WorldWideScience

Sample records for coast residual fuel

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  2. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  3. Is spent nuclear fuel at the Kola coast a real danger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussgard, K.

    1995-01-01

    Norwegian authorities regard with some disquiet the possibility of a criticality accident in a ship propulsion reactor core at the Kola coast. Along this coast, in land storages, floating storages and in submarines taken out of service, the total number of spent fuel reactor cores amount to two hundred. The total Cs-137 radioactivity in spent ship propulsion reactor fuel at the Kola peninsula can be assessed to 600,000 TBq. A worst case release may amount to more than 5,000 TBq Cs-137, a quantity which under unfavourable conditions might cause serious contamination locally and even across the border to Norway

  4. Application of preservatives for residual fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozpe y Munoz, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Due to the high costs of the combust oils (fuel oil 6) used in generators of vapor and in other treatments, makes important consider the use of preservatives that improve the operation of the units from the operative point of view and of environmental control. The author enumerates several of the problems of corrosion, of efficiency in the combustion and of thermal efficiency; in a same way it enumerates several useful preservatives, to be used in residual fuel

  5. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  6. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  7. Advanced immobilization processes for fuel hulls and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.; Boehme, G.; Findlay, J.R.; Sombret, C.

    1984-08-01

    Various research and development projects for the conditioning of cladding scraps and dissolver residues are pursued within the scope of the R and D programme on nuclear waste Management of the European Community. They include the characterization of the waste materials arising from industrial fuel reprocessing and the development of different waste immobilization techniques. These concern the embedment of scraps and residues into inert matrices like cement, metal alloys, compacted graphite and sintered ceramics as well as the treatment of the fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion. The conditioned waste forms are tested as to their relevant properties for activity enclosure

  8. Advanced immobilization processes for fuel hulls and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.; Boehme, G.; Findlay, J.R.; Sombert, C.

    1984-01-01

    Various research and development projects for the conditioning of cladding scraps and dissolver residues are pursued within the scope of the R and D programme on nuclear waste Management of the European Community. They include the characterization of the waste materials arising from industrial fuel reprocessing and the development of different waste immobilization techniques. These concern the embedment of the scraps and residues into inert matrices like cement, metal alloys, compacted graphite and sintered ceramics as well as the treatment of the fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion. The conditioned waste forms are tested as to their relevant properties for activity enclosure

  9. Alternative fuels from forest residues for passenger cars - an assessment under German framework conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtig, O.; Leible, L.; Kälber, S.; Kappler, g.; Spicher, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the available volumes, biogenic residues are a promising resource for renewable fuels for passenger cars to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we compare three fuels from forest residues under German framework conditions: biogenic electricity, substitute natural gas (SNG), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. Methods Fuels from forest residues are compared with regard to their technical efficiency (here defined as ‘pkm per kg b...

  10. Hastelloy X fuel element creep relaxation and residual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, R.A.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case, seven element, asymmetric fuel, thermal environment was assumed and a creep relaxation analysis generated. The fuel element clad is .020 inch Hastelloy X. The contact load decreased from 11.6 pounds to 5.87 pounds in 100,000 hours. The residual stresses were then computed for various shutdown times. (U.S.)

  11. Pyrolysis of forest residues: an approach to techno-economics for bio-fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The techno-economics for producing liquid fuels from Maine forest residues were determined from a combination of: (1) laboratory experiments at USDA-ARS’s Eastern Regional Research Center using hog fuel (a secondary woody residue produced from mill byproducts such as sawdust, bark and shavings) as a...

  12. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  13. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  14. Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. -- Highlights: → Cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) can measure climate impacts of dynamic systems. → Climate impact is reduced when forest slash and stumps are used to replace fossil fuels. → Forest biofuels may cause short-term climate impact, followed by long-term climate benefit. → Forest residues should replace coal to avoid short-term climate impact. → Fossil energy used for biofuel recovery and transport has very little climate impact.

  15. Properties of residual marine fuel produced by thermolysis from polypropylene waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Miknius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of waste plastics with the aim of producing liquid fuel is one of the alternative solutions to landfill disposal or incineration. The paper describes thermal conversion of polypropylene waste and analysis of produced liquid fuel that would satisfy ISO 8217-2012 requirements for a residual marine fuel. Single pass batch thermolysis processes were conducted at different own vapour pressures (20-80 barg that determined process temperature, residence time of intermediates what resulted in different yields of the liquid product. Obtained products were stabilized by rectification to achieve required standard flash point. Gas chromatography and 1H NMR spectrometry show aliphatic nature of the liquid product where majority of the compounds are isoalkanes and isoalkenes. Only lightest fractions boiling up to a temperature of 72 oC have significant amount of n-pentane. Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons is not even along the boiling range. The fractions boiling at a temperature of 128 oC and 160 oC have the highest content of monocyclic arenes – 3.16 % and 4.09 % respectively. The obtained final liquid residual product meets all but one requirements of ISO 8217-2012 for residual marine fuels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6105

  16. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  17. Greater use of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning: a case study in Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C. (Alabama Univ., Huntsville, AL (United States). Coll. of Administrative Science); Stanford, R. (Alabama Dept. of Economic and Community Affairs, Montgomery, AL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    As the world reacts to environmental concerns relating to fossil energy usage, emphasis is again placed on greater use of renewable fuels such as wood residues. Realistically, however, decisions to utilize such fuels are based on economic factors, rather than desires to improve US energy independence and/or protect the environment. Because Alabama has a large forest products industry, state authorities have long sought to assist potential users of wood residue fuels to better use biomass fuels instead of the usual alternative: natural gas. State agency experience in promoting commercial and industrial use of wood residue fuels has shown that inadequate financial planning has often resulted in rejection of viable projects or acceptance of non-optimum projects. This paper discusses the reasons for this situation and suggests remedies for its improvement. (author)

  18. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  19. Automatic Gamma-Scanning System for Measurement of Residual Heat in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, Otasowie

    2007-03-01

    In Sweden, spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated and placed in a deep geological repository. In this procedure, reliable and accurate spent fuel data such as discharge burnup, cooling time and residual heat must be available. The gamma scanning method was proposed in earlier work as a fast and reliable method for the experimental determination of such spent fuel data. This thesis is focused on the recent achievements in the development of a pilot gamma scanning system and its application in measuring spent fuel residual heat. The achievements include the development of dedicated spectroscopic data-acquisition and analysis software and the use of a specially designed calorimeter for calibrating the gamma scanning system. The pilot system is described, including an evaluation of the performance of the spectrum analysis software. Also described are the gamma-scanning measurements on 31 spent PWR fuel assemblies performed using the pilot system. The results obtained for the determination of residual heat are presented, showing an agreement of (2-3) % with both calorimetric and calculated data. In addition, the ability to verify declared data such as discharge burnup and cooling time is demonstrated

  20. Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden); Linnaeus University, 35195 Vaexjoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Lisa; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO{sub 2} benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO{sub 2} emission balance. (author)

  1. Characterization of spent fuel hulls and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Andriessen, H.

    1985-04-01

    The main results obtained within the framework of CEC programmes, by KFK, UKAEA and CEA, are reviewed concerning the characterization of dissolution wastes. The contents were determined of the main radioactive emitters contained in the hulls originating in a whole fuel assembly sampled at the La Hague plant, or from Dounreay PFR fuels. Radiochemical characterizations were carried out by different methods including neutron emission measurement, alpha and beta-gamma spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Decontamination of the hulls by using rinsings and supplementary treatment were also dealt with. The ignition and explosion risks associated with the zircaloy fines formed during the shearing of LWR fuels were examined, and the ignition properties of irradiated and unirradiated zircaloy powders were determined and compared. The physical properties and compositions of the dissolution residues of PFR fuels were defined, in order to conduct tests on the immobilization of these wastes in cement

  2. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Evaluation of wood residues from Crete as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, D. [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete (Greece); Bandelis, G. [Professional School of Chania, EPAS Chania (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Olive and citrus prunings, the main agricultural residues of Crete, are considered to be of premium importance for local energy production, substituting a large part of conventional fuels. The thermal behaviour of these fuels during combustion was studied by thermogravimetry, at non-isothermal heating conditions. Fly ashes were collected from tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed facility. The effect of the inorganic constituents of the fuels on slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities, as well as environmental pollution was examined. Kinetic models were developed and reaction rates were determined. The agroresidues studied were characterized as good quality fuels, having high volatile and low ash and sulphur contents. Their ash was rich in Ca, Si, K and P minerals. However, fly ashes were poorer in alkali compounds, implying lower deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. The environmental impact of heavy metals is negligible. The thermochemical reactivity of the two fuels in air was very similar. A power low model fitted the experimental results accurately.

