WorldWideScience

Sample records for coastal area resources

  1. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, CBRA, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'CBRA'. Data by this publisher are...

  2. Utilization and Management of Small Fishery Population Resources in Coastal and Offshore Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua LE; Xiangguo ZHANG; Yingqi ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous types of living resources in coastal and offshore areas of China. In recent years,both the population type and quantity structure have significant changes,and the stock of small fishery population resources is increasing. This population is precious protein resource. It is urgent to study how to take prompt and effective fishing and take full advantage of processing,utilization and management. Traditional utilization methods are limited by many factors. The utilization efficiency is extremely low. The feed conversion rate of some mariculture fishes with fresh small trash fishes as feeds is even as low as 0. 2. Innovative production and management organization model with aquatic enterprises as leaders greatly increases the utilization efficiency of small fish resources with the aid of marine processing mother ship. In order to further accelerate developing and utilizing small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,China should launch survey and utilization researches of small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,formulate practical and feasible laws,regulations and policies,actively encourage and support autonomous innovative management mode of enterprises,and promote effective utilization and management of coastal and offshore fishery resources.

  3. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  4. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  5. Disconnects Between Audiences, Resources, and Initiatives: Key Findings of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Karger, F. E.; Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Gilbes, F.; Trotz, M.; McKayle, C.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Meisels, G.; Peterson, M.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership focused on defining a plan for effective education on climate change and its salient issues in coastal communities Florida and the US Caribbean territories. The approach included assessing perceptions and needs of stakeholders, evaluating the nature of available educational and information resources, and establishing a partnership that includes the public and professional organizations most relevant in planning and in addressing the resiliency of coastal communities. Information gathering activities included surveys among K-12 educators and students on climate change perceptions and current classroom activities in both Florida and the Caribbean territories; surveys of professional urban and land-use planners across Florida regarding their understanding of related in their professional practice; and conducting an inventory of relevant educational materials and information resources. Survey results showed a range of misperceptions about climate change, its causes and its likely impacts. At present, students and teachers in high and middle schools show poor understanding of climate science, and minimal time is spent in instruction on climate change in science courses in Florida and Puerto Rico schools. Also, there has to be professional development efforts and access to rich instructional content in a continuum spanning schools and professional communities including planners (which we surveyed). Architects and engineers are communities that also need to be surveyed and included in future efforts. A major obstacle to efforts at providing continuing education for planners and municipal officials is the lack of consensus on and access to regionally-specific scientific data regarding climate impacts and the relevant instructional content. It is difficult for professionals to prepare for climate change if they cannot define impacts in the Florida-Caribbean region and its coastal urban areas. Across over 1000

  6. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  7. Overall-effective Measures for Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Coastal Areas of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoxiang; W. F. Geiger; S. Kaden; R. Kutzner; WANG Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In the coastal catchments of Shandong Province the water scarcity is aggravated due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. Such a situation calls for sustainable integrated water resources management (Ⅰ-WRM). The idea for the objectives and implementation of the IWRM are explained in this paper. The general objective of the planned project disscussed in the present study is to bring together German traditional expertise in water resources management and newer developments in the context of the European Water Framework Directive; the research efforts aim to relieve the desperate water scarcity situation in the costal area of Shandong Province.

  8. Sustainable and integrated water resources management for the coastal areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Zhang, B; Kaden, S; Geiger, W F

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are severe problems in the Northern part of China, strongly affecting socio-economic development and standards of living and environment. The Shandong province is specifically plagued by water scarcity. In the coastal catchments of the Shandong province the water scarcity is even increased due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. The pressing water problems in the costal catchments in the Shandong province and resulting socio-economic troubles forced the Chinese authorities to implement a variety of measures to relieve water scarcity and abate saltwater intrusion. But not much has been achieved so far as the measures are not coordinated in their effects and cost-benefit relations have not been considered sufficiently. Such a situation calls for good, which means integrated, sustainable water management. The assessment of this situation in the project "Flood Control and Groundwater Recharge in Coastal Catchments" financed by the German Ministry of Research and Education is presented. Further objectives and first ideas for an IWRM-concept are explained. These ideas are based on concepts developed in Germany in the context of the fulfilment of the European Water Framework Directive.

  9. The potential consequences of climate variability and change on coastal areas and marine resources: report of the Coastal Areas and Marine Resources Sector Team, U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, U.S. Global Change Research Program

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine ecosystems support diverse and important fisheries throughout the nation’s waters, hold vast storehouses of biological diversity, and provide unparalleled recreational opportunities. Some 53% of the total U.S. population live on the 17% of land in the coastal zone, and these areas become more crowded every year. Demands on coastal and marine resources are rapidly increasing, and as coastal areas become more developed, the vulnerability of human settlements to hurricanes,...

  10. Groundwater resource degradation in coastal plains: The example of the Cecina area (Tuscany - Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Sergio [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@igg.cnr.i; Cortecci, Gianni; Squarci, Paolo [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    The paper describes the degradation of the groundwater resources in the Cecina area, where seawater intrusion, B contamination and NO{sub 3} pollution are all affecting the heavily exploited Pleistocene aquifer. Over-pumping has brought water levels to about 0 m.a.s.l. as far as about 7 km from the shore line, thereby promoting the seawater intrusion. The intrusion, which is characterized by cation exchange phenomena and Ca-Cl type waters, enters the plain mostly through the shallower horizons. The saline front, which advanced from 0.5 to 1 km in 4 a, has by now reached the foot of the hills to the east of the town, where it is also affecting wells of the local aqueduct. Boron contamination, linked to past discharge of industrial waste transported downstream by the river, reached concentrations as high as 3.5 mg/L in the mid-1980s. Although a decreasing trend is now under way, B content is still close to 1 mg/L. The presence of high NO{sub 3}, which, together with the seawater intrusion, represents a major issue for groundwater management in the area, is linked to the widespread utilization of fertilizers. Nitrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of about 300 mg/L in the shallow aquifer horizons and then decreases rather regularly with depth, is strongly influenced by precipitation. However, irrigation also contributes significantly to transporting the NO{sub 3} contamination to depth, as clearly shown by {delta}{sup 18}O data. The severe decline in the quality of the groundwater resource in the Cecina area is further compounded by an overall decrease in water availability in the region of Tuscany, as evidenced by long-term monitoring of precipitation and fluvial discharge.

  11. Ways of Fishery Local Life: Processes of Participation in Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Areas of the Upper Gulf of Eastern Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulak Sa-Ngiamlak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Local fishery was an inherited occupation for a long time. The objective of this research were to study: (1 the local fishery lifestyle of community in local fishery on upper area in Gulf of Thailand, (2 the appropriate participation process in natural resource management on upper part in Gulf of Thailand of people and organization and (3 the guidelines in natural resource management on the coastal area in upper part on Gulf of Thailand as relevant to local fishery lifestyle. Approach: The research area consisted of the shore of upper area in Gulf of Thailand including: Chachoengsao, Samutprakan, Samutsakon, Samutsongkram, Pechburi, Chonburi, Ra-yong, Chantaburi and Trad provinces. The samples as informants were 100 persons. The instruments using for data collection included the Survey, Interview Form, Observation Form, Record Form of Focus Group Discussion and Record Form of Participatory Workshop. The obtained data were classified into groups and investigated by using Triangulation Technique. Qualitative data were analyzed based on specified objectives. Results: The study of local fishery lifestyle found that there was location as in the present area owing to the fertility of area next to the sea. So, they could earn their living by fishery on coastal area. The local fishermen’s lifestyle was simple. Their living places were wooden houses with high space under a Thai house. For relationship of relative groups, they still helped each other among community people. They had belief in guardian spirit of a ship or boat and Kromluang Choomponke dudomsak. They did traditional fishery. Most of their instruments were made by themselves and adapted based on appropriateness. The wisdoms were transferred within their family, (2 the participation process in appropriate natural resource management, found that based on problem situations of natural resource on coastal area in upper area on Gulf of Thailand, being destroyed. Consequently

  12. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  13. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana A. A. Rufino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  14. John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System Approximate Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  15. Boundaries of the John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) data set, produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), contains areas designated as undeveloped coastal...

  16. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  17. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, Barrier Beaches; s44nbb94; Barrier beaches on the south coast of RI with levels of development as designated by the RI coastal resources management council. Beach zone desginations were hand drafted on photo enlarged source maps and manually digitized, Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1995. It is...

  18. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for Coastal Resource Service Area (CRSA) boundaries, mineral sites, airports, boat ramps, marinas, and Coast Guard...

  19. Coastal and marine protected areas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Julia; Jesus, Ana

    2008-01-01

    This study on marine protected areas (MPAs) in Mexico relies on a variety of data sources as well as the authors’ longstanding field experience, particularly in the Yucatan Peninsula, to analyze the design, establishment and operation of protected areas. It discusses two case studies of MPAs in detail and summarizes the findings from four others, focusing primarily on the role played by local communities in managing coastal and marine resources. The study also draws on the perspective of key ...

  20. Capacity Building Resource Management Of Coastal Areas To Improve The Local Economic Based By Cross-Cutting Partnerships: Case Study on Panjang Beach Bengkulu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, Titi

    2017-02-01

    The western part of Bengkulu city is a coastal region approximately 525 km, along the coast lies the tourism object which become the flagship of Bengkulu province. Coastal tourism is made as the pre-eminent is Panjang beach. Management of two beaches has not been managed optimally, so that is not yet on the economy have implications for communities, the people majority are fishermen, the highest poverty levels of Bengkulu city. The purpose of this research is to examine the development capacity of resource management and coastal areas of Panjang beach should be able to increase income community along the coast. Research method is using qualitative research types with approach case studies, which can investigate and phenomena identify that occur, and explain how and why about the income community arround the beaches, using the instrumental case study. Determination of samples is done based on the purposes and research problems, primary data sources are collected by in-depth interviews, FGD, and secondary data source are collected by observation and documentation. Data relating to be interpreted set forth in proposition because the result of the organized with matching pattern competition. The study results indicate there has been no integrated and suitability management between province and the city; stakeholders participation in community empowerment on the coast has been optimal; leadership commitment related to enhance institutional capacity is too weak, and there has not been a policy of managing the Panjang beach Bengkulu based on information technology.

  1. Coastal resources of Brunei Darussalam: Status, utilization and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, G.; Jaafar, H.M.H.; Yusof, P.S.P.H.; De Silva, M.W.R.N.; Chua, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    In light of the environmental dangers accompanying its recent program of economic diversification, the Government of Brunei Darussalam has signalled the need for improved management of its coastal areas, where 85 percent of the population lives and the country's social and economic activities are concentrated. The report contains the proceedings of a conference held in 1991 to review recent studies of Brunei Darussalam's coastal resources and draft an initial coastal area management plan. Individual papers cover: capture fisheries; mangrove and mangrove forest resources; fish communities in natural reef and artificial habitats; coastal area water quality; the populations and diversity of benthic fauna that inhabit coastal waters and are threatened by oil spills; a simulation of oil slick movement in Brunei Darussalam; a composite sensitivity index ranking the susceptibility of Brunei's five zones (as identified by resource prevalence) to oil spills; a management strategy for Brunei's 33 islands, most of which are uninhabited; zoning of industrial activities to minimize adverse effects on coastal water quality and the environment; the socioeconomic importance of Brunei's coastal resources; and the legal and institutional environment for coastal resource management.

  2. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    The paper stresses the importance of training and education to the development and application of knowledge on the coastal marine environment and its resources. Present status of human resources training in India is discussed and changes...

  3. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  4. An effort in increasing the use of natural resources around southern coast of Yogyakarta, A case-study of coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJALAL S. TANDJUNG

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal in the southern coast of Yogyakarta is an arid and dried area, and marginal agriculture land. The potential vegetation resources only live on the lands that produce cassava, corn, peanut, and soybean. The increasing benefits of sea products such as fishes still need to be invented. The aims of this research are to inventories and to increase the use of disadvantage resources. This research was conducted from October 1995 to March 1996. The result invents 70 species of useful plants and 21 species of weed that can be used by the people for the needs of their own households. The remainder products of Anona squamosa L., which might easily rot and until now unprofitable, could be used to make some jam. Phylantus emblica L. can be put into a useful product by making them to become candies. Another natural resources that are neglected are the cattle excrement and sharkskin. All kind of sharkskin’s can be manufactured into leather products. While cattle excrement can be produced methane for cooking and lighting. There are 163 species of ornamental fishes in Kukup, and 20 species of consumed fishes in Baron. In search of ornamental fishes, the fishermen have a bad-habit of using hazardous materials such as potassium cyanide. Besides endangers the reef communities, algae and fish-larvae, it makes the ornamental fishes they caught unhealthy and cannot be exported since their lifespan is very short. Due to this factor, ornamental fishes are only available in the local market of Kukup.

  5. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  6. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  7. Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptation can help reduce the long-term costs associated with climate change. This document provides an introduction to climate change impacts and adaptation options for estuaries, beaches and coastal areas.

  8. Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Selmin; Kucukakca, Emrah

    2015-04-01

    Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which is an inland sea. The city is a large metropolis having more than 15 million of population that has been subjected to heavy and unplanned urbanization due to natural growth and immigration from the Eastern regions of Turkey, in particular. This resulted in loss of green areas and gave rise to land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea in order to provide ring roads along the seaside and substitute the lost green areas by newly generated recreational areas. Therefore heavy land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea has been the major environmental concern related to the damage caused to the coastal ecosystems during the last decade. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. As widely known, coastal areas are the main housbandary and spawning areas for coastal ecosystems and pelagic species. Due to inappropriate reclamation processes, significant decrease in coastal ecosystems and species has been reported in several studies, Istanbul is no exception. Coastal zones are complex systems exhibiting specific environmental and socio-economic particularities. In recent years, many organizations, governments and policy-makers have pointed out the urgent need to develop global, regional, national and local strategies to ensure the protection and sustainable use of coastal zones. A long-term sustainable development of coastal areas cannot be achieved without the preservation of natural resources on which the development relies. The dilemma is to ensure the sustainable development of natural resources which is not the case as reported in several studies. Continuous exposure of the Istanbul coastal areas to uncontrolled, unplanned and inappropriate reclamation methods from past to present and recently experienced enhanced reclamation has been a major concern that is expressed by the scientific society. However

  9. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  10. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  11. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  12. Metal pollution in coastal areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, S F; Botello, A V

    1998-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the earth core and can be widespread in all environments, forming part of sediments, rocks, animal and plant tissues, crude oil, hemoglobin, pigments, proteins, and enzymes. However, some of these metals, such as lead, chromium, and mercury, have been widely used in industrial and human activities, thus provoking an alteration in their geochemical balance and causing high concentrations, frequently three to four orders of magnitude higher than their natural concentrations. The aggressive industrialization and urbanization of coastal areas in Mexico have given rise to singular pollution problems in which such metals play an important role. Thus, this review identifies the main sources and quantifies the concentration levels of metals in the water, sediments, and organisms of coastal ecosystems (rivers, estuaries, coastal lagoons, Continental Shelf) in the Gulf of Mexico as well as the Mexican Pacific. The results show high concentrations of lead, chromium, and nickel in sediments and animal tissues from coastal states (Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche) in the Gulf of Mexico, especially in areas close to industrialized towns such as Tampico, Veracruz City, and Villahermosa. On the other hand, studies conducted on Mexican Pacific coasts indicate low levels of metals in sediments and organisms, an indication that the metal pollution here is closely tied to human, industrial, and oil activities.

  13. 浙江沿海森林资源现状及动态分析%Analysis on Current Situation and Dynamic of the Forest Resources in the Coastal Areas of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 李俊清; 向楠; 徐满

    2011-01-01

    The current situation of forest resources in the coastal areas of Zhejiang Province was analyzed from the aspects of land use structure,category of forest stand, structure of stand age, forest stock and percentage of forest cover, and on the basis of forest data during each stage of study areas, the dynamic changes of forest resources were analyzed. On this basis, constructive suggestions for the operation of forest resources in study areas were proposed.%从土地利用结构、林分的林种及林龄结构、林木蓄积量、森林覆盖率等方面分析了浙江沿海森林资源的现状,并以研究区各时期的林清数据为依据分析了森林资源变化动态,在此基础上对研究区森林资源的经营提出建设性意见.

  14. Resource-Friendly Study of Small-Scale Pound Net and Stow Net in Zhoushan Coastal Area%舟山沿岸小型建网及张网资源友好性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱媛媛; 虞聪达; 郑基

    2012-01-01

    Based on the catch data of small-scale pound net and stow net in Zhoushan coastal area from May to November, 2011. combined with the structure theory of two fishing gears, analyzing the efficiency to fishing resources and the extent of damage to juvenile resource. The results show that, mesh size of stow net was small, to some extent, which has bad influence on Juvenile resource. The structure theory of small-scale pound net was reasonably designed and more friendly to resource. It suggestsed the related departments rea- sonably assess and scientifically manage the two fishing gears, utilizing them correctly.%根据2011年5-11月舟山沿岸小型建网及定置张网的渔获物数据,结合2种作业渔具结构原理,分析其对渔业资源的利用效率,对幼鱼资源的损害程度。结果表明,张网网目尺寸较小,对幼鱼资源的损害程度较大,小型建网渔具结构设计较合理,对资源更具友好性。建议相关部门对2种渔具科学化管理,正确引导,合理使用。

  15. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  16. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  17. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sensitive/rare coastal plants and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) for Long Island, New York. Vector...

  18. Water resource management decision-making system in coastal reclamation area%沿海围垦区水资源管理决策系统开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈序; 董增川; 杨光

    2016-01-01

    The coastal development of Jiangsu plays an important role in alleviat ing the contradict ion between people and land, supplying arable land resources and stepping up the industrial development of the Yangtze River. It also has profound influence on the demand of w ater resources, which is facing enormous challenges. Therefore, the establishment of a system is very neces-sary, which has the timely and reliable information, effective model and concise and efficient consultation, to supporting wat er re-source management decision-making. The water resource management decision-making system w as developed, using Java lan-guage, based on t he database system Oracle and GIS t echnology, generally use C/ S mode and B/ S mode. The system is designed for both decision makers and managers, w hich has f ive subsystems, including information management and query, w ater demand forecasting, runoff forecast , w ater regulation, and decision in consultation. The implementation of the development and research on water resource management decision-making system in coastal reclamat ion area will be of great significance in not only the optimization of water demand and supply patterns in Jiangsu coastal area, but also the solve of w ater-supply security issue.%江苏沿海开发对于缓解江苏地区人多地少的矛盾、补充耕地资源不足与加快长三角产业发展具有重要作用。但是,江苏沿海开发也对水资源需求产生重大而深远的影响,使得水资源保障面临巨大挑战,因此建立信息及时可靠、模型切实有效、会商简洁高效的系统来支持沿海围垦区水资源管理决策是非常必要的。采用 Java 语言编写,基于 Oracle 数据库和 GIS 技术,以 C/ S 与 B/ S 相结合的结构模式构建起来一个面向决策者和管理人员的决策支持系统,其中包括信息管理与查询子系统、用水预测子系统、来水预测子系统、水量调度子系统与决策会商

  19. 沿海围垦区水资源决策支持系统数据库开发%Database Development of Water Resources Decision Support System of Coastal Reclamation Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政尧; 董增川; 管西柯; 冯胜男; 周洁; 汪勇

    2016-01-01

    The design and development of database is an important part of water integration resources management decision support system of coastal reclamation area. This study chose Oracle database with excellent performance and scalability because of the large system data and the complexity of processing. Taking Oracle 10G as the core database, it designed the structure and function of database system according to the design specification of national water resources monitoring ability, explored the establishment and improvement of Oracle security mechanism in the research of system development and introduced the key technology of the system database design. The purpose of its development was to realize the data integration and normalized storage of the results, so as to achieve the effect of data integration and sharing and made the system run efficiently on the basis of information support layer. The trial application shows that the needs of the database can meet user real-time data access and management to improve the efficiency of the system, and provide strong technical support for digital, modern, scientific management of water resources in coastal reclamation area.%数据库是沿海围垦区水资源一体化管理决策支持系统的重要组成部分。基于系统数据处理量的庞大而选择性能优异、可伸缩性强的Oracle数据库,以Oracle作为核心数据库,根据国家水资源监控能力建设的设计规范,设计了系统数据库的结构和功能,探讨了系统开发中Oracle安全机制的建立和完善。其开发目的是为了实现基础数据的集成与计算结果的规范化存储,从而达到数据整合和共享的目的,使系统在信息支撑层的基础上得以安全高效地运行。经过试用表明,该数据库能够很好地满足用户实时数据访问与管理的需求,提高系统运行效率,为沿海围垦区水资源管理的数字化、现代化、科学化提供了有力的技术支撑。

  20. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  1. Evaluation on the Value of Coastal Recreational Resources in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Coastal recreational resources are public goods without market price or with lower price,which have competitive service and irreversible decision on development.It is an important aspect for the sustainable use to evaluate the economic value of the recreational resources using the existing environment and resources valuation methods.This paper focuses on evaluating the value of coastal recreational resources in Qingdao by adopting Travel Cost Method(TCM),which is a relative mature evaluation technique in developed countries.Through questionnaire in main sight-seeing spots along coastal line in Qingdao,correlation equation between visitation rate and travel cost is established.The related data are processed by Eviews,and the demanding curve of tour is fitted and regressed.Then,the economic value of coastal recreational resources in Qingdao is calculated by adding actual tour cost to consumer surplus. It provides scientific evidence for making policies on development and administration and benefits the rational utilization of coastal recreational resources.

  2. A holistic educational paradigm: Managing coastal resources in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Watts

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a depletion of marine resources that threatens entire cultures and endangers the very life of the planet. Reports indicate that over 80 per cent of world fish stocks are heavily exploited or depleted, yet close to 200 million people continue to depend on the fishery for livelihood (FAO 2008. The vast geographical range of many marine fish populations calls for public participation, communication and coordination on a large scale. The need for public participation is particularly acute in those countries where both government services and marine management infrastructure are limited. In the Philippines, public participation has been identified as a priority strategy to promote sustainable development of coastal resources (Republic Act 8435, Akester et al. 2007. Given the lack of empowered stakeholders and a functional government body that can appropriately address the challenges of coastal resource management through public participation, catalyst institutions need to step in. This role is being undertaken by the Aurora State College of Technology (ASCOT, located in Aurora Province on the northeast coast of Luzon Island, Philippines. ASCOT has adopted a holistic approach that offers a model for responsive education with a focus on participation and representative leadership. This article outlines ASCOT’s ongoing programs as an example of a ‘catalyst institution’ in action, with a focus on responsive education through the establishment of strategic partnerships and public participation. It also reports on research conducted with the local fisherfolk of Aurora Province and Pamana, a national alliance of fisherfolk Marine Protected Area (MPA managers. Key words: fisherfolk empowerment, participative education, catalyst, bioregional planning

  3. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  4. Prospects of solar energy in the coastal areas of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emetere, Moses E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng; Akinyemi, Marvel L., E-mail: samuel.sanni@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Covenant University Canaan land, P.M.B 1023, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    The climatic factors in the coastal areas are cogent in planning a stable and functional solar farm. The experiment performed in this study entails a day-to-day solar radiation pattern in coastal areas. The results show that the solar radiation pattern in coastal region portends danger to the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) module and its lifecycle. The efficiency of the PV module was tested in the harmattan where dust is a major hindrance. The results were related to meteorological parameters which influences the solar radiation over an area. The solar radiation pattern in coastal areas was traced to the solar sectional shading theory which was summarized and explained.

  5. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Strzalkowska, A.; Ponczkowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Gutowska, D.; Kowalczyk, J.; Darecki, M.; Piskozub, J.

    2012-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensingmaking them highly relevant for the ocean color atmospheric correction. This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones, in Crete in 2006and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas. Additionally, aerosol particle direct and indirect radiative effects have been identified as key uncertainties for the prediction of the future global climate. This research has been made within the framework of the NASA/AERONET Program and Polish National Grants 1276/B/P01/2010/38, PBW 1283/B/P01/2010/38, POLAR-AOD, NN 306315536 and Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBałtyk funded by the European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

  6. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Areas 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  7. Microlevel mapping of coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram island, India: A remote sensing and GIS perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; Shivaprasad, A.; Karikalan, R.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.

    . The impact of natural disturbances can be reduced by protecting the coast by green shielding. The present study was carried out to understand the coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram Island (Tamil Nadu, India), using Indian Remote Sensing...

  8. Eco-Geography of Coastal Areas: Sosio-Economy Dynamic of Land Ownership of Coastal Areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia constitute an archipelagic state which passesses resource of ocean, ecosystem of coast area and social economy dynamics of various maritime society. The nation of Indonesia had ever been welknown as a maritime nation which dominated Nusantara territorial waters as far as neighbour state. Fish cultivation in embankruent  system has been being known since the era of Mojopahit Kingdom and likewise boat industry was held along the north-oast of Java which was ever glorius in the beginning of Dutch Colonialism. But, up to now why a large part of Indonesian fishermen are still using simple technology and method in fishery and fish cultivation? Change in policy within Dutch era development. Which was farm land oriented and plantation had influenced the maritime tradition slip off. Opening of railway and land tract transportation in Java had changed economic ativity pattern of the oast area to hinterland. Investment and human resource were councentrated to farmland development and plantation was directed to export so that it affected the coast area slip off which was basically fishery activity. Development after independence, mainly in the era of New Order, it started from farming activity raised to industry society. Coastal area came back to develop with industrial growth in the urbans of Java north coast. Nevertheless development in fishery does not yet return to show the sign of glorious untill the end of this age. It is  hoped that, with properly judment of the islands coastal area out of Java, goverment will direct  its policy and investment to develop the new maritime society to go against the glorious in the 21st century.

  9. Strategies in Mobilizing Coastal Communities for Community-Based Coastal Resource Management in Bolinao, Pangasinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Pinat

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Fishery Resources Management Project (MFRMP hopes to facilitate partnership between the local government unit and the local communities in managing the coastal resources of Bolinao. Mobilization, both at the community and municipal levels, has been very important in promoting community-based strategies in coastal resources management. The community organization process in the municipality has gone through several levels; and different organizations have been formed. In empowering individuals and organizations, strategies tend to be varied and fluid depending on the need, the reason for mobilization, and the resources at hand. The Bolinao experience showcases different strategies used in implementing the resource enhancement, coastal zoning, harvest regulation, and capability building components of the program. These have included the formation of people's organizations, the mobilization of zonal action teams for each of the four zones, the creation and orientation of fishery and aquatic resources management councils at the barangay and municipal levels, and the active collaboration with the local government unit. These strategies and approaches have provided the people and the communities a wealth of experience and lessons that provide helpful insights in undertaking different endeavors. The strategies employed in the mobilization activities have significantly contributed to the empowerment of communities and individuals who are the primary managers of their resources.

  10. Evaluation of percolation rate of bedrock aquifer in coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Cheong, Jae Yeol [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Ju [NEXGEO Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Seong Chun [GeoGreen21 Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Estimation of groundwater hydrologic cycle pattern is one of the most critical issues in sustainable management of groundwater resources in coastal area. This study estimated groundwater percolation by using the water balance methodology and hydrogeological characteristics of land use and soil. Evapotranspiration was computed by using the Thornthwaite method, and surface runoff was determined by using the SCS-CN technique. Groundwater storage change was obtained as 229 mm/a (17.8% of the average annual rainfall, 1286 mm/a), with 693 mm/a (60.1%) of evapotranspiration and 124 mm/a (9.6%) of surface runoff. Rainfall and groundwater storage change was highly correlated, comparing with the relationships between rainfall and evapotranspiration, and between rainfall and surface runoff. This result indicates that groundwater storage change responds more sensitively to precipitation than evapotranspiration and surface runoff.

  11. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  12. The origins and significance of coastal resource use in Africa and Western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marean, Curtis W

    2014-12-01

    The systematic exploitation of marine foods by terrestrial mammals lacking aquatic morphologies is rare. Widespread ethnographic and archaeological evidence from many areas of the world shows that modern humans living on coastlines often ratchet up the use of marine foods and develop social and technological characteristics unusual to hunter-gatherers and more consistent with small scale food producing societies. Consistent use of marine resources often is associated with reduced mobility, larger group size, population packing, smaller territories, complex technologies, increased economic and social differentiation, and more intense and wide-ranging gifting and exchange. The commitment to temporally and spatially predictable and dense coastal foods stimulates investment in boundary defense resulting in inter-group conflict as predicted by theory and documented by ethnography. Inter-group conflict provides an ideal context for the proliferation of intra-group cooperative behaviors beneficial to the group but not to the altruist (Bowles, 2009). The origins of this coastal adaptation marks a transformative point for the hominin lineage in Africa since all previous adaptive systems were likely characterized by highly mobile, low-density, egalitarian populations with large territories and little boundary defense. It is important to separate occasional uses of marine foods, present among several primate species, from systematic and committed coastal adaptations. This paper provides a critical review of where and when systematic use of coastal resources and coastal adaptations appeared in the Old World by a comparison of the records from Africa and Europe. It is found that during the Middle Stone Age in South Africa there is evidence that true coastal adaptations developed while there is, so far, a lack of evidence for even the lowest levels of systematic coastal resource use by Neanderthals in Europe. Differences in preservation, sample size, and productivity between

  13. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  14. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  15. Butyltin levels in several Portuguese coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2009-12-01

    This work aimed to report present levels (2007-2008 sampling) of tri- (TBT), di- (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) in surface sediments from 11 Portuguese coastal sites and discuss the evolution of BTs contamination in the last two decades. All the samples revealed quantifiable values of TBT, DBT, and MBT with total butyltin concentrations between 1 and 565 ng/g (of Sn in dry sediment). Maximum level of TBT, 66 ng/g, was observed in Sado estuary, at Lisnave site, in the proximity of a big shipyard. MBT decreased site by site by the same order as DBT and TBT did, but its concentrations were much higher in many cases, denoting that TBT contamination was much higher in the past. A comparison with the available previous data confirmed a marked decrease of TBT contamination all over the last years, indicating that the main sources of TBT in Portuguese coastwise stopped effectively.

  16. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Coastal habitats, artificial reefs, wrecks, dumping grounds, harbor obstructions and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, coastal habitats, artificial reefs, shipwrecks, dumping grounds, and harbor obstructions. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are provided as attached xml files for all geographic information system (GIS) layers.

  17. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Visser, L.E.; Dijk, van H.; Bosma, R.H.; Boer, de W.F.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions

  18. COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH SINGKEP AREA, RIAU ISLANDS PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor C.D. Aryanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of coastal characteristics, such as coastal constituent lithology, oceanographic processes and the influence of human activities along the coastal area, are the factors that affect the coastal typology. The typology of coastal area can be divided into 3 types namely: (1 Sandy beaches, dominated by medium size quartz sand, gravelly sand and silt of alluvium deposits ; (2 Rocky beaches that belong to the Tanjung Buku Granite lithologic units and Persing metamorphic complex, its beach slope between 5° and 15°, and a fault structure encountered. The steep beach slopes (45°-50° trends to offshore with the maximum depth of 28 meters below the sea level at the distance of 3.5 km from the its shore line. At the depth of 20 m, there are a foot slope of 1.5 km width interpreted as the fault plane; (3 Muddy beaches is characterized by mangroves, gentle beach slopes until flats. Those sandy and muddy beaches are alluvial deposits of Quarternary sediments.

  19. Scenarios for Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in Tropical Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We contend there are currently two competing scenarios for the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas of Southeast Asia. First, a landscape approach, where farming techniques for small-scale producers are integrated into intertidal areas in a way that the ecological functions of mangroves are maintained and shrimp farming diseases are controlled. Second, a closed system approach, where problems of disease and effluent are eliminated in closed recirculation ponds behind the intertidal zone controlled by industrial-scale producers. We use these scenarios as two ends of a spectrum of possible interactions at a range of scales between the ecological, social, and political dynamics that underlie the threat to the resilience of mangrove forested coastal ecosystems. We discuss how the analytical concepts of resilience, uncertainty, risk, and the organizing heuristic of scale can assist us to understand decision making over shrimp production, and in doing so, explore their use in the empirical research areas of coastal ecology, shrimp health management and epidemiology, livelihoods, and governance in response to the two scenarios. Our conclusion focuses on a series of questions that map out a new interdisciplinary research agenda for sustainable shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas.

  20. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    of Los Angeles. The coastal plain surface includes several mesas and hills that are geomorphic expressions of potentially active folds and partly buried oblique and reverse faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt (SBFFB) that transects the coastal plain. Strong earthquakes have occurred offshore within 10 km of the Santa Barbara coastal plain in 1925 (6.3 magnitude), 1941 (5.5 magnitude), and 1978 (5.1 magnitude). These and numerous smaller seismic events located beneath and offshore of the coastal plain, likely occurred on reverse-oblique-slip faults that are similar to, or continuous with, Quaternary reverse faults crossing the coastal plain. Thus, faults of the SBFFB pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara, Goleta, and Carpinteria. In addition, numerous Quaternary landslide deposits along the steep southern flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains indicate the potential for continued slope failures and mass movements in developed areas. Folded, faulted, and fractured sedimentary rocks in the subsurface of the coastal plain and adjacent Santa Barbara Channel are sources and form reservoirs for economic deposits of oil and gas, some of which are currently being extracted offshore. Shallow, localized sedimentary aquifers underlying the coastal plain provide limited amounts of water for the urban areas, but the quality of some of this groundwater is compromised by coastal salt-water contamination. The present map compilation provides a set of uniform geologic digital coverages that can be used for analysis and interpretation of these and other geologic hazards and resources in the coastal plain region.

