawaiian archipelago, USA this work provides a relationship between drag coefficient and particle shape factor for sand grains viz; sand, sandy loam and fine sandy loam typically found in coastal environment (typical size ranges from 0.05 to 2.0 mm. The particle Reynolds number and shape factor are evaluated for each grain. The drag coefficient evaluated as function of nominal diameter and Reynolds number show a positive correlation over a wide range of shape factors used in this study. A comprehensive correlation has been developed of the drag coefficient for non-spherical particles as a function of Reynolds number and particle shape. Further a regression analysis was performed on the functional dependence of drag coefficient on particle shape. Based on this study, it could be advocated the validity of Krumbien shape factor holds well for the above characterized grain size and various particle shapes considered. Hence, the settling velocity of particles has a functional dependence on estimated drag coefficient with important implications for modeling sediment transport and swash zone hydrodynamics.

  1. The university of queensland medical leadership program: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Lynnette; O'Dowd, Corina; Hewett, David G; Schafer, Jennifer; Fracgp, Dranzcog; Wilkinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Changes in modern healthcare's provision, complexity, and workforce demands provide a compelling rationale for an increasing emphasis on leadership development at all levels of training within the medical profession. Undergraduate medical education has traditionally focused on the development of clinical acumen with little emphasis on the development of leadership skills or on the operational and systemic issues surrounding healthcare delivery. Incorporating leadership education and competencies presents a number of challenges to medical schools, including defining the subject area, determining the specific skills and knowledge bases that should constitute the basis of the program, and optimizing training to be integrated into the existing clinical curriculum. We present a case study of the Medical Leadership Program at The University of Queensland School of Medicine that runs concurrent to the undergraduate medical degree. We outline the inception of the program, its aims, participant selection, and program components and reflect on the program to date.

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for special management areas, nature preserves, state/regional parks, and wildlife refuges in New Hampshire. Vector...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for critical habitats, fishery areas, management areas, marine sanctuaries, national forests, national parks, The...

  5. Microbialproperty improvement of saline-alkali soil for vegetable cultivation in Shanghai coastal area and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOU Yiming

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fertility of saline-alkali soil in Shanghai coastal area,and make it suitable for vegetable cultiration,in the study,the saline-alkali soil was mixed with organic fertilizer,and then sprayed with composite microbes,which have the ability of the synergistically degrading organic substrate.The results showed that the saline-alkali soil added with 5∶1 organic fertilizer can rapidly increase the utilization ability soil organic matter.The soil microbial populations and microbial diversity index were significantly improved when applied with the 0.5% composite microbial liquid which containeds 1∶3∶3∶1 of Bacillus licheniformis,Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp.and Sphingomonas sp..At the same time,the enzymology indicators of soil urease,phosphatase,cellulase and catalase increased significantly.The vegetable cultivation experiments showed that:the biomass of Brassica chinensis nearly doubled in the original saline-alkali soil,while the yield of organic fertilizer increased 30.2% after 50 days.The research result on of the biological improvement for saline-alkali soil will have good application value in vegetable planting in coastal saline-alkali soil.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  7. Estimation of residence times of coastal basins in the Laxemar- Simpevarp area between 3000 BC and 9000 AD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (AandI Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The assignment has consisted of computation of the morpho- and bathymetry of the coastal area of Laxemar-Simpevarp for the time period 3000 BC through 9000 AD, in order to estimate the residence times as yearly means of volume-averaged specific age (Average Age, AvA) for water in coastal basins. These basins have been selected as belonging to earlier defined biosphere objects, containing anticipated exit points from possible radionuclides leaking from a hypothetical underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. This endeavor starts with partitioning of the coast into appropriate sub-basins interconnected by straits in an as objective manner as possible. This has been performed in cooperation with Umeaa Univ. followed by the transformation of these hypsographical data to a form that can serve as input data to the employed numerical CouBa-model. This model has been developed to simulate the water exchange of straits between densimetrically stably stratified basins with a free sea level including advection and mixing of water-borne conservative scalar properties, e.g. salinity, heat and specific age. The forcing of the model consists of run-off, wind-induced stress, thermal surface dynamics (heating/cooling) and density fluctuations at the open boundary toward the coastal zone, relative by which the specific water age is calculated For these ambient forcing factors there do not exist sufficiently precise climate data other than for contemporary times. For all other time periods the measured and/or model-computed forcing data regarding 2004 have been used. Estimated AvA-values for the different time periods are thus an expression of sub-basin configuration and hypsographical differences. An overriding directive has been to rather overestimate than underestimate the residence times, as to avoid underestimation of the subsequent dose calculations. The results of these AvA computations, presented as volume averages of yearly means of the sixteen biosphere object

  8. Occurrence of intracellular and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes in coastal areas of Bohai Bay (China) and the factors affecting them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongpeng; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Kai

    2018-01-29

    Coastal areas are the transition zones between ocean and land where intracellular antibiotic resistance genes (iARGs) and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (eARGs) could spread among marine organisms, and between humans and marine organisms. However, little attention has been paid to the combined research on iARGs and eARGs in marine environment. In this context, we collected water and sediment samples from the coastal areas of the Bohai Bay in China and performed molecular and chemical analyses. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) showed that the relative abundance of eARGs was up to 4.3 ± 1.3 × 10 -1 gene copies/16S rRNA copies in the water samples and 2.6 ± 0.3 × 10 -3 gene copies/16S rRNA copies in the sediment samples. Also, the abundance of eARGs was significantly higher than that of iARGs. Furthermore, the average abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, include iARGs and eARGs) were the highest in both the water and sediment samples from the estuaries. The results of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the concentrations of antibiotics in estuaries and areas near the mariculture site were higher than that in the other sites. The class 1 integron gene (int1) and sul1 in the intracellular DNA were significantly correlated in the water samples. Moreover, significant correlation between int1 and sul2 in the extracellular DNA was also found in the sediment samples. The combination of sulfamerazine and tetracycline as well as the combination of sulfamethazine and dissolved oxygen can both explain the abundance of ARGs, implying the combined effects of multiple stresses on ARGs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Community structure of fish larvae in mangroves with different root types in Labuhan coastal area, Sepulu - Madura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Giffari, Aninditha; Saptarini, Dian

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove root complexity and shading are well known to give positive correlation for both juveniles and adult fishes. However, it is remain unclear whether that complexity would affect the community of fish larvae (ichthyoplankton). This study aimed to address the question, especially in mangrove area in coastal area of Sepulu, Madura which projected as a mangrove protection area. Sampling periods were from March to May, 2016. The samples of fish larvae were collected by plankton net (mesh-size 0.150 and 0.265 mm) from six different locations representing different root types (stilt root, pneumatophore, combination of stilt root-pneumatophore and unvegetated area). As the results, 6 families were identified, namely Gobiidae, Blennidae, Pomacentridae, Carangidae, Engraulidae and Ambassidae, respectively. Gobiidae seems to be the most abundant and widely dispersed in the area. Results of two-way AnovadanTukey HSD (both at p=0.05) indicate that there were significant difference in the larval abundance regarding locations, sampling periods and interaction of both factors. As for number of taxa, significant difference occurred only from factors of locations and sampling periods, but not for interaction of both factors. Highest larval abundance and number of taxa occurred in Rhizophoraspp (with stilt root), indicating that root complexity would affect the community of fish larvae. Ordination by canonical analysis shows that different taxa of the fish larvae are tend to be distributed on different locations.