  5. Identification of accelerants, fuels and post-combustion residues using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Jang, Minseok; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-09-07

    A linear (1 × 36) colorimetric sensor array has been integrated with a pre-oxidation technique for detection and identification of a variety of fuels and post-combustion residues. The pre-oxidation method permits the conversion of fuel vapor into more detectable species and therefore greatly enhances the sensitivity of the sensor array. The pre-oxidation technique used a packed tube of chromic acid on an oxide support and was optimized in terms of the support and concentration. Excellent batch to batch reproducibility was observed for preparation and use of the disposable pre-oxidation tubes. Twenty automotive fuels including gasolines and diesel from five gasoline retailers were individually identifiable with no confusions or misclassifications in quintuplicate trials. Limits of detection were at sub-ppm concentrations for gasoline and diesel fuels. In addition, burning tests were performed on commonly used fire accelerants, and clear differentiation was achieved among both the fuels themselves and their volatile residues after burning.

  6. Fermentation, gasification and pyrolysis of carbonaceous residues towards usage in fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, C.A.C.; Brito, P.S.D.; Mota, A.F.; Carvalho, J.L.; Rodrigues, L.F.F.T.T.G.; Santos, D.M.F.; Barrio, D.B.; Justo, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the technologies of fermentation, gasification and pyrolysis of carbonaceous residues for the production of biohydrogen and other gaseous, liquid or solid fuels, are analysed. The energetic, economic and environmental advantages of linking these energy areas with the fuel cell engines are stressed. In addition, the current status of fuel cell technologies, namely their historic trends, basic electrode mechanisms, cell types, market drivers and leading issues, are reviewed

  7. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat-straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp (50 kW) agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10% diesel oil and 90% producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present test results are not optimal for any of the fuels used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using approximately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  8. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  9. Total and occluded residual gas content inside the nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Sergio C.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Oliveira, Justine R.; Machado, Joyce F.; Guglielmo, Luisa M.; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes three techniques available to measure total and occluded residual gases inside the UO 2 nuclear fuel pellets. Hydrogen is the major gas compound inside these pellets, due to sintering fabrication process but Nitrogen is present as well, due to storage atmosphere fuel. The total and occluded residual gas content inside these pellets is a mandatory requirement in a quality control to assure the well function of the pellets inside the nuclear reactor. This work describes the Gas Extractor System coupled with mass spectrometry GES/MS, the Gas Extractor System coupled with gas chromatography GES/GC and the total Hydrogen / Nitrogen H/N analyzer as well. In the GES, occlude gases in the UO 2 pellets is determinate using a high temperature vacuum extraction system, in which the minimum limit of detection is in the range 0.002 cc/g. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the amount of gaseous components employs a mass spectrometry or a gas chromatography technique. The total Hydrogen / Nitrogen analyzer employ a thermal conductivity gas detector linked to a gaseous extractor furnace which has a detection limit is in the range 0.005 cc/g. The specification for the residual gas analyses in the nuclear fuel pellets is 0.03 cc/g, all techniques satisfy the requirement but not the nature of the gases due to reaction with the reactor cladding. The present work details the chemical reaction among Hydrogen / Nitrogen and nuclear reactor cladding. (author)

  10. Life cycle assessment of residual lignocellulosic biomass-based jet fuel with activated carbon and lignosulfonate as co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Francesca; Eastin, Ivan L; Ganguly, Indroneil

    2018-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels are emerging as a valuable alternative to petroleum-based fuels for their potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel dependence. In this study, residual woody biomass from slash piles in the U.S. Pacific Northwest is used as a feedstock to produce iso-paraffinic kerosene, through the production of sugar and subsequent patented proprietary fermentation and upgrading. To enhance the economic viability and reduce the environmental impacts of iso-paraffinic kerosene, two co-products, activated carbon and lignosulfonate, are simultaneously produced within the same bio-refinery. A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for the residual woody biomass-based bio-jet fuel and compared against the cradle-to-grave LCA of petroleum-based jet fuel. This paper also discusses the differences in the environmental impacts of the residual biomass-based bio-jet fuel using two different approaches, mass allocation and system expansion, to partition the impacts between the bio-fuel and the co-products, which are produced in the bio-refinery. The environmental assessment of biomass-based bio-jet fuel reveals an improvement along most critical environmental criteria, as compared to its petroleum-based counterpart. However, the results present significant differences in the environmental impact of biomass-based bio-jet fuel, based on the partitioning method adopted. The mass allocation approach shows a greater improvement along most of the environmental criteria, as compared to the system expansion approach. However, independent of the partitioning approach, the results of this study reveal that more than the EISA mandated 60% reduction in the global warming potential could be achieved by substituting petroleum-based jet fuel with residual woody biomass-based jet fuel. Converting residual woody biomass from slash piles into bio-jet fuel presents the additional benefit of avoiding the impacts of slash pile burning in the forest, which

  11. The fuel characteristics of logging residue and their response to storage; Puupolttoaineen laadunvalvonta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland). Kannus Research Station

    1997-12-01

    Logging residue is one of the major biomass reserves of Finland available for energy production. Some 29 million m{sup 3} of this residue material is left in the forest annually in conjunction with logging operations. The technically harvestable annual reserve is estimated to consist of 8.6 million m{sup 3} biomass needles included, or 5.6 million m{sup 3} needles excluded. The present technology is based on the mechanised harvesting of stemwood with single-grip harvesters, off- road transport of residue to road side with forwarders, chipping at the road side and truck transport of chips. The amount used at heating plants in 1995 was estimated to only 50 000 m{sup 3} solid or less than 1 % of the harvestable reserve. The aim of the Project 125 is to find out how the fuel characteristics and the elemental composition of logging residue change over time in different storage conditions. Based on the information from the first year experiments it can be concluded that the season of comminution is of importance. The enforced paper cover that was used to protect the residue from precipitation did not improve the fuel quality. In addition the release of elements from the needle was found to be very slow. (orig.)

  12. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  13. Process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremanns, R.H.; Vandersteene, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide in the form of PuO 2 . Mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide are being used more and more. The plants which prepare these mixed fuels have around 5% of the total mass of fuels as fabrication residue, either as waste or scrap. In view of the high cost of plutonium, it has been attempted to recover this plutonium from the fabrication residues by a process having a purchase price lower than the price of plutonium. The problem is essentially to separate the plutonium, the uranium and the impurities. The residues are fluorinated, the UF 6 and PuF 6 obtained are separated by selective absorption of the PuF 6 on NaF at a temperature of at least 400 0 C, the complex obtained by this absorption is dissolved in nitric acid solution, the plutonium is precipitated in the form of plutonium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, and the precipitated plutonium oxalate is calcined

  14. Residual heat use generated by a 12 kW fuel cell in an electric vehicle heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Alberdi-Jiménez, Lucía; Nasarre-Cortés, Lorenzo; Mora-Larramona, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    A diesel or gasoline vehicle heating is produced by the heat of the engine coolant liquid. Nevertheless, electric vehicles, due to the fact that electric motor transform directly electricity into mechanical energy through electromagnetic interactions, do not generate this heat so other method of providing it has to be developed. This study introduces the system developed in a fuel cell electric vehicle (lithium-ion battery – fuel cell) with residual heat use. The fuel cell electric vehicle is driven by a 12 kW PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell. This fuel cell has an operating temperature around 50 °C. The residual heat generated was originally wasted by interaction with the environment. The new developed heating system designed integrates the heat generated by the fuel cell into the heating system of the vehicle, reducing the global energy consumption and improving the global efficiency as well. - Highlights: • Modification of heating system was done by introducing the residual heat from fuel cell. • Maximum heat achieved by the heating radiator of 9.27 kW. • Reduction of the heat dissipation by the fuel cell cooling system 1.5 kW. • Total efficiency improvement of 20% with an autonomy increase of 21 km

  15. Ten residual biomass fuels for circulating fluidized-bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drift, A. van der; Doorn, J. van [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Vermeulen, J.W. [NV Afvalzorg, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with a Dutch company (NV Afvalzorg) and the Dutch agency for energy and environment (Novem), ECN has successfully tested 10 different biomass residues in its 500 kW{sub th} circulating fluidized-bed gasification facility. Among the fuels used as demolition wood (both puree and mixed with sewage sludge and paper sludge), verge grass, railroad ties, cacao shells and different woody fuels. Railroad ties turn out to contain very little (heavy) metals. Initially, fuel feeding problems often impeded smooth operation. Contrary to feeding systems, the circulating fluidized-bed gasification process itself seems very flexible concerning the conversion of different kinds of biomass fuels. The fuel moisture content is one of the most important fuel characteristics. More moisture means that more air is needed to maintain the process temperature resulting in better carbon conversion and lower tar emission but also lower product gas heating value and lower cold gas efficiency. So, for a good comparison of the gasification behaviour of different fuels, the moisture content should be similar. However, the moisture content should be defined on an ash-free basis rather than on total mass (the usual way). Some of the ashes produced and retained in the second cyclone were analysed both for elemental composition and leaching behaviour. It turned out that the leaching rate of Mo and Br, elements only present in small concentrations, are preventing the ash to be considered as inert material according to the Dutch legislation for dumping on landfill sites. (Author)

  16. Generation of low-Btu fuel gas from agricultural residues experiments with a laboratory scale gas producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R O

    1977-01-01

    Two successive laboratory-scale, downdraft gas producers were fabricated and tested. Agricultural and food processing residues including walnut shells, corn cobs, tree prunings, and cotton gin waste, were converted to a low Btu producer gas. The performance of 2 spark ignition engines, when running on producer gas, was highly satisfactory. The ability of the producer to maintain a continuous supply of good quality gas was determined largely by firebox configuration. Fuel handling and fuel flow control problems tended to be specific to individual types of residues. During each test run, air input, firebox temperature, fuel consumption rate, and pressure differential across the producer were monitored. An overall conversion efficiency of 65% was achieved.