  1. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  2. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  3. Seismic risk analysis of coastal area of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid A. Khan; M.Ali Shah; M.Qaisar

    2003-01-01

    Estimation of seismic hazard for the fast developing coastal area of Pakistan is carried out using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. On the basis of seismotectonics and geology, eleven faults are recognized in five seismic provinces as potential hazard sources. Maximum magnitude potential for each of these sources is calculated. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) values at the seven coastal cities due to the maximum credible earthquake on the relevant source are also obtained. Cities of Gwadar and Ormara with acceleration values of 0.21g and 0.25g respectively fall in the high seismic risk area. Cities of Turbat and Karachi lie in low seismic risk area with acceleration values of less than 0.1g. The Probabilistic PGA maps with contour interval of 0.05g for 50 and 100 years return period with 90% probability of non-exceedance are also compiled.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE COASTAL URBAN AREA OF KALLITHEA IN ATTICA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agisilaos Economou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the majority of coastal urban areas facing issues concerning economic growth in combination with environmental protection. These challenges have led local authorities to take immediate measures as well as the European Union to formulate new policies. This study refers to the environmental problems of the coastal urban area of Kallithea and on the measures that have been taken in response. Specifically, it focuses on land uses, natural resources and business. To conduct this study a method of personal interviews with the local authorities and an in situ research took place. At the same time, the survey focuses on action and policies that have been implemented until now regarding growth and improving of the quality of life. The results showed despite the problems the research area presents, it has dynamics for growth developments and revitalization. The implementation of new measures and new policies under the frame of sustainable development, taking into account the directives of European Union, is required.

  5. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  6. Geothermal resource area 3: Elko County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 3 includes all of the land in Elko County, Nevada. There are in excess of 50 known thermal anomalies in this area. Several of the more major resources have been selected for detailed description and evaluation in this Area Development Plan. The other resources are considered too small, too low in temperature, or too remote to be considered for development in the near future. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the studied resource sites in Elko County were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics; the land ownership and land use patterns; existing population and projected growth rates; transportation facilities and energy requirements. These factors were then compared with resource site specific data to determine the most likely uses of the resource. The uses considered in this evaluation were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories several subdivisions were considered separately. It was determined that several of the geothermal resources evaluated in the Area Development Plan could be commercially developed. The potential for development for the seven sites considered in this study is summarized.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in Kostrena Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Linšak, Dijana; Linšak, Željko; Bešić, Denis; Vojčić, Nina; Teležar, Mirna; Čoklo, Miran; Šušnić, Saša; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22–48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (

  8. Issues of Sustainability of Coastal Groundwater Resources: Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Mullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest city in Benin, West Africa (Cotonou, is reliant upon groundwater for its public water supply. This groundwater is derived from the Godomey well field which is located approximately 5 Km north of the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and in close proximity to Lake Nokoue—a shallow lake containing water with elevated concentration of chloride and other elements. Historical data indicate increased chloride concentration in a number of wells nearest to the lake, with unknown contribution from groundwater encroachment from the coastal area. Hence, there is substantial interest in better characterizing this groundwater system for the purpose of determining appropriate management practices and degree of sustainability. Among the efforts attempted to date are a series of numerical models ranging from assessment of flow to a recent effort to include density-dependent transport from the lake. In addition, substantial field characterization has been pursued including assessment of shallow water chemistry along the region of the coastal lagoon and border of the lake, characterization of hydraulic response to pumpage in the aquifer system, estimation of the distribution of electrical resistivity with depth along the coastal lagoons, and installation of multi-level piezometers at seven locations in the lake. When integrated across methods, these numerical and field results indicate that the lake remains a primary concern in terms of a source of salinity in the aquifer. Further, the coastal region appears to be more complex than previously suggested and may represent a future source of salt-water encroachment as suggested by current presence of saline waters at relatively shallow depths along the coast. Finally, hydraulic testing suggests that both natural and pumping-based fluctuations in water levels are present in this system. Substantial additional characterization and modeling efforts may provide a significantly greater understanding of the

  9. Case Studies on Coastal Wetlands and Water Resources in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Nwankwoala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a very important role in the sustenance of both the surface andgroundwater resources of the country. It is sad to observe that the country is fast losingher wetlands, as the rich wetlands are being seriously threatened by a number ofanthropogenic and biophysical factors. Some of the notable human actions includepopulation pressure, rapid urbanization, mining, oil and industrial waste pollution,overgrazing, logging, dam construction, transportation routes and other physicalinfrastructure. Others factors are uncontrolled tilling for crop production andunprecedented/unregulated land reclamation. Subsidence, saltwater intrusion, sandstorm, desertification and droughts, invasion by alien floral and faunal species as well asmarine and coastal erosion are natural threats to wetlands in Nigeria. Wetlandsdestruction affects negatively water supply and water resources management. This studyexamines in great detail the fate of wetlands in the face of climate change andrecommends that efforts should be made to accurately document the country’s wetland.The paper therefore suggested sustainable options for wetlands and water resourcesmanagement in Nigeria. This, the paper opined, can be done through the strengtheningof wetlands preservation and conservation regulation, mitigating the effects of climatechange as well as the development of deliberate restoration programmes and policiesaimed at sustaining degraded wetlands in Nigeria.

  10. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  12. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    Ynez Mountains indicate the potential for continued slope failures and mass movements that may threaten urbanized parts of the coastal plain. Deformed sedimentary rocks in the subsurface of the coastal plain and the adjacent Santa Barbara Channel contain deposits of oil and gas, some of which are currently being extracted. Shallow, localized sedimentary aquifers underlying the coastal plain provide limited amounts of water for the urban areas, but the quality of some of this groundwater is compromised by coastal salt-water contamination. The present map compilation provides a set of uniform geologic digital coverages that can be used for analysis and prediction of these and other geologic hazards and resources in the coastal plain region. In the map area the oldest stratigraphic units consist of resistant Eocene to Oligocene marine and terrestrial sedimentary rocks that form a mostly southward-dipping and laterally continuous sequence along the south flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Less resistant, but more variably deformed, Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene marine sedimentary rocks and deposits are exposed in the lower Santa Ynez foothills and in the coastal hills and sea cliffs farther south. Pleistocene and Holocene surficial alluvial, colluvial, estuarine, and marine-terrace deposits directly underlie much of the low-lying coastal plain area, and similar-aged alluvial and landslide deposits locally mantle the lower flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Structurally, the Santa Barbara coastal plain area is dominated by the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt, an east-west-trending zone of Quaternary, partly active folds and blind and exposed reverse and thrust faults. The dominant trend of individual structures within the belt is west-northwest -- slightly oblique to the overall trend of the fold and fault belt. A conspicuous exception, however, is the More Ranch fault system, which strikes east-northeast across the fold and f

  13. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  14. The Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Initiative in the Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu Site, Mombasa, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Mwandotto, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    A multi-institutional planning team headed by Coast Development Authority (CDA) in Kenya initiated an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) process in 1994. The pilot study site was Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu area in Mombasa. The objective was to provide a starting point for addressing urgent coastal issues facing the area and to enrich the dialogue on how to address urgent coastal management problems nationwide. The pertinent coastal issues that were profiled in a participatory and interactive...

  15. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  16. Toxic Plant Resources in Panxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun; SU Chunjiang; ZHENG Yuanchang

    2007-01-01

    Panxi Area is abundant in plant resources, among which toxic plants are of great value in terms of exploitation. This paper is an initiative study (via field as well as literature investigation) of the categories, distributions, and reserves of toxic plant resources in Panxi Area. The study reveals that there are 51 families (210 species) of toxic plants evenly distributed in Panxi Area, of which more than 40 species grow in all counties in the area, and more than 14 species total a reserve more than 1.0×105kg. These toxic plants are of great applications to medicine, gardening, biopesticide industry, environmental engineering, and oil manufacturing. Rhododendron molle, Anisodus acutangulus, Arisaema erubesocens, Stellera chamaejasme, Rhytolacca acinosa, Rheum officinale, and Azadiralta indica etc are the typical toxic plants with great value of exploitation in Panxi Area.

  17. Satellite Observations of Coastal Processes from a Geostationary Orbit: Application to estuarine, coastal, and ocean resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, M.; Mannino, A.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are among the most vulnerable yet economically valuable ecosystems on Earth. Estuaries and coastal oceans are critically important as essential habitat for marine life, as highly productive ecosystems and a rich source of food for human consumption, as a strong economic driver for coastal communities, and as a highly dynamic interface between land and ocean carbon and nutrient cycles. Still, our present capabilities to remotely observe coastal ocean processes from space are limited in their temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. These limitations, in turn, constrain our ability to observe and understand biogeochemical processes in highly dynamic coastal ecosystems, or predict their response and resilience to current and future pressures including sea level rise, coastal urbanization, and anthropogenic pollution.On a geostationary orbit, and with high spatial resolution and hyper-spectral capabilities, NASA's Decadal Survey mission GEO-CAPE (GEO-stationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events) will provide, for the first time, a satellite view of the short-term changes and evolution of processes along the economically invaluable but, simultaneously, particularly vulnerable near-shore waters of the United States. GEO-CAPE will observe U.S. lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions at sufficient temporal and spatial scales to resolve near-shore processes, tides, coastal fronts, and eddies, track sediments and pollutants, capture diurnal biogeochemical processes and rates of transformation, monitor harmful algal blooms and large oil spills, observe episodic events and coastal hazards. Here we discuss the GEO-CAPE applications program and the new capabilities afforded by this future satellite mission, to identify potential user communities, incorporate end-user needs into future mission planning, and allow integration of science and management at the coastal interface.

  18. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  19. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  20. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture

  1. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for aquaculture sites, beaches, commercial fishing, historic sites, marinas, recreational fishing areas, and water...

  2. Land area change in coastal Louisiana (1932 to 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Beck, Holly; Schoolmaster, Donald; Fischer, Michelle

    2017-07-12

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands are one of the most critically threatened environments in the United States. These wetlands are in peril because Louisiana currently experiences greater coastal wetland loss than all other States in the contiguous United States combined. The analyses of landscape change presented here have utilized historical surveys, aerial, and satellite data to quantify landscape changes from 1932 to 2016. Analyses show that coastal Louisiana has experienced a net change in land area of approximately -4,833 square kilometers (modeled estimate: -5,197 +/- 443 square kilometers) from 1932 to 2016. This net change in land area amounts to a decrease of approximately 25 percent of the 1932 land area. Previous studies have presented linear rates of change over multidecadal time periods which unintentionally suggest that wetland change occurs at a constant rate, although in many cases, wetland change rates vary with time. A penalized regression spline technique was used to determine the model that best fit the data, rather than fitting the data with linear trends. Trend analyses from model fits indicate that coastwide rates of wetland change have varied from -83.5 +/- 11.8 square kilometers per year to -28.01 +/- 16.37 square kilometers per year. To put these numbers into perspective, this equates to long-term average loss rates of approximately an American football field’s worth of coastal wetlands within 34 minutes when losses are rapid to within 100 minutes at more recent, slower rates. Of note is the slowing of the rate of wetland change since its peak in the mid- 1970s. Not only have rates of wetland loss been decreasing since that time, a further rate reduction has been observed since 2010. Possible reasons for this reduction include recovery from lows affected by the hurricanes of 2005 and 2008, the lack of major storms in the past 8 years, a possible slowing of subsidence rates, the reduction in and relocation of oil and gas extraction and

  3. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  4. Sustainability analysis of groundwater resources in a coastal aquifer, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Rich, Kendall; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2008-03-01

    Fort Morgan Peninsula is an attached portion of a dynamic barrier complex in the northern Gulf of Mexico and is a large tourist area that brings in a significant amount of revenue for Alabama. Many of the hotels and tourist attractions depend on the groundwater as their water supply. The over-withdrawal of groundwater and saltwater intrustion will have a negative impact on the ecology, tourism and economy if groundwater resources are not properly monitored and managed. In this study a calibrated groundwater flow model was used to analyze the sustainability of groundwater resources at Fort Morgan Peninsula. Detailed flow budgets were prepared to check the various components of inflow and outflow under different water use and climatic conditions. The results indicated the locations where groundwater was over-pumped and subjected to saltwater intrusion, or will be subjected to saltwater intrusion under a range of projected water use and climatic conditions.

  5. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  6. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  7. Living resources provide diverse opportunities to coastal human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    4 Marine and Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, South Africa ..... and distribution of subsistence fishers. ..... by a sector of the population that has been politically.

  8. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Long Island,...

  9. Quantifying freshwater resource in coastal barriers: the joint use of transient electromagnetic and magnetic resonance soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin fresh water lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. A spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and the use of groundwater model are required for the sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology on a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We found that the joint use of magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings allows to map the fresh water lens and to estimate the specific yield, the hydraulic conductivity, the water salinity and the water table recharge. From the geophysical results, we estimate the fresh water reserve to range between 400 and 700 l m−2 of surface area according to the location and to the season. Using time lapse geophysical measurements and common groundwater monitoring, we also estimate the recharge of a rainy event to be about 100% of the rain, and the net recharge at the end of the monsoon to be less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  10. The depletion of coastal environmental resources by human activities and its monetary evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuan; Chen Weiqi

    2007-01-01

    The marine environment provides rich and varied resources and services or functions for human's production and life. Many countries have competitively exploited and utilized sea and ocean to develop marine economy for some years. The over-exploitation of marine environment and the overuse of marine resources have led to resource degradation,environmental pollution and ecosystem destruction. Considering the depletion of coastal environmental resources during planning, governing and decision-making is an important measure to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of coastal environmental resources and social economy, the main precondition of which is that the depletion of coastal environmental resources by human activities has been monetarily evaluated. Firstly, this paper summarizes relevant references in this field and analyzes different sorts of depletion of coastal environmental resources caused by human activities and the necessity and importance of the monetary evaluation. Finally, this paper extensively discusses the corresponding evaluation models of the depletion of marine mineral resources, marine organism resources, maritime transport resources, intertidal zones and shallow seas, and marine environmental functions and services including environmental capacity, gas regulation, disturbance prevention, recreation and biodiversity.

  11. Identification and prioritization of areas with high environmental risk in Mediterranean coastal areas: A flexible approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marignani, Michela; Bruschi, Daniele; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Frondoni, Raffaella; Carli, Emanuela; Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cumo, Fabrizio; Gugliermetti, Franco; Saatkamp, Arne; Doxa, Aggeliki; Queller, Emi Martín; Chaieb, Mohamed; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; El Zein, Rana; El Jeitani, Sarah; Khater, Carla; Mansour, Sophie; Al-Shami, Anwar; Harik, Ghinwa; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Blasi, Carlo

    2017-07-15

    Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are the cornerstone for the future management of coastal ecosystems with many vulnerability and hazard indexes developed for this purpose, especially in the engineering literature, but with limited studies that considered ecological implications within a risk assessment. Similarly, the concept of prioritization of sites has been widely examined in biodiversity conservation studies, but only recently as an instrument for territory management. Considering coastal plant diversity at the species and community levels, and their vulnerability to three main potential hazards threatening coastal areas (oil spills, Hazardous and Noxious Substances pollution, fragmentation of natural habitats), the objective of this paper is to define an easy-to-use approach to locate and prioritize the areas more susceptible to those stressors, in order to have a practical instrument for risk management in the ordinary and extra-ordinary management of the coastline. The procedure has been applied at pilot areas in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, France, Lebanon and Tunisia). This approach can provide policy planners, decision makers and local communities an easy-to-use instrument able to facilitate the implementation of the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) process in their territory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. COASTAL STUDY, COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  13. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  14. High-resolution wave and hydrodynamics modelling in coastal areas: operational applications for coastal planning, decision support and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Achilleas G.; Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Moreno Miquel, Adrià; Archetti, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Numerical modelling has become an essential component of today's coastal planning, decision support and risk assessment. High-resolution modelling offers an extensive range of capabilities regarding simulated conditions, works and practices and provides with a wide array of data regarding nearshore wave dynamics and hydrodynamics. In the present work, the open-source TELEMAC suite and the commercial software MIKE21 are applied to selected coastal areas of South Italy. Applications follow a scenario-based approach in order to study representative wave conditions in the coastal field; the models' results are intercompared in order to test both their performance and capabilities and are further evaluated on the basis of their operational use for coastal planning and design. A multiparametric approach for the rapid assessment of wave conditions in coastal areas is also presented and implemented in areas of the same region. The overall approach is deemed to provide useful insights on the tested models and the use of numerical models - in general - in the above context, especially considering that the design of harbours, coastal protection works and management practices in the coastal zone is based on scenario-based approaches as well.

  15. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  16. Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter

  17. Modeling coastal aquifers in a Mediterranean area: the example of Taranto gulf (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Water resources stored in coastal aquifers are of strategic relevance for several regions throughout the world and in particular in the Mediterranean basin. They are extremely important in areas characterized by heavy urbanization, active industrial or touristic systems, where the need for fresh water is very acute and, sometimes, they are the only water resources available. This in turn can lead to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion because of aquifer overexploitation to satisfy the demand of an increasing population in coastal plains. Furthermore, karstic aquifers are well known for their specific vulnerability to natural and human-induced contamination, due to their particular characteristics such as thin soils, point recharge in dolines and swallow holes and increased hydraulic conductivity. Within this framework, the Taranto gulf is an example of paramount importance. In fact the presence of a wide industrial area close to the city of Taranto and the numerous maritime and military activities in the harbor area favored the increase of population density in the XX century. Moreover, they constitute factors of great concern for the protection of groundwater quality and quantity, in particular for the presence of the highly-vulnerable basins of Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande. In this area, groundwater resources are stored in a karst multilayered aquifer, which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphic point of view. Furthermore, the presence of highly water-demanding activities makes the seawater intrusion phenomenon very serious, especially along the coastline. In order to characterize the groundwater dynamic in the study area, we discuss the hydraulic relationships between the different hydrostratigraphic units and between the sea and the aquifer system by developing a numerical groundwater model to test and refine the preliminary conceptual model and estimate the most uncertain hydraulic parameters. To achieve these objectives, we used different data-sets to

  18. Integrating Climate Science, Ecosystem Modeling, and Resource Management to Develop a Coastal Master Plan for Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, D.; Sharon, C.; Knopman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana (CPRA) asked the RAND Corporation to develop a new Planning Tool to support Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan. The Planning Tool integrates climate science, ecosystem modeling, and resource management planning to comparing different risk reduction and coastal restoration projects and for developing groups of projects, or alternatives, for consideration for the Master Plan. The Planning Tool presents its results in an interactive visualization environment to support deliberation by CPRA decisionmakers and stakeholders. The Planning Tool uses new standardized estimates of project costs, planning and construction duration, and other project attributes along with science-based model estimates of project effects on risk reduction, land building, and ecosystem services. The Planning Tool considers how outcomes would differ under different future scenarios reflecting climate change, demographics, and other uncertainties. The Planning Tool uses a constrained optimization algorithm to develop a range of alternatives that meet CPRA's desired outcomes with respect to future flood risk reduction, coast-wide land area, and other decision criteria. Beginning in 2011, CPRA used the Planning Tool to compare hundreds of possible hurricane flood risk reduction and coastal restoration projects under several scenarios of long-term future conditions. CPRA next used the Planning Tool to develop and analyze hundreds of different alternatives that together would best meet Louisiana's goals of reducing hurricane flood risk and achieving a sustainable landscape. The Planning Tool then enabled CPRA to specify planning parameters such as total available funding, funding splits between risk reduction and restoration projects, and minimum levels of projected achievement of goals for ecosystem service and risk reduction decision criteria. Using this information, the Planning Tool then identified how those alternatives could be

  19. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  20. Integrated coastal area management: The case of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    problem is related to the health of the coastal sea. Due to the buffer nature oft~esea, the marine environmental impacts will not be perceptible until the situation becomes irreversible. Dispersion of pollutants along the Indian coastal waters.... Environmental strategies are being formed to match industrial development against environmental health. A grand network for the assessment of the conditions ofthe coastal zone and the adjoining seas is in the process ofimplementation. Pennanent observing...

  1. Mapping biological resources in the coastal zone: an evaluation of methods in a pioneering study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Jan Atle; Knutsen, Halvor; Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Bodvin, Torjan; Dahl, Einar

    2010-03-01

    For many years, the planning and management of terrestrial areas has been supported by a detailed knowledge of the distribution of habitats and their associated species. However, the detailed mapping of biological resources in extent coastal areas, such as the Norwegian coastal zone, is unrealistic due to its enormous coastline. Here, we present a useful and feasible approach and a set of simple, cost-effective methods which are suitable for providing a broad-scale overview of marine habitats and fish resources. This approach was developed in conjunction with a pioneer study conducted along the southern coast of the Skagerrak, where we combined knowledge gathered from local fishermen with scientific knowledge of important species and nature types to establish a coastal sea mapping program. GIS modeling tools were used in both the mapping program and to integrate local and scientific knowledge into digital maps made available to local area management. This multi-faceted approach, which combines local knowledge and scientific methods, provides valuable information with respect to marine biodiversity, and has been used extensively by local environmental management.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  3. Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high-resolution remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Silvania; Tokarczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas offer great recreational and economic opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover information provides a rapid and cost-effective means for monitoring and planning coastal area development. This study quantitatively describes spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover over the last four decades in a coastal area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Historical aerial photographs from 1976 and satellite images from 1990 and 2012 were classified and analyzed. We used supervised classification and machine learning techniques to classify the images. An accuracy assessment of results was performed. Land use change statistics for the period indicate that urban areas have increased to the detriment of dense vegetation, salines, and bare soil. The analysis provides a basis for better control of anthropogenic impacts and geoconservation activities in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

    1980-11-01

    An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

  5. Appraisal of coastal recreational resources in Qingdao by travel cost method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmei LI; Tieying LIU; Yuanyuan ZHANG; Lei LI

    2009-01-01

    This paper serves to appraise the monetary cost of coastal recreational resources in Qingdao using the travel cost method (TCM), which is typically used in developed countries. The total revenue produced by Qingdao's coastal recreational resources is about RMB 5.51×1010 annually, based on questionnaires given at Qingdao's major tourist destinations. These questionnaires establish correlation functions that factor in the number of tourists, travel expenses, etc. The data processing software named Eviews was used to determine the tourist demand regression curve and to calculate their residual and actual travel expenses. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for applicable industries interested in development and management decision-making. There-fore, this study assesses the reasonable usage of coastal recreational resources.

  6. Areas of research and manpower development for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coastal_Zone_Mgmt_1993_74.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  7. Social Capital and Public Participation on Planning in Coastal Area Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Gunawan; Syaifurridzal, M.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia is one country to the world that rich with natural resources, especially on marine and coastal resources. But, the condition of rural inhabitants in coastal area still low in economic condition and public facilities and others not suitable for good living environment. The goal of this paper is to integrate the concept of social capital and public participation in the community activities. Social capital, which is interpreted with the term of the trust, networks and norm as governing human behavior is significant to motivate and coordinate collective action towards collaboration. Collective action or collaboration among people in the communities could solve the problem together. In the Grootaert research, with the title “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Indonesia” (1999) found that active participation in decision making and memberships in heterogeneous organizations further reduce the likelihood to be poor. In this research, we found the same from Grootaert finding, that social capital (trust) has positive impact to community activities (path point 0.56) in this research location.

  8. Spatial effects on salinisation processes in a coastal wetland area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Eberhard, Julius; Stefan, Krause; Martin, Maier; Anett, Schibalski; Schaik Loes, van

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present the influence of environmental changes on a coastal area which is at risk of salinisation through the subsurface. The study site is located at the estuary of the river Ems at the German North Sea coast. 30 % of the pasture-dominated landscape is below sea level and requires permanent water management. The low permeable soils prevent a significant interaction with the salty perched aquifer. But through geological faults of old paleo-channels, a connection to the surface water body exists which considerably decreases water quality. Observations in those areas show a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. We expect that under climate change the area will be more affected by dry summer periods and wetter winter periods. To analyse the effect of climate change on the study site, we choose a bottom up strategy. We simulate the hydrological dynamics of the catchment with a spatially explicit model approach. The estimated soil moistures and hydraulic heads are used as boundary conditions in a second step to calculate the local effect on salinisation on the plot scale. Because of the complex geology only predictions for areas with known layering are performed. The models are calibrated and validated based on observations. Finally, the validated model setups are used to investigate different climate scenarios covering a temperature rise between 1 and 3.5 K with different meteorological and sea level time series. To take changes in land management into account, we develop different scenarios of landuse strategies to avoid inundation during winter and salinisation during summer. Therefore, different types of polder systems are investigated. One of the scenarios of landuse strategies assumes the technological level of management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level. The scenario technological level of the land management is able to prevent low lying areas from inundation. But during summer salinisation and during winter

  9. Criteria for Incorporating the Guidelines of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Territorial Land Use Planning: Study Case for the Colombian Pacific Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela López Rodrí­guez; Paula Cristina Sierra-Correa; Pilar Lozano-Rivera

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been implemented through the “National Environmental Policy of the Oceanic Spaces and Coastal and Insular Areas of Colombia-PNAOCI” (Acronyms in Spanish), whose guidelines have considered the need to include marine and coastal ecosystems in land use planning. ICZM, as a special planning approach, can contribute to territorial land use planning of the municipalities located in coastal areas, because it can provide guidelines for the co...

  10. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  11. Groundwater Resources Potential in the Coastal Plain Sands Aquifers, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Longe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic properties of the aquifers located in the coastal plain sands, Lagos, Nigeria had been investigated. A review of both the theoretical and practical applications of pumping tests in groundwater resource evaluation for coastal plain sands aquifer was carried out. The main activities involved collation of information related to well logs, step-drawdown and constant rate pumping tests from existing database on borehole drilling in seven wells to an average depth of 100 m. Graphical methods based on Rorabaugh’s Hantush-Bierschenk’s analyses were used to determine the components of drawdown due to well and aquifer losses from the step-drawdown pumping tests. Conventional analytical methods based on non-equilibrium equation were used to assess the local hydraulic regime of the groundwater system using constant rate pumping tests data. Data from 11 controlled pumping tests in Shomolu area of Lagos metropolis were analyzed. The transmissivity values of the multi-layered aquifer system range between 345.6 and 2,332 m2/day while the storage coefficient values range between 2.8x10-4 and 4.5x10-4. Both results indicate confined aquifers of artesian conditions. The step-drawdown pumping tests results indicate that well losses constituted a significant component of drawdown in the pumped wells, a phenomenon due to poor well design, well development; and non-Darcian flow in the multi-layered aquifer. The pumping test results allowed for theoretical and practical prediction of aquifer and well yields in the study area.

  12. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  14. Data access and decision tools for coastal water resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA has supported the development of numerous models and tools to support implementation of environmental regulations. However, transfer of knowledge and methods from detailed technical models to support practical problem solving by local communities and watershed or coastal management organizations remains a challenge. We have developed the Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to facilitate data discovery, visualization and access to support environmental problem solving for coastal watersheds and estuaries. EDM is a stand-alone application based on open-source software which requires only internet access for operation. Initially, development of EDM focused on delivery of raw data streams from distributed web services, ranging from atmospheric deposition to hydrologic, tidal, and water quality time series, estuarine habitat characteristics, and remote sensing products. We have transitioned to include access to value-added products which provide end-users with results of future scenario analysis, facilitate extension of models across geographic regions, and/or promote model interoperability. Here we present three examples: 1) the delivery of input data for the development of seagrass models across estuaries, 2) scenarios illustrating the implications of riparian buffer management (loss or restoration) for stream thermal regimes and fish communities, and 3) access to hydrology model outputs to foster connections across models at different scales, ultimately feeding

  15. Geoid determination in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HongZhi

    Coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico are important for many reasons. This part of the United States provides vital coastal habitats for many marine species; the area has seen-ever increasing human settlement along the coast, ever increasing infrastructure for marine transportation of the nation's imports and exports through Gulf ports, and ever increasing recreational users of coastal resources. These important uses associated with the Gulf coast are subject to dynamic environmental and physical changes including: coastal erosion (Gulf-wide rates of 25 square miles per year), tropical storm surges, coastal subsidence, and global sea level rise. Coastal land subsidence is a major component of relative sea level rise along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. These dynamic coastal changes should be evident in changes to the geoid along the coast. The geoid is the equipotential gravity surface of the earth, which the best fits the global mean sea level. The geoid is not only been seen as the most natural shape of the Earth, but also it serves as the reference surface for most of the height systems. By using satellites (GRACE mission) scientists have been able to measure the large scale geoid for the Earth. A small scale geoid model is required to monitor local events such as flooding, for example, flooding created by storm surges from hurricanes such as Katrina (2005), Rita (2005), and Ike (2008). The overall purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the local coastal geoid. The more precise geoid will enable to improve coastal flooding predictions, and will enable more cost effective and accurate measurement of coastal topography using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The main objective of this study is to devise mathematical models and computational methods to achieve the best possible precision for evaluation of the geoid in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico. More specifically, the numerical objectives of this study are 1) to obtain a

  16. Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rocha-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was carried out from August 2007 to July 2009 in two coastal ecosystems in Ubatuba, Brazil. In order to obtain information on flower resources collected by Euglossini bees in loco, all bees observed on flowers were collected, pollinaria of Orchidaceae occasionally attached to the body of males were identified, and the pollinic analysis of 68 females was carried out. One hundred twelve bees from 14 species were associated to 105 plant species which represented pollen, nectar, resin, and fragrances sources. These data reinforce the relevance of orchid bees to the maintenance and reproductive success of many tropical plants.

  17. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and amphibians for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  18. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  19. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  20. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone-hosted uranium resources in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hall, Susan M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Tureck, Kathleen R.; Hannon, Mark T.; Breit, George N.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Elliott, Brent

    2015-12-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 220 million pounds of recoverable uranium oxide (U3O8 ) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in southern Texas. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method for Tertiary sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Texas Coastal Plain sedimentary strata (fig.1).

  2. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  3. Vulnerability of coastal areas to sea-level rise: some global results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, F.M.J.; Marchand, M.; Pennekamp, H.; Misdorp, R.; Bijlsma, L.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of the various resources of the world's coastal zones to an acceleration of sea-level rise (ASLR) and related climate change effects requires detailed global information on the distribution, density and state of the resources and on the impacting hazardous events. For

  4. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  5. Analysis of Benefits and Pitfalls of Satellite SAR for Coastal Area Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziata, F.; Buono, A.; Mgliaccio, M.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study aims at describing the outcomes of the Dragon-3 project no. 10689. The undertaken activities deal with coastal area monitoring and they include sea pollution and coastline extraction. The key remote sensing tool is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that provides fine resolution images of the microwave reflectivity of the observed scene. However, the interpretation of SAR images is not at all straightforward and all the above-mentioned coastal area applications cannot be easily addressed using single-polarization SAR. Hence, the main outcome of this project is investigating the capability of multi-polarization SAR measurements to generate added-vale product in the frame of coastal area management.

  6. 77 FR 17037 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study AGENCY... Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management restoration study. This... the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana, Ecosystem Restoration Study (LCA Study). The record...

  7. Xylocopa bees in tropical coastal sand dunes: use of resources and their floral syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, N; Gimenes, M; de Miranda, M D; Oliveira-Rebouças, P

    2013-06-01

    Large bees such as species from Xylocopa Latreille are usually associated with pollination in tropical sand dune areas, which frequently present shrubby herbaceous vegetation adapted to conditions of high salinity, high solar radiation and strong winds. We report on the diversity of Xylocopa and the plants they visited to collect nectar and pollen, focusing on the floral syndromes they present in these plants and on the breadth of the trophic niche in a tropical sand dune fragment over the year. The field work was carried out monthly in Baixio (Bahia, Brazil; Northern Coast Environmental Protection Area) from April 2008 to March 2009, over two consecutive days, from 06:30 AM to 05:00 PM. The medium-large body sized Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) cearensis Ducke and Xylocopa (Schonnherria) subcyanea Pérez were noticeable for their frequency, constancy on the flowers and sharing of plant species. Xylocopa spp. visited plants with flowers of different shapes, colors, inflorescence arrangement and syndromes. However, their resource collections were mainly concentrated on Cuphea brachiata, Waltheria cinerascens, Croton sellowii and Chamaecrista ramosa, which may be considered key species for Xylocopa spp. maintenance in coastal sand dune and restinga environments in Northeast Brazil.

  8. Geologic framework, evolution, and sediment resources for restoration of the Louisiana Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Jenkins, Chris; Flocks, Jim; Kindinger, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The Louisiana Coastal Zone along the north-central Gulf of Mexico represents one of America's most important coastal ecosystems in terms of natural resources, human infrastructure, and cultural heritage. This zone also has the highest rates of coastal erosion and wetland loss in the nation because of a complex combination of natural processes and anthropogenic activities during the past century. In response to the dramatic land loss, regional-scale restoration plans are being developed through a partnership of federal and state agencies. One objective is to maintain the barrier island and tidal inlet systems, thereby reducing the impact of storm surge and interior wetland loss. Proposed shore line restoration work relies primarily upon the use of large volumes of sand-rich sediment for shoreline stabilization and the implementation of the shoreline projects. Although sand-rich sediment is required for the Louisiana restoration projects, it is of limited availability within the generally clay to silt-rich, shallow strata of the Louisiana Coastal Zone. Locating volumetrically significant quantities of sand-rich sediment presents a challenge and requires detailed field investigations using direct sampling and geophysical sensing methods. Consequently, there is a fundamental need to thoroughly understand and map the distribution and textural character {e.g., sandiness) of sediment resources within the Coastal Zone for the most cost-effective design and completion of restoration projects.