  10. Nested high resolution models for the coastal areas of the North Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Fred; Shapiro, Georgy

    2017-04-01

    Oceanographic processes at coastal scales require much higher horizontal resolution from both ocean models and observations as compared to deep water oceanography. Aside from a few exceptions such as land-locked seas, the hydrodynamics of coastal shallow waters is strongly influenced by the tides, which in turn control the mixing, formation of temperature fronts and other phenomena. The numerical modelling of the coastal domains requires good knowledge of the lateral boundary conditions. The application of lateral boundary conditions to ocean models is a notoriously tricky task, but can only be avoided with global ocean models. Smaller scale regional ocean models are typically nested within global models, and even smaller-scale coastal models may be nested within regional models, creating a nesting chain. However a direct nesting of a very high resolution coastal model into a coarse resolution global model results in degrading of the accuracy of the outputs due to the large difference between the model resolutions. This is why a nesting chain has to be applied, so that every increase in resolution is kept within a reasonable minimum (typically by a factor of 3 to 5 at each step). Global models are traditionally non-tidal, so at some stage of the nesting chain the tides need to be introduced. This is typically done by calculating the tidal constituents from a dedicated tidal model (e.g. TPXO) for all boundary points of a nested model. The tidal elevation at each boundary location can then be calculated from the harmonics at every model time step and the added to the parent model non-tidal SSH. This combination of harmonics-derived tidal SSH and non-tidal parent model SSH is typically applied to the nested domain using the Flather condition, together with the baroclinic velocities from the parent model. The harmonics-derived SSH cannot be added to an SSH signal that is already tidal, so the parent model SSH has to be either detided or taken from a non-tidal model

  11. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  12. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PENGELOLAAN KAWASAN PESISIR KABUPATEN BULELENG MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MINA WISATA BAHARI (Management of Buleleng Coastal Areas Through the Marine Fisheries Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ari Yudasmara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kawasan pesisir Kabupaten Buleleng saat ini telah dimanfaatkan dengan berbagai kegiatan kepariwisataan, akan tetapi kegiatan tersebut masih belum memberikan manfaat yang optimal bagi masyarakat dan memiliki kecenderungan mengalami kejenuhan. Untuk itu, diperlukan suatu pengembangan wisata alternatif yang sesuai dengan kondisi dan potensi sumber daya alam yang ada serta saling bersinergi dengan aktivitas wisata lainnya, seperti contohnya pengembangan mina wisata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menganalisis kondisi dan potensi sumberdaya alam pesisir dan laut, tingkat kesesuaian kawasan pesisir Buleleng dalam menunjang pengembangan mina wisata dan menghasilkan model aktivitas mina wisata di kawasan pesisir Buleleng yang terpadu dan berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kesesuaian kawasan dengan rancangan penelitiannya berupa survei lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pesisir Kabupaten Buleleng apabila dilihat dari kondisi dan potensi sumberdaya alamnya masih mampu untuk mendukung aktivitas mina wisata dengan tingkat kesesuaian kawasan berdasarkan indeks kesesuaian wisata, yaitu pesisir Buleleng timur terkategori cukup sesuai (76,92, pesisir Buleleng tengah terkategori cukup sesuai (61,53 dan pesisir Buleleng barat terkategori sangat sesuai (87,17. Rencana model mina wisata yang dapat dikembangkan antara lain pesisir Buleleng timur adalah mina wisata budidaya laut (ikan hias dan karang dan mina wisata perikanan tangkap (pemancingan dan spearfishing adventures, pesisir Buleleng tengah adalah mina wisata budidaya laut (rumput laut dan mina wisata perikanan tangkap (pemancingan dan spearfishing adventures, dan pesisir Buleleng barat adalah mina wisata budidaya laut (rumput laut, Bandeng, Kerapu, Mutiara, ikan hias dan karang dan mina wisata perikanan tangkap (pemancingan dan spearfishing adventures.    ABSTRACT Buleleng coastal area has been used for various tourism activities, however, the activities

  14. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  15. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments of Al-Khobar area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Talal; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2017-05-01

    An assessment of marine pollution due to heavy metals was made to coastal sediments collected from Al-Khobar coastline, in the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia by analyzing of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mo, Sr, Se, As, Fe, Co and Ni using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results indicated that the distribution of most metals was largely controlled by inputs of terrigenous material and most strongly associated with distribution of Al in sediments. In general Sr, Cr, Zn, Cu, V, Hg, Mo and Se show severe enrichment factors. Average values of Cu and Hg highly exceed the ERL and the Canadian ISQG values. Average Ni was higher than the ERL and the ERM values. The severe enrichment of some metals in the studied sediment could be partially attributed to anthropogenic activities, notably oil spills from exploration, transportation and from saline water desalination plants in Al-Khobar coast, and other industrial activities in the region.

  16. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  17. Development and application of an oil spill model with wave-current interactions in coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, WeiJun; Hao, Yanni; Zhang, Li; Xu, Tiaojian; Ren, Xiaozhong; Cao, Feng; Wang, Shoudong

    2014-07-15

    The present paper focuses on developing a numerical oil spill model that incorporates the full three-dimensional wave-current interactions for a better representation of the spilled oil transport mechanics in complicated coastal environments. The incorporation of surface wave effects is not only imposing a traditional drag coefficient formulation at the free surface, but also the 3D momentum equations are adjusted to include the impact of the vertically dependent radiation stresses on the currents. Based on the current data from SELFE and wave data from SWAN, the oil spill model utilizes oil particle method to predict the trajectory of individual droplets and the oil concentration. Compared with the observations in Dalian New Port oil spill event, the developed model taking into account wave-current coupling administers to giving better conformity than the one without. The comparisons demonstrates that 3D radiation stress impacts the spill dynamics drastically near the sea surface and along the coastline, while having less impact in deeper water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioprospecting marine actinomycetes for multidrug-resistant pathogen control from Rameswaram coastal area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaab, Femina; Subramaniam, Kalidass