  17. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakesh, R., E-mail: rakesh.rad87@gmail.com [DAE Graduate Fellows, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Metallic Fuels Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kohli, D. [DAE Graduate Fellows, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Metallic Fuels Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sinha, V.P.; Prasad, G.J. [Metallic Fuels Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Samajdar, I. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum–aluminum (case A) and aluminum–aluminum + yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum–uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) ‘fuel-meat’ in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in ‘out-of-plane’ residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  18. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  19. Studies on the primary and secondary residues from the dissolution of high-burnup nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.

    1986-01-01

    To clarify the composition of residues from the dissolution of high-burnup nuclear fuels a sample with a burnup of 4.5 GWd and a two year cooling period was studied with the help of REM-EDX. In a parallel experiment an inactive simulator of a solution was subjected to a similar chemical treatment. The residues which resulted from this were analysed analogously. As a result of the results the chemistry of the following compounds in HNO 3 were studied: MoO 3 , ZrMo 2 O 5 (OH) 2 x2H 2 O, the oxide of antimony as well as Sb 4 O 4 (OH) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , PdO.xH 2 O, Ag 2 Se, Ag 2 Te, and CsTcO 4 . Of special interest here were the solubility and precipitation formation of these compounds as well as the influence of a high (ca. 1 mol/l) concentration of uranium on these characteristics. With high radiation doses to the simulated solution a radiolytical reduction of Pd 2+ was established and was studied more closely with pure Pd(NO 3 ) 2 solutions. In primary dissolution residues the presence of the radionuclides Ru-106, Ag-110m, Sb-125, Cs-134, and Cs-137 was γ-spectrometrically proven. The residue was made up primarily of an element combination of Mo and Ru. As other components Rh, Pd and Tc appear in an alloy as the so-called ε phase, which already has to be present in the fuel, because this phase was not exhibited in the similarly handled simulator. Zirconium molybdate was not identified in the real feed slurries, but was definitely present in the precipitation of the simulated feed solution. The analysis of the primary residues also showed pure zirconium particles, presumably from the zirconium alloy of the fuel cans, as well as undissolved fuel particles. The precipitation from the fuel solution was made up of agglomerates of the smallest particles of the ε phase, upon which silver halogenides were crystallized. Radiochemically reduced Pd was also found. (orig./RB) [de

  20. Numerical calculation and analysis of natural convection removal of the spent fuel residual heat of 10 MW high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Huang Yifan; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    The spent fuel of 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) could be stored in the shielded tank, and the tank is stored in the concrete shielded canister in spent fuel storage room, the residual heat of the spent fuel could be removed by the air. The ability of residual heat removal is analyzed in the paper, and the temperature field is numerically calculated through FEA program ANSYS, the analysis and the calculation are used to validate the safety of the spent fuel and the tank, the ultimate temperature of the spent fuel and the tank should below the safety limit. The calculation shows that the maximum temperature locates in the middle of the fuel pebble bed in the spent fuel tank, and the temperature decreases gradually with radial distance, the temperature in the tank body is evenly distributed, and the temperature in the concrete shielded canister decreases gradually with radial distance. It is feasible to remove the residual heat of the spent fuel storage tank by natural ventilation, in natural ventilation condition, the temperature of the spent fuel and the tank is lower than the temperature limit, which provides theoretical evidence for the choice of the residual heat removal method. (authors)

  1. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  2. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  3. Wood wastes and residues generated along the Colorado Front Range as a potential fuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie E. Ward; Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States there is interest in utilizing renewable fuel sources as an alternative to coal and nat-ural gas. This project was initiated to determine the availability of wood wastes and residues for use as fuel in ce-ment kilns and power plants located along the Colorado Front Range. Research was conducted through literature searches, phone surveys,...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of brannerite wasteforms for the immobilization of mixed oxide fuel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D.J.; Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    A possible method for the reduction of civil Pu stockpiles is the reuse of Pu in mixed oxide fuel (MOX). During MOX fuel production, residues unsuitable for further recycle will be produced. Due to their high actinide content MOX residues require immobilization within a robust host matrix. Although it is possible to immobilize actinides in vitreous wasteforms; ceramic phases, such as brannerite (UTi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), are attractive due to their high waste loading capacity and relative insolubility. A range of uranium brannerite, formulated Gd{sub x}U{sub 1-x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}, were prepared using a mixed oxide route. Charge compensation of divalent and trivalent cations was expected to occur via the oxidation of U{sup 4+} to higher valence states (U{sup 5+} or U{sup 6+}). Gd{sup 3+} was added to act as a neutron absorber in the final Pu bearing wasteform. X-ray powder diffraction of synthesised specimens found that phase distribution was strongly affected by processing atmosphere (air or Ar). In all cases prototypical brannerite was formed accompanied by different secondary phases dependent on processing atmosphere. Microstructural analysis (SEM) of the sintered samples confirmed the results of the X-ray powder diffraction. The preliminary results presented here indicate that brannerite is a promising host matrix for mixed oxide fuel residues. (authors)

  5. Reoxidation of uranium in electrolytically reduced simulated oxide fuel during residual salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Young Choi; Jin-Mok Hur; Min Ku Jeon; University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon

    2017-01-01

    We report that residual salt removal by high-temperature distillation causes partial reoxidation of uranium metal to uranium oxide in electrolytically reduced simulated oxide fuel. Specifically, the content of uranium metal in the above product decreases with increasing distillation temperatures, which can be attributed to reoxidation by Li 2 O contained in residual salt (LiCl). Additionally, we estimate the fractions of Li 2 O reacted with uranium metal under these conditions, showing that they decrease with decreasing temperature, and calculate some thermodynamic parameters of the above reoxidation. (author)

  6. Residual salt separation from simulated spent nuclear fuel reduced in a LiCl-Li2O salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Hong, Sun-Seok; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, All rights reservedopyriprocess. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of the LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below the temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950degC were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O>LiCl>LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 >SrCl 2 . (author)

  7. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995; Foeraedlade traedbraenslen 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinterbaeck, J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1995-11-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors and residues from post-irradiation examination of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The safe and economic management of spent fuel is important for all countries which have nuclear research or power reactors. It involves all aspects of the handling, transportation, storage, conditioning and reprocessing or final disposal of the spent fuel. In the case of spent fuel management from power reactors the shortage of available reprocessing capacity and the rising economic interest in the direct disposal of spent fuel have led to an increasing interest in the long term storage and management of spent fuel. The IAEA has played a major role in coordinating the national activities of the Member States in this area. It was against this background that the Technical Committee Meeting on ''Safe Management of Spent Fuel From Research Reactors, Prototype Power Reactors and Fuel From Commercial Power Reactors That Has Been Subjected to PIE (Post Irradiated Examination)'' (28th November - 1st December 1988) was organised. The aims of the current meeting have been to: 1. Review the state-of-the-art in the field of management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors, as well as the residues from post irradiation examination of commercial power reactor fuel. The emphasis was to be on the safe handling, conditioning, transportation, storage and/or disposal of the spent fuel during operation and final decommissioning of the reactors. Information was sought on design details, including shielding, criticality and radionuclide release prevention, heat removal, automation and remote control, planning and staff training; licensing and operational practices during each of the phases of spent fuel management. 2. Identify areas where additional research and development are needed. 3. Recommend areas for future international cooperation in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Dry storage technologies: Optimized solutions for spent fuels and vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, Vincent; Verdier, Antoine; Sicard, Damien; Neider, Tara

    2006-01-01

    ancillary equipment, Ready to move to final or centralized repository or reprocessing facility or other ISFSI, Compact systems, Easy rearrangement, Easy handling; - In favor of concrete shielded canisters based systems: Economics when initial quantity is sufficient to spread out up front equipment investment significant cost - Shielding advantage, Easy local production of the relatively light canisters. Both approaches of dry storage technologies can have a positive impact on their public acceptance because of their non-permanent characteristics and because their transport license refers to internationally recognized rules, standards and methods. Currently, more than 1,000 COGEMA Logistics/Transnuclear Inc. dry storage systems have been ordered in Belgium, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Armenia and the US. Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues cannot be transported in the existing cask designs presently used. Therefore, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN TM 81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN TM 85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues. The TN TM 81 and the TN TM 85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production in existing reprocessing facilities. They also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing casks such as the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. In addition, years of feedback and experience in design and operations - together with ever improved

  10. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of uranium reduction system for incineration residue generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampei, T.; Sato, T.; Suzuki, N.; Kai, H.; Hirata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The major portion of combustible solid wastes generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan is incinerated and stored in a warehouse. The uranium content in the incineration residue is higher compared with other categories of wastes, although only a small amount of incineration residue is generated. Hence, in the future uranium should be removed from incineration residues before they are reduced to a level appropriate for the final disposal. A system for processing the incineration residue for uranium removal has been developed and tested based on the information obtained through laboratory experiments and engineering scale tests

  12. Experimental Assessment of the Mass of Ash Residue During the Burning of Droplets of a Composite Liquid Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoi, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    An experimental study has been made of the regularities of burning of single droplets of typical compositions of a composite liquid fuel during the heating by an air flow with a varied temperature (600-900 K). As the basic components of the compositions of the composite liquid fuel, use was made of the: waste of processing (filter cakes) of bituminous coals of ranks K, C, and T, waste motor, turbine, and transformer oils, process mixture of mazut and oil, heavy crude, and plasticizer. The weight fraction of a liquid combustible component (petroleum) product) ranged within 0-15%. Consideration has been given to droplets of a composite liquid fuel with dimensions (radius) of 0.5 to 2 mm. Conditions of low-temperature initiation of combustion to ensure a minimum possible mass of solid incombustible residue have been determined. Petroleum products have been singled out whose addition to the composition of the composite liquid fuel tends to increase the ash mass (compared to the corresponding composition without a liquid combustible component). Approximation dependences have been obtained which permit predicting the influence of the concentration of the liquid petroleum product as part of the composite liquid fuel on the ash-residue mass.