  9. An Assessment of River Resources for Louisiana Coastal Land Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Resources Max maximum Min minimum MRGO Mississippi River Gulf Outlet NAVD North American Vertical Datum RSLR relative sea-level rise SRED ...Enhancement Device ( SRED ), a low weir to enhance deposition, was not constructed and could be added later as the 20,000 cubic feet per second (cfs

  10. Illegal Fishing Activity ‒ A New Threat in Mannar Island Coastal Area (Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosai Augustin Siluvaithasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Illegal fishing net use is one of the most serious threats to the health of the world’s fisheries and for the secure employment of fishers. Illegal modes of fishing adversely affect the fishing industry according to the Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Ministry of Sri Lanka which is the regulatory body of the fisheries industry. In Sri Lanka, usage of illegal fishing methods has increased in recent years. There is an urgent need to identify prohibited or illegal fishing activities and the use of dangerous or harmful substances in fishing. The present study was carried out in the Mannar coastal area from June 2013 until the latter part of June 2014, to identify illegal, prohibited and dangerous fishing activities, and to understand the major threats and impacts on the fishing community and the socio, economic, biological and ecological impacts through field surveys and library methods. The study aims to outline appropriate planning and solutions to minimize illegal fishing and to save the coastal biodiversity and fishing community.

  11. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  12. Wave energy resource in the Estaca de Bares area (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Carballo, R. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, EPS, Hydraulic Eng., Campus Univ. s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The area around Cape Estaca de Bares (the northernmost point of Iberia) presents a great potential for wave energy exploitation owing to its prominent position, with average deepwater wave power values exceeding 40 kW/m. The newly available SIMAR-44 dataset, composed of hindcast data spanning 44 years (1958-2001), is used alongside wave buoy data and numerical modelling to assess this substantial energy resource in detail. Most of the energy is provided by waves from the IV quadrant, generated by the prevailing westerlies blowing over the long Atlantic fetch. Combined scatter and energy diagrams are used to characterise the wave energy available in an average year in terms of the sea states involved. The lion's share is shown to correspond to significant wave heights between 2 and 5 m and energy periods between 11 and 14 s. The nearshore energy patterns are then examined using a coastal wave model (SWAN) with reference to four situations: average wave energy, growing wave energy (at the approach of a storm), extreme wave energy (at the peak of the storm) and decaying wave energy (as the storm recedes). The irregular bathymetry is found to produce local concentrations of wave energy in the nearshore between Cape Prior and Cape Ortegal and in front of Cape Estaca de Bares, with similar patterns (but varying wave power) in the four cases. These nearshore areas of enhanced wave energy are of the highest interest as prospective sites for a wave energy operation. The largest of them is directly in the lee of a large underwater mount west of Cape Ortegal. In sum, the Estaca de Bares area emerges as one of the most promising for wave energy exploitation in Europe. (author)

  13. 61 FR 42052 - Owyhee Resource Area, ID; Resource Management Plan, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Owyhee Resource Area, ID; Resource Management Plan, etc. AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management Plan (RMP) and associated draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Owyhee Resource Area... be sent to: Owyhee Area Manager, Bureau of Land Management, Boise Field Office, 3948...

  14. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM: a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions

  15. Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzourra, Hazar; Bouhlila, Rachida; Elango, L; Slama, Fairouz; Ouslati, Naceur

    2015-02-01

    Coastal aquifers are at threat of salinization in most parts of the world. This study was carried out in coastal shallow aquifers of Aousja-Ghar El Melh and Kalâat el Andalous, northeastern of Tunisia with an objective to identify sources and processes of groundwater salinization. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 shallow dug wells during July and September 2007. Chemical parameters such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), Br(-), and F(-) were analyzed. The combination of hydrogeochemical, statistical, and GIS approaches was used to understand and to identify the main sources of salinization and contamination of these shallow coastal aquifers as follows: (i) water-rock interaction, (ii) evapotranspiration, (iii) saltwater is started to intrude before 1972 and it is still intruding continuously, (iv) irrigation return flow, (v) sea aerosol spray, and finally, (vi) agricultural fertilizers. During 2005/2006, the overexploitation of the renewable water resources of aquifers caused saline water intrusion. In 2007, the freshening of a brackish-saline groundwater occurred under natural recharge conditions by Ca-HCO3 meteoric freshwater. The cationic exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. The sulfate reduction process and the neo-formation of clays minerals characterize the hypersaline coastal Sebkha environments. Evaporation tends to increase the concentrations of solutes in groundwater from the recharge areas to the discharge areas and leads to precipitate carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  16. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Gateway National Recreation Area (gate_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gateway National Recreation Area in New...

  17. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Gateway National Recreation Area (gate_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gateway National Recreation Area in New...

  18. Assessment of Wind Home System's Potential in Coastal Areas of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mujeebudin; Harijan, Khanji; Uqaili, Mohammad Aslam

    2007-10-01

    About 50 and 90 percent of the total population of rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces respectively have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene and LPG. The population density in rural coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces is about 100-150 and 10-50 persons per km2 respectively. Extension of existing centralized grid system to rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads is economically and technically unfeasible. In this situation, decentralized renewable electricity especially wind power appears to be one of the viable option. This paper presents the assessment of potential of wind home systems (WHS) for rural electrification in coastal areas of Pakistan using the wind speed data recorded by Pakistan Metrological Department (PMD) and power curve of a reference wind turbine. Pakistan has 1050 km long coastline, of which, 250 km is falling in Sindh and 800 km in Balochistan. A 150 Wp wind turbine could generate about 345 kWh and 250 kWh of electricity per year in coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan respectively, which would be sufficient for meeting the electricity demand of a rural household. The average theoretical potential of WHS in the coastal area of Sindh and Balochistan is about 2245 and 1800 FLH respectively. The total installed capacity and technical potential of WHS in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as 63.75 MW and 135 GWh/year respectively.

  19. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  20. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-02-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  1. Shoreline Dynamics and Various Associated Processes in the Batang Coastal Area, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Mutaqin, Bachtiar; Nugraha, Henky; Puspitorukmi, Arum; Lavigne, Franck; Hartono, Hartono; Aris Marfai, Muh

    2015-04-01

    Coastal area is an area with dynamic environmental condition with both physical and non-physical processes. One of the effects of these processes is shoreline change, which may occur in short-term events due to regular wave action, tides, or winds, as well as in long-term events such as tectonic activities that cause coastal land subsidence or emergence. Shoreline change analysis, especially in Batang, Central Java, Indonesia, is needed as a reference for coastal planning in that area, such as stipulate the coastal protection method, as well as a cornerstone in the policy or development of coastal areas. Shoreline change along Batang coastal area has been analyzed using the End Point Rate (EPR) technique in Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in ArcGIS 10. Baseline were created along the shoreline to generate general trend of shoreline. Transects with 500 m spacing were made perpendicular to the baseline towards the sea. About 385 transect with 500 meters spaces was created to measure the shoreline change. Negative and positive value were used to indicate the erosion or accretion regime. Shoreline change have been measured using multi-temporal satellite images from 2009 to 2013. The study found that shoreline in Batang is changed significantly during 2009 - 2013. Around 0,33 km2 of land has lost due to coastal erosion, two times greater than the amount of coastal accretion (0,15 km2). The high erosion area mostly found in west Port of Niaga and in the east of Sambong River estuary. Based on the result obtained with EPR technique, can be concluded that coastal erosion is mostly happened in the Batang coastal than coastal accretion. This statement also supported by research conducted by Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) in 2013 which states that the phenomenon of coastal erosion in Batang was began in 1994. The highest rate of coastal erosion had occurred between the years 1997 to 2002, including at the Sigandu beach until

  2. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes and tsunamis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    to favourable seabed morphology, which in turn is the result of the faulted basement structure. Conclusion Hazard management of coastal areas requires systematic data collection and continuous monitoring of different oceanographic processes and their impact... is another factor for some of the intraplate earthquakes in the South Indian Shield, which includes the Eastern and Western Continental Margins of India. Baseline geophysical data for hazard management in coastal areas in relation to earthquakes...

  3. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  4. Monitoring The Land Accretion Development at Coastal Area of Blanakan, Subang Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi; Meriana, Ginna; Somantri, Lili

    2016-11-01

    A land accretion is formed by deposition in estuaries. Recently, a land development in Subang coastal area has raised an increase. Beside its potential, coastal areas are also threatened with damage including abrasion, accretion, loss of mangrove forests, and sea water intrusion. One of the coastal areas that have been arising in very extensive land is Blanakan coastal in Subang Regency. This study aims to monitor the development of a land accretion that have been arise during the period of 1990 to 2015 and also to examine the use of a land accretion and analyze the impact of a land accretion to the social and economic conditions in the Blanakan Coastal Areas. The method used in this research was descriptive quantitative method. In this research, The Landsat imageries were overlaid came from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 to determine the development of a land accretion. Based on the results of Landsat imagery overlaid over the period 1990-2015. Overall, during the period 1990-2015, accreted land formed was an area of 782.9 hectares and abrasion area of 73.3 hectares with changes in the most far reaching 1580.3 m. The use of land accretion in the Blanakan Coastal mostly used for a fishpond with a key commodity is Milkfish and Bago shrimps. The impact of land accretion to the social and economic conditions was reflected through the five indicators such as livelihoods, income, education, health, and ownership of assets.

  5. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  6. Analysis of nutrient content and assessment of economic value for major salt-tolerant plants in coastal areas: a case study of Dongying City,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salinization of soil is a worldwide problem concerning resources and ecology,especially serious in coastal areas.Testing of 26 sorts of data or parameters are carried out on leaves of 22 plant species (in 24 plant variety) of existing main salt-tolerant plant of the Yellow River Delta region.Data or parameters include the following elements:contents of K+,Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+ and Cl-,contents of protein,fat,total energy,ash and contents of 17 amino acids.The results show that these tested plants have economic values.For example,according to their uses,they can be divided into edible plants,forage plants,medicine or health plants,and some of them can be used for multipurposes.These plants have played important roles in the sustainable utilization of plant resources in coastal areas.This paper has taken evaluations on the economic uses of salt-tolerant plants and given suggestions for saline soil improvement and resource utilization in coastal areas.Based on the results of investigation and experiments,we suppose that the salt-tolerant plants in coastal areas can be grouped into 9 main groups according to their eeonomic value:pioneer plants for saline land improvement,medicine,edible and forage plants,industry material forestation,breeding material,energy plants and eco-tourism resources.

  7. Coastal freshwater resources management in the frame of climate change: application to three basins (Italy, Morocco, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, E.; Antonellini, M.; Dentinho, T.; Khattabi, A.

    2009-04-01

    dunes were eroded and a series of saltwater ponds are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence an active dune system and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow freshwater lens in the aquifer of the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes and do not contain any pond. Here, the freshwater lens in the aquifer is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upcoming of deeper salty groundwater. This study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low level coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upcoming. In this Italian case, a socio-economical modelling has to be developed to help decision making in both water and economical management to step toward an integrated water resource management. In the Terceira Island, a spatial interaction model has been developed including land and water uses combined with economical sectors related to Corine-Land-Cover (i.e. CLC) classification applied to urban areas and its surroundings. The spatial competition between different economical sectors and population pressures for land use and water use is resulting from the calibration of bid-rents. This economical model requires a dataset based on the spatial distribution of population, land uses and the calculation of distances between each economical sector including socio-economical indicators (i.e. employment, labor productivity, human

  8. Cumulative Effects of Coastal Habitat Alterations on Fishery Resources: toward Prediction at Regional Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Jordan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal habitat alterations such as the loss of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV and hardening of shorelines could have cumulative effects on valuable fishery resources. To investigate this effect, we developed a multiscale modeling framework for blue crab (Callinectes sapidus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Areal coverage of shoreline land cover and SAV for Mobile Bay, Alabama, were combined with information from small-scale biological studies and long-term, large-scale commercial fishery data to model the potential effects of marginal habitat losses on the blue crab fishery. We applied stochastic variation in annual recruitment to the fishery to estimate probabilities for sustainable harvests under scenarios of habitat loss. The simulations suggested that, accumulated over large areas, relatively small local losses of estuarine marsh edge and SAV habitats could have long-term negative effects on the sustainability of the fishery. Spatially extensive models are required to investigate the cumulative ecological effects of many local environmental changes. The requisite scaling adds uncertainty and reduces precision, but if model parameters are accurate at each scale, accurate predictions of long-term outcomes and probabilities are possible.

  9. MODERN AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCE-BASED THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Miroshnychenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of resource-based view is focus on using unique and rare combination of resources, core competences and organizational capabilities of the firm. The new intellectual resources and their combination provide the formation of sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, it seems there is necessity to join in research the application of resource-based theory to creation of new combination of resources in dynamic environment. In this paper modern areas of development of resource-based theory have been considered. The concept of knowledge management, the concept of open innovation, the resource-based view and the system organization of economy have been characterised.

  10. Climate change impact chains in tropical coastal areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pramova, Emilia; Chazarin, Florie; Locatelli, Bruno; Hoppe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Policy Brief. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Bonn, Germany; Tropical coasts are highly vulnerable to climatic pressures, the future impacts of which are projected to propagate through the natural and human components of coastal systems. One single event (e.g., intense storm) or gradual changes (e.g., upland deforestation or sea-level rise) can have multiple direct and indirect impacts in coral reefs, seagrass meadows, mangroves and human settlements and can com...

  11. The Use of Science in Environmental Advocacy for Coastal Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maida Aguinaldo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental advocacy in Bolinao has played an important role in the prevention, remediation, and rehabilitation of potential and felt impacts of the various activities in the coastal zone. Most initiatives have been spurred by the sharing of knowledge and information in mobilizing community advocates. Facilitating action in four key areas–development planning, coastal aquaculture, concession systems, and tourism– involved the provision of venues for information transfer. These included the conduct of orientations and consultations, sharing of results of research project undertaken, lobbying, and use of primers, newsletters, and theater. Mechanisms for sustaining these actions and upholding the Coastal Resource Management (CRM principles (sustainable, equitable, empowering long after projects have been phased out were initiated through the establishment of a Coastal Resource Management Center, and the institutionalization activities through existing institutions, such as the local government, academic institutions, and peoples’ organizations.Maximizing knowledge and information, popularizing information, and sharing this with members of the community and getting them to use it, as well as enjoining them to act, are the challenges that must be faced. Environmental advocacy, as a tool for empowering different community sectors in evolving a consensus for CRM has become an integral feature of development work in Bolinao.

  12. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the water resources of Genesee County, Mich., whose principal city is Flint. The sources of water available to the county are the Flint and Shiawassee Rivers and their tributaries, inland lakes, ground water, and Lake Huron. The withdrawal use of water in the county in 1958 amounted to about 45 mgd. Of this amount, 36 mgd was withdrawn from the Flint River by the Flint public water-supply system. The rest was supplied by wells. At present (1959) the Shiawassee River and its tributaries and the inland lakes are not used for water supply. Flint River water is used for domestic, industrial, and waste-dilution requirements in Flint. About 60 percent of the water supplied by the Flint public water system is used by Flint industry. At least 30 mgd of river water is needed for waste dilution in the Flint River during warm weather.Water from Holloway Reservoir, which has a storage capacity of 5,760 million gallons, is used to supplement low flows in the Flint River to meet water-supply and waste-dilution requirements. About 650 million gallons in Kearsley Reservoir, on a Flint River tributary, is held in reserve for emergency use. Based on records for the lowest flows during the period 1930-52, the Flint River system, with the two reservoirs in operation, is capable of supplying about 60 mgd at Flint, less evaporation and seepage losses. The 1958 water demands exceeded this amount. Development of additional storage in the Flint River basin is unlikely because of lack of suitable storage sites. Plans are underway to supply Flint and most of Genesee County with water from Lake Huron.The principal tributaries of the Flint River in and near Flint could furnish small supplies of water. Butternut Creek, with the largest flow of those studied, has an estimated firm yield of 0.054 mgd per sq mi for 95 percent of the time. The Shiawassee River at Byron is capable of supplying at least 29 mgd for 95 percent of the time.Floods are a serious problem in Flint

  13. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le Cozannet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets, simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean, notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  14. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  15. SEDIMENT HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment contamination is a major problem in many coastal areas in the U.S. and has emerged as an important ecological issue for several geographic areas. Sediment chemical and biological quality is unknown in many areas of the Gulf of Mexico. To provide some information on this ...

  16. Coastal seas as resource for Blue Growth - SmartSea project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Alvi, Kimmo; Boman, Anton; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kaskela, Anu; Rantataro, Jyrki; Vallius, Henry; Virtasalo, Joonas

    2017-04-01

    Blue growth is a long term strategy of the European Union (EU) to enhance the sustainable growth of the maritime sector. Our surrounding seas have been drivers for the European economy for a long time, but still they have great potential for further exploiting of natural resources and economic growth. Especially if the growth can be achieved in an environmentally sustainable way, benefits are obvious. It has been estimated that improvement of the state of the Baltic Sea would until 2030 create 900 000 jobs in the whole Baltic Sea area, mainly in Blue Tech, tourism, real estate and building businesses (Dahlgren et al. 2015). However, coastal seas already experience multiple stressors like off-shore construction, pollution, eutrophication, shipping, over-fishing, and climate change. In order to obtain sustainable Blue Growth, it is necessary to localize and assess the current maritime activities, estimate their growth potential, and investigate their present and future effects on each other and on the marine environment. The purpose of the SmartSea project is to support the growth of commercial marine activities in the Gulf of Bothnia region, in the northern Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Bothnia is an essential resource in terms of fish farming and wind power, for example, and it is also possible to make use of the geological resources of the gulf. Moreover, the rapid growth of the commercial marine activities and the consequences of the climate change may lead to conflicts between the different activities and harm the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia. The SmartSea project aims to identify these risks and find solutions for the sustainable use of the sea. SmartSea project is funded by the Strategic Research Council of Academy of Finland, grant No: 292 985. The project will last for six years (2015-2020) and its funding totals nearly 8 million euros. The project involves close to 40 researchers from eight different institutions: the Finnish Meteorological Institute

  17. Participatory rural appraisal to assess groundwater resources in Al-Mujaylis, Tihama Coastal Plain, Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Qubatee, W.S.M.; Ritzema, H.P.; Al-Weshall, Adel; Steenbergen, van F.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) conducted in the Al-Mujaylis area, Tihama Coastal Plain, Yemen provided a contribution, as a bottom-up approach, to the assessment of the needs of communities and their views on how to avoid groundwater degradation. It was found that PRA tools could be applied

  18. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  19. Integrating science into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and development planning (CSDP) is no longer an option but a necessity. Current legislation devolves many fine scale planning and management functions within coastal urban centres to local authorities, including land-use and urban and economic development... into governance and management of coastal areas at urban scale L CELLIERS, S TALJAARD AND R VAN BALLEGOOYEN CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: lcelliers@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND With burgeoning demand for coastal space...

  20. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  1. On the importance of coastal areas in the survival of Neanderthal populations during the Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution of Neanderthal populations across Europe and the Middle East. Key geographical variables are used to identify major population strongholds. Four are identified: southern Iberia, Atlantic Europe, Black Sea-Aegean and coastal Italy. Neanderthal site density in each stronghold was found to correspond closely with the predicted suitability of each area. A strong correlation was found between area suitability and last Neanderthal dates and the process of population fragmentation and extinction was found to affect continental areas first and coastal ones last. Oceanic influence, inter-area connectivity and proximity to coasts were found to be key variables in the Neanderthal extinction process. The functional ecological significance of coastal areas to Neanderthals is discussed.

  2. Biology of Herbivorous Fish in the Coastal Areas of Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yagishita, Naoki; KUME, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed beds in Japanese coastal waters have significantly declined in recent years and feeding by herbivorous fish has been identified as one of the potential causes of this decline. In the western coastal areas of Kyushu, seaweed consumption by fish species such as the mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens), sea chubs (Kyphosus spp.), and the Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus) has become a matter of concern. Our research group has been investigating the biology of herbivorous fish in...

  3. Stratigraphic controls on saltwater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of coastal Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Ehman, K.D.; Ponti, D.J.; Reichard, E.G.; Tinsley, J.C.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Land, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Los Angeles Basin is a densely populated coastal area that significantly depends on groundwater. A part of this groundwater supply is at risk from saltwater intrusion-the impetus for this study. High-resolution seismic-reflection data collected from the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor Complex have been combined with borehole geophysical and descriptive geological data from four nearby ??400-m-deep continuously cored wells and with borehole geophysical data from adjacent water and oil wells to characterize the Pliocene to Holocene stratigraphy of the Dominguez Gap coastal aquifer system. The new data are shown as a north-south, two- dimensional, sequence-stratigraphic model that is compared to existing lithostratigraphic models of the Los Angeles Basin in an attempt to better understand pathways of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Intrusion of saltwater into the coastal aquifer system generally is attributed to over-pumping that caused the hydraulic gradient to reverse during the mid-1920s. Local water managers have used the existing lithostratigraphic model to site closely spaced injection wells of freshwater (barrier projects) attempting to hydraulically control the saltwater intrusion. Improved understanding of the stratigraphic relationships can guide modifications to barrier design that will allow more efficient operation. Allostratigraphic nomenclature is used to define a new sequence-stratigraphic model for the area because the existing lithostratigraphic correlations that have been used to define aquifer systems are shown not to be time-correlative. The youngest sequence, the Holocene Dominguez sequence, contains the Gaspur aquifer at its base. The Gaspur aquifer is intruded with saltwater and consists of essentially flat-lying gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as broad channels that occupied a paleovalley incised into the coastal plain during the last glacio-eustatic highstand. The underlying sequences are deformed into

  4. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    In arid countries with access to marine water seawater desalination is becoming an important water source in order to deal with the water scarcity and population growth. Seawater reverse osmosis (RO) facilities use open seawater intake, which requires pretreatment processes to remove particles in order to avoid fouling of the RO membrane. In small and medium size desalination facilities, an alternative water source can be saline groundwater in coastal aquifers. Using saline groundwater from boreholes near the shore as feed water may have the advantage of natural filtration and low organic content. It will also reduce operation costs of pretreatment. Another advantage of using groundwater is its availability in highly populated areas, where planning of large RO desalination plants is difficult and expensive due to real-estate prices. Pumping saline groundwater underneath the freshwater-seawater interface (FSI) might shift the interface towards the sea, thus rehabilitating the fresh water reservoirs in the aquifer. In this research, we tested the potential use of saline groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Israel as feed water for desalination using field work and desalination experiments. Specifically, we sampled the groundwater from a pumping well 100 m from the shore of Tel-Aviv and sea water from the desalination plant in Ashqelon, Israel. We used an RO cross flow system in a pilot plant in order to compare between the two water types in terms of permeate flux, permeate flux decline, salt rejection of the membrane and the fouling on the membrane. The feed, brine and fresh desalinated water from the outlet of the desalination system were chemically analyzed and compared. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and salinity were also conducted in situ. Additionally, SDI (silt density index), which is an important index for desalination, and total organic carbon that has a key role in organic fouling and development of biofouling, were measured and

  5. Resource and Environmental Quality Changes and Adjustment Principles for Sustainable evelopment in Rapidly Developing Coastal Region of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Problems in water-land resources and environmental quality increase with the fast economic development in the coastal region of southeastern China. This region has the highest density in population, industry and towns in China, and the large export-oriented economy makes itself a strategic importance while China enters into international markets. The problems facing to this region include arable land reduction, land degradation aggravation, high percentage of built-up land with high rate of expansion, expanded non-point pollution, deteriorated water quality, decreasing biodiversity, destroyed ecosystems, severe air pollution, frequently occurred acid rain, and multi-pollutants. The important research fields in the near future should include a) influence of high-intensity exploitation of resources on changes of environment quality and its feedback; b) interface processes, key mechanisms and adjustment principles for degradation of water-, land-, and air-resources and environmental quality; c) evolvement processes and nurturing theory of biodiversity and ecological resources; and d) spatio-temporal variation and human-induced effects on regional resources and environment quality. Strategies for sustainable development in the region are as follows: a) controlling to ensure basic cultivated land area; b) enforcing remediation of polluted water environment, and controlling non-point pollution; c) strengthening ecological construction and ecological security; and d) controlling multipollution and preventing trace toxic pollutants.

  6. Hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation of the coastal shallow aquifers in El-Omayed area, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwia, M G; Masoud, A A

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring and assessment of the coastal aquifers are becoming a worldwide concern for the need of additional and sustainable water resources to satisfy demographic growth and economic development. A hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation was conducted in the El-Omayed area in the northwestern coast of Egypt. The aim of the study was to delineate different water-bearing formations, provide a general evaluation of groundwater quality, and identify the recharge sources in aquifers. Thirty-seven water samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. Fifteen profiles of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) were obtained in the oolitic limestone aquifer to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The groundwater reserves in the El-Omayed area are mainly contained in sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. The aquifer of sand dune accumulations contains freshwater of low salinity (average total dissolved solids (TDS) = 974 mg/l). Groundwater of oolitic limestone aquifer is slightly brackish (average TDS = 1,486 mg/l). Groundwater of these aquifers can be used for irrigation under special management for salinity control, and regular leaching as indicated by electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio. Results of VES interpretation classified the subsurface sequence of oolitic limestone aquifer into four geoelectric zones, with increasing depth, calcareous loam, gypsum, oolitic limestone, and sandy limestone. Oolitic limestone constitutes the main aquifer and has a thickness of 12-32 m.

  7. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  8. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  9. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  10. A FRAMEWORK FOR CAPACITY BUILDING IN MAPPING COASTAL RESOURCES USING REMOTE SENSING IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tamondong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been an effective technology in mapping natural resources by reducing the costs and field data gathering time and bringing in timely information. With the launch of several earth observation satellites, an increase in the availability of satellite imageries provides an immense selection of data for the users. The Philippines has recently embarked in a program which will enable the gathering of LiDAR data in the whole country. The capacity of the Philippines to take advantage of these advancements and opportunities is lacking. There is a need to transfer the knowledge of remote sensing technology to other institutions to better utilize the available data. Being an archipelagic country with approximately 36,000 kilometers of coastline, and most of its people depending on its coastal resources, remote sensing is an optimal choice in mapping such resources. A project involving fifteen (15 state universities and colleges and higher education institutions all over the country headed by the University of the Philippines Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry and funded by the Department of Science and Technology was formed to carry out the task of capacity building in mapping the country’s coastal resources using LiDAR and other remotely sensed datasets. This paper discusses the accomplishments and the future activities of the project.

  11. a Framework for Capacity Building in Mapping Coastal Resources Using Remote Sensing in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamondong, A.; Cruz, C.; Ticman, T.; Peralta, R.; Go, G. A.; Vergara, M.; Estabillo, M. S.; Cadalzo, I. E.; Jalbuena, R.; Blanco, A.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing has been an effective technology in mapping natural resources by reducing the costs and field data gathering time and bringing in timely information. With the launch of several earth observation satellites, an increase in the availability of satellite imageries provides an immense selection of data for the users. The Philippines has recently embarked in a program which will enable the gathering of LiDAR data in the whole country. The capacity of the Philippines to take advantage of these advancements and opportunities is lacking. There is a need to transfer the knowledge of remote sensing technology to other institutions to better utilize the available data. Being an archipelagic country with approximately 36,000 kilometers of coastline, and most of its people depending on its coastal resources, remote sensing is an optimal choice in mapping such resources. A project involving fifteen (15) state universities and colleges and higher education institutions all over the country headed by the University of the Philippines Training Center for Applied Geodesy and Photogrammetry and funded by the Department of Science and Technology was formed to carry out the task of capacity building in mapping the country's coastal resources using LiDAR and other remotely sensed datasets. This paper discusses the accomplishments and the future activities of the project.

  12. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  13. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  14. Effects of tidal amplitude on intertidal resource availability and dispersal pressure in prehistoric human coastal populations: the Mediterranean Atlantic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Darren Andrew

    2008-11-01

    In this paper I argue that there is a growing body of evidence supporting an increasingly central position of coastal environments in human evolution and dispersals, rather than as merely peripheral habitats. Eustatic fluctuations during glacial cycles have meant that most prehistoric coastlines are now underwater, and lack of evidence to date of a close relationship between people and the coast can be most plausibly ascribed to the limited studies so far on submerged sites. Coastal environments provide high diversity in food resources, consisting of multiple ecotones in close proximity, which reduces the need to forage widely. One of the richest and most easily exploited coastal resources by human populations living on the coast are molluscs from marine rocky intertidal communities, which recent evidence has highlighted as important as far back as the Middle Palaeolithic. However, the density of these resources is limited by a number of factors, and this varies geographically. One of the main large-scale factors limiting rocky intertidal mollusc densities is tidal amplitude, beyond which smaller-scale local factors such as exposure to wave action and shore aspect, further affect species distributions. The area around the Strait of Gibraltar is used as a case study of an area, which is affected by large variations in tidal amplitudes thus allowing for quantitative comparisons between taxonomically and climatically similar regions. Shorelines along the Mediterranean coast, with reduced tidal amplitudes, exhibit compressed zonations and harbour fewer macro-mollusc individuals, with the reverse being the case along the Atlantic coast, which has significantly larger tides. Data from Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites along the Strait are used to establish harvested species and present-day data are used to model the potential distributions and associated variables such as calorific returns of key food species. An optimal foraging model is used to explore the effects of

  15. The Coastal Area Development Using GIS (Review of GIS Application Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastowo Sutanto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GIS, Geographical Information System, is a means that an be used to plan and to develop the coastal area because in carrying out the analysis this system combines the space data and their  attributes. The activities done among others the prototype development of algae cultivation and tourism ativities, the development of fish pond location, the reclamation of the Jakarta Bay, and the concept of development the floating “Keramba” for pearl oysters and white sea fish similar to sole. GIS analysis with heaviness and overlay mapping yields the appropriate map to plan and to develop the coastal area. The result of GIS analysis can be used to plan and to develop the coastal area.

  16. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  17. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Land Loss and Marsh Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    DELTA IN ATCHAFALAYA SAY FROM 0,A’ STUDIES MADE IN 1969 SCALE OF MILES FIGURE 8. ANTICIPATED GROWTH OF ATCHAFALAYA DELTA. 43 IUD C0 4 t j - rj*’, FIGURE...that depend on these microorganisms would increase. 58 Sport fishing and hunting is related to availability of fish and wildlife resources and access to

  18. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  19. Coastal Monitoring Using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Data - Some Case Studies in Asian Delta Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal geomorphology is highly variable as it is affected by sea-level changes and other naturally- and human-induced fluctuations. To effectively assess and monitor geomorphological changes in various time scales is thus critical for coastal management. Asian mega deltas are vulnerable to a sea-level rise due to its low-lying delta plain, and are dynamic region given a large amount of sediment supply. However, limited data availability and accessibility in the deltas have prevented establishment of systematic coastal monitoring. A variety of remote sensing systems can be used to monitor geomorphological changes in coastal areas as it has wide spatial coverage and high temporal repeatability. Especially, analysis using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. We will present some case studies of Asian coastal regions using L-band SAR data, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) and JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1) SAR data. One example is that time-series of radar amplitude images can be used to delineate changes quantitatively of the areal extent of river-mouth bars in distributaries of the Mekong River delta. It shows that the estimated areas of river mouthbars gradually increase on an annual time scale, and seasonal variations of areas were also recognized. Another example is that differential SAR interferometry is applied to the coast of the Yellow River delta in China. It shows very high subsidence rates, likely due to groundwater pumping. A further example is that we apply a SAR interferometry time series analysis to monitor ground deformations in the lower Chao Phraya delta plain, Thailand. A single reference time series interferogram from the stacking of unwrapped phases were applied. The subsidence and uplift pattern observed using the SAR interferometry time series analysis highlights the spatial complexity

  20. The timber resources of the Inland Empire area, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal A. Arbogast

    1974-01-01

    The latest inventory of the timber resources of the Inland Empire area of Washington indicates there are 24 billion board feet of sawtimber on 3.9 million acres of commercial forest land. Public agencies administer about 56 percent of the area and 70 percent of the sawtimber volume, farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 37 percent of the area but only...

  1. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bringfried Pflug

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed,direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas.The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditionsaffect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface aswell as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are producedby various air sea interactions. This paper presents the results of measurements taken atnumerous coastal stations between 1992 and 2006 using an FLS-12 lidar system togetherwith other supporting instrumentation. The investigations demonstrated that near-waterlayers in coastal areas differ significantly from those over open seas both in terms ofstructure and physical properties. Taking into consideration the above mentioned factors,aerosol concentrations and optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layeras a function of offshore distance and altitude at various coastal sites in two seasons. Thelidar results show that the remote sensing algorithms used currently in coastal areas needverification and are not fully reliable.

  2. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Tymon; Pflug, Bringfried

    2007-12-19

    Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed,direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas.The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditionsaffect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface aswell as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are producedby various air sea interactions. This paper presents the results of measurements taken atnumerous coastal stations between 1992 and 2006 using an FLS-12 lidar system togetherwith other supporting instrumentation. The investigations demonstrated that near-waterlayers in coastal areas differ significantly from those over open seas both in terms ofstructure and physical properties. Taking into consideration the above mentioned factors,aerosol concentrations and optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layeras a function of offshore distance and altitude at various coastal sites in two seasons. Thelidar results show that the remote sensing algorithms used currently in coastal areas needverification and are not fully reliable.