    2017-08-07

    A potent Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 was isolated for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A total of 131 actinomycetes were isolated from the Rameswaram coastal region, Tamil Nadu, India. Among 131 actinomycetes, maximum number of actinomycetes (55%) isolated at the distance of 3-6 m from seashore. Out of 131 actinomycetes, 85% of the actinomycetes exhibited different degree of antagonistic activity against test pathogens. The antagonistic activity evaluated using actinomycetes direct culture filtrate and culture filtrate extracts. Among these culture filtrate, extracts had supreme antagonistic activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and the solvent ethyl acetate was the best for extracting secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. In HPTLC analysis, the presence of macrolides, terpenoids, and quinolones was identified in RAM25C4 extract. In GC-MS analysis, various potent compounds such as phenolic compound-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, alkaloid compound-1H, 5H, pyrrolo (1' 2':3, 4) imidazo, and quinolone compound-1,4-benzenediol, 2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) were identified in the ethyl acetate extract of RAM25C4. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence of RAM25C4 isolate was deposited in NCBI with name Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 and accession number KM513543.

  19. Coastal upwelling in Gelendzhik area of the Black sea: wind and dynamics influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrova, Ksenia

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the results of upwelling observations at the coastal zone of the Black Sea near Gelendzhik city. The long series of water temperature (thermochain from 6 to 18 m) were analyzed. The events of full and incomplete upwelling were selected. 5 events from 45 referred to the full upwelling. Under termocline water with a temperature of less than 10° C was observed near the surface. In order to analyze upwelling causes the wind speed from NCEP/CFSR reanalysis and data of the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) over the period 2013-2015 (mostly warm season) were used. Special upwelling cryteria that consideres wind stress, local baroclinic Rossby radius and thickness of upper mixed layer was calculated. This cryteria allow to estimate role of the wind forcing. Conditions precedent change of the thermal structure are analyzed for each of the upwelling events. It is found that full upwelling preceded by a steady long (more than 2 days) northwest wind. Most of all fixed upwelling events (40%) happened with the synergetic effect of wind and currents. There is also a possibility of local rise of cold waters in submesoscale eddies and advection of these waters with current - such event of full upwelling was recorded in June 2015. This work was supported by Russian Science Founding, grant № 14-17-00382.

  20. Relationships Between Perceived Coastal Waterway Condition and Social Aspects of Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie E. Cox

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the presence of natural areas is beneficial to human well-being. However, to date there have been few published studies of the effects that the condition of natural areas have on well-being. We hypothesize that coastal waterways that are perceived to be in better condition are visited more often by local residents, and as a result, residents will develop a stronger sense of place and stronger social relations with other residents, which will in turn lead to a higher quality of life. A survey was conducted to test this hypothesis in two coastal regions in Queensland, Australia. A weak relationship was found between perceived coastal quality and the number of recreational visits. In both study areas, frequency of visits to coastal waterways was significantly related to quality of life through an increased sense of place and social contacts. In the Douglas region, sense of place and social capital were closely related, and social capital was also related to quality of life. In both study areas, residents were most likely to visit waterways that were located in close proximity to their residence, suggesting that management of all waterways is essential for human well-being, and that benefits to humans will result from rehabilitating degraded waterways.

  1. [Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants and sludge disposal in Chinese coastal areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Chen, Hong; Yu, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Li-Jun; Han, Jian-Bo; Tao, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Thirteen sludge samples from Guangzhou, Shanghai and Dalian were collected and analysed for heavy metals to investigate the distribution and variation trend of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chinese coastal areas. The results showed that contents of heavy metals in sludge varied significantly, and the average contents exhibited an order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Additionally, contents of Cr, Cu and As exceeded their corresponding standard levels. Compared with contents of heavy metals in 2006 and 2001, content of Zn in sludge increased while contents of Cr, Cu and As decreased. Results also indicated that the industrial sludge was more seriously polluted than domestic sludge in terms of Zn, Cu and As. Only 23% sludge samples exceeded the standards for fertilization of sludge, suggesting that most of the sludge could be disposed by land application. These results also provide further information about the establishment of ocean disposal assessment for sludge.

  2. Biomarker responses in mudskipper (Periophthalmus waltoni) from the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf with oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Mehrnoosh; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    A suite of 5 different biomarker responses were selected and measured in 3 different phases of detoxification process in mudskipper Periophthalmus waltoni from 3 different stations including Soltani Inlet, Shif Island and Ameri Port in Bushehr coastal area of the Persian Gulf. The selected biomarkers were 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), DNA damage using the Comet assay and micronucleus (MN). Spatial variations in biomarker responses were observed in different sites. EROD, GST, FACs, DNA damage and MN were significantly elevated in mudskippers in the most oil impacted site (Soltani inlet). Based on the assessments, bile metabolites, EROD and GST induction appear to be sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can be considered as complementary biomarkers; therefore P. waltoni has the potential to be used as a bioindicator in these types of ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Yangtze estuary and Zhejiang coastal areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing-Lin; Fang, Jie; Shao, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Bei

    2015-03-01

    PAHs contents of surface sediments were tested from 62 sampling sites of the Yangtze River estuary and Zhejiang coastal zone in 2013. The results showed that: 16 kinds of PAHs, which are listed as priority pollutants by EPA, were found in all the samples. The total PAHs level (dry weight) reached 31. 8-384 μg x kg(-1) and the average amount was 131.1 μg x kg(-1). The distribution of PAHs was affected by terrigenous input and point source pollution, the high-value zones were found at 2# sampling site of the Yangtze River estuary and 21# sampling site of Ningbo. Compared with other sea areas, the survey sea area was at a low PAHs pollution level. PAHs were primarily tetracyclic or tricyclic, and source analysis showed that most of PAHs were originated from combustion of wood and coal. Based on the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the assessment result showed that the PAHs content of surface sediments from survey sea area was at a relatively low level of ecological risk; While according to the assessment result of the Sediment Quality Standards (SQSs), PAHs pollution of surface sediments from survey sea area displayed an "Obviously negative ecological effect" to some extent, and some countermeasures are required to control and eliminate pollutions.