  13. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  14. Study of the residual porosity in fuel plate cores based on U3O8 - Al dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durazzo, M.

    2005-01-01

    The residual porosity in the meat of nuclear dispersion fuel plates, the fabrication voids, explains the corrosion behaviour of the meats when exposed to the water used as coolant and moderator of MTR type research reactors. The fabrication voids also explain variations in irradiation performance of many fuel dispersion for nuclear reactors. To obtain improved corrosion and irradiation performance, we must understand the fabrication factors that control the amount of void volume in fuel plate meats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the void content of aluminum-base dispersion-type U 3 O 8 -Al fuel plates depending on the characteristics of the starting fuel dispersion used to produce the fuel meat, which is fabricated by pressing. The void content depends on the U 3 O 8 concentration. For a particular U 3 O 8 content, the rolling process establishes a constant void concentration, which is called equilibrium porosity. The equilibrium quantity of voids is insensitive to the initial density of the fuel compact. (author)

  15. Core conversion from rod to plate type fuel elements in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.S.; Mina, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Core thermalhydraulic analysis have been performed for rod and plate types fuel elements without altering the core bundles square grid spacer (68 mm, side) and coolant mass flow rate. The U O 2 -Mg, 10% enrichment rod type fuel elements are replaced by the MTR plate type, U-Al alloy of 20% enrichment. Coolant mass flux increased from 2000 kg/m 2 S to 5000 kg/m 2 S. Reactor power could be upgraded from 2 to 10 MW without significantly altering the steady state, thermal-hydraulic safety margins. Fuel, clad and coolant transient temperatures are determined inside the core hot channel during flow coast down using paret code. Residual heat removal system of 20% coolant capacity is necessary for upgrading reactor power to encounter the case of pumps off at 10 MW nominal operation. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Final Project Closeout Report for Sprint Hydrogen Fuel Cell (HFC) Deployment Project in California, Gulf Coast and Eastern Seaboard Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Kevin [Sprint, Reston, VA (United States); Bradley, Dwayne [Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sprint is one of the telecommunications industry leaders in the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell (HFC) systems to provide backup power for their mission critical wireless network facilities. With several hundred fuel cells commissioned in California, states in the gulf coast region, and along the upper eastern seaboard. A strong incentive for advancing the integration of fuel cells into the Sprint network came through the award of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant focused on Market Transformation activities for project (EE0000486). This grant was funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The funding provided by DOE ($7.295M) was allocated to support the installation of 260 new HFC systems, equipped with an on-site refillable Medium Pressure Hydrogen Storage Solution (MPHSS), as well as for the conversion of 21 low pressure hydrogen systems to the MPHSS, in hopes of reducing barriers to market acceptance.

  18. Action at sea: Transport security exercise conducted off the coast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Stig; Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    As in an action movie, ships, helicopters and uniformed people set the scene off the coast of Sweden on 6 May 2015 when national authorities conducted an exercise on security while transporting spent nuclear fuel. The exercise was part of a joint project with the IAEA to test and evaluate a new IAEA guide on planning, conducting and evaluating transport security exercises. The test subject and model was the security framework of Sweden’s national nuclear transport system, which regularly ships used fuel from power plants along the coast to the country’s interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel.

  19. Residual stresses and strength of multilayer tape cast solid oxide fuel and electrolysis half-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlas, Benoit; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Brodersen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    those with 3 layers (MTC3: without barrier layer). The bending strength of MTC3 and MTC4 under various loading orientations (electrolyte on the tensile or compressive side of the loading) is compared. The analysis, by taking residual stresses into account, shows that the strength of the half...... coefficient (TEC) mismatch between the layers, cumulated from high temperature, induces significant residual stresses in the half-cells. Furthermore, it has been observed that MTC half-cells with 4 layers (MTC4: support, fuel electrode, electrolyte and barrier layer) are sometimes more fragile to handle than...... stresses, especially in the outer barrier-layer, possible changes to the layer properties are discussed and some optimization guidelines proposed....

  20. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  1. Removing heavy fuel oil from the submerged wreck of the Jacob Luckenbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, C [PCCI Inc./GPC, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Beaver, T [Global Diving and Salvage Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Snyder, B [PCCI Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Jacob Luckenbach cargo carrier sank in July 1953 just west of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California after being struck by another vessel. It was carrying a cargo of military vehicles and railroad parts and was topped with heavy No.6 residual oil in deep and double bottom tanks. In 2002, the sunken ship was named as the source of mystery oil spills along the California coast. In response, the United States Coast Guard contracted Titan Maritime LLC and PCCI Inc. to conduct a vessel assessment and removal available oil. Diving services were provided by Seattle-based Global Diving and Salvage. The recovery operation proved difficult due to cold-water saturation diving at depths to 55 metres, strong currents, bad weather and poor subsea visibility. Pumping the heavy residual oil from the tanks also proved to be difficult because some tanks contained oil that was much more viscous than normal No.6 fuel oil, and the tanks had to be heated to more than 78 degrees C to allow for better fluid flow. Some of the abnormal differences in fuel oil rheologies were described along with the tools used to find and recover the oil and to minimize leaks in the wreck. The project, although more difficult than expected, was successful in removing all accessible oil and mitigating the potential for a catastrophic oil release. More than 460 metric tons of heavy fuel oil and emulsified water-in-oil product was removed from the wreck. One of the most important lessons learned was that cohesiveness and a united front are very much needed when a diverse group of salvage personnel are brought together. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. Potential soil quality impact of harvesting crop residues for bio fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, D.

    2011-01-01

    We are in one of the greatest technological, environmental and social transitions since the industrial revolution, as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable biomass resources. My objectives are to (1) briefly review increased public interest in harvesting crop residues as feedstock for bio energy, (2) discuss the work soil scientists must do to address those interests, and (3) examine how soil quality assessment can be used to help quantify soil biological, chemical and physical response to this transition. Rising global energy demand, dependence on unstable imports, volatility in price, and increasing public concern regarding fossil fuel combustion effects on global climate change are among the factors leading to an increased interest in development and use of renewable biomass sources for energy production. Although controlling soil erosion by wind and water is no less important than in the past, it is not the only factor that needs to be considered when evaluating the sustain ability of land management practices including harvest of crop residues as bio energy feedstock. The concept of soil quality assessment is reviewed and the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) is used to illustrate how such assessments can be used for assessing impacts of harvesting crop residue as feedstock for bio energy production. Preliminary results of the SMAF assessment show that soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the lower scoring indicators and therefore needs to be monitored closely. Innovative soil and crop management strategies, including a landscape vision are offered as ideas for achieving sustainable food, feed, fiber, and energy production

  3. Methods of conditioning waste fuel decladding hulls and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Loida, A.; Schmidt-Hansberg, T.; Sombret, C.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for conditioning spent fuel decladding hulls or dissolver residues have been considered in various countries of the European Community. Five of these methods used embedding technique with or without prior compaction: they are based on incorporation in metallic alloys, glass, ceramics, cements and metals or graphite compounds. A sixth one consists in melting the decladding materials. The corresponding research programmes have been pursued to varying states of progress with regard to demonstrating their feasibility on an industrial scale and the use of genuine wastes in bench scale experiments. The properties of the conditioned wastes have been investigated. Special attention has been paid to the corrosion resistance to various aqueous media as tap water, brine or clayey water. Although no categorical conclusion can be drawn from the initial results, the available findings provide a basis for assessing the different processes

  4. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura; Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed

  5. 46 CFR 28.335 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.335 Section 28.335 Shipping COAST GUARD... Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.335 Fuel systems. (a) Applicability. Except for the components of an...) Portable fuel systems. Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and related fuel lines and...