  3. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  4. Trophic ecology of bottom fishes assemblage along coastal areas of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisamae, Sukree

    2009-04-01

    Food preferences, feeding attributes, trophic guilds, and ontogenetic changes in diet compositions of 45 fish species collected along coastal waters in the southern areas of the South China Sea, Thailand were examined. Most species had high food intake and fed on specific ranges of food types. Shrimp was the most important food (31.7%), followed by calanoid copepod (16.8%), fish (12.7%) and gammarid amphipod (8.3%). These fishes can be categorized into six different trophic guilds and further divided into four categories namely; piscivore, zooplanktivore, zoobenthivore and miscellaneous/opportunist. Numbers of feeding guilds at each depth vary between four and five. Four of these are consistently found throughout the year at all zones; shrimp predator, piscivore, calanoid copepod feeder and a combination of polychaete and other food feeders. Ontogenetic studies indicate that fishes are more likely to group according to species rather than size. This scientific information is important when examining the complex association between fishes and identifying groups of species using similar resources.

  5. Water quality decline in coastal aquifers under anthropic pressure: the case of a suburban area of Dakar (Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Viviana; Cissé Faye, Seynabou; Faye, Abdoulaye; Faye, Serigne; Gaye, Cheikh Becaye; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the unregulated increase of the population in coastal areas of developing countries has become source of concern for both water supply and quality control. In the region of Dakar (Senegal), approximately 80% of water resources come from groundwater reservoirs, which are increasingly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The identification of the main sources of pollution, and thus the aquifer vulnerability, is essential to provide a sound basis for the implementation of long-term geochemically based water management plans in this sub-Saharan area. With this aim, a hydrochemical and isotopic survey on 26 wells was performed in the so-called Peninsula of Cap-Vert. Results show that seawater intrusion represents the main process affecting groundwater chemical characteristics. Nitrates often exceed the World Health Organization drinking water limits: stable isotopes of dissolved nitrate (δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O) indicate urban sewage and fertilizers as a major source of contamination. Results depict a complex situation in which groundwater is affected by direct and indirect infiltration of effluents, mixing with seawater and freshening processes from below. Besides the relevance of the investigation at a regional level, it represents a basis for decision-making processes in an integrated water resources management and in the planning of similar monitoring strategies for other urban coastal regions.

  6. Integrating Remote Sensing and Proximal Sensors for the Detection of Soil Moisture and Salinity Variability in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan; SHI Zhou; ZHOU Lian-qing; JIN Xi; TIAN Yan-feng; TENG Hong-fen

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture and salinity are two crucial coastal saline soil variables, which influence the soil quality and agricultural productivity in the reclaimed coastal region. Accurately characterizing the spatial variability of these soil parameters is critical for the rational development and utilization of tideland resources. In the present study, the spatial variability of soil moisture and salinity in the reclaimed area of Hangzhou gulf, Shangyu City, Zhejiang Province, China, was detected using the data acquired from radar image and the proximal sensor EM38. Soil moisture closely correlates radar scattering coefficient, and a simplified inversion model was built based on a backscattering coefficient extracted from multi-polarization data of ALOS/PALSAR and in situ soil moisture measured by a time domain reflectometer to detect soil moisture variations. The result indicated a higher accuracy of soil moisture inversion by the HH polarization mode than those by the HV mode. Soil salinity is reflected by soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa). Further, ECa can be rapidly detected by EM38 equipment in situ linked with GPS for characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity. Based on the strong spatial variability and interactions of soil moisture and salinity, a cokriging interpolation method with auxiliary variable of backscattering coefficient was adopted to map the spatial variability of ECa. When compared with a map of ECa interpolated by the ordinary kriging method, detail was revealed and the accuracy was increased by 15.3%. The results conclude that the integrating active remote sensing and proximal sensors EM38 are effective and acceptable approaches for rapidly and accurately detecting soil moisture and salinity variability in coastal areas, especially in the subtropical coastal zones of China with frequent heavy cloud cover.

  7. Standardizing signs on bublic information in the New Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mou Yue; Wang Lidi

    2007-01-01

    The public information signs ( The term public information signs will be abbreviated to public signs in the following text.)in the urban areas not only offer convenience for people to move around, but also reflect the level of development and progress of those areas. It is essential to the creative development and uplifting of the New Costal Area (thereafter, NCA) to have a good understanding of its present situation with regard to its public signs, to discuss the related issues in the development, to work out a system that is up to international standard and develop its own standards in the course of implementing the national strategies on standardizing public signs.

  8. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  9. Benthic community response to habitat variation: A case of study from a natural protected area, the Celestun coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Daniel; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis; Hernández-Guevara, Norma A.

    2007-12-01

    Little information currently exists on spatial and temporal benthic community variations in tropical coastal lagoons. Here, the benthic community response to habitat variation in the Celestun coastal lagoon, northwest Yucatan peninsula, was seasonally examined during the 1994-1995 climatic cycle into a grid of 12 sampling sites distributed along the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Habitat variation was assessed through physical factors associated both to the water column (e.g. salinity) and the bottom sediment (e.g. sand, silt and clay fractions). The benthic community response was assessed through species diversity measures and abundance. Under the influence of climatic seasonality, variations in habitat conditions followed by changes in the benthic community characteristics were expected. Results from two-way ANOVAs showed that for the period of study, Celestun lagoon was more heterogeneous along the spatial axis of variability than along the temporal one. Multiple regression analysis showed that salinity was spatially the main factor influencing the benthic community characteristics. Temporally, the sediment characteristics were observed to exert significant effects on the species diversity characteristics but not on abundance. Other variables assessed (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and water column transparency) exhibited no significant covariance with species diversity and abundance. Since generated from historical data, these results have the potential to be useful as a benchmark to the establishment of monitoring programs in the light of the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the natural resources of the lagoon and surrounding coastal area.

  10. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  11. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  12. A Training Partnership Focused on Climate Change Impact on Water Resources and Coastal Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, W. E.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 2010 the COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, entered into partnership with several Climate Change and Water Working Group (CCAWWG, http://www.ccawwg.us/) agencies to pilot a new training program. With funding coming from the Bureau of Reclamation and the US Army Corps of Engineers, a series of self-paced online lessons and live courses targeted at technical climate change and water science professionals have already been delivered. Since it's release in 2012, the first self-paced lesson developed under this partnership entitled, "Preparing Hydro-climate Inputs for Climate Change in Water Resource Planning", has been taken over 2600 times. Users have come from federal, state, and local agencies as well as academia, government and private sectors around the US as well as from other countries. Additionally, the most popular multi-day course, Hydrologic Impacts Under Climate Change (HIUCC), has been offered to a diverse audience in both residence and virtual formats. This presentation provides an overview of the training materials developed through this partnership as well as plans for future offerings. A recommended set of lessons for all users who wish explore the open materials will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials covering climate change influences on water temperature for inland streams and watershed and channel sedimentation. These self-paced, online materials are currently freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Climate" topic area. Users interested in directly accessing the materials can take these and many other lessons at http://meted.ucar.edu/climate. Additionally, the presentation highlights opportunities for learners to register for ongoing multi-day courses taught both live in person and at a distance. Now, in the beginning of the 6th year of partnership, new initiatives to train non

  13. Numerical model to support the management of groundwater resources of a coastal karstic aquifer (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of the research is to define management apporouches for a coastal karstic aquifer. The core of the tools uses numerical modelling, applied to groundwater resource of Salento (southern Italy) and criteria to reduce the quantitative and qualitative degradation risks. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. The approach chosen was based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium by which it is assumed that the real heterogeneous aquifer can be simulated as homogeneous porous media within cells or elements. The modelled aquifer portion extends for 2230 km2, and it was uniformly discretized into 97,200 cells, each one of 0.6 km2. Vertically, to allow a good lithological and hydrogeological discretization, the area was divided into 12 layers, from 214 to -350 m asl. Thickness and geometry of layers was defined on the basis of the aquifer conceptualisation based on the 3d knowledge of hydrogeological complexes. For the boundary conditions, inactive cells were used along the boundary with the rest of Murgia-Salento aquifer, as conceptual underground watershed due to the absence of flow. About the sea boundary was used CHD boundary cells (Constant Head Boundary). Additional boundary conditions were used for SEAWAT modelling, as initial concentration and constant concentration, in the latter case for cells shaping the coastline. A mean annual net rainfall (recharge) was calculated in each cell with a GIS elaboration, ranged from 68 to 343 mm, 173 mm an average. The recharge or infiltration was calculated using an infiltration coefficient (IC) (defined as infiltration/net rainfall ratio) for each hydrogeological complex, assuming values equal to 1 inside endorheic areas. The mean annual recharge was equal to 150 mm. The model was implemented using MODFLOW and SEAWAT codes in steady-state conditions to obtain a starting point for following transient scenarios, using piezometric data of thirties as

  14. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  15. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  16. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  17. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a

  18. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal Interferometri

  19. Vertical ground movements in the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic coastal area as measured by satellite interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graniczny, M.; Cyziene, J.; van Leijen, F.J.; Minkevicius, W.; Mikulenas, V.; Satkunas, J.; Przylucka, M.; Kowalski, Z.; Uscinowicz, S.; Jeglinski, W.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results obtained from realization of the Polish and Lithuanian Baltic case study within the EU – FP 7 SubCoast project, which one of the primary aims was analysis of vertical ground movements, potentially causing geohazards in the coastal areas. To reach this goal

  20. SEDIMENT HABITAT ASSESSMENT FOR TARGETED NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO: A SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael A. In press. Sediment Habitat Assessment for Targeted Near-Coastal Areas of the Gulf of Mexico: A Summary. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 25 p. (ERL,GB 1201). Sediment chemical and biological quality is summarized ...

  1. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionab

  2. Coastal zones are some of the most complex “multiple-use” areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Coastal zones are some of the most complex. “multiple-use” .... which pertain to conserved marine areas are complex ..... tradeoffs, and the outcome of any analysis of such. 376 ..... DYE, A. H., BRANCH, G. M., CASTILLA, J. C. and B. A. BEN-.

  3. Species and Distribution of Mangroves in the Fujian Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文卿; 赵萌莉; 邓传远; 林鹏

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of an investigation on the mangroves in Fujian from November 1998 to January 1999, the species composition, area, distribution, artificial afforestation of mangroves and the factors restricting the development of mangroves in Fujian are discussed in the paper. Some suggestions on how to develop mangroves in Fujian have been put forward.

  4. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  5. Urbanisation, coastal development and vulnerability, and catchments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, Cebile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas that form coastal cities, especially in the WIO, places an increasing demand on natural coastal extractive and non-extractive resources. The use and conversion of coastal land and catchments is considered a permanent effect...

  6. Reproduction of wild boar in a cropland and coastal wetland area: implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosell, C.,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive parameters of a wild boar population located in a coastal landscape with a mosaic of cropland and wetland habitats were analysed and compared with those observed in wild boar populations living in other habitats. A total of 296 reproductive tracts of females captured year round at the Aiguamolls de l’Empordà Natural Park were collected and analysed from 2000 to 2010. The foetuses were counted, sexed and aged and the mating and birth periods were determined. The weight and age of each female were also recorded. In accordance with the pattern observed in most European populations, a marked main mating season from October to January was observed. Within this season, there was a peak during November and December, in which 64% of the conception dates were recorded. The proportion of breeding females, ovulation rate and litter size increased with the weight of the reproductive females. A mean litter size of 5.01 ± 1.33 (range from two to eight foetuses was recorded. This value is the highest known litter size recorded in wild Iberian populations and is similar to values observed in central Europe. Furthermore, it is not in accordance with the pattern reported for other European populations in which a positive correlation between litter size and latitude was observed. The most likely explanation for the high reproductive output in the study area is the availability of food year round, and especially the high consumption of crops such as maize and sunflower. Our results suggest that colonisation of cropland and wetland areas is contributing to the rise in the wild boar population density. Control strategies should consider not only reducing numbers of adult females but also applying measures to reduce food resources available to wild boar.

  7. Arsenic speciation in fish from Greek coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzi, Ioanna; Mylona, Kyriaki; Sofoulaki, Katerina; Tsapakis, Manolis; Pergantis, Spiros A

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted on fish samples (sardine and anchovy) collected from six areas along the Greek coastline, i.e. Artemisium Straits, Thermaikos Gulf, Amvrakikos Gulf, Strymonian Gulf, Thracian Sea, and Elefsina Gulf. Total arsenic levels ranging from 11.8 to 62.6mg As/kg dry weight were determined. Arsenobetaine, a non-toxic form of arsenic, was found to be the main arsenic species, present at 8.6 to 58.8mg As/kg dry weight, accounting for 67-95% of the total arsenic. Also detected in all fish samples was dimethylarsinic acid, although at considerably lower concentrations, ranging from 0.072-0.956mg As/kg dry weight. Monomethylarsonic acid was detected at low levels in all anchovy samples, and only in sardines from one area. Finally, inorganic arsenic in the form of arsenate was detected only in fish at one area, indicating the possible effect of an environmental parameter on its presence at detectable amounts. Statistical analysis revealed the environmental variables, such as salinity, total organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and pressure index, are potentially correlated to As species concentrations. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, the biological parameters, such as fish weight, lipids, protein and ash content, that are correlated to As species concentrations of fish were also identified. The interrelationship of arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations within each fish species was evaluated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  9. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  10. The Aqaba Marine Protected Area -- Integration of Marine Science and Resource Management in the Gulf of Aqaba-Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khaleel Al-Zibdah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aqaba has great strategic importance being Jordan’s only maritime access point. Within this geographically restricted area there is a need to accommodate industry, trade, and tourism with concurrent environmental conservation practices. Jordan has recognized the need to follow a plan that deals with the entire coastal zone and its full range of resources in a comprehensive manner to avoid severe conflicts over coastal space and resource utilization. The plan presented here describes the best possible compromise between the different interests through harmonizing coastal activities to support a broader set of overarching national goals for the Jordanian coast. The Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (ASEZA established a national Marine Protected Area (MPA as part of the master plan of the coastal resources embodying the coral reserve along the coast. The MPA was established to conserve and manage the natural near-shore marine environment of the south coast with its rich biodiversity while allowing certain tourist uses. At the same time, the MPA supports efforts to conduct research and monitoring programs on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the northern Gulf of Aqaba and the near shore coral reefs. Currently, the MPA in Aqaba plays a significant role in strengthening the regional capability for information exchange and resource management for the entire Red Sea. In order to lay the groundwork for integrated coastal zone management in Jordan’s Gulf of Aqaba and for a long-standing working relationship between the regional countries, issues of environmental management and conservation are discussed.

  11. PENGELOLAAN KAWASAN PESISIR KABUPATEN BULELENG MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MINA WISATA BAHARI (Management of Buleleng Coastal Areas Through the Marine Fisheries Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ari Yudasmara

    2016-09-01

    have not given an optimum benefit for the community and tend to experience saturation. This study was aimed at investigating the condition and potentiality of the coastal area and the sea, the degree of fit of Buleleng coastal area in supporting the development of fisheries tourism and at producing a model of the coastal area tourism activities that are integrated and sustainable. This study used the approach of area suitability with field survey design. The results showed that Buleleng regency coastal area, viewed from the point of the condition and the potentiality of the natural resources still has the capacity to support fisheries tourism. The model plannings of fisheries tourisms that can be developed, among others, are: the East Buleleng coastal area is suitable for marine culture fisheries tourism (ornamental fish and coral and fished fisheries tourism (fishing and spearfishing adventures; the central Buleleng coastal area for marine culture fisheries tourism (seaweed and fished fisheries tourism (fishing and spearfishing adventures, and the West Buleleng coastal area for marine culture fisheries tourism (seaweed, milk fish, grouper, pearl, ornamental fish and coral and fished fisheries tourism (fishing and spearfishing adventures.

  12. Investigating the salinization and freshening processes of coastal groundwater resources in Urmia aquifer, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Vahab; Nakhaei, Mohammad; Lak, Razyeh; Kholghi, Majid

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment about interaction between Urmia Lake (UL) and coastal groundwater in the Urmia aquifer (UA). This aquifer is the most significant contributor to the freshwater supply of the coastal areas. The use of hydrochemical facies can be very useful to identify the saltwater encroachment or freshening phases in the coastal aquifers. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through the saturation index (SI), ionic deltas (Δ), binary diagrams, and hydrochemical facies evolution (HFE) diagram. Based on the Gibbs plot, the behavior of the major ions showed that the changes in the chemical composition of the groundwater are mainly controlled by the water-soil/rock interaction zone and few samples are relatively controlled by evaporation. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the deposited chloride and sulfate particles can form the minor salinity source in some coastal areas when washed down by precipitation. The SI calculations showed that all groundwater samples, collected in these periods, show negative saturation indices, which indicate undersaturation with respect to anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. In addition, except in a few cases, all other samples showed the undersaturation with respect to the carbonate minerals such as aragonite, calcite, and dolomite. Therefore, these minerals are susceptible to dissolution. In the dry season, the SI calculations showed more positive values with respect to dolomite, especially in the northern part of UA, which indicated a higher potential for precipitation and deposition of dolomite. The percentage of saltwater in the groundwater samples of Urmia plain was very low, ranging between 0.001 and 0.79 % in the wet season and 0.0004 and 0.81 % in the dry season. The results of HFE diagram, which was taken to find whether the aquifer was in the saltwater encroachment phase or in the freshening phase, indicated that except for a few wells

  13. Can Resilience be Reconciled with Globalization and the Increasingly Complex Conditions of Resource Degradation in Asian Coastal Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Armitage

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between resilience and globalization. We are concerned, most importantly, with whether resilience is a suitable conceptual framework for natural resource management in the context of the rapid changes and disruptions that globalization causes in social-ecological systems. Although theoretical in scope, we ground this analysis using our experiences in two Asian coastal areas: Junagadh District in Gujarat State, India and Banawa Selatan, in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We present the histories of resource exploitation in the two areas, and we attempt to combine a resilience perspective with close attention to the impact of globalization. Our efforts serve as a basis from which to examine the conceptual and practical compatibility of resilience with globalization. The first challenge we address is epistemological: given that resilience and globalization have roots in different disciplines, do they share a sufficiently common perception of change and human action to be compatible? Second, we address the issue of how resilience can be a viable management objective in the rapidly changing context of globalization. We identify scale as particularly important in this regard.

  14. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  15. Land Area Change in Coastal Louisiana: A Multidecadal Perspective (from 1956 to 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, John A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed changes in the configuration of land and water in coastal Louisiana by using a sequential series of 14 data sets summarizing land and water areas from 1956 to 2006. The purpose of this study is to provide a spatially and temporally consistent source of quantitative information on land area across coastal Louisiana, broken into three physiographic provinces (the term 'coastal Louisiana' is used to present data on the collective area). The land-water data sets used in this study are interpreted through spatial analysis and by linear regression analysis. The spatial depictions of land area change reveal a complex and interwoven mosaic of loss and gain patterns caused by natural and human-induced processes operating at varied temporal and spatial scales, resulting in fluctuating contributions to coastal loss. The linear regression analysis provides a robust estimate of recent change trends by comparing land area over time for all data sets from 1985 to 2004 and from 1985 to 2006 by physiographic province across coastal Louisiana. The 1956 to 2006 map showing multidecadal changes, along with the linear regressions of land area change presented in this study, provide a comprehensive and concise presentation of historical trends and rates of land area change in coastal Louisiana. Taking a broad historical view provides an in-depth understanding of land area changes over time. For example, one observation provided by our historical review is that the majority of the widespread, nontransitory land gains depicted on the map over the past 50 years, with the exception of the progradation of the Atchafafalaya River and Wax Lake deltas, are primarily related to sediment placement and landward migration of barrier islands. Another point revealed by our historical approach is that recent land losses caused by hurricanes sometimes commingled with or exacerbated older losses formed during the 1956 to 1978 period. Furthermore, our analyses

  16. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  17. Extraction of shoreline changes in Selangor coastal area using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, S. N.; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Jaafar, O.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, coastal zones are facing shoreline changes that stemming from natural and anthropogenic effect. The process of erosion and accretion will affect the physical environment of the shoreline. Therefore, the study of shoreline changes is important to identify the patterns of changes over time. The rapid growth of technology nowadays has facilitated the study of shoreline changes. Geographical Information System (GIS) alongside Remote Sensing (RS) technology is a useful tool to study these changes due to its ability to generate information, monitoring, analysis and prediction of the shoreline changes. Hence, the future projection of the trend for a specific coastal area can be done effectively. This study investigates the impact of shoreline changes to the community in Selangor area which mainly focus on the physical aspects. This study presents preliminary result using satellite image from SPOT 5 to identify the shoreline changes from the year 1984 to 2013 at Selangor coastal area. Extraction of shoreline from satellite image is vital to analyze the erosion and accretion along the shoreline area. This study shows that a shoreline change for the whole area is a categorized as a medium case. The total eroded and accretion of Selangor area from 1984 to 2013 is 2558 hectares and 2583 hectares respectively. As a result, Kapar, Jugra, Telok Panglima Garang and Kelanang are categorized as high risk erosion area. Shoreline changes analysis provides essential information to determine on the shoreline changes trends. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as essential information for conservation and preservation of coastal zone management.

  18. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  19. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  1. Geothermal resource area 6: Lander and Eureka Counties. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 6 includes Lander and Eureka Counties. There are several different geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/F to in excess of 400/sup 0/F within this two country area. Eleven of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. The various potential uses of the energy found at each of the 11 resource sites were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 11 geothermal sites considered are summarized.

  2. Geothermal Resource Area 6: Lander and Eureka Counties. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.; Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 6 includes Lander and Eureka Counties. There are several different geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/F to in excess of 400/sup 0/F within this two county area. Eleven of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation in this area development plan. The various potential uses of the energy found at each of the 11 resource sites were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the geothermal sites considered are summarized.

  3. Determination of coastal areas of recreational activities in the city of Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Özdemir Işık

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The size of the areal use in planning allows for increase in recreational diversity. When considered that recreational needs are the times that people spend to make use of their spare time, it is obvious that the decisions taken based on the user will lead the planner to more accurate planning targets. While determining the recreational planning decisions, decisions should be evaluated in an integrated approach and in accordance with the requests and demands of users. This study aimed at taking planning decisions required for the recreational connections which are on the coast and for the improvement of people's social life between the coastal city and coastal users. Within the study, the diversity of Trabzon coastal area in terms of recreational activity based on measurement and observation was revealed. In the study, subclasses determined for Trabzon coast were formed by sticking to CORINE classification system, and the coast was divided into 9 sections considering the size and clarity of the area. In CBS environment, each section was digitized according to separate layers and areas with ArcCIS program in terms of recreational area usages. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the diversity of activity was more intense in sections where areal use was more intense depending on the size of the area.

  4. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adyla Suriadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, tourist movement patterns who concentrated only in Reclamation Losari Beach needs for development of linkage at tourist attractions based on tourist movement patterns. Research method used is descriptive qualitative method with cognitive mapping technique to identify of tourist movement patterns characteristic in visiting tourist attractions at Losari Coastal Area and influence of exterior space to linkage among tourist attractions. Results from this research is determine influence of exterior space to connectivity linkage and tourist movement patterns among tourist attractions and find local criteria of exterior space which can be applied in Losari Coastal Area.

  5. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Nel

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or1700 nests pa (index area especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area, but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality. Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  6. Health effects of coastal storms and flooding in urban areas: a review and vulnerability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathryn; Charles-Guzman, Kizzy; Wheeler, Katherine; Abid, Zaynah; Graber, Nathan; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC) may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  7. Health Effects of Coastal Storms and Flooding in Urban Areas: A Review and Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal storms can take a devastating toll on the public's health. Urban areas like New York City (NYC may be particularly at risk, given their dense population, reliance on transportation, energy infrastructure that is vulnerable to flood damage, and high-rise residential housing, which may be hard-hit by power and utility outages. Climate change will exacerbate these risks in the coming decades. Sea levels are rising due to global warming, which will intensify storm surge. These projections make preparing for the health impacts of storms even more important. We conducted a broad review of the health impacts of US coastal storms to inform climate adaptation planning efforts, with a focus on outcomes relevant to NYC and urban coastal areas, and incorporated some lessons learned from recent experience with Superstorm Sandy. Based on the literature, indicators of health vulnerability were selected and mapped within NYC neighborhoods. Preparing for the broad range of anticipated effects of coastal storms and floods may help reduce the public health burden from these events.

  8. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Peake, R.A. [California Energy Commission, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area of northern California are hot, large and areally uniform. The geological situation is special, probably overlying a slabless window caused by interaction between tectonic plates. Consequent magmatic processes have created a high-grade resource, in which the 300{degree}C isotherm is continuous, subhorizontal, and available at the shallow depth of 2.4 to 4.7 km over an area of 800 km{sup 2}. The region is very favorable for HDR development.

  10. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  11. Community-based livelihood management in relations to natural disaster - A study on Teknaf (coastal) area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, R.

    2017-06-01

    Teknaf is an Upazila under Cox’s Bazar District of Bangladesh, it’s a coastal area with strong influenced by the Naaf river estuary of the Bay of Bengal. The study outlines the major livelihood groups or community in the area. It was observed that the livelihoods are severely affected by climatic and non-climatic changes. For example, the increased salinity of both soil and water has seriously affected all livelihood resources, in particular agriculture, fishery, livestock and forestry. The increase in frequency and intensity of natural disasters - floods and cyclones, has made it difficult for the local people to secure their livelihood. In addition to natural factors, several anthropogenic factors remain the major form of vulnerability for the farmers, fishers and other livelihood sections of the society. This study was an exploratory research with questionnaire survey by random sampling, focus group discussion, and review secondary data. The study observed that the local people have evolved many local adaptive practices to deal with the difficult climatic conditions. Outcome of the study is capacity building of the community with in their available resource; combined crop and fish culture need to encourage; control excessive collection of Natural resources like marine fish, forest tree, alternative income generating activities for farmers & fisherman at lean season and disaster situation need to start.

  12. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  13. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  14. Resource Partitioning Among Planktivorous Fish Larvae and Fry in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, E.; Cardona, L.; Castelló, F.

    1996-12-01

    Resource partioning among the planktivorous stages of eight fish species occurring in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon was studied. Five species were migratory mullets that spawned in the sea ( Liza ramada, L. aurata, L. saliens, Chelon labrosusand Mugil cephalus), while the other three species were resident and spawned in the lagoon ( Atherina boyeri, Cyprinus carpioand Gambusia holbrooki). Mullet fry exhibited similar diets, based on the consumption of zooplanktonic Crustacea such as copepods and cladocerans, although adult chironomids were also important. Gambusia holbrookiand A. boyerifed on small prey such as copepod nauplii, copepodites and rotifers, while C. carpioconsumed larger prey preferentially (cladocerans and copepods). According to the trophic overlap and niche width results, seven species pairs could be competing in the estuary, although further experimental evidence is still required.

  15. Applications of space observations to the management and utilization of coastal fishery resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, A. J.; Savastano, K. J.; Faller, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    Information needs of those concerned with the harvest and management of coastal fishery resources can be satisfied in part through applications of satellite remote sensing. Recently completed and ongoing investigations have demonstrated potentials for defining fish distribution patterns from multispectral data, monitoring fishing distribution and effort with synthetic aperture radar systems, forecasting recruitment of certain estuarine-dependent species, and tracking marine mammals. These investigations, which are reviewed in this paper, have relied on Landsat 1 and 2, Skylab-3, and Nimbus-6 supported sensors and sensors carried by aircraft and mounted on surface platforms to simulate applications from Seasat-A and other future spacecraft systems. None of the systems are operational as all were designed to identify and demonstrate applications and to aid in the specification of requirements for future spaceborne systems.

  16. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  17. A survey of integrated coastal zone management experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Coastal problems that stem from human activities are almost always rooted in resource use conflicts. Since the majority of the world's population lives in coastal areas, such conflicts can only be expected to increase. As population growth continues, the pressure to develop coastal areas for housing

  18. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  19. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  20. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  1. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  2. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-08-24

    Global sea level is rising and may accelerate with continued fossil fuel consumption from industrial and population growth. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 30 training and feedback sessions with Federal, State, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) coastal managers and planners across the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to evaluate user needs, potential benefits, current scientific understanding, and utilization of resource aids and modeling tools focused on sea-level rise. In response to the findings from the sessions, this sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components

  3. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  4. A decomposition approach for optimal management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Heck, Vera

    2013-04-01

    For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system, it unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both, water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. However, such systems are characterized by a large number of decision variables if abstraction schemes, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised simultaneously for multiple years. Therefore, we apply the principle of decomposition to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for a faster and more reliable solution. At first, within an inner optimisation loop, cropping patterns and cultivated acreages are optimised to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions which can be derived analytically. Secondly, within an outer optimisation loop, a simulation based optimisation is performed to find optimal groundwater abstraction pattern by coupling an evolutionary optimisation algorithm with an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface. We demonstrate the decomposition approach by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We show the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation

  5. Fish Stem Cells: Classification, Resources, Characteristics and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehriban ÇEK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells, have the potential for self-renewal that can differ to the specialized cells. First studies on stem cells in fish started with zebra fish in 1992. In this review, classification, resources, vital importance, characteristics and application areas of fish stem cell were clarified.

  6. Lidar-based Studies of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bringfried Pflug; Tymon Zielinski

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol size distribution and concentration strongly depend on wind speed, direction, and measuring point location in the marine boundary layer over coastal areas. The marine aerosol particles which are found over the sea waves in high wind conditions affect visible and near infrared propagation for paths that pass very close to the surface as well as the remote sensing measurements of the sea surface. These particles are produced by various air sea interactions. This paper presents the resul...

  7. Measurement and modelling of dew in island, coastal and alpine areas

    OpenAIRE

    Beysens, D; Muselli, M; Nikolayev, Vadim; Narhe, R; Milimouk, I

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We compare the characteristics of dew at nearly the same latitude (42 – 45jN) for the Mediterranean island of Corsica (Ajaccio, France) and two continental locations (Bordeaux, France, Atlantic coastal area; Grenoble, France, alpine valley). Dew amount was measured on a horizontal reference plate made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and placed at 1 m above the ground. Data are correlated with plate and air temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed and cloud cover...

  8. Resting eggs in a key player Calanoid copepod in coastal areas. The case of Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

      Acartia tonsa is an invasive copepod of the European coastal waters, first described in France in 1926, it was found later in most of the European coastal areas. These invasions are believed to come from transport of resting eggs in ships ballast water. In this presentation, I will show the mai...

  9. Sustainable Development in China’s Coastal Area: Based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Welfare-Response Framework and the Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of China’s coastal areas is being constrained by resources and the environment, with sustainable development being the key to solving these problems. The data envelopment analysis (DEA model is widely used to assess sustainable development. However, indicators used in the DEA model are not selected in a scientific and comprehensive manner, which may lead to unrepresentative results. Here, we use the driver-pressure-state-welfare-response (DPSWR framework to select more scientific and comprehensive indicators for a more accurate analysis of efficiency in China’s coastal area. The results show that the efficiencies of most provinces and cities in China’s coastal area have a stable trend. In the time dimension, efficiency was rising before 2008, after which it decreased. In the spatial dimension, China’s coastal provinces and cities are divided into three categories: high efficiency, low efficiency, and greater changes in efficiency. By combining DPSWR and DEA, we produce reliable values for measuring efficiency, with the benefit of avoiding the incomplete selection of DEA indicators.

  10. Web Application for Coastal Area Planning through Analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzoni, Giulio; Debiasi, Alberto; Eccher, Matteo; De Amicis, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and rapid climatic changes are producing dramatic effects on coastal area of Mediterranean countries. Italian coastal areas are one of the most urbanized zones of the south western Europe and the extensive use of soil is causing a consistent impact on the hydrogeological context. Moreover, soil consumption combined with extreme meteorological events, facilitates the occurrence of hazardous landslide events. Environmental policy makers and data managers in territorial planning need to face such emergency situation with appropriate tools. We present an application service with the aim of advising user through environmental analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption impact. This service wants also to improve the sharing of environmental harmonized datasets/metadata across different organizations and the creation of a collaborative environment where the stakeholders and environmental experts can share their data and work cooperatively. We developed a set of processing services providing functionalities to assess impact of landslide on territory and impact of land take and soil sealing. Among others, the service is able to evaluate environmental impacts of landslide events on Cultural Heritage sites. We have also designed a 3D WebGL client customized to execute the processing services and visualize their outputs. It provides high usability in terms of navigation and data visualization. In this way the service provides not only a Spatial Data Infrastructure to access and visualize data but a complete Decision Support Systems for a more effective environmental planning of coastal area.

  11. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  12. NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALOPHYTE Salicornia bigelovii (TOR. IN COASTAL AREA OF SONORA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas (north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter. Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2.23 to 6.33 kg (dry weight m-2 and is composed primarily of surface components. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively. The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by 233.6%. The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.

  13. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-09-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a "Protected Sea Park" area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce.

  14. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  15. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  16. Evaluation of tsunami run-up on coastal areas at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ernesto Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Gutiérrez, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment is commonly tackled by means of numerical model simulations, giving as a result, the areas that are flooded by the tsunami wave inland. To achieve this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulation are still excessive. Besides, an important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate the run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we propose an extension of these second method, including the consideration of realistic profiles and the numerical simulation of tsunami events. To get this, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. The coastal parameterized coastal profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in a numerical flume formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape, realistic tsunami waves, and optimized numerical

  17. Geothermal Resource Area 5, Churchill, Douglas, Lyon and Storey Counties area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Within this four county area there are many known geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70 to over 350{sup 0}F. Thirteen of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation. Various potential uses of the energy found were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These factors were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation; space heating; recreation; industrial process heat; and agriculture.