  4. Phylogeography of the Red Algal Laurencia Complex in the Macaronesia Region and Nearby Coastal Areas: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Machín-Sánchez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the conception of the genus Laurencia by Lamouroux in 1813, several red macroalgal species have been included in it. In recent decades, the development of modern molecular tools has resulted in multiple taxonomic modifications, and presently, eight related genera are recognized in the so-called Laurencia complex. In the Macaronesian Region (Central East Atlantic Ocean, species from the Laurencia complex are keystone elements of the benthic communities, especially in the intertidal zone. In this review, we consolidate the existing knowledge about the Laurencia complex within the Macaronesian archipelagos and nearby areas. Morphological descriptions and phylogeographic remarks of the 16 currently accepted species—whose records were molecular or morphologically confirmed—are included together with an identification key for the Macaronesian Region. The phylogeographic data allowed us to re-visit the role of the Macaronesian archipelagos as a bridge area for the marine flora of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas (remnants of the former Thetyan Sea or contemplate their marine flora as the result of successive processes of recolonization after the Quaternary glaciations from those donor areas. Finally, some comments about the frontiers of the research in the Laurencia complex in the Macaronesian Region and nearby coastal areas are included.

  5. Effects of rainfall and salinity increase on prevalence of vector mosquitoes in coastal areas of Alappuzha district, Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R; Nikhil, T L

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal abundance patterns for Japanese encephalitis vectors along climatic variations were studied in the coastal areas of Alappuzha district from June 2012 to May 2013. A total of 10563 female mosquitoes belonging to eleven species were collected. Culex gelidusTheobald (50.04%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles (26.50%), and Cx. sitiens Wiedemann (7.55%) were found to be most common in these areas. Cx. sitiens females were collected from each sampling occasion from early monsoon season June to late summer May with a distinct peak in April at 7.18 electrical conductivity (EC). Cx. sitiens abundance increased rapidly when monthly salinity level consistently exceeded 7.76, occurring in March at 7.76 and April at 7.18 electrical conductivity (EC). While analyzing correlation of Cx. sitiens density with salinity and rainfall was significant. High density of Cx. gelidus was greatly influenced by total rainfall and it was found to be significantly correlated with Per Man Hour (PMH) (P areas may develop in to brackish and saline water populated by Cx. sitiens, which can be new vectors for Japanese encephalitis or West Nile virus in these areas.

  6. Water-resources data network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 2, northern and coastal areas of Monterey County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, W.E.; Smith, P.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Schluter, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of water- resources data-collection networks in the northern and coastal areas of Monterey County, California. This evaluation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Monterey County Flood Control and Water Conservation District to evaluate precipitation, surface water, and ground water monitoring networks. This report describes existing monitoring networks in the study areas and areas where possible additional data-collection is needed. During this study, 106 precipitation-quantity gages were identified, of which 84 were active; however, no precipitation-quality gages were identified in the study areas. The precipitaion-quantity gages were concentrated in the Monterey Peninsula and the northern part of the county. If the number of gages in these areas were reduced, coverage would still be adequate to meet most objectives; however, additional gages could improve coverage in the Tularcitos Creek basin and in the coastal areas south of Carmel to the county boundary. If collection of precipitation data were expanded to include monitoring precipitation quality, this expanded monitoring also could include monitoring precipitation for acid rain and pesticides. Eleven continuous streamflow-gaging stations were identified during this study, of which seven were active. To meet the objectives of the streamflow networks outlined in this report, the seven active stations would need to be continued, four stations would need to be reactivated, and an additional six streamflow-gaging stations would need to be added. Eleven stations that routinely were sampled for chemical constituents were identified in the study areas. Surface water in the lower Big Sur River basin was sampled annually for total coli- form and fecal coliform bacteria, and the Big Sur River was sampled monthly at 16 stations for these bacteria. Routine sampling for chemical constituents also was done in the Big Sur River basin. The Monterey County Flood

  7. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  8. Numerical model on the flow dynamics around the sediment-water interface in the tidal coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Zhu, Liangsheng; Zhang, Shanju

    2017-07-01

    Investigating flow dynamics around the sediment-water interface is one of difficult issues in marine environment. It has important significance to study the physical, chemical and biological activities between the overlying water and sedimentary layer with tidal forcing. In this study, we established a numerical model to investigate the flow dynamics around the sediment-water interface in the tidal coastal area. The model reflected the hydrodynamics of periodic reciprocating unsteady flow in the overlying water layer and the fully coupled simulation of flow movement between the overlying water layer and sedimentary layer. A sedimentary layer, an overlying water layer, and an air layer were all treated as the fluid zone. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, and the Reynolds stress model with porosity, were solved by the finite volume method. Moreover, the drag source term in the momentum equation was modified as the Darcy-Forchheimer extended form. The model showed a strong performance in simulating the hydrodynamics of coupled flow around the sediment-water interface with tidal forcing in a coastal area. With considering the sedimentary layer, the benthic boundary layer velocity distributions were more accurate than those obtained by a wall function model. Around the sediment-water interface, there was inertial loss in the flow. Furthermore, velocity increased with increasing porosity, and velocity gradient became larger. Compared with models with Darcy's Law, the numerical model in this study had better performance in the turbulent characteristics of sediment-water interface layer. The model can lead to better understanding of the exchange mechanisms of oxygen, nitrogen and nutrient between overlying water and sediment.

  9. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  10. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  11. Evaluating contamination of dredges and disposal criteria in Greek coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotsinidis, Michalis; Sazakli, Eleni

    2008-06-01

    Sediments were collected from areas that were going to be dredged located at six small Greek ports, as well as from possible disposal areas. In order to assess the contamination level of dredged material, the samples were analysed for pH, organic matter, the metals Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and major organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs). The sediments' quality was evaluated by two approaches: (i) by classifying each area according to two sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and (ii) by calculating the contamination factors and degree for each area. The results showed that organic compounds were detected in trace amounts in 14% of the port samples belonging to the PAHs group. The characterization of the sediment samples was based on the metals' concentration showing that the majority of the areas to be dredged (80%) are classified as of medium-low contamination according to the SQGs. However, according to the contamination degree, only 30% of the areas are classified as of low contamination, while 40% as of moderate contamination and 30% of the areas as of considerable contamination. From the point of view of "no disturbance" of the ecosystem, decisions about dumping should be taken only after evaluating the material to be dredged. If the SQGs are exceeded, dumping must be forbidden. Otherwise, further evaluation is needed based on the comparison with the receiving area, i.e. by estimating the contamination degree. Dumping could be allowed if the contamination degree is found to be below moderate.

  12. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  13. Ethical dilemmas confronting dentists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S A T; Grey, W L

    2002-09-01

    This paper details contemporary ethical dilemmas encountered by Queensland dentists. An age-stratified sample of 499 dentists resident in Queensland was surveyed. The questionnaire contained scenarios of five common ethical dilemmas. In addition, open-ended questions sought the respondent's most frequent, difficult and recent ethical dilemmas, and where they would seek guidance in dealing with ethical problems. Respondents acknowledged the patient's rights in treatment decisions and the dentist's right to refuse demands for inappropriate treatment. However, responses varied in the extent to which dentists may influence treatment decisions. Few respondents would ignore evidence of poor dental treatment but they are evenly divided in choosing to inform the patient, the dentist or both. Poor quality treatment is the most frequent and difficult dilemma, and half have experienced this problem recently. Requests by patients for fraudulent receipts occur in a third of responses. Dentists develop ethical values from multiple sources but for help with dental ethical problems, 90 per cent of respondents would consult another dentist. Of the ethical dilemmas discussed in this survey, those relating to poor quality treatment confronted most respondents. Also the actions of dentists in dealing with these dilemmas were most varied.