  6. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs

  7. Conditioning of high activity solid waste: fuel claddings and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experimental studies of embedding into matrix material, the melting and conversion of zircaloy, and waste properties and characterization. Methods are developed for embedding the waste scrap into a solid and resistant matrix material in order to confine the radioactivity and to prevent it from dispersion. The matrix materials investigated are lead alloys, ceramics and compacted graphite or aluminium powder. The treatment of fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion is described. Cemented hulls are characterized and the pyrophoricity of zircaloy fines is investigated. Topics considered include the embedding of hulls into graphite and aluminium, the embedding of hulls and dissolution residues into alumino-ceramics, the solidification of alpha-bearing wastes into a ceramic matrix, and the conditioning of cladding waste by eutectoidic melting and by embedding in glass

  8. Erika: evaluation of residual sanitary risks linked to the beaches-going after cleaning-up; Erika: evaluation des risques sanitaires residuels lies a la frequentation des plages apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sanitary risks for the populations frequenting the coast beaches affected by the fuel oils of the tanker Erika, after their cleaning up. This quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks is led according to a protocol developed jointly between the two institutes ( the national institute of industrial environment and risks, I.N.E.R.I.S., and the national institute of sanitary watch I.n.V.S.). It does not give the risks in function the residual pollution level of concerned beaches but supplies to the authorities elements of scientific information in order to allow them to choose criteria appropriate for the management of eventual residual risks. (N.C.)

  9. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. The flash point of marine fuel RMA could be increased by 20% if blended with 20 vol% biodiesel. The sulfur content of residual marine fuel could meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment by blending it with 23.0 vol% biodiesel. In addition, the kinematic viscosity of residual marine fuel could be reduced by 12.9% and the carbon residue by 23.6% if 20 vol% and 25 vol% biodiesel are used, respectively. Residual marine fuel blended with 20 vol% biodiesel decreases its lower heating value by 1.9%. Moreover, the fuel properties of residual marine fuel are found to improve more significantly with biodiesel blending than those of distillate marine fuel.

  10. Methods for conditioning wastes from spent fuel cans and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Loida, A.; Schmidt-Hansberg, T.; Sombret, C.

    1985-04-01

    Several methods for conditioning spent fuel decladding hulls or dissolver residues have been considered in various countries of the European Community. Five of these methods use embedding technique with or without prior compaction: they are based on incorporation in metallic alloys, glass, ceramics, cements and metals or graphite compounds. A sixth one consists in melting the decladding materials. The corresponding research programs have been pursued to varying states of progress with regard to demonstrating their feasibility on an industrial scale and the use of genuine wastes in bench scale experiments. The properties of the conditioned wastes have been investigated. Special attention has been paid to the corrosion resistance to various aqueous media as tap water, brine or clayey water. Although no categorical conclusion can be drawn from the initial results, the available finding provide a basis for assessing the different processes [fr

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  12. 46 CFR 28.835 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 28.835 Section 28.835 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.835 Fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems including portable tanks and... impurities from diesel fuel oil systems are permitted in the machinery space provided they are away from any...

  13. Evaluation of the U-Pu residual mass from spent fuel assemblies with passive and active neutronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignan, G.; Martin-Deidier, L.

    1991-01-01

    The interpretation of passive and active neutronic measurements to evaluate the U-Pu residual mass in spent fuel assemblies is presented as follows: passive neutron measurements are well correlated to the plutonium mass, active neutron measurements give information linked to the fissile mass content of the assembly ( 235 U + 239 Pu + 241 Pu) and, using the passive neutron measurement, lead to the 235 U mass content of the assemblies

  14. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass. Quarterly coordination meeting, December 11-12, 1978, Denver, Colorado. Second Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D L; Ashare, E; Wentworth, R L

    1979-01-05

    The tenth quarterly coordination meeting of the methane production group of the Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch, US Department of Energy was held at Denver, Colorado, December 11-12, 1978. Progress reports were presented by the contractors and a site visit was made to the Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado. A meeting agenda, a list of attendees, and progress are presented. Report titles are: pipeline fuel gas from an environmental feedlot; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester at the Monroe State Dairy Farm near Monroe, Washington; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues - potential for improvement and implementation; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; and biological conversion of biomass to methane. (DC)

  15. Organochlorine residues in some dolphin specimens stranded on Southern Adriatic Coasts (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, M.M.; Giacominelli Stuffler, R.; Ceci, E.; Marcotrigiano, G.O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the concentration of PCBs and organochlorine compounds and percentage composition of the different PCB congeners in various tissues from four different species of cetaceans stranded on the Adriatic coast of Italy in July-September 1995

  16. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  17. Shaping future US fuels: A local market laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As air pollution becomes a worsening problem around the world, alternative fuels are supported by many as a way to reduce vehicle emissions without impeding mobility. On June 22, 1992, the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project, CleanFleet, was launched. CleanFleet is a two-year program that will evaluate the performance of five alternative transportation fuels in a major commercial fleet. The study promises to identify the advantages and pitfalls of five alternative fuels on the basis of emissions, safety, maintenance, reliability, performance, and durability. This issue also contains the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of July 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1992 Edition

  18. Insecticide residue monitoring in sediments water fish and mangroves at the Cimanuk Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, Made

    1982-01-01

    The water and sediments from the upper stream of Cimanuk river carry insecticide residues especially during the rainy season. The insecticides are deposited in the estuary of Cimanuk river and along the coast of Cimanuk delta. The insecticide residues found at the delta were diazinon thiodan DDE o p-DDT and p p-DDT. Those insecticides are found in most of the water sediments and mangrove leaves samples and some of fishes samples. The samples were taken from the river the estuary the sea, the tambaks, the coast line, and from paddy field. No insecticide residue is found in the water samples taken in the dry season but they are found in the sediment samples taken in both the dry and rainy season. Generally the diazinon residues are higher at the surface than at 0.5m depth in compact sediment but they are higher at 0.5m depth than at the surface of the mud from the coast line. Diazinon and thiodan are found only in three fish samples out of twenty samples analyzed but thiodan is found in almost all of the sediment and mangrove leaves samples. DDT is found in almost all of the samples analyzed. (author)

  19. Assessment of the residual time to rupture of fuel pins after reactor core disturbances using the Lebensanteil rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, L.; Wassilew, C.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of disturbances in the reactor core is the way in which they affect the service life of fuel rod cladding tubes. This factor also determines whether and how long the reactor core can be continued in operation, i.e., matters of safety and economy are involved. Potential disturbances of the reactor core affect the fuel rod cladding tubes as increases in temperature and, sometimes, as mechanical stresess for limited periods of time. As thermomechanical stresses acting on a cladding tube also give rise to creep events which may limit the service life of fuel elements, it is important to know how much creep life or time to rupture is consumed in the course of a core disturbance, and what the residual life is. For this purpose, the times to rupture before and during the accident must be added up and the balance calculated. As a rule of computation, the Lebensanteil rule is used in its form expressing the time to rupture of creeping solids. The simulation of accidents with unirradiated cladding tubes revealed a drastic decrease of the residual time to rupture in those cases in which the cladding material had recrystallized. On the other hand, because of its structural stability, irradiated material turned out to be almost insensitive even under extremely severe accident conditions. The materials data so far available are sufficient for useful estimates. Presuming one of the damage accumulating processes of the creeping cladding material is predominant, there are no further validity limiting ranges concerning kind of accident, loading condition, cladding material and so on. (orig.)

  20. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  1. Radiation processing studies on residual fractions of Olowi petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Residual fuel oil is an inexpensive boiler fuel that can replace diesel in some industrial boilers. The viscous waxy nature of residual fuel oil makes it very difficult to use in industries where fuel storage tanks have no heating elements to keep the fuel at temperatures at which it would easily flow. Irradiation is currently being studied as a cost effective means of cracking heavy petroleum crude oil into lighter and more valuable products. Research has shown that irradiation can replace the conventional methods of cracking petroleum with economical benefits. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source was applied to the residue obtained after refining crude oil in this research study, with the intention of causing a similar cracking phenomenon. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using gamma radiation to reduce the viscosity of residual fractions of crude oil used as residual fuel oil. This was done by exposing samples of residual fuel oil in glass jars to 9 different doses of gamma radiation, at room temperature and an elevated temperature of 60 degrees Celsius to determine and quantify the effect of radiation on residual fuel oil obtained from the Tema Oil Refinery. The pour points of the irradiated samples were not affected by radiation doses up to 200 kGy while the changes in viscosity for irradiation at room temperature were not significant. Irradiation at 60 degrees Celsius induced a small but significant increase in viscosity at 1 kGy and 200 kGy absorbed doses of irradiation. Irradiation fuels were stable in relation to viscosity, density and pour point over a period of 20 days after exposure. The flash point of irradiated samples, however, decreased by 5.26, 10.53 and 11.34% for 30, 50 and 80 kGy absorbed doses of radiation respectively. Cumulative and continuous doses gave similar results for pour point, density, viscosity and flash point measurements up to 50 kGy. Comparative cost analysis of methods used in maintaining low

  2. 46 CFR 58.01-10 - Fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel oil. 58.01-10 Section 58.01-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-10 Fuel oil. (a) The following limits apply to the use of oil as fuel: (1) Except as otherwise permitted by this section, no fuel oil with a flashpoint of less than 60 °C...