  18. Index based regional vulnerability assessment to cyclones hazards of coastal area of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Q. A.; Kervyn, M.; Khan, A. U.

    2016-12-01

    Cyclone, storm surge, coastal flooding, salinity intrusion, tornado, nor'wester, and thunderstorms are the listed natural hazards in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh was hit by devastating cyclones in 1970, 1991, 2007, 2009, and 2016. Intensity and frequency of natural hazards in the coastal area are likely to increase in future due to climate change. Risk assessment is one of the most important steps of disaster risk reduction. As a climate change victim nation, Bangladesh claims compensation from green climate fund. It also created its own climate funds. It is therefore very important to assess vulnerability of the coast of Bangladesh to natural hazards for efficient allocation of financial investment to support the national risk reduction. This study aims at identifying the spatial variations in factors contributing to vulnerability of the coastal inhabitants of Bangladesh to natural hazards. An exploratory factor analysis method has been used to assess the vulnerability at each local administrative unit. The 141 initially selected 141 socio-economic indicators were reduced to 41 by converting some of them to meaningful widely accepted indicators and removing highly correlated indicators. Principle component analysis further reduced 41 indicators to 13 dimensions which explained 79% of total variation. PCA dimensions show three types of characteristics of the people that may lead people towards vulnerability. They are (a) demographic, education and job opportunities, (b) access to basic needs and facilities, and (c) special needs people. Vulnerability maps of the study area has been prepared by weighted overlay of the dimensions. Study revealed that 29 and 8 percent of total coastal area are very high and high vulnerable to natural hazards respectively. These are distributed along sea boundary and major rivers. Comparison of this spatial distribution with the capacities to face disaster show that highly vulnerable areas are well covered by cyclone

  19. Characterization and evolution of the sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon located next to a former mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Muñoz-Vera, Ana

    2015-11-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems that are relatively enclosed water bodies under the influence of both the terrestrial and the marine environment, being vulnerable to human impacts. Human activities, such as mining extraction, are significant anthropogenic coastal stressors that can negatively affect ecosystems and communities. In light of the above, the objective of this research is to examine the influence of metal mining activities on the composition of sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon, named Mar Menor. This paper presents a comprehensive characterization for grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic matter of sediments of this coastal lagoon, investigating their variation along space and time. Sedimentation dynamics are ruling clearly the grain size predominant in each area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, determining the existence of entrainment, transport and sedimentation areas. For minerals, elements and organic matter, sedimentation dynamics are also determining their distribution.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  1. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  2. Ground-water resources of coastal Citrus, Hernando, and southwestern Levy counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water in the coastal parts of Citrus, Hernando, and Levy Counties is obtained almost entirely from the Floridan aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined near the coast and semiconfined in the ridge area. Transmissivity ranges from 20,000 feet squared per day in the ridge area to greater than 2,000,000 feet squared per day near major springs. Changes in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer are small between the wet and dry seasons. Water quality within the study area is generally very good except immediately adjacent to the coast where saltwater from the Gulf of Mexico poses a threat to freshwater supply. This threat can be compensated for by placing well fields a sufficient distance away from the zone of transition from saltwater to freshwater so as not to reduce or reverse the hydraulic gradient in that zone. Computer models are presently available to help predict the extent of influence of ground-water withdrawals in an area. These may be used as management tools in planning ground-water development of the area. (USGS)

  3. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  4. Association of TSHR gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’ disease in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor(TSHR)gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’disease(GD)in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

  5. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  6. New Perspectives for the Observation of Coastal Zones with the Coastal Thematic Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Sebastien; Tuhoy, Eimear; Mangin, Antoine; Datcu, Mihai; Vignudelli, Stefano; Illuzzi, Diomede; Craciunescu, Vasile; Aspetsberger, Michael; Leone, Rosemarie; Campbell, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    The Coastal Thematic Exploitation Platform (CTEP) is an on-going ESA project to develop a platform dedicated to the observation of the coastal environment to support management and monitoring; this paper explains how the innovations of the CTEP will provide new means to handle the technical challenges of observation of coastal areas and contribute to improved understanding and decision-making with respect to coastal resources and environments.

  7. Sustainable development of Philippine coastal resources: Subsidiarity in ethnoecology through inclusive participatory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Joey; Bautista, Pauline; Pajaro, Marivic; Raquino, Mark; Watts, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines is an archipelago of more than 7,100 islands, with a population of over 100 million people dependent upon marine resources which are characterised by a decline in both biodiversity and abundance. The resultant large sector of fisherfolk is generally impoverished with limited education, which makes coastal adult education and lifelong learning a national priority. This article considers the Filipino fisherfolk community as a culture to identify potential input strategies regarding education development for marine science concepts. In a study piloting cultural consensus theory applications with a well-established fisherfolk organisation, the authors focus on the lack of dialogue engaging Philippine fisherfolk with standards of international marine science, bioregional resource partitioning and reflexive in-country education development. Cross-cultural strategies considered in this paper include exploring paraprofessional approaches to adult education, accommodating several dialects/languages and drawing on international science concepts. While earlier adult education initiatives aimed at fisherfolk may have had limited success in part due to a lack of cultural context, this pilot study is innovative in that it applies an existing Filipino form of social artistry to fisherfolk identity, expression and communication. Siningbayan [ Sining = art, bayan = nation or town], or art whose canvas is society evolved through the Philippine history of organic networking and participation. Results confirm that a structured ethnoecological research design combined with Siningbayan appear effective for identifying education and curriculum specifics both for the fisherfolk sector of Filipino society and for professional marine science; their common goal being improved resource management. The authors place particular emphasis on subsidiarity, considering how best to transfer information to individual fisherfolk and their communities, as well as exploring their scaled

  8. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  9. Public participation in the utilization and rehabilitation of coastal natural resources (case study of coastal erosion in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ritohardoyno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging development on the coastal region can result in coastal erosion and mangrove ecosystems damage. This disastercould eliminate settlements, agricultural land and public infrastructure. However, for mitigation of those events happened, the government has been constructing the Breakwaters andmangrove reforestation. We used survey method using quota sampling technique in 90 households. The study used a region-based approach. Measurement of socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, perception, and public participation were Chi square test and F test One-Way ANOVA. The results showed that most of samples were middle-lower socio-economy conditions (88.7%. The lower socio-economic caused of 1 the loss of residential and agricultural land due to beach erosion; 2 types of agricultural commodities; 3 work as farmers have the certainty get higher income than as fishermen; and 4 the ability of adaptation in the new location. The high public perception was not accompanied by high levels of public participation to rehabilitate coastal ecosystems

  10. Improving the Management of Coastal Natural Resources by Engaging and Empowering the Youth: A case study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, E.

    2013-12-01

    In rural communities of Africa, environmental programs aiming at creating awareness on environmental issues, such as climate change, have the potential to incorporate and support the youth by strengthening their knowledge, skills, attitudes and ability to adapt to a changing physical environment. Along the coastal region of Ghana, the perception of climate change involves both young and old generations within their communities. However, most educational programs in climate change adaptation and mitigation are often targeted at adults, leaving out the participation of the youth. In most cases, this is explained by the traditional idea that adults are regarded as the educators in the community. This work investigates the roles that young people can play in environmental educational programs at the community level, especially for coastal migrant populations. Young generations may be motivators of interest, changers of attitude, and creators of awareness towards the elder generations. Different tools aimed at engaging the youth population such as interactive programs of environmental communication and management are used in this work. Using these tools, the youth will be empowered to be more involved in the decision making process, they will educate their parents, newer generations and other stakeholders and, they will organize themselves to protect the coastal natural resources. Such roles and actions have the potential of transforming communities characterized for their environment degradation by over-exploiting their local natural resources towards a community based in the exploitation of the coastal resources within a preservation context. This work also shows the resistance of the older generations to promote educational changes related to the management of the coastal resources and how this is perceived by the younger generation, who will become the future leaders.

  11. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SELF-SUPPORT STILT-HOUSES TOWARDS THE DISASTER POTENTIALITY AT THE CAMBAYA COASTAL AREA, MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isfa Sastrawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-support stilt-houses at the coastal area have environment characteristics that are different from inland houses, and they have the disaster potentiality such as hurricanes, tidal waves, abrasion, earthquakes, and even tsunami. The stilt houses are very adaptable to climatic conditions and coastal disasters. The shape of the stilt houses at the coastal area must comply with aspects of safety, security, comfort, and health. This paper examines the characteristics of the stilt houses at the coastal area of Cambaya, Makassar, especially in terms of safety and security aspects. The aspects of safety and security include the resistance of the building construction towards disasters. Along with the development of the urban area, the demanding needs and limited financial-abilities, the owners of the houses at the Cambaya coastal area develop their houses by utilizing the empty space at the coastal area and the space under floor of the stilt house. The change of the building shape gives an effect on the poor quality of the building, building safety, and security. However, there are several stilt houses at Cambaya which could reduce the impacts of disasters on the safety of the residents through their local wisdom.

  12. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  13. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  14. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  15. Spatial variation in river runoff into a coastal area — An ecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to investigate spatial variation in terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) input to a coastal area off the Tagus river estuary. Isotopic variation in higher trophic level organisms was also examined, along the coast. This study was carried out in late summer, after a period of 3 months of low river flow. The overall aim was to determine if under such conditions the coastal area is enriched by the river plume and, particularly, if lower secondary productivity should be expected in some areas. Spatial variation was detected as a gradient of decreasing terrestrial input with increasing distance from the river. It was concluded that terrestrial carbon input was also incorporated into higher trophic levels and that organisms with lower mobility are more sensitive to the gradient in terrestrial input. Even in low flow conditions the whole fishing area remained under the influence of the river plume, which still accounted for 24% of the total POM 30 km from the river mouth. Additionally, δ 15N values indicated pollution input from the river Tagus.

  16. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  17. Local Rice Cultivars Grown on Tidal Swampland Near Coastal Area in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Purnomo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Local farmers in South Kalimantan (Banjarese farmers use to grow local rice cultivars. The local rice growing areas are varied with distance from the coastal line. Consequently, the degree of salinity also varied. To overcome the salinity problem, farmers do their last transplanting earlier than the farmers in the inland area and grow the local rice cultivars that they believe tolerant to salinity. In this study, we investigate the local rice cultivars grown by the farmers in the coastal areas. Sixty paddocks were selected in Pulantan, Aluh-Aluh, Simpang Warga and Bunipah Villages, Aluh-Aluh District, Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan. The rice yield of each paddock was estimated by sampling 3 x 5 hills in 3 replicates. The soil was collected within the 3 x 5 hills area and analysed their electric conductivity (EC and pH. We found that there were four families of local rice cultivars grown, namely, Palas, Bayar, Pandak and Siam families. Among all local rice cultivars grown, it was revealed that Pandak Putih and Siam Unus produced the highest yields. However, according to the farmers, Palas and Bayar families are the common rice tolerant to salinity. The good price of Siam family and good yield of Pandak family at other paddocks might become the considerant of growing such rice families in the study site.

  18. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops.

  19. Recurring features of extreme autumnall rainfall events on the Veneto coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Racca, R.; Rossa, A. M.

    2012-08-01

    Recent recurring episodes of heavy flash flood-producing rainfall events on the Veneto coastal area have renewed the interest in documenting the frequency and key dynamical ingredients of such events. A climatological analysis of the precipitation in Veneto reveals that, in comparison with the rest of the region, the coastal area is characterized by fewer rain days, lower rainfall accumulations, yet more days with heavy precipitation. If set in relation to the yearly rainfall, daily accumulation can reach values as high as 40% of the yearly total rainfall, more regularly between 15% and 30%, often in periods of 12 h or less. Four such heavy rainfall events were analyzed and synthetically described to highlight key ingredients which appear instrumental in producing the high rainfall accumulations. These comprise an upper-level trough elongating or cutting off into the Western Mediterranean basin after a period of one to two weeks of anticyclonic fair weather conditions with temperatures above normal. The moisture supply over the Adriatic onto north-eastern Italy is favoured by above normal sea surface temperatures, enhanced advection by a surface low in the Gulf of Genoa, and in three of the four cases, an additional surface low over southern Italy. The air flows associated with the upper-level trough for the cases discussed were of moderate to weak intensity, and convectively conditionally unstable. The flow intensity was such that the lower tropospheric portion was blocked by and forced to flow around the Alpine barrier, i.e. manifesting as a north-easterly, low-level flow over much of the north-eastern Italian plains. This blocked flow seemed to interact with the larger-scale synoptic flow to form a distinct and persistent low-level convergence in the area of the Veneto coast. It is suggested that these low-level convergence patterns are key in releasing the convective instability present in the larger-scale flow just on the Veneto coastal area. Hereby, it is the

  20. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionable European beach resort right next to a medieval fishing village with a Kurhaus Spa and Casino accessible to the general public. At the end of the 20th century the bathing resort lost its image and most of the fishing industry moved away leaving the coastal zone in a crisis. The municipality decided to give the coastline an economic impulse. Not only that, their ambitions were grandiose. In 2005 they got the idea to make Scheveningen the Second International Center of The Hague with impressive architecture and town planning. The beach, the old fishing village, and the fishery at the harbor were connected into a close urban ensemble by the North Sea by a splendid boulevard. However, the financial crisis in 2008 put an end to extravagant developmental plans, to the great relief of coastal residents. They especially feared the expansion of tourism into the residential areas even though tourism had brought and would continue to bring prosperity to the area. The old fishing village was kept intact while the harbor transformed quite differently than sketched and the seaside decayed, losing to its rival the First International Center: the old town of The Hague. How could this have happened to the Pearl on the Sea? Was it the crisis or the stubbornness of residents and entrepreneurs? Or was it the unworldliness of administrators?  

  1. A COMPARISON OF SUB-PIXEL MAPPING METHODS FOR COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  2. Field Survey of the 2015 Chile Tsunami with Emphasis on Coastal Wetland and Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-López, Manuel; Winckler, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Ignacio; Andaur-Álvarez, Adolfo; Cortés-Molina, Fernanda; Guerrero, Camila J.; Mizobe, Cyntia E.; Igualt, Felipe; Breuer, Wolfgang; Beyá, José F.; Vergara, Hernán; Figueroa-Sterquel, Rodrigo

    2016-02-01

    The September 16th 2015 Illapel M8.3 earthquake, Chile, generated a tsunami that affected a sparsely populated region, causing 15 casualties and destroying 1069 houses (USGS 2015). A maximum surface elevation of +4.5 m was observed in Coquimbo's tide gauge while in other sites of the tide network, the tsunami did not exceed +2.0 m. A post-tsunami survey team comprised by local researchers was deployed from September 17th to November 14th 2015. The survey covered approximately 80 sites along 500 km of the primary impact zone, from the northernmost site where damage was reported, Bahía Carrizalillo (29.11°S; 71.46°W), southward to El Yali National Reserve (33.75°S; 71.73°W) beyond which no tsunami damage occurred. The results of the survey in coastal towns with evident damage and isolated sites where the tsunami signature remained almost intact are summarized in this paper. A large amount of quantitative material is presented; including (1) inundation lines in five coastal sites, (2) 157 profiles including wave runup and flow depths and (3) 47 interviews to eyewitness, generally 2-3 per site. About two-thirds of the data were collected in isolated areas to guarantee spatial homogeneity along the impact zone. The type of damage in specific areas of biological interest and in coastal cities such as Concón, Tongoy and Coquimbo is also reported. A maximum runup of 13.6 m was recorded in La Cebada (30.97°S; 71.65°W). The information presented herein provides spatial completeness in places that may have not been surveyed by other teams, and redundancy in areas surveyed by others.

  3. a Comparison of Sub-Pixel Mapping Methods for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingxiang; Trinder, John; Turner, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  4. Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination of the French coastal areas - Development of management tools for accidental radiological contamination in the French marine coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffa, C.; Charmasson, S. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/LERCM - Antenne de Radioecologie Marine, Centre Ifremer, Zone portuaire de Bregaillon, 13507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bailly du Bois, P.; Fievet, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France); Couvez, C.; Renaud, P. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SESURE/DIR (France); Didier, D. [IRSN/PRP-CRI/SESUC/BMTA (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to the most important accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the sea. This accident has underlined the importance of being able to adequately reproduce the fate of radioactive releases and to estimate their consequences for the marine environment. For its Crisis Centre, the French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has operational tools, in order to help experts and decision makers in case of any atmospheric accidental release and terrestrial environment contamination. The on-going project aims to develop tools to manage any marine contamination of the French coastal areas. We should be able to evaluate and anticipate the marine post-accidental situation: contaminated areas localization and contamination levels, and possible consequences. Many sites has be considered as potential source terms into the sea: the Coastal Nuclear Power Plants, the La Hague reprocessing Plant, the Brest and Toulon Military Harbours as home-ports of nuclear powered vessels, and different river mouths (Rhone River, Gironde, Loire, Seine) that could be contaminated by upstream accidental release. To achieve this goal, two complementary approaches are developed: Marine sheets and a dedicated modelling tool (STERNE). - Marine sheets aim to summarize marine environment characteristics for the different sites, identify potential stakes for human protection such as aquaculture areas, beaches, or industrial water intakes, and ecological stakes. Whenever possible, a local climatology (main currents depending on meteorological or tide conditions) that could be a support to first environmental measurement strategy is proposed. A list of available local contacts for any operational management is also provided. - The modelling tool, STERNE (Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Elements Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin), must predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination of water, marine species and sediments

  5. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  6. Evaluation of water resources in the Reedsport area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Joseph F.; Frank, F.J.; Leonard, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The water supply for the Reedsport area is obtained from Clear Lake, a 310-acre coastal lake that contains 16, 600 acre-feet of water at full-pool. The lake receives about 6,000 acre-feet of water annually from runoff and direct precipitation, and it loses about 600 acre-feet by evaporation. The 2,100 acre-feet diverted annually for public supply is about two-thirds of the ' usable storage capacity ' of the lake volume above the water-supply outlet pipe. Clear Lake is classified as a warm monomictic lake; that is, it is thermally stratified except during winter. The water of Clear Lake is of the sodium chloride type and is low in dissolved solids and nutrients. The water is considered to be of good quality for public supply, on the basis of biological and chemical constituents analyzed, which include trace elements pesticides, and organic material. The only ground-water source with potential to supply the needs of the Reedsport area is the dune sand-marine aquifer between U.S. Highway 101 and the coast. That aquifer consists largely of medium- to fine-grained sand with a variable saturated thickness of at least 90 feet. The aquifer is estimated to contain at least 12 billion gallons of water and to receive annual recharge from precipitation equivalent to 10 million gallons per day. Wells in the most productive part of the aquifer could be expected to yield a few hundred gallons per minute. The only identified water-quality problem is excessive iron reported in water from some wells. Either Clear Lake or the major aquifer could supply the Reedsport area 's aticipated year 2000 need of about 2.4 million gallons per day. 

  7. Castle Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Castle Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is part of the large Bruneau-Grand View thermal anomaly in southwestern Idaho. The KGRA is located in the driest area of Idaho and annual precipitation averages 230 mm. The potential of subsidence and slope failure is high in sediments of the Glenns Ferry Formation and Idaho Group found in the KGRA. A major concern is the potential impact of geothermal development on the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area which overlaps the KGRA. Any significant economic growth in Owyhee County may strain the ability of the limited health facilities in the county. The Idaho Archaeological survey has located 46 archaeological sites within the KGRA.

  8. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  9. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  10. Investigation of an Outbreak of Hepatitis A in a Coastal Area, Kerala, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Sandhya; Rakesh, P S; Dev, Soumya; Vijayakumar, Nithin; Prasannakumar, Prathibha

    2016-10-01

    An outbreak investigation was initiated following an unusual occurrence of hepatitis A reported among people residing in the coastal belt of Vadi to Vedikunnu area, Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. The time frame of disease occurrence, pattern of its distribution, and the incubation period of hepatitis A infection indicated the probability of occurrence of the outbreak as a result of pipe line water contamination due to mixing of sewage from a canal. The results add evidence to the epidemiology of hepatitis A in the state and warrant the establishment of an efficient water quality surveillance system.

  11. The Coastal Area Development Using GIS (Review of GIS Application Models)

    OpenAIRE

    Prastowo Sutanto

    2004-01-01

    GIS, Geographical Information System, is a means that an be used to plan and to develop the coastal area because in carrying out the analysis this system combines the space data and their  attributes. The activities done among others the prototype development of algae cultivation and tourism ativities, the development of fish pond location, the reclamation of the Jakarta Bay, and the concept of development the floating “Keramba” for pearl oysters and white sea fish similar to sole. GIS analys...

  12. Prediction of Ozone Concentrations over the Sea of Japan Coastal Area Using WRF/Chem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model is used to simulate air quality over the Sea of Japan coastal area. Anthropogenic surface emissions database used as input for this model are mainly based on Global hourly emissions data (dust, sea salt, biomass burning, RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition, GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity and POET (Precursors of ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere. Climatologic concentrations of particulate matters derived from Regional acid Deposition Model (RADM2 chemical mechanism and Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM with aqueous reaction were used to deduce the corresponding aerosols fluxes for input to the WRF/Chem. The model was firstly integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 00:00 UTC of 14 March 2008 to evaluate ozone concentrations and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. WPS meteorological data were used for the simulation of WRF/Chem model in this study. Despite the low resolution of the area global emissions and the weak density of the local point emissions, it has been found that WRF/Chem simulates quite well with the diurnal variation of the chemical species concentrations over the Sea of Japan coastal area. The simulations conducted in this study showed that due to the geographical and climatologically characteristics, it is still environmentally friendly by the transported pollutants in this region.

  13. Genotypic Characterization of Enterococci Collected from a Coastal Area Using PFGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    Development of microbial source tracking (MST) is crucial to ensure public health and bacteriological safety in coastal areas. In this study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) , utilized for pollution source tracking of hospital infections, was applied to the aquatic environment as a MST method. Enterococcus faecium and Entecococcus faecalis, fecal indicator bacterias, were isolated and identified from a port area, and the genotype was analyzed by PFGE. A total of 230 enterococcal strains were isolated by PFGE, and forty strains were identified as E. faecium using both PCR and the Api 20 Strep test. Dendrogram analysis of the PFGE types revealed that all the 40 E. faecium strains can be classified separately into 7 different groups at a 0.7 similarity level. The genotypic characterization of E. faecium from the coastal port area revealed diverse types. It is suggested that PFGE can be used to differentiate and characterize fecal pollution indicating bacteria by applying it to the aquatic environment, as well as provide detailed information to specify the pollution source.

  14. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  15. Enrichment and vertical profiles of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Prakash, V

    2010-06-01

    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of (210)Po and (210)Pb, important daughter products of (238)U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for (210)Po and (210)Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of (210)Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg(-1) and that of (210)Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg(-1). The mean (210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 193 nGy h(-1).

  16. Tributyltin contamination of bivalves in coastal areas around northern Kyushu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Suguru; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Oshima, Yuji; Kai, Norihisa; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2006-06-01

    We determined tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in bivalve samples of blue mussel (Myitlus edulis), Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and pen shell (Atrina pectinata) collected from coastal areas around northern Kyushu in 1998 and 2001. TBT was detected in all bivalve samples collected, ranging in concentration from 0.008 to 0.135 microg/g wet wt. In Hakata Port, which is an industrial area, high TBT concentrations were detected in bivalves (blue mussel, maximum concentration of 0.135 microg/g wet wt). In the Ariake Sea, which is an important bivalve habitat, TBT concentrations in Manila clams ranged from 0.062 to 0.125 microg/g wet wt in 1998 and from 0.008 to 0.033 microg/g wet wt in 2001. In addition, concentrations of TBT in pen shells collected from the Ariake Sea in 2001 ranged from 0.009 to 0.095 microg/g wet wt. These results clearly demonstrate that, despite the regulation of TBT usage since 1990 in Japan, contamination of bivalves by TBT has persisted in coastal areas around northern Kyushu. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mountain home known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Mountain Home KGRA encompasses an area of 3853 hectares (ha) at the foot of the Mount Bennett Hills in Elmore County, Idaho. The site is associated with an arid climate and high winds that generate an acute dust problem. The KGRA lies adjacent to the northwest-southeast trending fault zone that reflects the northern boundary of the western Snake River Plain graben. Data indicate that a careful analysis of the subsidence potential is needed prior to extensive geothermal development. Surface water resources are confined to several small creeks. Lands are utilized for irrigated farmlands and rangeland for livestock. There are no apparent soil limitations to geothermal development. Sage grouse and mule deer are the major species of concern. The potential of locating significant heritage resources other than the Oregon Trail or the bathhouse debris appears to be relatively slight.

  18. Quality and Type of Chemical of Groundwater at Coastal Areas of Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two objectives of this researh. First, to identify and analyze the condition of ground water quality in the research area, and second to determined the chemial types of groundwater. To ahieve these objectives 59 groundwater samples were taken stratifiedly, base on the different of electrical conductance value. As a result, it is identified that most groundwater in the research area is not suitable for drinking water sources, because has high concentration of electrical conductance, turbidity, hardness, chloride, manganese, and salinity. Thiis conclusion is also supported by stiff diagram analysis. The result of Stuyfzand analysis shhows that the chemical types of groundwater is very variative. Groundwater in coastal areas has higher suply of saline water than fresh water.

  19. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. Where compared with the elevation map, in fact, the electrical conductivity data (a proxy for salinity) seem to be strongly controlled by topography (even small variations). In the study area, the topographic reliefs consist of several rows of dunes, the topographic lows are artificial ditches and ponds or dune slacks. The farmland is about at the same level of the sea. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as dunes were eroded (down to 1.5 m above m.s.l.) and a series of saltwater ponds (about 1 m below m.s.l.) are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence of a 3 m high active dune and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow fresh groundwater lens in the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes (more than 4 m) and do not contain any pond. Here, the fresh groundwater lens is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upconing of deeper salty groundwater. Our study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low lying coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upconing.

  20. Impact of climate change on freshwater resources in a heterogeneous coastal aquifer of Bremerhaven, Germany: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Graf, Thomas; Ptak, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to induce sea level rise in the German Bight, which is part of the North Sea, Germany. Climate change may also modify river discharge of the river Weser flowing into the German Bight, which will alter both pressure and salinity distributions in the river Weser estuary. To study the long-term interaction between sea level rise, discharge variations, a storm surge and coastal aquifer flow dynamics, a 3D seawater intrusion model was designed using the fully coupled surface-subsurface numerical model HydroGeoSphere. The model simulates the coastal aquifer as an integral system considering complexities such as variable-density flow, variably saturated flow, irregular boundary conditions, irregular land surface and anthropogenic structures (e.g., dyke, drainage canals, water gates). The simulated steady-state groundwater flow of the year 2009 is calibrated using PEST. In addition, four climate change scenarios are simulated based on the calibrated model: (i) sea level rise of 1m, (ii) the salinity of the seaside boundary increases by 4 PSU (Practical Salinity Units), (iii) the salinity of the seaside boundary decreases by 12 PSU, and (iv) a storm surge with partial dyke failure. Under scenarios (i) and (iv), the salinized area expands several kilometers further inland during several years. Natural remediation can take up to 20 years. However, sudden short-term salinity changes in the river Weser estuary do not influence the salinized area in the coastal aquifer. The obtained results are useful for coastal engineering practices and drinking water resource management.

  1. MAC Layer Resource Allocation for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Shen; Xuemin Sherman Shen; Tom HLuan; Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) can provide low-cost, timely healthcare services and are expected to be widely used for e-healthcare in hospitals. In a hospital, space is often limited and multiple WBANs have to coexist in an area and share the same channel in order to provide healthcare services to different patients. This causes severe interference between WBANs that could significantly reduce the network throughput and increase the amount of power consumed by sensors placed on the body. There-fore, an efficient channel-resource allocation scheme in the medium access control (MAC) layer is crucial. In this paper, we devel-op a centralized MAC layer resource allocation scheme for a WBAN. We focus on mitigating the interference between WBANs and reducing the power consumed by sensors. Channel and buffer state are reported by smartphones deployed in each WBAN, and channel access allocation is performed by a central controller to maximize network throughput. Sensors have strict limitations in terms of energy consumption and computing capability and cannot provide all the necessary information for channel allocation in a timely manner. This deteriorates network performance. We exploit the temporal correlation of the body area channel in order to minimize the number of channel state reports necessary. We view the network design as a partly observable optimization prob-lem and develop a myopic policy, which we then simulate in Matlab.

  2. A STUDY OF BRACKISH WATER MEMBRANE WITH ULTRAFILTRATION PRETREATMENT IN INDONESIA´S COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30--61 L/m2·hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF--PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96--98% and color rejection about 99--100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF--air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  3. A study of brackish water membrane with ultrafiltration pretreatment in Indonesia’s coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Hastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution and sea water intrusion to water sources in coastal areas result lack of provision safe drinking water by the drinking water regional company or coastal community. The existing water treatment plant that operated on brackish surface water or groundwater feed requires improving process. Membrane process could be a choice to treat the quality of brackish water to the level of potable water that designed to lower cost with high stabil flux and longer lifetime. This research focus on application of pilot plant of brackish water treatment using Ultrafiltration (UF membrane-air lift system as pretreatment of Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane-low pressure. Brackish water sources contain high colloidal and suspended solids that can cause fouling load of RO membranes and impair its performance. UF pretreatment operation tested by addition of compressed air into the feed (air lift system, resulted stable flux, reduces membrane fouling and low feed pressure. A flux of RO with UF pretreatment can produce drinking water of 30–61 L/m2∙hour. It was observed, the good quality of RO permeate resulted by using a pretreatment of UF–PS (Polysulfone-UF with total dissolved solid rejection about 96–98% and color rejection about 99–100% at 5 or 8 bars of operation pressure. This paper concludes that performance of membrane technology with UF–air lift system pretreatment and RO membrane-low pressure could be accepted as condition of brackish water source in Indonesia coastal areas in producing drinking water.

  4. Statistical and dynamical downscaling to transfer wave climate to coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Izaguirre, Cristina; Reguero, Borja G.; Medina, Raul

    2010-05-01

    The term "wave climate" usually refers to the statistical distribution of several oceanographic geophysical variables at a particular site. Components of the wave climate are variables such as wind velocity, wind direction, significant wave height, peak period, and mean wave direction. In the last decade, long-term wave reanalysis (hindcast) data bases from numerical models have been developed improving the knowledge of deep water wave climate, especially at locations where instrumental data are not available. The reanalysis data present the advantages of having enough spatial (say 0.1 to 1°) and temporal resolution (more than 400.000 sea states) to characterize deep-water wave climate. This huge amount of information needs to be dealt with statistical downscaling techniques that enable an easy analysis of the multi-dimensionality of wave climate. Besides, coastal wave climate requires a more detailed spatial resolution (say, 100 m) in order to correctly evaluate different coastal processes. This specific problem of dynamical downscaling, enhancing the spatial resolution and defining in detail shallow water areas, is called "wave propagation" and usually requires numerical models that consider the wave propagation processes such as refraction, shoaling, diffraction and dissipation by wave breaking. In this work, a combination of statistical and dynamical downscaling is presented. The statistical downscaling includes the use of classification (Self-organizing maps) and selection algorithms (Max-Diss). The dynamical downscaling is carried out using different nested state-of-the-art wave propagation models, increasing the spatial resolution near the coast. A multidimensional interpolation scheme based on Radial Basis Functions is used to obtain quantitatively valid time series of wave climate at coastal areas, which are validated using instrumental data.

  5. Dissolved zinc and its speciation in the coastal hydrothermal area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, H.; Kim, T.; Gamo, T.; Takeda, S.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for marine bacteria and phytoplankton. Previous studies indicated that organic complexes of dissolved zinc in surface waters account for about 98% of the total dissolved zinc in the open ocean (e.g., Bruland, 1989; Ellwood and van den Berg, 2000). However, distributions of dissolved Zn and its speciation were not clarified yet in the coastal areas. In this study, we have investigated dissolved Zn distribution and its speciation in the Tachibana Bay (Japan), where an active hydrothermal activity was reported at the coastal areas. Seawater samples were collected from surface to near bottom (D=36 m) in the Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki Prefecture, by using acid-cleaned samplers in May 2012 and 2013. Total dissolved Zn was determined by using CSV after UV-digestion. For the Zn speciation, ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants were obtained from a titration using competitive ligand equilibrium / adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (van den Berg, 1985). In the Tachibana Bay, total dissolved Zn (D-Zn) ranged from 0.33 to 3.1 nM, which were similar concentration levels to those in the open ocean. D-Zn was sharply decreased toward the bottom. High sulfide concentration (94 nM) in coastal bottom waters was observed, reflecting active hydrothermal system near the bottom of Tachibana Bay coast. Zn is seemingly removed as Zn-sulfides from the water column. Also, relatively high total ligand concentration was calculated near the bottom. The biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the Tachibana Bay is considerably affected by hydrothermal system.

  6. Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Comte

    2016-03-01

    New hydrological insights: Results confirm the fundamental importance of coastal groundwater resources for the development of the region and the urgent need to match groundwater development with demographic and economic growth. Hydrogeological knowledge is fragmented, groundwater lacks a long-term monitoring infrastructure and information transfer from stakeholders to users is limited. Current trends in demography, climate, sea-level and land-use are further threatening freshwater availability. Despite possessing high-productivity aquifers, water quality from wells and boreholes is generally impacted by saltwater intrusion. Shallow large-diameter wells, following the traditional model of these areas, consistently prove to be less saline and more durable than deeper small-diameter boreholes. However, promoting the use of large numbers of shallow wells poses a significant challenge for governance, requiring coherent management of the resource at local and national scales and the engagement of local communities.