  14. Suicide by motor vehicle "accident" in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; De Leo, D

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, a substantial proportion of motor vehicle crash deaths are recognized as "hidden" suicides. This project sought to progress understandings of drivers who used a motor vehicle to die by suicide in Queensland, Australia, during the period 1990 to 2007. Data for this study were derived from the Queensland Suicide Register and forensic crash investigation case records. Analysis focused on life circumstances and events preceding the death, physical and mental illnesses, past suicidality, and indication of suicide intent (e.g., suicide notes or statements). Compared to cases using other methods, confirmed driver suicides were more likely to be males aged between 25 and 44 years who were employed at the time of death. A large proportion of driver suicides had consumed alcohol immediately prior to the crash and experienced a number of life events, including relationship conflict, legal or criminal issues, and financial problems. These exploratory results indicate the need to educate crash investigators about the characteristics of those who use a motor vehicle to die. Improving the information available on the mental and physical health and background life-related factors of crash victims can help coroners and researchers determine whether these deaths were intentional. Further investigation is needed in order to formulate intervention strategies for those who may be vulnerable to driver suicide.

  15. Integration of remote sensing and ground-based techniques for the study of land degradation phenomena in coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Coluzzi, Rosa; Calamita, Giuseppe; Luigia Giannossi, Maria; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria; Makris, John; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Santini, Federico; Margiotta, Salvatore; Emanuela Bonomo, Agnese; De Martino, Gregory; Perrone, Angela; Rizzo, Enzo; Pignatti, Stefano; Summa, Vito; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation processes, such as salinization and waterlogging, are increasingly affecting extensive areas devoted to agriculture threatening the sustainability of farming practices. Soil salinization typically appears as an excess accumulation of salt generally pronounced at the soil surface. Commonly, soil salinity is defined and measured by means of laboratory measurements of the electrical conductivity of liquid extracted from saturated soil-paste or different soil-water suspensions. Lab measurements are generally time consuming, costly, destructive, untimely for practical situations where the determination of the causes and/or the assessment of management practices are of interest. Recently, emerging survey techniques proved to be powerful tools to support soil salinity appraisal reducing costs and increasing the amount of spatial information. In the frame of PRO-LAND project (PO-FESR Basilicata 2007-2013) the research activities have been focused on the study of a complex salinization phenomenon occurring in a coastal environment of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy) as a result of natural and anthropic disturbances. The study area is located in the southernmost part of the Bradanic Trough along the sandy Ionian coastal plain. The hydrogeological conditions affect shallowness of the aquifer (45-50 cm below the ground) allowing the occurrence of seawater intrusion. Moreover, during last century, human activities, i.e. built-up of dams, the emergence of farms and industries, played a relevant role in the alteration of soil and groundwater quality of the area. In this work, both ground-based and remote sensing data were used. First, a geophysical mapping of electrical conductivity was carried out using a multi-frequency portable electro-magnetic induction (EMI) sensor. Based on the geophysical mapping and on optimization sampling approach, a number of locations were identified to collect soil samples for the geomineralogical characterization. Airborne

  16. High-frequency atmospherically-induced oscillations in the middle Adriatic coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vilibić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial characteristics of the resonant coupling between travelling air pressure disturbances and the middle Adriatic coastal waters are examined using a barotropic numerical model for a one year period (July 2000–July 2001. The model is forced by the travelling air pressure disturbances reconstructed from the 2-min resolution air pressure series measured at Split. Six experiments for the studied period are performed, in order to analyse the influence of the speed and disturbance direction on the resonant coupling. The first group of three experiments uses variable disturbance direction, whereas in the second three, a constant direction is employed during the whole experiment. Disturbance direction for the first group of experiments is computed from the 500-mb geopotential data provided by European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF, as it is found that all of the past extreme events are correlated with them. Each experiment, with variable and constant disturbance direction, is repeated with three different constant values of 10, 20 and 30 m/s for the disturbance speed. The model verification on the Split sea level data reveals that the model reproduces most of the events but also overestimates/underestimates some of them and creates some false events due to the rigid assumption of a constant disturbance speed. The best agreement with data is obtained in the model runs assuming a disturbance speed of 20 m/s. A number of trapped and edge waves have been modelled at the constrictions and along the coast, in particular on a shoal that lies off Split perpendicular to the channel axis. The importance of the disturbance direction to the energy content is highlighted, particularly close to the shore, where the difference may be significant at 2–3 times on average, up to 30 cm in maximum amplitude.

  17. Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mollusks from Chinese coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Yanwei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and PBDEs were determined in three mollusk species collected from three Chinese coastal regions in 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The dominant MeO- and OH-PBDEs isomers detected in mollusks were 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-68, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 2'-OH-BDE-68. Concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs ranged from 9.20 to 2090pgg(-1) dry weight (mean: 450pgg(-1) dry weight). Concentrations of ΣOH-PBDEs ranged from 118 to 2540pgg(-1) dry weight (mean: 534pgg(-1) dry weight). Species differences in accumulation were found for the three mollusk species. Spatial distribution showed that OH- and MeO-PBDEs levels were higher in Weihai than in Tianjin. The temporal trends of OH- and MeO-PBDEs in mollusks were studied during period of 2007 to 2011, rising of ΣOH-PBDEs in Rap from Penglai and Ost from Weihai and declining of ΣMeO-PBDEs in Ost in Penglai were observed. Significant correlations were found between OH- and MeO-PBDEs, but neither between PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, nor between PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, suggesting that OH- and MeO-PBDEs may have a common source or similar accumulation behavior in mollusks. OH- and MeO-PBDEs were likely not to originate from PBDE precursors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-analytical methodology to diagnose the environmental impact suffered by building materials in coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Cardiano, Paola; Diez-Garcia, Marta; Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Kortazar, Leire; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This work is focused on the development of an innovative multi-analytical methodology to estimate the impact suffered by building materials in coastal environments. With the aim of improving the in situ spectroscopic assessment, which is often based on XRF and Raman spectrometers, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was implemented in the diagnosis study. In this way, the additional benefits from DRIFT were compared to the usual in situ analyses of building materials, which often have interferences from fluorescence and reststrahlen effects. The studies were extended to the laboratory scale by μ-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) cross-section mapping and ion chromatography (IC), and the IC quantitative data were employed to develop thermodynamic models using the ECOS-RUNSALT program, with the aim of rationalizing the behavior of soluble salts with variations in the temperature and the relative humidity (RH). The multi-analytical methodology allowed identification of the most significant weathering agents and classification of the severity of degradation according to the salt content. The suitability of a DRIFT portable device to analyze these types of matrices was verified. Although the Kramers-Kronig algorithm correction proved to be inadequate to decrease the expected spectral distortions, the assignment was successfully performed based on the secondary bands and intensification of the overtones and decreased the time needed for in situ data collection. In addition, the pollutants' distribution in the samples and the possible presence of dangerous compounds, which were not detected during the in situ analysis campaigns, provided valuable information to clarify weathering phenomena.