  3. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  4. Investigating the properties of residues. Characterization of pellets from fermentation residues; Den Eigenschaften der Reststoffe auf der Spur. Untersuchung widmet sich der Charakterisierung von Pellets aus Gaerresten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin; Mueller, Joachim [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Starcevic, Nikica [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Strabag Umweltanlagen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Projekt Produktentwicklung/Schlammbehandlung

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation residues are by-products of the biogas process. Farmers use them as fertilizers, but as the size of biogas plants grows, so does the residues volume. It is now too much for local use, and transport to other sites is expensive. Fuel pellets production may be an alternative. Pellets from fermentation residues are not accepted as yet because too little is known about their characteristics. The contribution describes an investigation that intends to identify the fuel characteristics of pellets from fermentation residues. (orig.)

  5. Agricultural policies and biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaim, S.; Hertzmark, D.

    The potentials for biomass energy derived from agricultural products are examined. The production of energy feedstocks from grains is discussed for the example of ethanol production from grain, with consideration given to the beverage process and the wet milling process for obtaining fuel ethanol from grains and sugars, the nonfeedstock costs and energy requirements for ethanol production, the potential net energy gain from ethanol fermentation, the effect of ethanol fuel production on supplies of protein, oils and feed and of ethanol coproducts, net ethanol costs, and alternatives to corn as an ethanol feedstock. Biomass fuel production from crop residues is then considered; the constraints of soil fertility on crop residue removal for energy production are reviewed, residue yields with conventional practices and with reduced tillage are determined, technologies for the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol and methanol are described, and potential markets for the products of these processes are identified. Implications for agricultural policy of ethanol production from grain and fuel and chemical production from crop residues are also discussed.

  6. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  7. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puad, E.; Wan Asma, I; Shaharuddin, H.; Mahanim, S.; Rafidah, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m 3 . Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  8. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  9. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  10. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994

  11. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing ∼ 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li 2 O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li 2 O residual salt. (authors)

  12. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  13. 76 FR 15855 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard..., published on March 26, 2010 (75 FR 14670), which amended the Renewable Fuel Standard Program pursuant to... renewable fuels to verify domestic crops and crop residues used to produce the renewable fuels complied with...

  14. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  15. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  17. Fuel cycle related parametric study considering long lived actinide production, decay heat and fuel cycle performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Damian, F.; Lenain, R.; Lecomte, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the very attractive HTGR reactor characteristics is its highly versatile and flexible core that can fulfil a wide range of diverse fuel cycles. Based on a GTMHR-600 MWth reactor, analyses of several fuel cycles were carried out without taking into account common fuel particle performance limits (burnup, fast fluence, temperature). These values are, however, indicated in each case. Fuel derived from uranium, thorium and a wide variety of plutonium grades has been considered. Long-lived actinide production and total residual decay heat were evaluated for the various types of fuel. The results presented in this papers provide a comparison of the potential and limits of each fuel cycle and allow to define specific cycles offering lowest actinide production and residual heat associated with a long life cycle. (author)

  18. Oxidation rates of carbon and nitrogen in char residues from solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstroem, O.

    2013-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is an important tool in designing new combustion systems. By using CFD modeling, entire combustion systems can be modeled and the emissions and the performance can be predicted. CFD modeling can also be used to develop new and better combustion systems from an economical and environmental point of view. In CFD modeling of solid fuel combustion, the combustible fuel is generally treated as single fuel particles. One of the limitations with the CFD modeling concerns the sub-models describing the combustion of single fuel particles. Available models in the scientific literature are in many cases not suitable as submodels for CFD modeling since they depend on a large number of input parameters and are computationally heavy. In this thesis CFD-applicable models are developed for the combustion of single fuel particles. The single particle models can be used to improve the combustion performance in various combustion devices or develop completely new technologies. The investigated fields are oxidation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in char residues from solid fuels. Modeled char-C oxidation rates are compared to experimental oxidation rates for a large number of pulverized solid fuel chars under relevant combustion conditions. The experiments have been performed in an isothermal plug flow reactor operating at 1123-1673 K and 3-15 vol.% O{sub 2}. In the single particle model, the char oxidation is based on apparent kinetics and depends on three fuel specific parameters: apparent pre-exponential factor, apparent activation energy, and apparent reaction order. The single particle model can be incorporated as a sub-model into a CFD code. The results show that the modeled char oxidation rates are in good agreement with experimental char oxidation rates up to around 70% of burnout. Moreover, the results show that the activation energy and the reaction order can be assumed to be constant for a large number of bituminous coal chars

  19. 33 CFR 149.655 - What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter fueling facilities? 149.655 Section 149.655 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Helicopter Fueling Facilities § 149.655 What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities? Helicopter fueling facilities must comply with 46 CFR 108.489 or an equivalent...

  20. Evaluation of Patterns and Spatial Trends of Pesticide Residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides pollution data obtained from samples collected from Vikuge farm, Coast Region, Tanzania between 2000 and 2003 by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of the data sets for pesticide residues in water, soil and sediments samples from Vikuge has shown ...

  1. 46 CFR 62.35-40 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel systems. 62.35-40 Section 62.35-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-40 Fuel systems. (a) Level alarms. Where...

  2. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  3. 33 CFR 183.580 - Static pressure test for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure test for fuel tanks. A fuel tank is tested by performing the following procedures in the following... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Static pressure test for fuel tanks. 183.580 Section 183.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  4. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural...

  5. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  7. The analysis of the RA reactor irradiated fuel cooling in the spent fuel pool; Analiza hladjenja ozracenog goriva u bazenu za odlaganje reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrhovac, M; Afgan, N; Spasojevic, D; Jovic, V [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1985-07-01

    According to the RA reactor exploitation plan the great quantity of the irradiated spent fuel will be disposed in the reactor spent fuel pool after each reactor campaign which will including the present spent fuel inventory increase the residual power level in the pool and will soon cause the pool capacity shortage. To enable the analysis of the irradiated fuel cooling the pool and characteristic spent fuel canister temperature distribution at the residual power maximum was done. The results obtained under the various spent fuel cooling conditions in the pit indicate the normal spent fuel thermal load even in the most inconvenient cooling conditions. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the 7. biennial residue-to-revenue residual wood conference 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulin, J.

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided information on the highest and best use of residual wood, which is quickly becoming a valuable commodity. Issues concerning forest residues, sawmill wastes, agricultural residues and urban organic materials were discussed along with trends in Canadian surplus mill waste production. The evolving nature and technologies of the biomass business were highlighted with particular focus on how to generate energy and save money through the use of residual wood. Residual wood energy projects and developments in Canada, North America and Europe were outlined along with biomass development in relation to forest fires and insect disturbances. Cogeneration technologies using wood wastes for thermal heat, steam and electricity were also presented, along with transportation fuel technologies for the production of ethanol. It was noted that with the rising cost of energy, the forest industry is seeking energy solutions based on the use of residual wood. The range of economically practical residual wood solutions continues to grow as energy prices increase. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates from the forest industry, suppliers and government representatives, to discuss policies and procedures currently in place. Industry investment is being stimulated by the potential for biofuels and biochemicals, as well as the co-operation between the forest and energy sectors. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Setting up fuel supply strategies for large-scale bio-energy projects using agricultural and forest residues. A methodology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a coherent methodology to set up fuel supply strategies for large-scale biomass-conversion units. This method will explicitly take risks and uncertainties regarding availability and costs in relation to time into account. This paper aims at providing general guidelines, which are not country-specific. These guidelines cannot provide 'perfect fit'-solutions, but aim to give general help to overcome barriers and to set up supply strategies. It will mainly focus on residues from the agricultural and forestry sector. This study focuses on electricity or both electricity and heat production (CHP) with plant scales between 1040 MWe. This range is chosen due to rules of economies of scale. In large-scale plants the benefits of increased efficiency outweigh increased transportation costs, allowing a lower price per kWh which in turn may allow higher biomass costs. However, fuel-supply risks tend to get higher with increasing plant size, which makes it more important to assess them for large(r) conversion plants. Although the methodology does not focus on a specific conversion technology, it should be stressed that the technology must be able to handle a wide variety of biomass fuels with different characteristics because many biomass residues are not available the year round and various fuels are needed for a constant supply. The methodology allows for comparing different technologies (with known investment and operational and maintenance costs from literature) and evaluation for different fuel supply scenarios. In order to demonstrate the methodology, a case study was carried out for the north-eastern part of Thailand (Isaan), an agricultural region. The research was conducted in collaboration with the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia (RWEDP), a project of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Bangkok, Thailand. In Section 2 of this paper the methodology will be presented. In Section 3 the economic

  10. Utilization of corn residues for production of the polysaccharide schizophyllan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant corn residues include fiber from wet milling operations and distillers' dried grains from dry grind ethanol plants. Biorefineries of the future will utilize such residues for the production of valuable bioproducts, particularly those traditionally produced from fossil fuels. Schizophyllan...

  11. The spectrographic analysis of plutonium oxide or mixed plutonium oxide/uranium oxide fuel pellets by the dried residue technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarbo, G.J.; Faught, P.; Hildebrandt, B.