  7. Summary of Training Workshop on the Use of NASA tools for Coastal Resource Management in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Chaeli; Judd, Kathleen S.; Gulbransen, Thomas C.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2009-03-01

    A two-day training workshop was held in Xalapa, Mexico from March 10-11 2009 with the goal of training end users from the southern Gulf of Mexico states of Campeche and Veracruz in the use of tools to support coastal resource management decision-making. The workshop was held at the computer laboratory of the Institute de Ecologia, A.C. (INECOL). This report summarizes the results of that workshop and is a deliverable to our NASA client.

  8. Phosphorus speciation, transformation, and preservation in the coastal area of Rushan Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zang, Jiaye; Zhao, Chenying; Yu, Zhigang; Xu, Bochao; Li, Jingxi; Ran, Xiangbin

    2016-09-15

    Phosphorus (P) speciation, burial, and transformation are poorly constrained under low-oxygen conditions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques, in-situ incubation, and laboratory incubation were employed to explore P cycling in the low-oxygen area of coastal Rushan. The study determined that the total P concentrations in the coastal area of Rushan Bay were higher than those of other China shelf seas, and largely affected by anthropogenic activities. The phosphate (DRP) fluxes in the study area calculated using an incubation method (0-1960μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) and measured based on pore water gradients (1.5-50.4μmolm(-2)day(-)(1)) were both highly correlated with oxygen conditions. Sediment incubations showed that DRP diffusion from the sediment mainly originates from Fe-P and Auth-P dissolution and that Org-P recycling contributed only a small portion of the total released P pool. The benthic phosphate flux can be 60 times higher under low bottom-water oxygen levels of 63-150μmolL(-1) than under oxygen levels exceeding 150μmolL(-1) in the study area. The P accumulation rates and burial efficiencies in this study area ranged from 16.5-33.3μmolcm(-2)year(-1) and 81.1-83.4%, respectively, and were regulated by the oxygen level and diffusive DRP flux. This study indicates that low oxygen levels between 63 and 150μmol significantly govern P transformation and preservation in the sediment and P pools in the water column.

  9. Studies of aerosols advected to coastal areas with the use of remote techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Strzałkowska, Agata; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Chourdakis, Georgius; Georgoussis, George; Kratzer, Susanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the studies of aerosol optical properties measured using lidars and sun photometers. We describe two case studies of the combined measurements made in two coastal zones in Crete in 2006 and in Rozewie on the Baltic Sea in 2009. The combination of lidar and sun photometer measurements provides comprehensive information on both the total aerosol optical thickness in the entire atmosphere as well as the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties. Combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides complete picture of the aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. We show that such combined studies are especially important in the coastal areas where depending on air mass advection directions and altitudes the influence of fine or coarse mode (in this case possibly sea-salt) particles on the vertical structure of aerosol optical properties is an important issue to consider.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  11. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  12. Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is part of the Bruneau-Grandview thermal anomaly, the largest geothermal area in the western US. This part of Owyhee County is the driest part of Idaho. The KGRA is associated with the southern boundary fault zone of the Snake River Plain. Thermal water, produced from numerous artesian wells in the region, is supplied from two major aquifers. Ecological concerns include the threatened Astragalus mulfordiae and the numerous birds of prey nesting in the Snake River canyon northwest of the KGRA. Extensive geothermal development may strain the limited health care facilities in the county. Ethnographic information suggests that there is a high probability of prehistoric cultural materials being remnant in the Hot Spring locality.

  13. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS: a new tool to analyse the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bonamano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena, as expected by Marine Strategy Directive, which is focused on the achievement of Good Environmental Status (GES by all Member States by 2020. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia, where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS, implemented in the current configuration, includes various modules that provide integrated information to be used in different fields of the environmental research. The long term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated by in situ surveys, periodically carried out for the monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column and marine sediments, as well as of the benthic biota. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM, are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow analyses and forecasting of the dynamics of conservative and non-conservative particles under different conditions. As examples of C-CEMS applications, two case studies are reported in this work: (1 the analysis of faecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment and, (2 the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulations results are combined with Posidonia oceanica distribution and bathing areas presence in order to resolve the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities and sensitivity areas management.

  14. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  15. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  16. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.01). Geostatistical analysis revealed a varied spatial distribution pattern for the measured soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  17. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  18. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  19. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  20. Multiple Antibiotic Resistances of Vibrio Isolates from Coastal and Brackish Water Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manjusha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to assess the occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistances in Vibrio spp. from different (brackish and marine environments. Water samples from nine marine landing sites and two coastal inland aquaculture farms were screened for the Vibrio spp. and assessed their resistance to twenty-two different antibiotics, which are commonly encountered in the aquatic ecosystem. Tissue samples (shrimp, mussel and sepia were tested from the sampling site with highest antibiotic resistance. Of the total 119 Vibrio isolates, 16. 8% were susceptible to all antibiotics. Of the resistant (83.19% Vibrio strains, 30.3% were resistant against three antibiotics, 55.5% were resistant against 4-10 antibiotics, 14.14% were resistant against more than 10 antibiotics and 54% have shown multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR. Antibiotic resistance index was higher in Coastal 3, 6, Aqua farm 2 in isolates from water samples and all the tissues tested. Interestingly, incidence of antibiotic resistance in isolates from water samples was comparatively lower in aquaculture farms than that observed in coastal areas. Highest incidence of antibiotic resistance was evident against Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Carbencillin and Cefuroxime followed by Rifampicin and Streptomycin and lowest against Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Furazolidone, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin Sulphafurazole, Trimethoprim, Neomycin and Amikacin irrespective of the sampling sites. Results from various tissue samples collected from the sites of highest antibiotic resistance indicated that antibiotic resistance Vibrio spp. collected from fish and tissue samples were higher than that of water samples. Overall results indicated that persistent use of antibiotics against diseases in human beings and other life forms may pollute the aquatic system and their impact on developing antibiotic resistant Vibrio spp. may be a serious threat in addition to the use of

  1. EMERGING TRENDS IN THYROID DISEASES IN TSUNAMI HIT COASTAL AREAS OF PUDUCHERRY AND CUDDALORE, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanappa Shiroorkar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid diseases are major global health problem but the incidence and prevalence of this varies from place to place. The government of India has started universal iodization of salt owing to the huge burd en of thyroid diseases in the country. In 2004, the coastal regions of Puducherry and Cuddalore wer e flooded by tsunami. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid diseases in coastal regions of Puducherry and Cuddalore. We also studied the trends in prevale nce of thyroid diseases after tsunami. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the patients undergoing thyroidectomy in a terti ary care teaching hospital in South India were included in ou r study. Histopathological examination of thyroidectomy specimens was performed. RESULTS: A total of 342 thyroidectomy specimens were studied. Of the 342 cases, 30 were males and 3 12 were females with a ratio of 1: 10.4. Out of 342 cases, 169 (49.42 % were non neoplastic lesi ons, 173 (50.58% were neoplastic. Of the 342 cases, 118 (34.5% cases were simple goiter, 98 (28.66% were adenoma, 70 (20.47% were papillary carcinoma, 42 (12.28% were thyroiditi s, 9 (2.63% were toxic goiter and 5 (1.46% were follicular carcinoma. We observed an i ncreasing trend in the prevalence of papillary carcinoma and thyroiditis after tsunami in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to establish quality assurance system to monit or iodine content in the soil, food, water and salt in the tsunami affected coastal areas. It is a lso necessary to study the other possible causes for papillary carcinoma and take measures to prevent i t.

  2. Are styrene oligomers in coastal sediments of an industrial area aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Changkeun; Yoon, Seo Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-06-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed to identify the major aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in sediments collected from a highly industrialized area (Lake Shihwa, Korea). Great AhR-mediated potencies were found in fractions containing aromatic compounds with log Kow values of 5-8, and relatively great concentrations of styrene oligomers (SOs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in those fractions. Until now, there was little information on occurrences and toxic relative potencies (RePs) of SOs in coastal environments. In the present study; i) distributions and compositions, ii) AhR binding affinities, and iii) contributions of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were determined in coastal sediments. Elevated concentrations of 10 SOs were detected in sediments of inland creeks ranging from 61 to 740 ng g(-1) dry mass (dm), while lesser concentrations were found in inner (mean = 33 ng g(-1) dm) and outer regions (mean = 25 ng g(-1) dm) of the lake. Concentrations of PAHs in sediments were comparable to those of SOs. 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene (SD3) was the predominant SO analogue in sediments. SOs and PAHs were accumulated in sediments near sources, and could not be transported to remote regions due to their hydrophobicity. RePs of 3 SOs could be derived, which were 1000- to 10,000-fold less than that of one representative potent AhR active PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. Although concentrations of SOs in sediments were comparable to those of PAHs, the collective contribution of SOs to total AhR-mediated potencies were rather small (coastal environment.

  3. Hydrogeology and Groundwater Resources of the Coastal Aquifers of Southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    The glacially derived aquifer systems of southeastern Massachusetts compose the largest groundwater reservoir in the State. Population increases, land-use changes, and climate change in this area could lead to three primary environmental effects that relate directly to groundwater resources - (1) increases in pumping that could adversely affect environmentally sensitive groundwater-fed surface waters, such as ponds, streams, and wetlands; (2) changes in land use that could affect the quality of water in the aquifer; and (3) changes in precipitation and mean sea level that can affect water levels, streamflow, and the position of the freshwater/saltwater boundary. Therefore, understanding groundwater flow and the factors that can affect it is critical to managing and protecting this vital resource.

  4. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A.; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users’ decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  5. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  6. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  7. Implications of modelled radioactivity measurements along coastal Odisha, Eastern India for heavy mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, S.; Agrahari, S.; Guin, R.; Sengupta, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radioelemental assemblage assessment of two beaches of Odisha is performed for the first time. The radiation is measured in two ways, both on field with the help of a hand held environmental survey meter and in the laboratory, where the concentrations of radionuclide's 238U, 232Th and 4K have been determined with the help of High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe). Mineralogical analysis of selected samples has been performed with the help of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF). A marked difference between the concentration of Uranium (274 Bq kg-1) and Thorium (2489 Bq kg-1) is observed and discussed based on the geology of the area. The placer deposits showing an enrichment of thorium can be an important source of nuclear fuel for the thorium based nuclear reactors. The ratio of thorium and uranium concentrations gives us an idea about the coastal processes associated with the beach. Statistical analysis of the data shows a positive correlation between 238U and 232Th and a strong negative correlation is indicated between 4 K and 238U, 232Th. A cross plot between the equivalent thorium and the equivalent uranium and the equivalent thorium and potassium, represents the nature of deposition and its association with the heavy mineral along with the radioactive elements. Heavy minerals exhibit an increasing trend towards Northeast-Southwest along the south eastern coast of India.

  8. Social-psychological well-being of rural population in the White Sea coastal area as a risk factor for the Russian Arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O. Podoplekin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a generalized data from sociological survey of social-psychological well-being of the rural population of the coastal areas in Arkhangelsk region (included into the Russian Arctic zone held in 2015. The data shows a critical level of social pessimism, assurance of residents in continuation of negative social-economic dynamics, deficiency of motivation and readiness for active participation and inclusion into the development of territories. Such a status is based on a deep degradation of local industries, infrastructures and social sphere, which has been confirmed by statistic data. The revealed indicators explain high migration preparedness, especially in groups of working ages, proceeding, in the middle-term prospective, to the risk of depopulation and disintegration of social carcass in the coastal areas which, in their turn, possess a significant resource potential. At that, residential population on these areas considered as strategic factor from the perspective of Russian geopolitical interests in the Arctic. A positive trend may be provided through implementation of spatial approach to the social-economic development, which has been already applied in activities held by the Russian State Commission on the Arctic Development. With that there is obvious relevance of correction of the Russian legislation toward transformation of residential population into the beneficiary party of the macro-regional development, which may be provided by establishing of special regimes and preferences in spheres of natural resource use, tax assessment, entrepreneurship and crediting for all groups indigenous (resident population, including aboriginal people of the North.

  9. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  10. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  11. Implications of multi-scale sea level and climate variability for coastal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamperidou, Christina; Engel, Victor; Lall, Upmanu; Stabenau, Erik; Smith, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    While secular changes in regional sea levels and their implications for coastal zone management have been studied extensively, less attention is being paid to natural fluctuations in sea levels, whose interaction with a higher mean level could have significant impacts on low-lying areas, such as wetlands. Here, the long record of sea level at Key West, FL is studied in terms of both the secular trend and the multi-scale sea level variations. This analysis is then used to explore implications for the Everglades National Park (ENP), which is recognized internationally for its ecological significance, and is the site of the largest wetland restoration project in the world. Very shallow topographic gradients (3–6 cm per km) make the region susceptible to small changes in sea level. Observations of surface water levels from a monitoring network within ENP exhibit both the long-term trends and the interannual-to-(multi)decadal variability that are observed in the Key West record. Water levels recorded at four long-term monitoring stations within ENP exhibit increasing trends approximately equal to or larger than the long-term trend at Key West. Time- and frequency-domain analyses highlight the potential influence of climate mechanisms, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on Key West sea levels and marsh water levels, and the potential modulation of their influence by the background state of the North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures. In particular, the Key West sea levels are found to be positively correlated with the NAO index, while the two series exhibit high spectral power during the transition to a cold Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The correlation between the Key West sea levels and the NINO3 Index reverses its sign in coincidence with a reversal of the AMO phase. Water levels in ENP are also influenced by precipitation and freshwater releases from the northern boundary of the Park. The analysis of both

  12. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  13. Traditional ethno-botanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Qasim; Zainul Abideen; Muhammad Yousuf Adnan; Raziuddin Ansari; Bilquees Gul; Muhammad Ajmal Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the traditional uses of wild plants as medicine by the villagers along the coastal highway from Karachi to Uthal. Methods: Information presented in this research was gathered from the local people using an integrated approach of floral collections, discussions with the elderly people and traditional medicinal practitioners using semi-structured questionnaire.Results:27 families in the targeted area. Majority of the plants (54%) from this coastal plant diversity were xerophytes followed by halophytes/xero-halophytes (40%) and glycophytes (6%). The most important uses included gastrointestinal diseases, pain killer, arthritis, skin and sexual disorders, asthma and expectorant. The above-ground parts of plants i.e. leaf, stem and fruit/seed as decoction are used most commonly to cure 23 ailments but root was also used in some cases.Conclusions:Ethno-medicinal surveys indicated the medicinal importance of 54 plant species from phyto-medicinal claim and it is hoped that it will lead to detailed chemical and pharmacological evaluations. This may also lead to a discovery of novel bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study helps in documenting therapeutic uses of herbal remedies with new pevhayltou-amtioendsic. iTnhali sc lmaiamy aanldso i tl iesa hdo tpoe da tdhiastc iot vweirlyl loeaf dn otov edle tbaiioleadc tcihveem ciocmalp aonudn pdhs afromr afcoooldog aicnadl pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Bryde's whale (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae occurrence and movements in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Lodi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879, were observed on 17 occasions (N = 21 surveys in the coastal waters off Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil during austral summer through autumn 2014. Five whales were individually identified using photo-identification techniques. The mean interval between resightings for all individuals was 12.8 days, with a minimum of one day and a maximum of 48 days. The comparison between the catalogs of Bryde's whales off Rio de Janeiro and the Cabo Frio region revealed matches for three individuals. The resightings show movements of up to 149.6 km along the coastal waters off the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the observations consisted of solitary individuals (82.3% of sightings. Feeding was the predominant behavior observed (47%, followed by milling (35.3% and travelling (17.6% in waters up to 48 m deep. Direct observations resulted in the addition of new prey, such as snubnose anchovy, Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther, 1868 and white snake mackerel, Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832, to the known diet of the Bryde's whale. A long time series of photo-identification efforts in the Rio de Janeiro, the Cabo Frio region and other areas can elucidate fundamental aspects of spatial and temporal site fidelity knowledge of Bryde's whales in southeastern Brazil.

  15. Impact Analysis of Coastal Engineering Projects on Mangrove Wetland Area Change with Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, two large scale coastal engineering projects have been carried out in the Deep Bay surrounded by Shenzhen City and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. One project is Shenzhen River channel regulation and the other is the sea reclamation along the seashore on the Shenzhen side. The two projects are very close to the two national nature reserves, specifically Futian in Shenzhen and Mai Po in Hong Kong, which are important wetland ecosystems worldwide. This paper aims to identify and monitor the mangrove wetland changes with time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images pre and post to the two engineering projects being launched. Coupled analysis of the image interpretation results and tidal data acquired at the same time in the context of the two works reveals that the mangrove wetland area has increased from year 1989 to 1994, and has changed little from year 1994 to 2002. Binary coding is applied to reveal the distribution image of mangrove at each phase, and the coding image shows that the construction of the two coastal engineering projects has caused frequent changes in mangrove spatial distribution. The study also shows that the change is not significant regarding to the precision of the method and the natural evolution of mangrove wetland, and the projects do not cause apparently influences upon the two national mangrove conservation zones at least for the research time period.

  16. Traditional ethno-botanical uses of medicinal plants from coastal areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the traditional uses of wild plants as medicine by the villagers along the coastal highway from Karachi to Uthal. Methods: Information presented in this research was gathered from the local people using an integrated approach of floral collections, discussions with the elderly people and traditional medicinal practitioners using semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Ethno-medicinal surveys indicated the medicinal importance of 54 plant species from 27 families in the targeted area. Majority of the plants (54% from this coastal plant diversity were xerophytes followed by halophytes/xero-halophytes (40% and glycophytes (6%. The most important uses included gastrointestinal diseases, pain killer, arthritis, skin and sexual disorders, asthma and expectorant. The above-ground parts of plants i.e. leaf, stem and fruit/seed as decoction are used most commonly to cure 23 ailments but root was also used in some cases. Conclusions: This study helps in documenting therapeutic uses of herbal remedies with new phyto-medicinal claim and it is hoped that it will lead to detailed chemical and pharmacological evaluations. This may also lead to a discovery of novel bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Density,Storage and Distribution of Carbon in Mangrove Ecosystem in Guangdong’s Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Pimao; CHEN; Chuanxin; QIN

    2015-01-01

    Using the mangrove plants and sediment of the typical mangrove areas in Guangdong’s coastal areas,P. R. China as the research object,the density,storage and spatial distribution of carbon are studied. The study method is the combination of the wild field analysis and laboratory testing method. The results show that the carbon density of the sediment will gradually decrease because of the increased depth,and has nothing to do with the difference of the area and tree species. The average carbon density of 50 cm sediment is 0. 007 g C / g. The carbon density is obviously different in different components of different mangrove species in different regions. The total carbon storage in different regions is in the following order: Zhuhai > Gaoqiao > Shenzhen > Shuidong Bay > Guanghai Bay > Raoping > Daya Bay > Chenghai. The carbon density and carbon storage are obviously higher in mangrove covered area than blank area. It shows that mangroves have very strong carbon sink function.

  18. Optical properties of algal blooms in an eutrophicated coastal area and its relevance to remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astoreca, Rosa; Rousseau, Veronique; Ruddick, Kevin; Van Mol, Barbara; Parent, Jean-Yves; Lancelot, Christiane

    2005-08-01

    The Southern Bight of the North Sea is characterised by a large influence of river inputs, which results in eutrophication of the area. High concentrations of plankton biomass and suspended matter have been reported for this area, in relation with blooms of different species and resuspension of bottom sediments. In spring the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa blooms throughout the area reaching up to 30 mg Chlorophyll m-3 or more nearshore. This event is followed in June by red tides of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans. These blooms are concurrent with different species of diatoms. The strong optical signature of these blooms is clear to human observers making them potentially detectable in satellite imagery. As a first step in this direction, sampling has been carried out in the area, during Phaeocystis and Noctiluca blooms in 2003 and 2004. Phytoplankton pigments and inherent optical properties (particle, detrital and phytoplankton absorption) have been measured spectrophotometrically, and in situ using an ac-9 for total absorption and particle scattering. Field data were compared with optical properties of pure species obtained in laboratory. In parallel, water-leaving reflectance has been also measured. In this paper we characterise the optical signatures of diatoms, Phaeocystis and Noctiluca and their contribution to total absorption. The impact on water-leaving reflectance spectra is evaluated; in order to assess the conditions in which remote sensing can provide information for monitoring the timing, extent and magnitude of blooms in this coastal area.

  19. Nutrient flows and related impacts between a Mediterranean river and the associated coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markogianni, Vassiliki; Varkitzi, Ioanna; Pagou, Kalliopi; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Taking into consideration the Water Framework Directive's requirements, water samples were collected monthly and/or bimonthly between 2014 and 2015 from Spercheios River, its estuary and the adjacent Maliakos Gulf in order to assess the quality of these water bodies. A study on dissolved nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations was carried out, to investigate the impact between the river and the associated coastal area and assess the nutrient loads based on water flows from Spercheios River into the marine system.Furthermore a seasonal distribution of nutrient concentrations have been studied, dividing the sampling period into dry and wet season according to the river's discharges. Correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis among the available chemical data were conducted in order to enhance the detection of the two systems' interaction. Nutrients' concentrations increased from upstream to downstream sampling stations, particularly in areas where human-induced activities are detected. Marine samples were characterized by lower nutrient concentrations than the river ones, and the ecological quality of Maliakos Gulf, based on chlorophyll-a values, is characterized as moderate, except for the stations close to the river, which constantly presented poor quality. Chemical analyses and statistical analysis indicated high nutrient flows and a strong impact between the freshwater and marine systems, accompanied by the profound effect of the adjacent aquafarming areas and the wastewater treatment plant of Lamia city. The highest nutrients' and chlorophyll-a values of the coastal stations were detected close to the river mouth and they were decreasing towards the outer Maliakos Gulf.

  20. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  1. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  2. Basic survey on coal resources in Ariake Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Mitsuharu

    1984-09-21

    This is a contracted NEDO project. Potential existance of coal resources and geological conditions were studied and the following information was acquired. Area examined is the Ariake Sea area with breadth of 12 km (east to west) and 17 km (north to south) between the Miike Coal Mines and the Karatsu Coal Mines. Investigation was made by a marine drilling (depth being 864.8 m and 865.2 m below the sea bottom) and by a marine seismic method. Existence of coal bed groups comparable with the coal bed in the trial section of the Miike Coal Mines was confirmed by the two-drill trial. This indicates that the west end line of the Miike Coal Mines lies further west of the line connecting the Chikugo barrier and the Minenosu barrier. Investigation by a marine earthquake indicates that the upper surface of the coal beds in the investigated area is distributed in the depth of 400 - 1,100 m below the sea level, and that the basic surface is situated at the depth of 700 - 1,400 m below the sea level. This suggests the possibility that the coal beds of the Miike Coal Mines are distributed to reach the western part of the Ariake Sea. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

  3. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  4. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine K.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

  5. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Aleutian...

  6. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  7. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  8. Pond Creek Coal Zone Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal bed resource areas. Resource areas are only a subset of the entire areal...

  9. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  10. Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

    2008-12-01

    Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively

  11. Optimal design of a lagrangian observing system for hydrodynamic surveys in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Maicu, Francesco; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of ocean observing systems is a pressing need for scientific research. In particular, the improvement of ocean short-term observing networks is achievable by reducing the cost-benefit ratio of the field campaigns and by increasing the quality of measurements. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for determining the appropriateness of a specific observing system and for optimizing the sampling design. This is particularly true when observations are carried out in coastal areas and lagoons where, the use satellites is prohibitive due to the water shallowness. For such areas, numerical models are the most efficient tool both to provide a preliminary assess of the local physical environment and to make short -term predictions above its change. In this context, a test case experiment was carried out within an enclosed shallow water areas, the Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). The aim of the experiment was to explore the optimal design for a field survey based on the use of coastal lagrangian buoys. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the finite element method (SHYFEM3D, Umgiesser et al., 2004) was implemented to simulate the lagoon water circulation. The model domain extent to the whole Cabras lagoon and to the whole Oristano Gulf, including the surrounding coastal area. Lateral open boundary conditions were provided by the operational ocean model system WMED and only wind forcing, provided by SKIRON atmospheric model (Kallos et al., 1997), was considered as surface boundary conditions. The model was applied to provide a number of ad hoc scenarios and to explore the efficiency of the short-term hydrodynamic survey. A first field campaign was carried out to investigate the lagrangian circulation inside the lagoon under the main wind forcing condition (Mistral wind from North-West). The trajectories followed by the lagrangian buoys and the estimated lagrangian velocities were used to calibrate the model parameters and to validate the

  12. Reproduction of a whiptail lizard (Ameivula ocellifera, Teiidae from a coastal area in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJAN ZANCHI-SILVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive ecology of Ameivula ocellifera was studied from September 2009 to August 2010 in a coastal area of the state of Ceará, Brazil. Females reproduced continuously throughout the year, with a peak at the end of the rainy season. Even though there was a predominance of pre-reproductive individuals in the sample, gonadal activity of males peaked synchronously to female reproduction. Mean clutch size was 1.98 ± 0.56 and positively associated with female body size, while mean egg volume was 510.54 ± 84.29 mm3 and unrelated to female body size. We did not find any association between clutch size and average egg volume.

  13. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro

    2017-09-12

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  14. The role of satellite altimetry in gravity field modelling in coastal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    During recent years altimetry from the two geodetic missions of GEOSAT and ERS-1 has enabled the derivation of high resolution near global gravity field from altimetry [Andersen and Knudsen, 1995, 1996; Sandwell and Smith, 1997]. Altimetric gravity fields are unique in the sense that they provide...... global uniform gravity information with very high resolution, and these global marine gravity fields are registered on a two by two minute grid corresponding to 4 by 4 kilometres at the equator. In this presentation several coastal complications in deriving the marine gravity field from satellite...... altimetry will be investigated using the KMS98 gravity field. Comparison with other sources of gravity field information like airborne and marine gravity observations will be carried out and two fundamentally different test areas (Azores and Skagerak) will be studied to investigated the different role...

  15. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  16. Application of Social Vulnerability Indicators to Climate Change for the Southwest Coastal Areas of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Cheng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the coastal zones of Taiwan not only affects the marine environment, ecology, and human communities whose economies rely heavily on marine activities, but also the sustainable development of national economics. The southwest coast is known as the area most vulnerable to climate change; therefore, this study aims to develop indicators to assess social vulnerability in this area of Taiwan using the three dimensions of susceptibility, resistance, and resilience. The modified Delphi method was used to develop nine criteria and 26 indexes in the evaluation, and the analytic hierarchy process method was employed to evaluate the weight of each indicator based on the perspectives of experts collected through questionnaire surveys. The results provide important information pertaining to the vulnerability of the most susceptive regions, the lowest-resistance areas, and the least resilient townships on the southwest coast. The most socially vulnerable areas are plotted based on the present analysis. Experts can consider the vulnerability map provided here when developing adaptation policies. It should be kept in mind that improving the capacities of resistance and resilience is more important than reducing susceptibility in Taiwan.

  17. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  18. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m-2 d-1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m-2 d-1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m-2 d-1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L-1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  19. Biodiversity and Ecological Structure of Mangrove Mature in Coastal Area of Dumai District - Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKO PRIANTO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This research in coastal area of Dumai has been completed in September untill Desember 2003. The aim of this research was to collect basic data of mangrove ecosystem which covered inventory of biodiversity and ecology structure by using primary and secondary data. Primary data of mangrove forest ecosystem has been collected by line transect method while secondary data was collected by study literature and previous study report. The result showed that there were 17 types of primary mangrove and 18 types of secondary mangrove. The main value indeks in every study area indicated that in the study area I and IV, Xylocarpus granatum had high value as 104,53 and 104,22 subsequently. In the study area II, III and V, Rhizophora apiculata had the high value which subsequently were 114,39, 108,81 and 110,19. There were two main extinct spesies of mangrove, which are Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceae (Cingam/Perepat Lanang and Sonneratia ovata (Kedabu, in which exceptional management is needed for sustainability of these species.

  20. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  1. Development of a 3D Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Model for the Marseille Coastal Area (NW Mediterranean Sea): What Complexity Is Required in the Coastal Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Faure, Vincent Martin; Fuchs, Rosalie; Lazzari, Paolo; Raimbault, Patrick; Pairaud, Ivane

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic) from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P) cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007–2011). The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model. PMID:24324589

  2. Dynamics of surfactants in the field of edge and internal waves in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, L.; Kurkina, O.; Kurkin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Edge waves are topographically trapped waves, which can be considered as an important factor impacting upon coastline and nearshore bottom relief, beaches and coastal constructions. Large amplitude nonlinear edge waves are possible due to the action of different mechanisms. Their dynamics can be described by nonlinear Shrodinger equation, and the signs of its coefficients correspond to modulation instability of wave packets. The mechanisms of possible anomalous edge wave appearance are dispersion enhancement and self-modulation; they can lead to forming of abnormal edge wave. In the present paper we consider processes of edge wave propagation and amplification along a cylindrical shelf taking into account horizontal alongshore flow and Earth rotation. Internal waves exist in stratified coastal areas, and for them extreme regimes are also well-known, including propagation of such energetic events as solitary waves and breathers. The existence of waves of both type lead to formation of wave-induced currents, which can be quite strong and can significantly affect the surrounding environment. In particular, these currents can influence upon pollutants, admixtures and films on the surface of the sea causing their redistribution according to zones of convergence and divergence of the velocity fields. These specific pictures on the surface can be used in the interpretation of remote sensing data and diagnostics and identification of underlying wave processes. In the present study we demonstrate dynamics of surfactants in the field of edge and internal waves in coastal areas. Numerical modeling is based on the balance equation of the surface concentration. Film dynamics was considered in the advection - diffusion - relaxation model. We show a number of unsteady effects in the edge and internal waves and their manifestation in the surfactants. For edge waves we considered the passage of linear traveling and standing waves, the wave amplitude changes due to slow longshore

  3. A Preliminary Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Architectural and Archeological Resources in the Historic Strawbery Banke District of Portsmouth, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier, M.; Curran, B.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Jefferson, M.; Hall, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the last 100 years the global (eustatic) mean sea level has increased at an average rate of 1 to 3 millimeters per year and is expected to further rise by at least 0.9m to 1.6m from 1990 to 2100 due to the effects of climate change. This fact will have profound impact on coastal communities because much of the world's population currently lives within Low Elevation Coastal Zones accounting for only 2% of continental land mass. This trend of populations to establish communities around coastal areas is not just a modern phenomenon. Throughout history people have created communities around coastal areas because they provided easy access to transportation, trade, and sustenance. Numerous historic sites around the world today can be identified as being coastal and thus susceptible to the effects of sea level rise. This is an important fact because these sites are linked to our cultural heritage, a legacy of cultural artifacts and knowledge which tie us to our past. To better understand the vulnerability of our coastal cultural heritage relative to the effects of climate change induced sea-level rise, we are in the process of developing a set of assessment protocols that will provide preservationists, archeologists, and policy-makers with the necessary information to begin developing adaption strategies for coastal sites of cultural significance locally, nationally, and internationally. With funding through the National Geographic Society Waitt Foundation, our preliminary research has focused on the historic Strawbery Banke area of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, a settlement which dates back to the 1600s. Through the use of historical research, topographic and hydrologic surveys, in conjunction with modern data, tools, analysis techniques, and 3D geographic information system models, a "proof of concept" assessment is being established. This assessment, that includes the dynamic interactions between tidal movements and storm surges relative to the additive

  4. High Resolution Mapping of the Gravity Field in Coastal Areas: a New Airborne Planar Gradiometer Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douch, K.; Panet, I.; Foulon, B.; Christophe, B.; Diament, M.; Métivier-Pajot, G.

    2013-12-01

    Recent space missions such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE have contributed to considerably improve the accuracy of global gravity field models down to a resolution of 90 km. Albeit the use of these new data has been very beneficial to many fields of geosciences, many geodetic and geophysical issues require higher resolution models. This is all the more true in coastal areas where the gravity field is poorly covered by current measurement systems. Here we put forward airborne gravity gradiometry as a convenient way to address these limitations. In this respect, we present a new airborne acceleration gradiometer, GREMLIT, which permits along with ancillary measurements to determine the horizontal gradients of the horizontal components of the gravitational field in the instrumental frame. GREMLIT is composed of a compact assembly of 4 planar electrostatic accelerometers based on ONERA recognized expertise in the field of inertial sensors. The 4 accelerometers are mounted on a controlled platform. With an expected accuracy below 1E for the acceleration gradients, we discuss the possibility to recover the local geoid in coastal areas with a precision better than 1cm. For that, our approach follows 2 steps. First we theoretically determine the necessary conditions to fulfill in order to meet the objective. Conversely, assuming that the latter conditions are met, we test in a second phase if the use of GREMLIT in an airborne survey enables to determine a 1cm accuracy geoid. To do so, we design numerical simulations in 2 case studies and compute the total error budget on the gravity gradients in the instrumental frame. Solutions to increase the signal to noise ratio are presented.