  19. How quickly do High Arctic coastal environments respond to rapid deglaciation and the paraglacial transformation of proglacial areas? - Answers from Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Matt; Long, Antony; Lloyd, Jerry; Zagórski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The coastal zone is one of the most important storage systems for sediments that are eroded and transported by rivers, wind and slope processes from deglacierised valleys and proglacial areas before reaching their final sediment sink (fjords or the open sea. The Svalbard archipelago provides an excellent location to quantify how High Arctic coasts are responding to climate warming and the associated paraglacial landscape transformations. In this paper we summarize the results of several coastal surveys carried out by our research teams along the paraglacial coasts of Spitsbergen during the last decade. We reconstruct the post-Little Ice Age development of selected coastlines in Spitsbergen to illustrate the variable coastal response to paraglacial and periglacial processes activated following the recent retreat of glaciers. Our surveys use aerial photogrammetric and GIS analyses, sedimentological classification of coastal deposits and field-based geomorphological mapping in Kongsfjorden, Billefjorden, Bellsund, Hornsund and Sørkappland. Our results document dramatic changes in sediment flux and coastal response under intervals characterized by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and thawing permafrost. The study highlights the need for a greater understanding of the controls on High Arctic coastal geomorphology, especially given the potential for future accelerated warming and sea-level rise.

  20. Dialysis in public and private hospitals in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N A; Dent, H; McDonald, S P

    2012-08-01

    Clinical outcomes for patients treated in public and private hospitals may be different. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving dialysis at public and private hospitals in Queensland. Incident adult dialysis patients in Queensland registered with the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1999 and 2009 were classified by dialysis modality at either a public or private hospital. Outcomes were dialysis patient characteristics and survival. Three thousand, three hundred and ten patients commenced dialysis in public hospitals, 1939 haemodialysis (HD) and 1371 peritoneal dialysis (PD). Seven hundred and ninety-three patients commenced dialysis in private hospitals, 757 HD and 36 PD. Compared with public HD, private HD patients were older, had more coronary artery disease and less diabetes, and were more likely to live in an urban area. Public HD patients were more likely to be obese and referred late to a nephrologist. Nearly all indigenous patients were managed in public hospitals. Private patients were more likely to have an arteriovenous fistula or graft at first HD (P < 0.001) but not after excluding late referrals (P = 0.09). Public hospitals provided longer HD sessions and more HD hours per week for all age groups except 75+ years. Compared with public hospital HD, patient survival adjusted for multiple variables was comparable for private hospital HD (hazard ratio 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.46, P = 0.07)) but worse for public PD (hazard ratio 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.24, P = 0.002)). Private HD patients are older and less likely to be diabetic than public patients. Patient survival is worse for public PD than public HD. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted into Queensland RSPCA Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Paterson, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An up-to-date and comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters is required for implementing targeted strategies to reduce euthanasia of healthy and treatable dogs in Australia. Currently, there are few up-to-date Australian data published on dogs entering shelters, and their outcomes. Of dogs entering the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland shelters in 2014, the majority (58%) were strays and 26% were puppies. Only 18% of dogs >6 months were desexed. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%). Strategies targeted to locations and breeds overrepresented by admissions are required to reduce shelter admissions, particularly of strays and unwanted litters. Abstract Over 200,000 stray and surrendered dogs are admitted to shelters and municipal facilities in Australia each year, and approximately 20% are euthanized. Contemporary, comprehensive data on the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters are required to reduce shelter admissions and euthanasia. However, there are currently limited up-to-date data published on dog admission into shelters. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the dog population entering Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland (RSPCA-QLD) shelters in 2014 (n = 11,967). The majority of dog admissions were strays from the public (24%) or from municipal councils (34%). Just over a quarter of admissions were puppies, 18% of adults (>6 months) were desexed, and the majority of admissions were crossbred dogs (92%). The majority of owner surrenders (86%) were due to human-related reasons. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%) and aggression was the most common reason for euthanasia of adult dogs (45%). Low-cost or free desexing and identification programs targeted to areas and breeds contributing to high intake, and increased support services for owners at

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Refuges, and...

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography--Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey and New York, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of a portion of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey and New York was...

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery--Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore was produced from...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for designated critical habitats, essential habitats, management areas, marine sanctuaries, National Park Service properties,...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of Coast Guard facilities; management areas; marinas; marine sanctuaries; national forests; national, regional, and state parks;...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, Management Areas, National Forests, National Park Service properties, Parks, and...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of managed properties including: Critical Habitats, Management Areas, Marine Sanctuaries, National Parks, Nature Conservancy lands,...

  11. The Evaluation of Facilitation Process in Building Community Capacity about OVOP Concept in Kenjeran Coastal Area, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayeni, K. D. M. E.; Santoso, E. B.; Siswanto, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    The concept of One Village One Product (OVOP) is an approach to the development potential of the area in the region to produce products that can compete in the global market, while still having unique characteristics of the area. Bulak District is one of the Kenjeran coastal area in Surabaya, Indonesia. Bulak District has had a great potential of marine products, but still contribute greatly in improving the people's welfare. Total activities of SMEs in the District of Bulak quite a lot, but the resulting product unknown to the wider community and the global marketplace. Activity of facilitation for SMEs society do to build community capacity in the implementation of the concept of OVOP. Based on the results of the evaluation assistance through Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test result an increased understanding of the community regarding to the five subjects related OVOP concept. There are six factors to note in mentoring activities that need to be considered for the sustainability of community capacity building programs on OVOP.