    1980-05-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the quantitative determination of metallic impurities in plutonium oxide and mixed plutonium oxide/uranium oxide is described. The fuel is dissolved in nitric acid and the plutonium and/or uranium extracted with tributyl phosphate. A small aliquot of the aqueous residue is dried on a 'mini' pyrolitic graphite plate and excited by high voltage AC spark in an oxygen atmosphere. Spectra are recorded in a region which has been specially selected to record simultaneously lines of boron and cadmium in the 2nd order and all the other elements of interest in the 1st order. Indium is used as an internal standard. The excitation of very small quantities of the uraniumm/plutonium free residue by high voltage spark, together with three separate levels of containment reduce the hazards to personnel and the environment to a minimum with limited effect on sensitivity and accuracy of the results. (auth)

  12. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. Report from a test series with coconut shells, coconut husks, wheat straw and sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-08-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10 per cent diesel oil and 90 per cent producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present results are not optimal for any of the fuel used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using appropriately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  13. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard [Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Shell Research Centre Thornton, P. O. Box 1, Chester, CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan [Jaguar Cars, Engineering Centre, Abbey Road, Whitley, Coventry, CV3 4LF (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for

  14. Use of residual wood in the cement manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, R.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of wood residuals in the cement manufacturing process. An outline of the cement manufacturing process was presented. Raw materials are combined in exact proportions to create a chemically correct mix, which is then pulverized in a mill. The mix is then burned in a kiln. The end product is cooled to form the pellet sized material known as clinker, which is then milled to form cement. The combustion and destruction characteristics of a cement kiln were presented. Modern cement kilns require approximately 3.2 Gj of energy to produce one tonne of cement. It was noted that wood residuals do not contain halogens, sulfur or other materials detrimental to the cement manufacturing process. Possible injection points for kilns were presented. Various studies have shown that wood residuals can be safely used as a fuel in the manufacture of cement. Environmental benefits derived from using wood included the complete destruction of organic portions, and the fact that residual ash becomes an indistinguishable part of the final product. It was concluded that wood residual materials are a satisfactory alternative fuel for the cement industry. tabs., figs

  15. Stabilizing motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-07-12

    Motor fuel is stabilized by adding less than 2% of a tar fraction from peat, coal, torbanite or shale, said fraction containing sufficient constituents boiling between 200 and 325/sup 0/C, to inhibit gum formation. Low-temperature coal-tar fractions are specified. The preferred boiling ranges are from 225 or 250/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C. In examples, the quantity added was 0.01%. The fuel may be a cracked distillate of gasoline boiling-point range or containing gasoline, and may contain relatively large proportions of di- and tri-olefines. The material added to the fuel may be (1) the tar fraction itself; (2) its alkali-soluble constituents; (3) its acid-soluble constituents; (4) a mixture of (2) and (3); (5) a blend of (2), (3) or (4) with a normal tar fraction; (6) the residue after extraction with alkali; (7) the residue after extraction with acid and alkali.

  16. Market dynamics of biomass fuel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, W.F.; Zane, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The California market for biomass fuel purchased by independent power producers has grown substantially since 1980. The PURPA legislation that based power purchase rates upon the 'avoided cost' of public utilities resulted in construction of nearly 900 Megawatts of capacity coming online by 1991. Until 1987, most powerplants were co-sited at sawmills and burned sawmill residue. By 1990 the installed capacity of stand-alone powerplants exceeded the capacity co-sited at wood products industry facilities. The 1991 demand for biomass fuel is estimated as 6,400,000 BDT. The 1991 market value of most biomass fuel delivered to powerplants is from $34 to $47 per BDT. Biomass fuel is now obtained from forest chips, agriculture residue and urban wood waste. The proportion of biomass fuel from the wood products industry is expected to decline and non-traditional fuels are expected to increase in availability

  17. Insect Residue Contamination on Wing Leading Edge Surfaces: A Materials Investigation for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Tyler M.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2011-01-01

    Flight tests have shown that residue from insect strikes on aircraft wing leading edge surfaces may induce localized transition of laminar to turbulent flow. The highest density of insect populations have been observed between ground level and 153 m during light winds (2.6 -- 5.1 m/s), high humidity, and temperatures from 21 -- 29 C. At a critical residue height, dependent on the airfoil and Reynolds number, boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent results in increased drag and fuel consumption. Although this represents a minimal increase in fuel burn for conventional transport aircraft, future aircraft designs will rely on maintaining laminar flow across a larger portion of wing surfaces to reduce fuel burn during cruise. Thus, insect residue adhesion mitigation is most critical during takeoff and initial climb to maintain laminar flow in fuel-efficient aircraft configurations. Several exterior treatments investigated to mitigate insect residue buildup (e.g., paper, scrapers, surfactants, flexible surfaces) have shown potential; however, implementation has proven to be impractical. Current research is focused on evaluation of wing leading edge surface coatings that may reduce insect residue adhesion. Initial work under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program focused on evaluation of several commercially available products (commercial off-the-shelf, COTS), polymers, and substituted alkoxy silanes that were applied to aluminum (Al) substrates. Surface energies of these coatings were determined from contact angle data and were correlated to residual insect excrescence on coated aluminum substrates using a custom-built "bug gun." Quantification of insect excrescence surface coverage was evaluated by a series of digital photographic image processing techniques.

  18. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  19. Learning from California and the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tussing, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy oils are found in 10 of the 14 largest oilfields in Alaska and California. In the US west coast region, petroleum demand is dominated by light transport fuels, and there is a lack of a discrete and conspicuous heavy oil market. The structure and behavior of west coast petroleum markets, and their interactions with crude-oil and petroleum product markets elsewhere on the Pacific Rim are discussed with regard to how the market for growing volumes of western Canadian heavy oils might evolve. An analysis of crude oil prices versus API gravity demonstrates the price penalties on oil of low gravity, high sulfur, and high transport cost. Prices at the high gravity end tend to correlate closely with Asian light crude and unfinished gasoline prices. The heaviest crudes are priced in competition with other chemically similar residual oils for direct fuel use, blending, or refinery feedstock. The biggest component of the west coast heavy oil market is bunker fuel. The market value of heavy crudes in the west coast is thus determined by regional supply and demand for heavy hydrocarbon molecules, whatever the source. The west coast is not a promising market for Canadian heavy crudes, and exports to Asia would have to compete both with residual oils from Asia and the US west coast and with California heavy crudes. US west coast production peaked in 1989 and regional production can be expected to decline further in average gravity. New production from known but undeveloped heavy oil pools near Prudhoe Bay or in the California offshore could be expected to postpone the need for imports to the west coast and to depress prices. A removal of the Alaska crude oil export ban could improve the west coast heavy oil market. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Vision for utilization of livestock residue as bioenergy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Junichi; Morita, Akihiro; Matsuoka, Yasunari; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of livestock residue is important not only for energy recovery and material recycling but also for preventing environmental pollution. This paper focuses on the following options from the viewpoint of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta and the Kyoto protocol: energy use from livestock residue, reductions in CO 2 emissions resulting from substitution of fossil fuels, and reduction of other greenhouse gas emissions through appropriate treatment of livestock residue. Bioenergy potential of livestock residue in Japan was estimated to be 167 PJ in the year 2000. This is equivalent to about 0.7% of total primary energy supply. Biogas production with methane fermentation and burning poultry residue at power plants can produce 4.1 TWh of electricity and 46 PJ of heat. The amount of CO 2 substitution for fossil fuels is 6.9 Mt-CO 2 . This corresponds to about 0.6% of total CO 2 emissions in 1990. This also has an additional effect of reducing other greenhouse gas (CH 4 and N 2 O) emissions from conventional treatment of livestock residue. Development of biogas plants, promotion of biogas utilization, and effective use of fertilizer components extracted from livestock residue are expected to gain importance in the future

  1. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  2. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    Environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides has evoked major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment. The quantitative distribution of chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments from...

  3. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  4. Design of a process for the use of residual hydrocarbons coming from the ships arriving at Moin for obtaining of a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrigal Calderon, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    A process is designed to carry out the obtaining of a fuel from the residual mixture of residual oils coming from the ships arriving at Moin, Limon, Costa Rica . A sampling of the residual oil in different ships is realized for a month to quantify the water content and basic sediment, as well as the heavy metal content. The results obtained have been 20,4 ± 4,6 % v/v of water and sediment, and 6,939 ppm of heavy metals as a minimum, this value may be higher depending on the quality of lubricant. The production volume of the residual oil is estimated according to historical data of the company ACASE S.A. (company responsible for collecting the oil residue of ships arriving at dock of Moin, Limon); therefore, the plant must process 25,000 liters of dirty oil per day. The main technologies (thermal process, treatment with chemical reaction, vacuum distillation and solvent extraction) to perform the process are compared and studied through a selection matrix. The technical and economic parameters chosen for the matrix have been: environmental impact, cost of operation, cost of equipment, safety of operation, maintenance of equipment, by-products obtained, waste generated, quality of the product obtained and ease of operation. The study has concluded that the treatment with chemical reaction has been the best option for the project of used oil utilization, as well as other physical methods of cleaning as the centrifugation of the same one. The installation of a waste oil processing plant has been a project that environmentally represents a benefit and economically viable, as currently the residual oil is left untreated for later use [es

  5. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must be...