  5. Climatic patterns and extreme rainfalls on coastal areas in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, M. C.; Tarragoni, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the extreme values analysis to estimate the rainfall return levels for some Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas in central Italy. Two approaches are mainly considered: the first one is based on the maximum annual daily rainfall series (1-day, 2-day and 3-day) for which suitable probability distributions are fitted, whereas the second one is based on the series of peaks over annual thresholds (POT) for which the best fitting Generalized Pareto distribution is identified. Spectral analysis and appropriate tests for stationarity and homogeneity are run in order to verify the hypothesis under which the analysis performed is valid. From the density plots and the parameter estimates of the fitted distributions to the various annual maximum rainfall series we can conclude that there is a different pattern in the occurrence of extreme events for the western coast with respect to the eastern coast. Specifically, on the Tyrrhenian side extreme rainfalls are more likely to happen in correspondence of longer time spans (i.e. 3-day series) as the effect of cumulated stable rainfalls over time. On the opposite, for the Adriatic coast extremes are more frequent in shorter time spans (1-day). A vector autoregressive model is then estimated and through a causal ordering the identifying restrictions are set. The impulse response analysis shows a lag in the transmission of rainfall shocks of the central Adriatic coast to the Tyrrhenian one. This paper is prepared as a background paper to the SECOA N1.2 Report: Assessment of frequency-magnitude of extreme rainfall events and flooding. Project SECOA (Solutions for Environmental contrast in Coastal Areas) is funded by the EU Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013).

  6. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  7. Leadership, Social Capital and Coastal Community Resource Governance: the Case of the Destructive Seaweed Harvest in West Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Carol

    This paper concerns resource governance in a remote Balinese coastal community, which faces severe environmental challenges due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. It explores some of the issues raised in 'social capital' debates regarding leadership and public participation toward sustainable natural resource governance. Given the strength of Balinese customary law and the high degree of participation required in the ritual-social domain, Bali represents a model context for examining these issues. Through a case study of destructive resource exploitation and evolving rules-in-use, this paper analyses the ambiguous role of 'bonding' social capital and the complexities of negotiating collective action on environmental problems where conflicting interests and dense social ties make local action difficult. The paper finds that a more complex appreciation of vertical (authority) and horizontal (solidarity) relationships between leaders and ordinary villagers is required, and that a more nuanced institutional bricolage and exploratory scenario approach to analysis of evolving rules in use would enhance associated policy interventions.

  8. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  9. Research Status and Development Trend of Coastal Wetland Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-lei; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, with the influenced by both man-made and natural factors. coastal wetlands sharp decline in the area, lack of resources, biological diversity declined, and the ecosystem function damaged. Through on current issues such as pollution and destruction of coastal wetlands analysis of coastal wetlands in research conducted a review and prospect of ecological restoration. So the protection and restoration of coastal wetlands should be brook no delay. The article based on the current pollution and destruction of the coastal wetlands analyses, and reviewed the current effective measures to restore coastal wetlands mainly in china and abroad.

  10. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  11. Origin and characteristics of brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Al Temamy, A. M.; Salah, Mohamed K.; Kassab, M.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical and geoelectrical resistivity investigations were carried out to assess the origin and characteristics of a brackish groundwater in Abu Madi coastal area. Twenty six surface water, shallow and deep groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various ionic concentrations as well as oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic contents. In addition, a total of 20 vertical electrical sounding sites were conducted to investigate layers' thicknesses, resistivities, and to detect the water-bearing layers. Then, 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) along two profiles in the study area was conducted to get information about the surface water effect on recharge. The stable isotopic composition and the chloride concentrations strongly suggest that the deep groundwater in Abu Madi area is dominated by inland freshwater with a minor seawater component. This groundwater was recharged during the first and the third Holocene humid climatic cycles where the sea surface was about 125 and 25 m below the current sea level, respectively. The brackish nature and higher piezometric surface of the groundwater, as well as the occurrence of vertical low-salinity seawater zone in front of the study area, support the possibility of submarine groundwater discharge. The geoelectrical resistivity surveying, on the other hand, revealed a number of geoelectrical groundwater-bearing layers. The main water-bearing layer in the study area is represented by the sixth geoelectrical layer, which has relatively high resistivity and a considerable thickness being consistent with the hydrogeochemical observations. ERT results point to the presence of shallow water-bearing layers recharged from the surface water drains with low resistivity and surface rain water of moderate resistivity. Results from the hydrogeochemical analyses and the different hydrogeological data are consistent with the high resistivity values of this geoelectrical layer. However, the overall high specific

  12. Hearths in the coastal areas of northernmost Sweden, from the period AD 800 to 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Liedgren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the chronological setting of hearths registered in FMIS (digital register containing records of all known ancient monuments in Sweden in the provinces of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, Northern Sweden. A total of c. 1500 hearths are known in the area, mainly situated north of the river Skellefteälven. Within a study area of 107 x 94 km, 32 hearths were randomly selected for excavation, each site embracing 1-14 hearths. The sites were scanned using a metal detector and nearly all artifacts found were from the period AD 1600-1900. 14C-datings of charcoal and burned bones corroborated that most hearths were used during this period, with a large number dating to the 19th and 20th centuries. Many hearths contained bones from mature reindeer, indicating that the hearths were related to reindeer herding. We suggest that most hearths are related to nomadic Sami reindeer herders using coastal areas for winter pasture, possibly resulting from the breakdown of the “lappskatteland” (taxation lands system and an increase in reindeer numbers.

  13. Tsunami vulnerability and damage assessment in the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atillah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, a companion paper to Renou et al. (2011, focuses on the application of a GIS-based method to assess building vulnerability and damage in the event of a tsunami affecting the coastal area of Rabat and Salé, Morocco. This approach, designed within the framework of the European SCHEMA project (www.schemaproject.org is based on the combination of hazard results from numerical modelling of the worst case tsunami scenario (inundation depth based on the historical Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Portugal earthquake of 1969, together with vulnerability building types derived from Earth Observation data, field surveys and GIS data. The risk is then evaluated for this highly concentrated population area characterized by the implementation of a vast project of residential and touristic buildings within the flat area of the Bouregreg Valley separating the cities of Rabat and Salé. A GIS tool is used to derive building damage maps by crossing layers of inundation levels and building vulnerability. The inferred damage maps serve as a base for elaborating evacuation plans with appropriate rescue and relief processes and to prepare and consider appropriate measures to prevent the induced tsunami risk.

  14. A new methodology for flooding risk assessment in coastal areas. Application to Ebro Delta (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayol, Juan Manuel; Marcos, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Global sea level rise projections for the XXI century may be translated in that, by 2100, it will be approximately 50% more deltaic areas in risk of flooding. Contingency, protection and adaptation measures will depend strongly on the regional wealth, but an accurate estimation of future flooding levels is the first thing stakeholders need before taking any decision. In light of this, a new workflow to better evaluate flood hazards in coastal areas has been developed. We have accounted for the combined effect of mean sea level rise, storm surge and waves extremes under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios. The methodology consists of three basic steps: a) mean sea level rise and variability is obtained from a combination of observations and regional/global ocean models; b) joint probability of storm surge and waves is retrieved from regional ocean models and observations; c) previous a) and b) estimated sea levels are projected onshore by computing the wave run-up. Ultimately, flooding risk maps with the associated uncertainty are given for return periods and scenarios of interest. The proposed methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a muddy dominated delta located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea with a subaerial area of 320 km squares. It is considered an ideal laboratory because of its growing vulnerability, with common threats and an intensive anthropic influence directly translatable to other world's deltas.

  15. Influence of Wind and Waves On Whitecap Coverage In A Mediterranean Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, C.; Piazzola, J.; Forget, P.; Despiau, S.

    Knowledge of the whitecap coverage behavior is needed to understand the aerosol generation through breaking wave processes. In the open ocean, it has been shown that the whitecap coverage depends strongly on the wind speed, under steady wind and waves conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated the influence of the wave characteristics on the whitecap coverage. In coastal areas a dependance of the white- cap coverage on fetch is expected. In order to specify wind, waves and whitecap relationships for fetch-limited condi- tions, we carried out an experimental campaign during one month in autumn 2001. The experimental site was located on the West of Porquerolles island on the French Mediterranean coast. This area is suitable to study fetch-limited conditions under Mis- tral events. Mistral is a typical continental wind in this area. Wave parameters were measured from a datawell buoy, while Meteorological param- eters (wind, temperature, pressure, humidity) were recorded on a mast on the island. In addition, aerosol concentrations were measured, for subsequent studies, using an optical counter, i.e. Royco 5250A, located at 26 meters height above the sea surface. Whitecap coverage percentages were determined using photographs of the sea surface taken regularly during the Mistral events. An original specific image processing tech- nique was used for this purpose. We present the results of the experiments in terms of wind, wave, and whitecap cov- erage relationships during steady and unsteady sea state conditions.

  16. Longitudinal use of feeding resources and distribution of fish trophic guilds in a coastal Atlantic stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    Full Text Available This study described the use of food resources and the distribution of fish trophic guilds along the longitudinal gradient of a coastal Atlantic stream, southern Brazil. Allochthonous resources (terrestrial insects predominated in the headwaters, whereas autochthonous food items (algae, fish and detritus predominated in the mouth section. Detritivorous, aquaticinvertivorous, and terrestrial- and aquatic-insectivorous species occurred throughout the gradient, while omnivorous and piscivorous in the headwaters and middle stretches, respectively, and herbivorous in the middle and mouth. Detritivores and aquatic-insectivores were significantly more specialized than the other guilds, however, there was no evidence of a longitudinal increase in trophic specialization. Density and biomass of aquatic-invertivores and aquatic-insectivores decreased, whereas that of detritivores increased longitudinally. The distribution of trophic guilds was significantly associated with the stream section, where aquatic and terrestrial insectivorous were more frequent in rocky and flowed stretches from the headwater and detritivores in deeper environments with finer particles of substrate from the mouth. This suggests that fish assemblages in coastal streams with a steep longitudinal gradient may follow patterns in the use of food resources according with the food availability along the river, as predicted by the River Continuum Concept.

  17. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  18. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  19. Marine geo-hazard in the Campi Flegrei coastal area (Eastern Tyrrhenian sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, C.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; di Fiore, V.; Esposito, E.; Molisso, F.; Porfido, S.; Sacchi, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Campi Flegrei (i.e. "burning plains") are located on the eastern Tyrrhenian margin, an area characterized by active tectonics and volcanism since the Pleistocene. It is a densely urbanized coastal zone, including the bay of Pozzuoli, Procida and Ischia islands, where documented human activities have been developing for more than two thousand years. In the Pozzuoli area two major periods of eruptive volcanic activity occurred from 10.0 to 8.0 ky B.P and 4.5 to 3.7 ky B.P. These periods were followed by the September 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption. Numerous monogenic volcanoes formed close to the shoreline and volcanic debris interpreted as submarine counterpart of subaerial flow and surge, has been detected offshore. The most recent volcanic activity on Ischia island starts around 10.0 ky B.P. to which associates several eruptive centres mostly located in the western sector. The last eruption dates back to Arso flow in 1302. Nevertheless the landscape of Ischia is dominated by Mount Epomeo in the central part of the island, which is the highest peak (788 m). It is a volcano-tectonic structure that raised above sea level between 33 and 28 ka BP, due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. In the Campi Flegrei, magma-related activity is testified by extensive hydrothermalism, and recent episodes (1883 on Ischia, and 1970-71 and 1982-84 on Pozzuoli coast) of shallow seismicity and ground deformation, exceeding rates of 100 cm/year in the years 1983-1984. Volcanic and volcano-tectonic activity mainly associate with inferred resurgent calderas whose uplift have caused mass wasting phenomena, faulting and erosional activity both on land and at sea. Major geohazard features resulting from marine geophysical and sedimentological investigations include (1) extensive landslide deposits and associated hummocky topographies off Ischia volcanic island, (2) seafloor instabilities in the form of creep/slump, channelled sediment flow and deep sedimentary fan, (3) superficial

  20. Environmental variation and macrofauna response in a coastal area influenced by land runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2013-11-01

    Macrofauna community interactions with environmental variables in the water column (salinity, temperature, turbidity, transparency, suspended particulate matter, particulate organic matter, choloroplastic pigments) and in the sediment (granulometric variables, organic carbon and pigments) were investigated in a coastal area with high land runoff due to riverine and temporary stream discharges (Greece, Aegean Sea, Maliakos Gulf). Samples were taken along a distance-depositional gradient from the river mouth to the open sea at eight stations, at times of different precipitation regime from August 2000 to May 2001. The physical variables, such as transparency and median grain size, generally increased seawards, and parallelled the depositional gradient as opposed to measures of food inputs and hydrodynamic regime. High environmental heterogeneity was observed during peak precipitation. The total number of species increased seawards and from August (122 species) to May (170 species). Maximum abundance also increased from August (4953 m-2) to May (10,220 individuals m-2), irrespective of distance from river mouth. Species belonging to different functional groups, as to recolonization, feeding, motility and substrate preferences, coexisted at all times indicating high functional diversity. Non-parametric multivariate regression showed that at times of low, rising and falling precipitation 78-81% of community variation was explained by environmental variables, indicating that macrofauna distribution and species composition respond to food inputs and sediment characteristics. During peak land runoff the community-environment relationship weakened (57% of the variability explained). The diversity of functional traits of the most abundant species indicates that the macrofauna community can absorb the impact of increased turbidity, sedimentation and current-driven dispersion. The study offers baseline information for the integrated coastal zone management in microtidal areas

  1. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... of geospatial data, a netCDF architecture has been defined on the basis of the Radiowave Operators Working Group (US ROWG) recommendations and compliant to the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Conventions CF-1.6. The hourly netCDF files are automatically attached to a Thematic Real-time Environmental...... by the ISMAR HF radar network are presently used in a number of applications, ranging from oil spill and SAR to fishery and coastal management applications....

  2. The utility of Skylab photo-interpreted earth resources data in studies of marine geology and coastal processes in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, J. V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three Skylab earth resources passes over Puerto Rico and St. Croix on 6 June and 30 November 1973 and 18 January 1974 resulted in color photography and multispectral photography and scanner imagery. Bathymetric and turbid water features are differentiable by use of the multispectral data. Photography allows mapping of coral reefs, offshore sand deposits, areas of coastal erosion, and patterns of sediment transport. Bottom sediment types could not be differentiated. Patterns of bottom dwelling biologic communities are well portrayed but are difficult to differentiate from bathymetric detail. Effluent discharges and oil slicks are readily detected and are differentiated from other phenomena by the persistence of their images into the longer wavelength multispectral bands.

  3. The Albufera Initiative for Biodiversity: a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in coastal protected area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision

  4. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  5. Water resources of the Marquette Iron Range area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Newport, Thomas Gwyn; Skinner, Earl L.

    1967-01-01

    Large quantities of water are needed in the beneficiation and pelletizing processes by which the ore mined from low-grade iron-formations is upgraded into an excellent raw material for the iron and steel industry. Extensive reserves of low-grade iron-formation available for development herald an intensification of the demands upon the area's water supplies. This study was designed to provide water facts for public and private agencies in planning orderly development and in guiding the management of the water resources to meet existing and new requirements. Inland lakes and streams are the best potential sources of water for immediate development. The natural flow available for 90 percent of the time in the Middle and East Branches of the Escanaba River, the Carp River, and the Michigamme River is about 190 cubic feet per second. Potential storage sites are identified, and their complete development could increase the available supply from the above streams to about 450 cubic feet per second. Outwash deposits are the best potential sources of ground water. Large supplies could be developed from extensive outwash deposits in the eastern part of the area adjacent to Goose Lake Outlet and the East Branch Escanaba River. Other areas of outwash occur in the vicinity of Humboldt, West Branch Creek, and along the stream valleys. Streamflow data were used to make rough approximations of the ground-water potential in some areas. In general, however, the available data were not sufficient to permit quantitative evaluation of the potential ground-water supplies. Chemical quality of the surface and ground waters of the area is generally acceptable for most uses. Suspended sediment in the form of mineral tailings in effluents from ore-processing plants is a potential problem. Existing plants use settling basins to effectively remove most of the suspended material. Available records indicate that suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the receiving waters have not been

  6. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  7. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  8. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  9. Prediction of China's Submerged Coastal Areas by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; YANG Yiqiu; ZHANG Jianli; CHEN Meixiang; XU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the simulation with the Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model CCSM and Ocean Model POP under the greenhouse gas emission scenario of the IPCC SRES A2 (IPCC,2001),and on the earth crust subsidence and glacier melting data,the relative sea level change is obtained along the coast of China in the 21 st century.Using the SRTM elevation data the submergence of coastal low land is calculated under the extreme water level with a 100-year return period.The total flooding areas are 98.3× 103 and 104.9× 103 km2 for 2050 and 2080,respectively.For the three regions most vulnerable to extreme sea level rise,i.e.,the coast of Bohai Bay,the Yangtze River Delta together with neighboring Jiangsu Province and northern Zhejiang Province,and the Pearl River Delta,the flooded areas are 5.0 × 103,64.1 × 103 and 15.3 × 103 km2 in 2050 and 5.2 × 103,67.8 × 103 and 17.2 × 103 km2 in 2080,respectively.

  10. Assessing the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for risk analyses in coastal areas: a stochastic storm surge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wahl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodology to stochastically simulate a large number of storm surge scenarios (here: 10 million. The applied model is very cheap in computation time and will contribute to improve the overall results from integrated risk analyses in coastal areas. Initially, the observed storm surge events from the tide gauges of Cuxhaven (located in the Elbe estuary and Hörnum (located in the southeast of Sylt Island are parameterised by taking into account 25 parameters (19 sea level parameters and 6 time parameters. Throughout the paper, the total water levels are considered. The astronomical tides are semidiurnal in the investigation area with a tidal range >2 m. The second step of the stochastic simulation consists in fitting parametric distribution functions to the data sets resulting from the parameterisation. The distribution functions are then used to run Monte-Carlo-Simulations. Based on the simulation results, a large number of storm surge scenarios are reconstructed. Parameter interdependencies are considered and different filter functions are applied to avoid inconsistencies. Storm surge scenarios, which are of interest for risk analyses, can easily be extracted from the results.

  11. Research on Dynamic Parameters of Soil Site in the Tianjin Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yanju; Lv Yuejun; Qian Haitao

    2011-01-01

    The Tianjin coastal area is a typical soft soil region, where the soil is a marine deposit of the late Quaternary. The soil dynamic parameters from seismic risk assessment reports are collected, and drilling of 15 holes was carried out to sample the soils and measure their dynamic characteristics. The data was divided into 7 types based on lithology, namely, muddy clay, muddy silty clay, silt, silty clay, clay, silty sand and fine sand. Statistics of the dynamic parameters of these soils are collected to obtain the mean values of dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio at different depths. Then, two typical drill holes are selected to establish the soil dynamic models to investigate the seismic response in different cases. The dynamic seismic responses of soil are calculated using the statistical values of this paper, and the values of Code (1994) and those recommended by Yuan Xiaoming et al. (2000), respectively. The applicability and pertinence of the statistical value obtained in this paper are demonstrated by the response spectrum shape, peak ground acceleration and response spectral characteristics. The results can be taken as a reference of the soil dynamic value in this area and can be used in the seismic risk assessment of engineering projects.

  12. Biomineralization process occurring in iron mud of coastal seepase area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZiJun; JIA Nan; YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang

    2008-01-01

    The biomineralization process of iron oxidizing bacteria and its influence on accumulation of metals were investigated by modern biological observation techniques (i.e., SEM and TEM) and geochemical methods, in coastal area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang province where a thick ancient wood layers were buried, Results show that the iron mud samples mainly contain Leptothrix-like sheaths and Gal-lionella-like stalks, which are known as neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. These two bacteria are present as obviously different abundance in two sampling sites, which may be regulated by the geo-chemistry of seepage water. The biomineralization product of iron oxidizing bacteria is ferrihydrite, a poorly ordered iron oxide, and formation of amorphous mineral is affected by the factors of bacteria, minor Si and temperature preventing any further transformation into more crystalline phases. Organic functional groups, extracellular polymers and surface charges can provide favorable nucleation sites or template for formation of iron precipitates on the bacterial surface. The mineralization process of the iron oxidizing bacteria is divided into different stages,i.e., extracellular mineralization, intracellular mineralization and the whole cell mineralization. Furthermore, due to BIOS containing the bacterial organic matter, the accumulation capacity of metals specially Fe and Co is highly increased, suggest-ing that BIOS exert a degree of controlling in the cycling of metal elements in seepage area.

  13. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern.

  14. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  15. Effects of Rainfall on Water Quality of Aquaculture along the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to decrease the effects of rainfall on water quality of aquaculture along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province and improve the yield and quality of aquatic products.[Method] We firstly designed the methods to calculate average pH of different rainfalls,total precipitation,as well as the changes of pH and salinity in the studied pond and coastal culture zone,then analyzed the dynamic variation of precipitation,pH and salinity caused by rainfall to discuss the effects of rainfall ...

  16. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  17. Provenance analysis of surface sediments in the Holocene mud area of the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaobo; BI Shipu; ZHANG Yong; YANG Yuan; LIU Shanshan; KONG Xianghuai; LI Xiaoyue; CHU Hongxian

    2016-01-01

    The sedimentary record of mud areas is an important carrier of information on the Holocene evolution of marine environments. Based on fine interpretations of the shallow stratigraphic section data, a small mud deposit area has been found in the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula. This mud area is mainly distributed in coastal waters north of Laoshantou to the vicinity of Rushan Estuary. Overall, it is parallel to the coastline and spreads in a banded pattern, gradually thinning from offshore to the sea. The isopach map of depth distribution is parallel with the shoreline, and the depocenter lies in coastal waters of the Aoshan Bay where the maximum thickness is up to 22.5 m. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)14C dating shows that the mud area was formed in the Holocene. The test data of surface sediments from the mud area, including particle size, mineral characteristics, and rare earth element contents, are used in comparisons with the composition of materials from the major surrounding medium and small rivers flowing into the sea and the Huanghe (Yellow) River. In this paper, the sedimentary characteristics and provenance of the mud deposit area are discussed. The results show that the formation of this mud area resulted from the joint action of the Huanghe River and surrounding rivers flowing into the sea.

  18. Spatial Variability of Land-Sea Carbon Exchange at a Coastal Area in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.

    2007-12-01

    Relatively cold and low salinity sea water of the Arctic Ocean was considered to be a sink for atmospheric CO2 (Takahashi et al., 1997) because the solubility of CO2 in seawater increases as temperature decreases, and the arctic sea water transports CO2 to greater depths. However, carbon exchange in the Arctic sea is not well evaluated yet, because available data is very limited (Semiletov et al., 2007). Also, terrestrial inflows, such as thawing permafrost and coastal erosion, also affect oceanic air-sea CO2 exchange especially in the Arctic (ACIA., 2004) creating a variety of regional carbon cycles (Semiletov et al., 2007). Our aim is to quantify an air-sea CO2 exchange of a spatially wide coastal sea area, in Barrow, Alaska and to extrapolate the future carbon cycle in response to climate change. Boat cruises for pCO2 measurements operated from July 29 to August 5, 2007. The surveyed area was mainly divided into three parts: Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Elson Lagoon. Conductivity of sea surface (CS) and sea surface temperature (SST) were also measured together with pCO2. The result showed distinct differences in pCO2 among three areas. Average delta pCO2 (dpCO2) (a difference between an atmospheric CO2 and pCO2), CS, and SST were -114.9 ppm, 47.0 mScm-1, and 8.0 C at Chukchi Sea, -53.1 ppm, 43.5 mScm-1, and 8.9 C at Beaufort Sea, and 43.7 ppm, 41.1 mScm-1, and 9.5 C at Elson Lagoon. Relatively high dpCO2 value in the Beaufort Sea implies a large terrestrial input from Elson Lagoon where dpCO2 value is positive. This is supported by lower CS in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Laggon than in the Chukchi Sea. Sea currents from Pacific Ocean, which continuously flow through the Chukchi Sea, are thought to carry warmer water. However, SST was lower in the Chukchi Sea than in the Beaufort Sea. This may be because a prevailing wind from north east creates Ekman transport causing an upwelling along the Chukchi Sea coast and this upwelling carries deep cold water to the

  19. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.Z.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.J.; Levin, L.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P.M.S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W.M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Van der Plas, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia i

  20. Gerisa - Using Foss in Environmental Risk Management for the Coastal Areas of w- Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewner, R.; Elbchari, F.; Theilen-Willige, B.; Ait Malek, H.; Ayt Ougougdal, M.; Chaibi, M.; Charif, A.; Nakhcha, C.; Ridaoui, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pilot region of the GeRiSa project (Gestion des risques de l'environnement dans la région de Safi) is the Sahel of Abda (Morocco) located on the Atlantic coast of western Morocco between the lagoon of Oualidia and the Tensift river basin. It belongs to the Coastal Meseta and forms an erosional platform covered by accumulations of various Meso-cenozoic sediments. Firstly, the study area is characterized by a variety of geomorphological units (depressions, plateaus, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, etc.) and shows a considerable natural richness. Secondly, it illustrates its importance for the national economy by intensive social and economic activities. During the last century, this region has been affected by intensive changes from urban growth, tourism, industrial and commercial development, inducing a considerable vulnerability to natural hazards such as coastal erosion, landslides, flooding, Tsunamis and seismicity. In order to give solutions to these problems, the three-year GeRiSa project with the support of the bilateral Moroccan-German Programme of Scientific Research (PMARS) promoted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), will implement a knowledge pool and a risk management centre for natural hazards at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of the Cadi Ayyad University of Safi (Morocco). GeRiSa addresses fundamental scientific, environmental and anthropological problems of national importance and social relevance. The aim is a regional real-time geoinformation system with worldwide access via Internet and interdisciplinary dynamic content, enabling the communication between universities, local authorities and public organisation. In this sense, this multidisciplinary project focuses on a synthesis of various works, approaches and collaborations in-progress, previous completed projects and already existing data combining it with new research results. One of the main research targets within this project is the

  1. Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianmin; Huang, Runqiu; Jiao, Jiu J.; Chen, Kouping

    2007-09-01

    Coastal reclamation has been carried out along the coastal areas near Shenzhen, China in a large scale since 1980s by dumping fill materials over the marine mud at the sea bottom. Usually the area to be reclaimed is drained first and some of the mud is air-dried for a few weeks before it is buried by fill. After reclamation, the terrestrial groundwater, which is relatively acidic and with high dissolved oxygen, gradually displaces the seawater, which is alkaline with high salinity. The changes in the burial conditions of mud and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field survey confirms that the pH and salinity of the groundwater in the reclamation site are much lower than the seawater. Chemical analyses of mud and groundwater samples collected from the reclamation sites reclaimed in different years indicate that most of the heavy metals in the mud decrease gradually with time, but the heavy metals in the groundwater are increased. The release of heavy metals into pore water due to reactivation of heavy metals in the mud is of environmental concern. To understand why some of the heavy metals can be released from the mud more easily than others, a sequential extraction method was used to study the operationally determined chemical forms of five heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in the mud samples. Heavy metals can be presented in five chemical forms: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual. Ni and Pb were mainly associated with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and carbonate fraction; Zn was mainly associated with organic fraction and Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cu and Cd were associated with organic fraction and carbonate fraction, respectively. If the residual fraction can be considered as an inert phase of the metal that cannot be mobilized, it is the other four forms of heavy metal that cause the noticeable changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the mud. On the basis of the

  2. Investigation into the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Caspian Sea Coastal Area in Mangystau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Syrlybekkyzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of investigation into physico-chemical properties of coastal soils in the areas of oil fields. it has been established that the considered soils are characterized with low content of organics, alkaline reaction of soil solutions, high salinity and weak resistance against anthropogenic impacts. The obtained data can be applied for further studies and monitoring of environment in oil field areas.

  3. Analysis of the Escherichia coli dynamics in Civitavecchia bathing areas using the multi-platform coastal observing system C-CEMS (Civitavecchia-Coastal Environment Monitoring System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Madonia, Alice; Borsellino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Caruso, Gabriella; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are strongly affected by episodes of fecal contamination due to polluted water inflows from inadequately treated sewages that can cause a loss of resilience of the coastal ecosystems and also an alteration of their functioning. With the aim to provide an useful tool to assess the effects of such phenomena a big effort has been undertaken to the realization of a multi-platform monitoring observing system C-CEMS (Civitavecchia-Coastal Environment Monitoring System) in the coastal zone of Civitavecchia (Northern Latium, Italy), which collect a large amount of data by fixed stations, periodic in-situ samplings and remote observations and use them to feed the mathematical models in order to forecast the paths of the polluted substances in the marine environment. This work is focused on the analysis of the dispersion of Escherichia coli in Civitavecchia bathing areas during the summer 2012. Four daily field surveys under different meteomarine conditions were performed to detect the E. coli concentration at the discharge points and the control stations located in the bathing areas. The collected samples were analysed through the Culture-Based technique (CB) and the Fluorescent Antibody (FA) method in order to estimate both the viable culturable cells and the total E.coli population. The comparison between bacterial concentrations obtained by the two methods shows that the quantitative discrepancy between the culture and microscopical counts increases as the distance to the discharge point grows, underlining the occurrence of a high percentage of non viable cells, which are detected by FA only, at the control stations. Microbiological datasets integrated with C-CEMS measures were used to feed and validate the hydrodynamical (Delft3d-Flow and Swan) and bacterial dispersion (Delft3d-Waq) models. In order to analyze the contribute of physical (transport induced by marine currents) and biological processes (cells decay connected to solar radiation, temperature

  4. Socio-Ecological and Livelihood Assessment of Selected Coastal Areas in Sorsogon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Arthur B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the productive capacity of five villages namely Gimagaan, Sevilla, Sogoy, Milagrosa and Saclayan in Sorsogon, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to assess the productive resource base, resource use and livelihood patterns and provide management prescriptions in the transition of farms into organic agriculture. Sustainable livelihoods analysis and participatory rapid appraisal were the analytical frameworks used in the study. Result of the study revealed that Gimagaan village had the greatest access to asset capitals compared to the other four villages in Sorsogon, Philippines. Gimagaan village highly benefited from the presence of socio-civic and government organizations, residents are more socially inclined and actively involved in the various social activities, have generally good access to their natural resource stocks and infrastructure facilities. On sustainability assessment, results revealed that Milagrosa village was more capable of sustaining management systems of its natural resources, highly resilient against perturbations and had greater chances of improving capacities for social development enterprises. Saclayan village on the other hand, had the lowest access to asset capitals and lowest score in terms of sustainability indicators. Management prescriptions include introduction of farming and fishing technologies which do not require intensive capital; conduct of an in-depth study of fishery-based livelihood project; strengthening the establishment of community-based sanctuaries and mangrove areas; introduction of crop-diversification farming system; and strengthening of the production-market linkage for fishery-based livelihood projects.  

  5. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the following human-use resource data for Northern California: access areas, airports, aquaculture sites, beaches, boat ramps, Coast Guard...

  7. Experience from practice: compound storm surge and high precipitation in a coastal area in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van den Hurk, Bart; van Heeringen, Klaas Jan; Gooijer, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In Januari 2012 a near-flooding occurred in Northern Netherlands by compound occurrence of a high soil moisture saturation degree due to past long term precipitation, a strong 1/10 year precipitation event and a coinciding storm surge that prevented the area to drain water to the Northsea for 5 days. The situation was nearly critical: reserved floodplains were used to reduce the water level in the populated areas, and evacuation plans were standby. After 5 days, the end of the storm surge allowed to discharge large water volumes, restoring the situation to normal conditions. The event has triggered the awareness in both the arenas of water management and science. Are the current standards adequate when these compound events occur more frequently than expected from random correlation? And do weather and climate modellers pay adequate attention to the output of their models that is truly meaningful to society, like combinations of strong winds over sea and high precipitation volumes in land? Preliminary analyses with observed records show that safety standards are sensitive to the assumed correlation between storm surge and local precipitation. Output from high resolution climate model projections for future conditions (with increased winter time precipitation and increased sea level) has been analysed particularly for climate induced chnages in the probability of simultaneous occurrence of these relevant events. Sea level rise is shown to give a pronounced contribution to an increased occurrence of adverse conditions, while increases in precipitation intensity weakly enhance this occurrence. The paper is concluded by a summary of required model experiments and analyses needed to address the influence of current and future compound events on safety standards in the coastal areas in the Netherlands.

  8. Microbial impact of small tributaries on water and shellfish quality in shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, P; Le Saux, J C; Dumas, F; Caprais, M P; Le Guyader, S F; Pommepuy, M

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of small tributaries on seawater and shellfish quality in coastal area subjected to brief episodes leading to fecal contamination. Escherichia coli and F-RNA-specific bacteriophages were selected as fecal indicators and astroviruses were chosen as being representative of pathogens in the human population during winter viral epidemics. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was built to simulate the current and dispersion in the model domain, which includes areas uncovered at low tide. The model also includes decay rates to simulate microorganism behavior and assess the influence of fecal input on shellfish quality. The originality lies in the fact that specific features of the study area were considered. Modeling results indicate limited particle movements and long flushing times at the back of the bay, where shellfish are farmed. Computational results showed that under normal conditions, i.e. 94% of the time, when rainfall was less than 10 mm per day, the sector shows acceptable water quality. These results are in agreement with shellfish concentration measured in the field. Under high flow conditions, high concentrations of fecal indicators and astrovirus were measured in the river and tributaries. The corresponding fluxes were over 50 times higher than under normal weather conditions. The location of the shellfish beds near the coast makes them vulnerable and fecal indicators and viruses were detected in shellfish after short rainfall events. Our modeling approach makes a contribution to shellfish management and consumer protection, by indicating the "risk period" as defined by EU regulations. Molecular development such as viral quantification in conjunction with model developments will help to prevent shellfish contamination and thus provide safer products to consumers and an effective tool for shellfish producers.