  12. Numerical Analysis of the Soil Deformation Caused by Tunneling under Vehicle Loads in the Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of tunneling induced soil deformation is an important issue in the design of tunnels constructed in the densely populated urban areas. In this paper, commercial FEM software 3D ABAQUS is adopted to simulate the behavior of soil caused by tunneling under vehicle loads in the coastal reclamation area. A field case study was also carried out to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. A good agreement was achieved. It is also found from the studies that the areas affected by soil deformation can be classified into four zones: the key disturbed zone, the secondary disturbed zone, the general disturbed zone, and minor-disturbed zone. The maximum soil deformation occurs on side of the longitudinal medial axis of the tunnel. The shape of the settlement curve is almost the same as that of the normal distribution curve. The soil deformation in the action zone of vehicle load is greater than that of the nonaction zone of vehicle load.

  13. A benefit cost analysis on management strategies for Queensland Fruit Fly: methods and observations

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Sallyann; Fisher, Bill; Larson, Kristoffer; Malcolm, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Queensland Fruit Fly (QFF) — Bactrocera tryoni — poses a significant threat to horticultural production in Victoria causing losses of fruit and jeopardising access to interstate and international markets. The Victorian Government implements and largely funds an area freedom program to manage QFF. Concern about the record number of outbreaks in 2007-08 and the escalating costs of maintaining the current management regime, led the Victorian Department of Primary Industries to review the pro...

  14. Association between patient age, geographical location, Indigenous status and hospitalisation for oral and dental conditions in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam; Bradford, Natalie; Meurer, Maria; Smith, Anthony

    2016-07-15

    A retrospective analysis of hospitalisation due to oral and dental conditions (ODC) was performed for patients in Queensland. The aim was to identify the rate and cost of hospitalisation and to examine the association between hospitalisation and age, geographical location and Indigenous status. There were 81528 admissions to Queensland's hospitals due to ODC during the 3-year study period (2011-2013). The annual cost of ODC-related hospitalisation was estimated to be AU$87million. Indigenous infants (Z=4.08, PIndigenous counterparts. A non-Indigenous high school child was almost fourfold more likely to be hospitalised. There was no significant difference in the rate of hospitalisation for adults. Infants (Z=6.70, Pcare to service remote areas of Queensland and Indigenous populations. Strategies that enable Indigenous Health Workers to provide dental care, and the use of teledentistry, are models of care that may reduce potentially preventable hospitalisations and lead to cost savings and better health outcomes.

  15. Spatial Analysis of Potentially Preventable Pneumonia and Asthma Hospitalizations for Children in the Texas Coastal Bend Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na

    Pneumonia and asthma, two common Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs), were two top reasons for the admission of children to the hospitals and emergency rooms in the United States in 2011. Pneumonia and asthma are potentially preventable if the child's environment is properly managed. Underlying vulnerabilities such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and proximity to air pollution play an important role in ACSCs hospitalization. Pneumonia and asthma are two common reasons for hospitalizations among children and missed school days in Texas Coastal Bend Area. This thesis examines the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, meteorological conditions and children ACSCs hospitalization, including pneumonia and asthma among children age 0-17 in this area. Hospital discharge data from 2007 to 2009 based on Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) were examined along with American Community Survey (ACS) data, air pollution data from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and temperature data from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Hotspot and Local Moran's I analyses were applied to identify the concentrations of the illnesses. Two regressions (OLS and GWR) were applied to identify factors that contribute the most to ACSCs hospitalization. Pearson's correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between meteorological condition and child hospitalization for asthma and pneumonia. A human subject survey was conducted to examine the relationships between neighborhood environment and children asthma cases. The main finding was that children from families with health insurance, children from single father families and children from poor families were more likely to visit hospital for ACSCs and pneumonia care. "Hispanic families" and especially "Hispanic families with father but no mother" also contributed most to child hospitalization for ACSCs and pneumonia, suggesting that family preventative health care education is needed for Hispanic

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability of appendicularian density and taxonomic composition in the Caravelas Estuary (Northeastern Brazil and adjacent coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Freitas de Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the seasonal and spatial variations of the appendicularians in the Caravelas River estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Samples were taken during 12 campaigns over five years (2001 and 2003-2006. Ten species were identified; the most abundant were Oikopleura dioica, Oikopleura rufescens, and Oikopleura longicauda. These species represented more than 95% of the total numbers of appendicularians. The remaining species were less frequent and occurred in low densities. The mean density of appendicularians found at the coastal stations (804 ind.m-3. was higher than in the estuary (66 ind.m-3. However, the differences observed between the estuary and coastal stations were not significant (p=0.54. The samples taken during the dry season showed a higher mean density (587 ind.m-3 than in the rainy season (376 ind.m-3, and the differences between the seasons were statistically significant (p=0.004.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e avaliar as variações espaciais e sazonais das apendiculárias no estuário do rio Caravelas e área costeira adjacente (17º35' - 18º22' S e 39º8' - 39º55'W. As coletas foram realizadas em 12 campanhas durante cinco anos (2001 e 2003 - 2006. Foram identificadas dez espécies, sendo que Oikopleura dioica, O. rufescens e O. longicauda foram as mais abundantes. Estas três espécies representaram mais de 95% do total de apendiculárias coletadas. As outras espécies foram menos freqüentes e ocorreram em baixas densidades. A densidade média de apendiculárias encontrada nas estações e costeiras (804 ind.m-3 foi maior que na de estuário (158 ind.m-3. As diferenças encontradas entre as estações de estuário e costeiras não foram significativas (p=0,73. As campanhas realizadas durante o período seco apresentaram densidade média (587 ind.m-3 maior que do período chuvoso (376 ind.m-3. As diferenças entre os períodos chuvoso e seco foram estatisticamente

  17. Comparison of Sea Floor Character in Two Areas Mapped by the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    Since the California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) began in 2008 multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data have been acquired in all mainland State Waters (shoreline to 3 nautical miles). As of this writing a suite of map products derived from the data has been published for 22 of the network of 83 CSCMP map blocks along the mainland coast. These publications provide the first opportunity to contrast physical habitats in different areas; here we compare the seafloor character in a set of 6 blocks along the mainland coast of the Santa Barbara Channel (Hueneme Canyon to Refugio Beach), with that of a similarly sized subset of blocks along the more energetic coast of Northern California (Salt Point to Drakes Bay). Seafloor character, one of the products being produced for the CSCMP, is a raster with a small number of substrate classes (soft-flat, hard-flat, and hard-rugose) designed for inclusion in multi-variant analysis of fisheries data that include visual observations of substrate type. Seafloor character is derived with bottom-video supervised maximum likelihood classification of MBES backscatter intensity data and vector ruggedness derived from the MBES bathymetry data. Typically areas of fine-grained sand and mud with infauna occupy the soft-flat areas, hard-flat areas are a mix of low-relief coarse sediment and flat bedrock pavement with sparse epifauna, and hard-rugose areas are highly valued rocky reef habitat with a diverse assemblage of epifauna. In the Northern California area waters less than 100 m deep the percentage of hard-rugose habitat is 8% of the seafloor whereas in the Santa Barbara area it is 0.2%. In both areas Marine Protected Areas contain a higher percentage of hard-rugose habitat than is found in the larger surrounding region. The scarcity of hard-rugose habitat in the Santa Barbara area increases the value of protected habitat in the Channel Islands bounding the channel as well as artificial habitat created by offshore oil rigs.