  9. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  10. Uranium chemistry in stack solutions and leachates of phosphogypsum disposed at a coastal area in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysandrou, M; Pashalidis, I

    2008-02-01

    The effect of the matrix composition (main constituents) on the concentration and chemical behavior of uranium in phosphogypsum stack solutions and leachates has been investigated. Solid and aqueous samples were taken from three different sub-areas of a phosphogypsum stack at a coastal area in Vasilikos (Cyprus). The sub-areas are characterized whether by their acidity (e.g. "aged" and "non-aged" phosphogypsum) or by their salt content, originating from pulping water during wet stacking or (after deposition) from the adjacent sea. Measurements in stack solutions and leachates showed that phosphogypsum characteristics affect both, the concentration and the chemical behavior of uranium in solution. Uranium concentration in solutions of increased salinity is up to three orders of magnitude higher than in solutions of low salinity and this is attributed to the effect of ionic strength on the solubility of phosphogypsum. Modelling showed that uranium in stack solutions is predominantly present in the form of uranium(VI) phosphate complexes (e.g. UO(2)(H(2)PO(4))(2), UO(2)HPO(4)), whereas in leachates uranium(VI) fluoro complexes (e.g. UO(2)F(2), UO(2)F(3)(-)) are predominant in solution. The latter indicates that elution of uranium from phosphogypsum takes places most probably in the form of fluoro complexes. Both, effective elution by saline water and direct migration of uranium to the sea, where it forms very stable uranium(VI) carbonato complexes, indicate that the adjacent sea will be the final receptor of uranium released from Vasilikos phosphogypsum.

  11. LOCAL GENIUS AS SOCIO-CULTURAL CAPITAL FOR EMPOWERING THE BAJO ETHNIC PEOPLE RESIDING AT THE COASTAL AREA OF BUNGIN PERMAI VILLAGE, SOUTH EAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Ali Basri

    2012-11-01

    sociocultural capital for empowering their community. The factors supporting the local geniusused as the socio cultural capital to support the empowerment of the Bajo ethnic peopleresiding at the coastal area are (1 availability of marine resources around the area where they live; (2 the existence of their local organizations; (3 being supporting by thecommunity and the government. The factors obstructing the local genius used as thesocio cultural capital to support the empowerment of the Bajo ethnic people residing atthe coastal area are (1 capitalistic economic transformation taking place within theircommunity; (2 collision against the mainland community with regard to cultural values;(3 low quality human resources; (4 negative image of the Bajo community. Themeanings of the local genius as the socio cultural capital for empowering the communityare (1 cultural preservation; (2 community empowerment and independence.

  12. Using Mosix for Wide-Area Compuational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems with using traditional Beowulf-type distributed processing clusters is that they require an investment in dedicated computer resources. These resources are usually needed in addition to pre-existing ones such as desktop computers and file servers. Mosix is a series of modifications to the Linux kernel that creates a virtual computer, featuring automatic load balancing by migrating processes from heavily loaded nodes to less used ones. An extension of the Beowulf concept is to run a Mosixenabled Linux kernel on a large number of computer resources in an organization. This configuration would provide a very large amount of computational resources based on pre-existing equipment. The advantage of this method is that it provides much more processing power than a traditional Beowulf cluster without the added costs of dedicating resources.

  13. Fruit production of Attalea colenda (Arecaceae) in coastal Ecuador - an alternative oil resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, J.P. [Aarhus Univ., Risskov (Denmark)

    1996-07-01

    Attalea colenda is a monoecious palm found in pastures in coastal Ecuador. In dry regions, it is a valuable source of oil in self-sufficiency farming or in combination with cattle in pastures. The palm was studied over a gradient of dry to humid environments during two fruiting seasons. Palm growth, production of leaves, inflorescences, and infructescences, number of fruits per infructescence, and seed weight of five populations were evaluated. The individual of average size is 15 m tall, which corresponds to approximately 30-40 years of age. No difference in fruit production was recorded between wet and dry regions of coastal Ecuador. The average production of one hectare of pasture, with 50 palms, was 0.9 t of oil per year. One population that was part of an agroforestry system produced 50% more fruits than the average of all populations in pasture. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  15. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Becker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas – if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world – could capture 17–25 tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (averaged over 20 yr. Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to reduce significantly the current upward trend in atmospheric CO2 levels.

    In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42–63 € per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS. In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level.

  16. Numerical simulation of the effect of groundwater salinity on artificial freezing wall in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Liu, Quan

    2017-04-01

    During the engineering projects with artificial ground freezing (AFG) techniques in coastal area, the freezing effect is affected by groundwater salinity. Based on the theories of artificially frozen soil and heat transfer in porous material, and with the assumption that only the variations of total dissolved solids (TDS) impact on freezing point and thermal conductivity, a numerical model of an AFG project in a saline aquifer was established and validated by comparing the simulated temperature field with the calculated temperature based on the analytic solution of rupak (reference) for single-pipe freezing temperature field T. The formation and development of freezing wall were simulated with various TDS. The results showed that the variety of TDS caused the larger temperature difference near the frozen front. With increasing TDS in the saline aquifer (1 35g/L), the average thickness of freezing wall decreased linearly and the total formation time of the freezing wall increased linearly. Compared with of the scenario of fresh-water (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112: 1-13. Lukas U.Arenson, Dave C.Sego. The effect of salinity on the freezing of coarse- grained sand[J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2006, 43: 325-337. Hui Bing, Wei Ma. Laboratory investigation of the freezing point of saline soil[J]. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2011, 67: 79-88.

  17. Integrated tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; García-Aguilar, O.; Medina, R.; González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow for the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents a tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment for the case study of El Salvador, the applied methodology dealing with the complexity and variability of coastal zones by means of (i) an integral approach to cover the entire risk-related process from the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessments to the final risk management; (ii) an integrated approach to combine and aggregate the information stemming from the different dimensions of coupled human and natural systems; and (iii) a dynamic and scale-dependent approach to integrate the spatiotemporal variability considerations. This work also aims at establishing a clear connection to translate the vulnerability and risk assessment results into adequate target-oriented risk reduction measures, trying to bridge the gap between science and management for the tsunami hazard. The approach is applicable to other types of hazards, having been successfully applied to climate-change-related flooding hazard.

  18. Assessment of centralized grid connected wind power cost in coastal area of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Uqaili, Mohammad A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Mirza, Umar K. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    This work presents an assessment of per unit cost of electricity generated from 15 MW wind farm at 40 locations in the coastal areas of Pakistan using the method of net present value analysis. The Nordex N43/600 wind turbine has been selected and used as reference wind turbine. Wind duration curves were developed and utilized to calculate per unit cost of electricity generated from chosen wind turbine. In Sindh province, the minimum cost of electricity generated was found to be 4.2 cents /kWh at Jamshoro, while the corresponding maximum was 7.4 cents /kWh at Kadhan site. In Balochistan, the minimum cost of electricity generated was found to be 6.3 cents /kWh at Aghore, while the corresponding maximum was 21.0 cents /kWh at Mand site. The study concludes that at most of the locations especially in Sindh province, wind power is competitive to conventional grid connected thermal power even without considering the externalities. (author)

  19. Monsoon influences distribution of surfactants at different coastal areas into atmospheric aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharom, Suhana; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Md Firoz

    2016-11-01

    Global climate change can be influenced by surfactants because of its characteristics due to reduce surface tension. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of surfactants in atmospheric aerosol. Fine aerosol sample diameter size (<1.5 µM) were collected using High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) for 24 hrs with flow rate of 1.13m3min-1 at different coastal areas. Colorimetric method was undertaken to determine the concentrations of anionic surfactants as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and cationic surfactants as dimethyl blue active substances (DBAS) using a UV spectrometer. The results indicated that the concentration of anionic surfactants was higher than concentration of cationic surfactants. Therefore, the concentrations of surfactants in Port Dickson was 103.97 pmolm-3 for MBAS and 62.57 pmolm-3 for DBAS and was higher than Bachok during southwest monsoon and meanwhile concentrations of surfactants was higher in Bachok 102.74 pmolm-3 for MBAS and DBAS 68.56 pmolm-3 during northeast monsoon.

  20. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (i species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people and/or local government, and examination of topographic maps of Java (1963-1965 and digital satellite image of Landsat 7 TM (July-September 2001. The result indicated that northern coast of Rembang had 27 mangrove species, i.e. 12 species of major mangrove, 2 species of minor mangrove, and 13 species of associated plants. Rhizophora had been dominated mangrove ecosystem in Lasem and Pasar Bangi; while Avicennia had been dominated in Pecangakan. The most degrading factors of mangrove ecosysrems were aquaculture and salt pond, timber logging, land reclamation and soil sedimentation, and environmental pollution. Mangrove restoration by Rhizophora in coast of Pasar Bangi had been successfully, because community based management.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  2. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  3. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  4. Optimum segmentation of simple objects in high-resolution remote sensing imagery in coastal areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianyu; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    The optimum segmentation of ground objects in a landscape is essential for interpretation of high-resolution remotely sensed imagery and detection of objects; and it is also a technical foundation to efficiently use spatial information in remote sensing imagery. Landscapes are complex system composed of a large number of heterogeneous components. There are many explicit homogeneous image objects that have similar spectral character and yet differ from surrounding objects in high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Thereby, a new concept of Distinctive Feature of fractal is put forward and used in deriving Distinctive Feature curve of fractal evolution in multiscale segmentation.Through distinguishing the extremum condition of Distinctive Feature curve and the inclusion relationship of fractals in multiscale representation the Scalar Order is built. This can help to determinate the optimum scale in image segmentation for simple-objects, and the potential meaningful image-object fitting the intrinsic scale of the dominant landscape object can be obtained. Based on the application in high-resolution remote sensing imagery in coastal areas, a satisfactory result was acquired.

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of aquifers salinization in coastal area of Yunlin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P.-C.; Tan, Y.-C.

    2012-04-01

    In the past, time and space characteristics often discussed separately. This study adopts regionalized variables theory, and describes the water quality in terms of its structure in time and space to assess the situation of Yunlin. This study applied the Quantum Bayesian Maximum Entropy Toolbox (QtBME), which is a spatiotemporal statistics function, can be applied to estimate and map a non-stationary and non-homogeneous spatiotemporal process under the platform of Quantum GIS (QGIS) software. Kernel smoothing method is used to divide the original process into a deterministic trend and a stationary and homogeneous spatiotemporal process, assuming that a spatiotemporal process can be divided into high and low frequency. The covariance model of the process of high frequency is selected objectively by particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Bayesian maximum entropy method is then applied to spatiotemporal mapping of the variable of interest. In this study, QtBME estimated the situation of aquifers salinization at Yunlin coastal area in 1992 to 2010. Finally, one investigated the rainfall and aquifers salinization on the degree of impact.

  6. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  7. Achieving Success under Pressure in the Conservation of Intensely Used Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how biological conservation and socioeconomic development can be harmonized in social-ecological systems is at the core of sustainability science. We present the case of a Mediterranean marine protected area (MPA, the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA, that exhibits high ecological performance under intense pressure from fishing, tourism, and coastal development. This case study illustrates how socioeconomic development and significant conservation benefits can coexist, even in a challenging context. Based on this case study, we present a framework for what elements and interactions have determined the high ecological performance of this MPA, and highlight the key leverages that have enabled ecosystem recovery. In particular, the most critical elements underlying high performance were sufficient leadership and knowledge to identify a conservation vision and to catalyze some key actors in the implementation of this vision. Thus, success was ultimately determined by the ability of the leadership of the MPA to devise and implement an effective strategy, with the support and participation of key actors that were external to the MPA organization. The insights from this case study may be applicable to improving MPA management in other systems with similar characteristics, including high human pressures and the presence of an MPA authority.

  8. Area Health Resources Files (AHRF) National Center for Health Workforce Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Area Health Resource Files (AHRF) website is are a set of query tools, interactive maps, and data downloads with extensive demographic, training, and resource...

  9. Catchment2Coast: making the link between coastal resource variability and river inputs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, P

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available boundaries, including the tradi- tional ones between river catchments and their adjacent coastal ecosystems. The Catchment2Coast Project aims to address these gaps in knowledge using a combination of numerical modelling and field observations... refinement of numerical modelling plat- forms, affording them the necessary degree of rigour and reliability for more generic usage as management and policy development support tools. The project uses as a case study the Incomati River–Maputo Bay system...

  10. A multidisciplinary approach for the management of the water resources hosted in the multi-layer coastal aquifers of Central-Southern Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, M.; Doveri, M.; Cerrina Feroni, A.; Da Prato, S.; Ellero, A.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.

    2012-12-01

    The correct management of subterranean water resources should be based on the studies aimed to acquire informations about geological, hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of water and aquifer. Taking in mind this idea, the subterranean water resources hosted in the multi-layer aquifers below the coastal plains of the Cecina River, Cornia River, Follonica, Grosseto, and Albegna River were recently investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in the framework of the Significant Groundwater Bodies (SGB) Project, funded by the Tuscany Region (Italy). In the first step, the distinction of main aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude levels has been done by means of the geometrical reconstruction of the geological sequences, using available stratigraphical data. For each hydrogeological complex, the total volumes and the percentages of the different grain sizes were also calculated. The second step was addressed to elaborate the piezometric surfaces during low-flow and high-flow conditions, aimed to individuate the main flow pattern and the most exploited zones of the multi-layer aquifers. Moreover, considering the saturated zone and applying an effective porosity (weighed in function of grain sizes percentages), the amounts of the total water volumes stored in the aquifer system were estimate. The third step comprised the hydrogeochemical characterization of the areas of interest, by means of both: a deterministic approach, including the elaboration and interpretation of classification diagrams, Eh-pH plots, calculation of water speciation and saturation state, activity diagrams, etc. a geo-statistical approach, aimed to the study of the spatial distribution of the most significant geochemical parameters, such as the concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrate and boron. If suitable database is available, this multidisciplinary approach can allow to identify the main recharge areas and flow path and the physical-chemical processes (naturals or antropics

  11. Ecological Security and Ecosystem Services in Response to Land Use Change in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyao Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, and the resulting land use/cover change, is a primary cause of the degradation of coastal wetland ecosystems. Reclamation projects are seen as a way to strike a balance between socioeconomic development and maintenance of coastal ecosystems. Our aim was to understand the ecological changes to Jiangsu’s coastal wetland resulting from land use change since 1977 by using remote sensing and spatial analyses. The results indicate that: (1 The area of artificial land use expanded while natural land use was reduced, which emphasized an increase in production-orientated land uses at the expense of ecologically important wetlands; (2 It took 34 years for landscape ecological security and 39 years for ecosystem services to regain equilibrium. The coastal reclamation area would recover ecological equilibrium only after a minimum of 30 years; (3 The total ecosystem service value decreased significantly from $2.98 billion per year to $2.31 billion per year from 1977 to 2014. Food production was the only one ecosystem service function that consistently increased, mainly because of government policy; (4 The relationship between landscape ecological security and ecosystem services is complicated, mainly because of the scale effect of landscape ecology. Spatial analysis of changing gravity centers showed that landscape ecological security and ecosystem service quality became better in the north than the south over the study period.

  12. Flash floods along the Italian coastal areas: examples from Pozzuoli city, Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Matano, Fabio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Sacchi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Italian western coastal areas are the most exposed in the country to low-pressure systems coming from the central-western Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the last years, many Italian coastal villages were struck by floods and flow processes triggered by high-intensity and short-duration rainfall, typical of flash flood events. In the Campania region (SW Italy) a series of events has caused several fatalities and heavy damages in the last decades, i.e. the flash floods of Casamicciola - Ischia Island (10/11/2009 - 1 fatality) and Atrani (9/9/2010 - 1 fatality). In this work we describe the rainfall properties and the ground effects of the 2009, 2010 and 2011 flash floods which involved the city of Pozzuoli, along the Campi Flegrei coast, where a catastrophic flood event (13 fatalities) is reported in 1918 in the AVI Project database. Rainfall data were measured at a sampling rate of 10 minutes by a regional Civil Protection rain gauge located in the city of Pozzuoli near the areas struck by the flash flood effects. In order to analyze the extreme features of the rainstorms and compare them, we have considered the 1-hour maximum rainfall amount and the 10-min peak storm intensity value for each event. The first rainstorm occurred on 14 September 2009; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 34.4 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 57.6 mm/h. The second rainstorm occurred on 30 July 2010; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 40.6 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 126 mm/h. The third rainstorm occurred on 06 November 2011; it was characterized by a 1-hour maximum rainfall amount of 44.2 mm and a 10-min peak storm intensity of 67.2 mm/h. The three described rainstorms all triggered erosional processes and shallow landslides in the upper part of the Pozzuoli drainage basin that supplied sheet flows and hyperconcentrated flows downstream, with severe damage to the human structures built near or inside the

  13. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Practical Areas of Human Resource Management in Lithuania and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, L; Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the significant aspects of human resource management practices. The article discusses significant aspects of human resource management practices in the context of the high performance human resource management. The authors carried out a comparative theoretical analysis of the various functional areas of human resource management practices. This paper presents the results of experts’ evaluation of human resource management in organizations of Latvia and Lith...

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Practical Areas of Human Resource Management in Lithuania and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, L; Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the significant aspects of human resource management practices. The article discusses significant aspects of human resource management practices in the context of the high performance human resource management. The authors carried out a comparative theoretical analysis of the various functional areas of human resource management practices. This paper presents the results of experts’ evaluation of human resource management in organizations of Latvia and Lith...

  16. AreaAdvisor: Spatial, Real-Time Resource Intelligence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As processing and manufacturing facilities quickly progress from barcode to radio-frequency (RFID) and similar technologies to track the movements of resources...

  17. Modelling of upwelling in the coastal area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carbonel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1 1/2 reduced-gravity model is proposed to study the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic features of the coastal upwelling area of Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. The vertical structure of the model is described by an active layer overlaying a deep inert layer where the pressure gradient is set to zero. For the upper layer, the model includes the turbulent version of the momentum. continuity and heat equations. The conservation of heat is represented by a transport equation to describe the thermodynamic changes of the sea surface temperature (SST. The solution domain includes open boundaries in which weakly-retlective conditions are prescribed. Solutions are found numerically on a uniform grid and the fundamental equations are approximated by the finite difference method. Numerical experiments are performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the coastal area of Cabo Frio forced by uniform and non-uniform wind fields. The solutions differ considerably depending on the orientation of the winds. East and northeast winds correlate with colder waters in the zonal coastline of this area and the presence of tlows toward Cabo Frio correlates with north wind components. The proposed model is validated with the numerical simulation of an observed event of upwelling, where a time­-dependent and non-uniform wind ficld develops a SST pattern similar as the observations, particularly the extension of the cool water plume in south-west direction and the rapid time variation of the SST.Um modelo de gravidade reduzida de 1 1/2 camada é proposto para estudar as características hidrodinmicas e termodinmicas da área costeira de Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro ­Brasil. A estrutura vertical do modelo é descrita por uma camada ativa sobre uma camada profunda sem movimento onde o gradicnte de pressão é zero. Para a camada superior. o modelo incluí a versão turbulenta das equações de momentum, continuidade e calor. A conservação do calor é representada por uma

  18. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica, 1974-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, K.M.; Swithinbank, C.; Williams, R.S.; Dalide, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), on the basis of analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance, whereas Rignot and others (in press) infer even larger negative mass balance for glaciers flowing northward into the Amundsen Sea, a trend suggested by Swithinbank and others (2003a,b, 2004). The mass balance of the East Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Pro-grams. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geo-logical Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner

  19. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Larsen Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a

  20. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  1. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  2. Propagation Mechanisms of Incident Tsunami Wave in Jiangsu Coastal Area, Caused by Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春光; 王义刚; 黄惠明; 陈橙; 陈大可

    2016-01-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force’s impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  3. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas K.; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-04-01

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species.

  4. Distribution and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Alaa R.; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Al-Alimi, Abdel Kawi A.; Barakat, Assem O.

    2009-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 17 surface sediment samples were collected in March-April 2005 and analyzed for PAHs with 2-6 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments were in the range of 2.2-604 ng g - 1 (average value: 82.4 ng g - 1 ). PAHs contamination is highest in proximity to harbour activities, near Al-Dhabah petroleum terminal and urban areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Hadhramout coastal sediments as low to moderate. Assessment of PAH sources in Hadhramout coastal sediments suggested that they originated largely from petrogenic sources. PAHs of pyrolytic origin were found in sediments from urbanized areas. Adverse effects on benthic communities are not expected at the levels of PAHs contamination observed from harbour and industrial areas.

  5. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  6. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  7. Mapping and quantifying habitat fragmentation in small coastal areas: a case study of three protected wetlands in Apulia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Valeria; Tenerelli, Patrizia; Sciandrello, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean Region, habitat loss and fragmentation severely affect coastal wetlands, due to the rapid expansion of anthropogenic activities that has occurred in the last decades. Landscape metrics are commonly used to define landscape patterns and to evaluate fragmentation processes. This investigation focuses on the performance of a set of landscape pattern indices within landscapes characterized by coastal environments and extent below 1,000 ha. The aim is to assess the degree of habitat fragmentation for the monitoring of protected areas and to learn whether values of landscape metrics can characterize fine-resolution landscape patterns. The study areas are three coastal wetlands belonging to the Natura 2000 network and sited on the Adriatic side of Apulia (Southern Italy). The Habitat Maps were derived from the Vegetation Maps generated integrating phytosociological relevés and Earth Observation data. In the three sites, a total of 16 habitat types were detected. A selected set of landscape metrics was applied in order to investigate their performance in assessing fragmentation and spatial patterns of habitats. The final results showed that the most significant landscape patterns are related to highly specialized habitat types closely linked to coastal environments. In interpreting the landscape patterns of these highly specialized habitats, some specific ecological factors were taken into account. The shape indices were the most useful in assessing the degree of fragmentation of habitat types that usually have elongated morphology along the shoreline or the coastal lagoons. In all the cases, to be meaningful, data obtained from the application of the selected indices were jointly assessed, especially at the class level.

  8. Screening of Rhizosphere Bacteria From Rice Fields in The Coastal Area as Acc-Deaminase and Auxin Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisyia Zarina Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity and drought stress results in the production of ethylene. Rhizosphere bacterial activity suppresses the production of ethylene through the activity of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. In this study,a sampel of rhizosphere bacteria from coastal rice plant area was tested. The method used was acc deaminase activity test performed on Dworkin - Foster (DF media and PCR acdS gene using specific primers of ACC and a quantitative analysis of the production of auxin (IAA. Of 47 isolatees obtained, 8 were positively have acdS activity. The positive result was indicated by the presence of 1080 bp amplicon. Quantitative analysisshowed the highest yield of 10.6 ppm of auxin. The results prove that there are some bacteria originated from coastal rice plant area which have acc deaminase activity.

  9. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health.

  10. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord....... The mussel lines contributed with nutrients, primarily ammonium, to the pool of nutrients in the water column and the contribution increased as the biomass of mussels in the farm increased. The sedimentation of biodeposits was only slightly higher at the farm (51–86 %) compared with a reference site...

  11. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, d' E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  12. Investigation of Metal Uptake and Translocation in Wetland Plants from Urban Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Zhang, W.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Yu, L.; Jones, K. W.; Liu, C.; Tappero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly focused on the use of synchrotron micro XRF technique to study the mechanisms of metal uptake by plants in conjunction with other measurements to provide insight metal concentrations and distributions in the rhizosphere root system. Many urban-industrial areas exhibit environmental degradation. One of the most common issues is sediment metal contamination resulting from past industrial land uses. The wetland ecosystem in urban coastal areas, such as New Jersey, USA, and Shanghai, China, is a unique laboratory for investigating sediment remediation and wetland ecological rehabilitations. Understanding the natural processes that control the mobility of metals in wetland plants is important to understand the metal biochemical cycle. Wetland plants can uptake metals from rhizosphere soils through their root system and store these metals within the plant biomass. The accumulation of metals in wetland plants provides a potential approach for brownfield remediation and wetland restoration. In the rhizosphere, the role of Fe plaque, which forms on the surface of wetland plant roots, has been an issue of debate in controlling metal biogeochemical cycle. It was reported that due to the large specific surface area of iron-oxides for metal sequestration, Fe plaque can provide a reactive substrate to scavenge metals. Several early studies suggest that the Fe plaque serves as a barrier preventing heavy metals from entering plant roots. However, others suggest that Fe plaque is not the main barrier. Therefore, investigation of the natural processes that control the mobility of metals from sediment to wetland plants is a critical step in understanding metal translocation and geochemical cycling in wetlands. In this study we found that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross section from the epidermis to the vascular cylinder were apparently different. Two clusters of metal distributions were seen with Fe and Pb mainly distributed in the

  13. Vertical profiles and enrichment pattern of natural radionuclides in monazite areas of coastal Kerala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, P.K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore, Karnataka 574199 (India); Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore, Karnataka 574199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore, Karnataka 574199 (India)

    2006-07-01

    Detailed studies on radionuclides concentration in different environmental matrices of high background areas were undertaken in the coastal areas of Karunagapalli, Chavara, Neendakara and Kollam to study the distribution and enrichment of the radionuclides in the region. The sand samples collected at different distances from sea waterline and at different depths, were analysed for primordial radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The activity of primordial radionuclides was determined for the different size fractions of sand to study the enrichment pattern. The highest activity was found confined in 125-63 {mu}m particle size fraction in sand. The minimum {sup 232}Th activity was 9.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, found in Kollam at a depth of 10-20 cm, 40 m away from waterline in 500-250 {mu}m particle size fraction and maximum activity of 136,811.2 Bq kg{sup -1} was observed in Chavara in grains of size 125-63 {mu}m at a depth of 0-10 cm for a sample collected 20 m away from waterline. The lowest {sup 226}Ra activity observed was 29.6 Bq kg{sup -1} at Kollam beach for a sample 40 m away from waterline in grains of size 1000-500 {mu}m and at a depth of 20-30 cm and the highest activity observed was 10,309 Bq kg{sup -1} in grains of size 125-63 {mu}m for a sample collected at a distance 20 m away from waterline and at a depth of 0-10 cm. The activity of {sup 4}K was below detectable level in most of the samples collected from the high background monazite area. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra activities decrease with depth for the samples collected 20 m away from the waterline and increase with depth for the samples collected 40 m away from the waterline at Chavara and Kollam beaches. No definite correlation was found between variation of the concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra with depth at Karunagapalli and Neendakara beach sands. There exists a strong correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th activities in the region. The results of these investigations are presented

  14. Incentive Mechanism Model Design for Sharing of Information Resources in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xirong; GAO; Lingling; SHAN

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the issues concerning the cross-unit sharing of information resources in rural areas, we analyze the incentive problem of the sharing of information resources in rural areas using the incentive theory method; establish corresponding incentive mechanism model (It is divided into positive incentive model and negative incentive model, and only when the two models guarantee each other and are used at the same time can they be effective). Based on this, we put forward the institutional design for sharing of information resources in rural areas as follows: firstly, establishing an administrative agency of rural information resources sharing, above the authority of all units, responsible for related work on sharing of information resources in rural areas; secondly, establishing and improving the positive and negative incentive mechanisms, to ensure the realization of sharing of information resources in rural areas.

  15. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  16. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  17. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura,Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this specie...

  18. Land-Cover Phenologies and Their Relation to Climatic Variables in an Anthropogenically Impacted Mediterranean Coastal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Encarni I.; Magaly Koch; Ignacio Gómez; Jose Navarro-Pedreño; Ignacio Melendez-Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean coastal areas are experiencing rapid land cover change caused by human-induced land degradation and extreme climatic events. Vegetation index time series provide a useful way to monitor vegetation phenological variations. This study quantitatively describes Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) temporal changes for Mediterranean land-covers from the perspective of vegetation phenology and its relation with climate. A time series from 2001 to 2007 of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index...

  19. Ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in sediments of coastal areas of northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Hu, Wenyou; Jiao, Wentao; Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Distributions of arsenic and metals in surface sediments collected from the coastal and estuarine areas of the northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China, were investigated. An ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in the sediments was evaluated by three approaches: the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the degree of contamination, and two sets of SQGs indices. Sediments from the estuaries of the Wuli and Yalu Rivers contain...

  20. Trace metal content of live tissues in Halimione portulacoides from coastal areas of the Sado estuary, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboredo, F.H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Large differences were noted in Al, Cu, Fe and Zn levels in live tissues of Halimione portulacoides from the coastal areas of the Sado estuary. The highest levels of Al, Cu and Fe were always found in roots, while the lowest levels were always observed in stems. Copper and iron levels were highly correlated in all tissues, especially Cu, while for Al and Zn high correlations were noted between the leaf and the stem. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. Lagrangian transport in a microtidal coastal area: the Bay of Palma, island of Mallorca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hernández-Carrasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal transport in the Bay of Palma, a small region in the island of Mallorca, Spain, is characterized in terms of Lagrangian descriptors. The data sets used for this study are the output for two months (one in autumn and one in summer of a high resolution numerical model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System, forced atmospherically and with a spatial resolution of 300 m. The two months were selected because of their different wind regime, which is the main driver of the sea dynamics in this area. Finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLEs were used to locate semi-persistent Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS and to understand the different flow regimes in the bay. The different wind directions and regularity in the two months have a clear impact on the surface bay dynamics, whereas only topographic features appear clearly in the bottom structures. The fluid interchange between the bay and the open ocean was studied by computing particle trajectories and residence time (RT maps. The escape rate of particles out of the bay is qualitatively different, with a 32% greater escape rate of particles to the ocean in October than in July, owing to the different geometric characteristics of the flow. We show that LCSs separate regions with different transport properties by displaying spatial distributions of residence times on synoptic Lagrangian maps together with the location of the LCSs. Correlations between the time-dependent behavior of FSLE and RT are also investigated, showing a negative dependence when the stirring characterized by FSLE values moves particles in the direction of escape.

  2. Early Childhood Environmental Education in Tropical and Coastal Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    Early childhood years are the period of the greatest and most significant developments in ones’ life, and are generally regarded as the basis upon which the rest of their life is constructed. However, these early years are those that traditionally have received the least attention from environmental education. This paper was aimed to summarize several day-to-day activities that can be conducted to educate children in their early years about environment. Environmental education is an educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment, and that uses an interdisciplinary problem solving approach with value clarification. Environmental education is aimed at producing a community that is knowledgeable about the biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to solve these problems, and enthusiastic to work toward their solution. It highlights the progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. Further, environmental education can help children expand their ecological worldview, promote active care to the environment, and explain the relationship between modern life style and current environmental problems. Several types of environmental education have been identified from the literature, such as outdoor activities in natural outdoor setting, school gardening, play-based learning, and drawing activities. Each of these activities has its own characteristics and effects on children’s environmental-related attitudes and behaviors. Through these activities, the unique characteristics of tropical and coastal areas can potentially be used to facilitate children to learn about nature and environment. Recommendations for childhood education practitioners and future researchers are discussed.

  3. New Intelligent Method of Forecasting Control for Fishing Boat Security in the Coastal Area of Fujian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the fishing boat security in the coastal area of Fujian, it is imperative to develop efficient forecasting control system to manage the boats operation in a safe and orderly process. The core issue of establishing the forecasting control system is to predict the relationship of the real time traffic flow and the boat security condition. However, literature review shows that limited reports have addressed on this problem. Hence, a new intelligent forecasting control method base on the Chaos-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN is proposed for the short time traffic flow prediction in this paper. The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD was first used to denoise the original ship traffic flow observation and then the Chaos-PSO-FNN was applied to the forecasting of the ship traffic flow and hence established the relationship of the real time traffic flow and the boat security condition. The advantage of the proposed approach is that the Chaos-PSO is employed to optimize the FNN parameters to overcome the premature problem of the FNN. As a result, the forecasting control performance is enhanced greatly. In the experiment analysis, the fishing boat traffic information provided by the Fujian marine bureau has been used to evaluate the newly proposed method. The analysis results demonstrate that the proposed Chaos-PSO-FNN method can extract distinct features of the traffic data and the prediction rate is beyond 93.7%. In addition, it found that the fishing boats is supposed to be safe when their travel time avoids the rush time of the traffic flow. This result agrees well with the real data. Thus, the new intelligent forecasting control method for fishing boat security can be used in practice.

  4. Diel peroxy radicals in a semi-industrial coastal area: nighttime formation of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured by a PeRCA (Peroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier instrument in the boundary layer during the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides campaign at a coastal, forested site influenced by urban-industrial emissions in southern Spain in late autumn. Total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2 + ΣRO2 generally showed a daylight maximum between 10 and 50 pptv at 13:00 UTC, with an average of 18 pptv over the 15 days of measurements. Emissions from the industrial area of Huelva often impacted the measurement site at night during the campaign. The processing of significant levels of anthropogenic organics leads to an intense nocturnal radical chemistry accompanied by formation of organic peroxy radicals at comparable levels to those of summer photochemical conditions with peak events up to 60–80 pptv. The RO2 production initiated by reactions of NO3 with organic trace gases was estimated to be significant, but not sufficient to account for the concentrations of RO2* observed in air masses carrying high pollutant loading. The nocturnal production of peroxy radicals in those periods seems therefore to be dominated by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, in particular alkenes of industrial petrochemical origin. RO2* diurnal variations were consistent with HO2 measurements available at the site. HO2/RO2* ratios generally varied between 0.3 and 0.6, though on some occasions this ratio was likel