  18. Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-09

    Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction.

  19. Assessment of Subsurface Conditions in a Coastal Area of Lagos using Geophysical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Oyedele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical and geotechnical survey was carried out at Magodo Estate, Lagos, Nigeria. The buildings in this area are either sinking or intensively affected by severe cracks showing structural instability. The survey was aimed at characterizing the shallow subsurface in order to delineate features that may have caused structural instability that led to cracking and sinking of the residential buildings in the area. To image the subsurface, resistivity profiling (2-D using a Wenner array and Cone Penetration Test (CPT was carried out on five profiles of length 180 m each. The acquired data were processed and interpreted integrally to image the shallow geotechnical setting of the site. Integrated interpretation led to the delineation of low resistivity, low bearing capacity clay which is identified as the main cause of instability that resulted in potentially dangerous cracking and sinking of residential buildings in the area.

  20. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. Alarmingly high level of alcohol use among fishermen: A community based survey from a coastal area of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Thekkur, Pruthu; Manoj Kumar, A; Ramaswamy, Gomathi; Bharadwaj, Balaji; Roy, Gautam

    2016-08-01

    Though studies from western world have reported high prevalence of alcohol use among fishermen, there is lack of information from developing world. Hence this study was carried out among fishermen in a coastal area of southern India to 1) determine the prevalence of alcohol use among fishermen 2) describe the pattern of alcohol use 3) identify factors associated with alcohol use. A community based cross-sectional study was carried out among fishermen in a coastal village of Puducherry, India. House to hose survey was conducted, fishermen aged above 18 years and involved in catching fish at least once in last three months, were included. Data on age, marital status, education, monthly income, duration in fishing occupation, owning a boat or wager, frequency of fishing per month/week, number of hours spent in sea, alcohol use in past one year, age at initiation, type of alcohol drink and presence of alcohol users in family. In total, 304 participants were interviewed. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 41 (11) and 82% were involved in fishing for more than 10 years. Of 304 participants, 241 (79%) reported alcohol use in past one year. Of 241 participants who used alcohol, 89% reported alcohol consumption during fishing activity. In multivariate analysis, alcohol use in other family members was independently associated with alcohol use (aRR 21.4; 95% CI 6.8-67.4). Very high prevalence of alcohol use is seen among fishermen. Of those who consume alcohol, nine out of ten use during fishing activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  3. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  4. 76 FR 56730 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Australia; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni). After reviewing the documentation submitted in support of this... the country as being free of Bactrocera tryoni, the Queensland fruit fly. Specifically, the Government... Queensland fruit fly. Each proposed pest-free area is free of one of the fruit flies, but may have the other...

  5. Coastal zones are some of the most complex “multiple-use” areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Marine protected areas may serve this purpose. Furthermore, for species that reproduce by external fertilization, adult density is probably the key factor determining the success of fertilization (as in the case of sea urchins and abalone – Quinn et al. 1993,. Tegner et al. 1996). Even when such species are rela- tively common ...

  6. Development west coast Taiwan: Redesign coastal area between Da’an River and Dajia River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, B.; Eelkema, M.; Smith, M.; Van To, P.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. In the year 2004 there was a flooding in an area between Da'an River and Dajia River in Taichung County, Taiwan. The flooding was caused by outlets which were clogged up, thus lacking the capacity to discharge the amount of rainwater that the typhoon caused into the sea. A

  7. EAARL coastal topography-Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey and New York, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, John C.; Stevens, Sara; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nagle, David B.; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2010-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey and New York. These datasets were acquired July 8-9, 2009.

  8. Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging marine species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled marine species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for marine conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of marine turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.

  9. A new approach to macroalgal bloom control in eutrophic, shallow-water, coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Mauro; Salvaterra, Giulia; Gennaro, Paola; Mercatali, Isabel; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore; Sorce, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, an experiment was conducted in a shallow eutrophic lagoon with poor water exchange to determine the consequences of harvesting algae on the algal mat itself, which was traversed and repeatedly disturbed by large harvester boats. Four areas with high macroalgal density, measuring half a hectare each, were selected. Two were subjected to frequent disturbance of the algal mat and sediment (12 two-hour operations over a 38-day period) and the other two were left undisturbed as control. The following variables were determined: 1) water column physical chemistry and nutrients; 2) redox potential, nutrients and organic load in sediments; 3) C, N and P content of algal thalli; 4) macroalgal biomass. In 2013, a further experiment was conducted on a larger scale. Biomass was estimated in a high-density mat measuring 235 ha, where macroalgae were harvested and stirred up by four harvesting boats, and in two high-density mats measuring 150 and 120 ha, left undisturbed as control (9.15, 9.92 and 3.68 kg/m(2), respectively). In the first experiment, no significant changes were observed in the water column. In sediment the main variation was a significant reduction in labile organic matter in the disturbed areas and a significant increase mainly in refractory organic matter in the undisturbed areas. Biomass showed a significant drastic reduction in disturbed areas and substantial stability in undisturbed areas. In the large-scale experiment, the biomass of the disturbed mat declined by about 63%, only 6.5% of which was due to harvesting. On the other hand, the undisturbed mat with higher density underwent a natural decline in biomass of about 23% and the other increased by about 50%. These results demonstrate that disturbance of high-density mat in shallow water by boats can cause decay of the mat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pollen deposition in tauber traps and surface soil samples in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon area, pampa grasslands (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Latorre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of airborne pollen loadings deposited in Tauber traps were studied in a coastal lagoon from south-eastern Pampa grasslands, Argentina, in order to assess their relationship with surface samples and to interpret the representativeness of local, regional and extraregional vegetation. Three different environments were considered: a coastal dune barrier with a psammophytic community, a salt marsh with a halophytic community in Mar Chiquita lagoon, and a freshwater community at Hinojales freshwater lake. Based on a record of surface samples taken from a previous paper, a parametric model was built to classify Tauber samples gathered from the natural vegetation communities of the study area. Results revealed that just like their surface counterparts, Tauber trap records qualitatively reflect the predominant vegetation types, although ecological groups feature different quantitative representations depending on the record type. Pollen loadings showed that airborne pollen transport was predominantly of local range, in accordance with previous results from the same study area. Airborne - surface samples relationships enrich our knowledge of the present environme