  6. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  7. An estimation of cogeneration potential by using refinery residuals in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Sanchez, J.E.; Rodriguez-Toral, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Electric power generation in Mexico is mainly based on fossil fuels, specifically heavy fuel oil, although the use of natural gas combined cycles (NGCC) is becoming increasingly important. This is the main destination that has promoted growing imports of natural gas, currently accounting for about 20% of the total national annual consumption. Available crude oil is becoming heavier; thus refineries should be able to process it, and to handle greater quantities of refinery residuals. If all refinery residuals are used in cogeneration plants serving petroleum refineries, the high heat/power ratio of refinery needs, leads to the availability of appreciable quantities of electricity that can be exported to the public utility. Thus, in a global perspective, Mexican imports of natural gas may be reduced by cogeneration using refinery residuals. This is not the authors' idea; in fact, PEMEX, the national oil company, has been entitled by the Mexican congress to sell its power leftovers to The Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) in order to use cogeneration in the way described for the years to come. A systematic way of determining the cogeneration potential by using refinery residuals from Mexican refineries is presented here, taking into account residual quantities and composition, from a national perspective, considering expected scenarios for Maya crude content going to local refineries in the years to come. Among different available technologies for cogeneration using refinery residuals, it is believed that the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) would be the best option. Thus, considering IGCC plants supplying heat and power to refineries where it is projected to have refinery residuals for cogeneration, the expected electric power that can be sent to the public utility is quantified, along with the natural gas imports mitigation that may be attained. This in turn would contribute to a necessary fuel diversification policy balancing energy, economy and

  8. Solid fuel residues inventory of fixtures and perspectives. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicocchi, S.; Tenza, A.

    2008-01-01

    The solid fuel residues, so called CSR, represent a fraction with high Lower Calorific value, with physicochemical characteristics conferring them the capacity to replace usual fuels. These last years, industrial applications seem to develop all over Europe. The present study thus sticks to draw up a panorama of the European situation in 2007. It develops the global regulation and normative context in which this waste processing channel must fit, while waiting for the presentation of the new Framework Directive of Waste during 2008, and the initiatives of certain precursory countries like Italy, Germany and the Netherlands. A scientific and technical inventory is presented being based on concrete cases identified within the Community territory. The study examines in particular a representative sample of 11 countries observed (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom) and points out the local context, the layer and the practices developed in the use of this fraction. Finally, the study tries to position the French case in the European overview and highlights certain conditions (success factors, obstacles) allowing the development of CSR channel. Until few time, the CSR channel has increased without established regulation and normative framework. The diversity of the trade names listed through Europe testifies to the absence of common framework. To date, term CSR doesn't exist in European legislation. Only nomenclature NAPFUE (support for the declaration of the emissions in atmosphere) identifies fuels including the CSR. The working group CEN TC 343 (M325 Mandate) indicates that it only acts of solid waste, non made up of biomass, resulting from waste non dangerous and intended to be used in incineration or co-incineration. Regarding to existing European directives, a global tendency for the development of the channel is identified (management of waste, energy, environment). Thus, the objectives of

  9. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, H.T.; Brown, P.E.; Pateman, R.J.; Wilkinson, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  10. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  11. Development of Value-Added Products from Residual Algae to Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Craig [Sapphire Energy, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    DOE Award # EE0000393 was awarded to fund research into the development of beneficial uses of surplus algal biomass and the byproducts of biofuel production. At the time of award, Sapphire’s intended fuel production pathway was a fairly conventional extraction of lipids from biomass, resulting in a defatted residue which could be processed using anaerobic digestion. Over the lifetime of the award, we conducted extensive development work and arrived at the conclusion that anaerobic digestion presented significant technical challenges for this high-nitrogen, high-ash, and low carbon material. Over the same timeframe, Sapphire’s fuel production efforts came to focus on hydrothermal liquefaction. As a result of this technology focus, the residue from fuel production became unsuitable for either anaerobic digestion (or animal feed uses). Finally, we came to appreciate the economic opportunity that the defatted biomass could represent in the animal feed space, as well as understanding the impact of seasonal production on a biofuels extraction plant, and sought to develop uses for surplus biomass produced in excess of the fuel production unit’s capacity.

  12. Artificial fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, L L.W.

    1918-08-20

    Lignite, peat, sud, leaf-mold, or shale, or two or more of these raw carbonaceous materials are mixed with cellulose material, such as sawdust, silica, alkali, and tar or pitch, or residues from tar or pitch, or residues from the distillation of oils, and the mixture is molded into blocks. Other carbonaceous materials, such as graphite, anthracite, or coal-dust, coke, breeze, or culm, and mineral substances, such as iron and manganese ores, may be added. A smokeless fuel can be obtained by coking the blocks in the usual way in retorts.

  13. The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

    2000-12-30

    The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong

  14. MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.

  15. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Major source of fuel in rural areas is still fire wood, cowdung and crop residues. Cowdung and crop residues can be effectively used as manure too. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure can solve the twin problems. The paper deals with various kinds of organic wastes used as fuel, manure and for both, other organic wastes as alternate and supplemental feedstocks, impact of their bioconversion on rural energy and environment, dry fermentation technology, manurial value of the biogas slurry, etc. Important constraints in popularizing the biogas programme have been mentioned and their remedial measures have also been suggested. (author). 32 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... In Sarawak, East Malaysia, agro-residues from sago starch processing industries are ... conversion to animal food or fuel ethanol (Species. Profiles for Pacific Island ..... serious contamination of the rivers. Based on study by.

  17. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  18. Safe handling of renewable fuels and fuel mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C; Rautalin, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    VTT Energy has for several years carried out co-operation with many European research institutes on contractional basis on safety issues of fuels handling. A two-year co-operational project between VTT Energy and these research institutes was started in EU`s JOULE 3 programme in 1996, the total budget of which is 6.9 million FIM. Dust explosion testing method for `difficult` fuels, and for tests at elevated pressures and temperatures, will be developed in the task `Safe handling of renewable fuels and fuel mixtures`. Self- ignition and dust-explosion characteristics will be generated for wood and agro-biomass based biomasses and for the mixtures of them and coal. Inertization requirements will be studied, and the quenching method, combined with partial inertization, will be tested in 1.0 m{sup 3} test equipment. The ignition properties of the fuels under normal and elevated pressures will be characterised with thermobalances. The self-ignition tests with wood and forest residue dusts at 25 bar pressure have been carried out as scheduled. In addition to this, several fuels have undergone thermobalance tests, sieve analyses and microscopic studies for the characterisation of the fuels

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 0 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 0 Electric 8 0 Coast Region National Average per unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $3.01/gallon $2.74/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $3.61/gallon $3.57/GGE $3.48/gallon $3.45/GGE

  1. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    biomass, environmental savings from fossil fuel displacement can be completely out-balanced by iLUC, depending on the feed value of the biomass residues. This was the case of industrial residues brewer's grain, beet residues, potato pulp, and whey. Overall, the GHGs from iLUC impacts were quantified to 4...... pathway, in a short-term context. Focusing on transport fuels, bioethanol was generally preferable to biomethane considering conventional biogas upgrading technologies. Based on the results, agro-industrial residues cannot be considered burden-free simply because they are a residual biomass and careful...

  2. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  3. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  4. Thermogravimetric study of the pyrolysis of biomass residues from tomato processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangut, V.; Sabio, E.; Ganan, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Department of Chemical and Energy Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    There is an increasing concern with the environmental problems associated with the increasing CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions resulting from the rising use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, can contribute to reduce the fossil fuels consumption. Biomass is a renewable resource with a widespread world distribution. Tomato processing industry produces a high amount of biomass residue (peel and seeds) that could be used for thermal energy and electricity. A characterization and thermogravimetric study has been carried out. The residue has a high HHV and volatile content, and a low ash, and S contents. A kinetic model has been developed based on the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and oil that describe the pyrolysis of peel, seeds and peel and seeds residues. (author)

  5. A study on recovery of uranium in the anode basket residues delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Kim, T. J.; Jang, J. H.; Kim, G. Y.; Park, S. B.; Yoon, D. S.; Kim, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Lee, S. J.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium oxide (UO2) using ammonium chloride and zirconium as chemical agents was conducted to recover the uranium in the anode basket residues from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel. The chlorination of UO2 was predicted using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The experimental conditions for the chlorination were determined using a chlorination test with cerium oxide (CeO2). In the chlorination test, it was confirmed that UO2 was chlorinated into UCl3 at 320 °C, some UO2 remained without changes in the chemical form, and ZrO2, Zr2O, and ZrCl2 were generated as byproducts.

  6. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  8. The conversion of waste plastics/petroleum residue mixtures to transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.F.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Plastics have become the material of choice in the modern world and its applications in the industrial field are continually increasing. Presently the plastics are manufactured for various uses such as: consumer packaging, wires, pipes, containers, bottles, appliances, electrical/electronic parts, computers and automotive parts. Most of he post consumer, plastic products are discarded and end up as mixed plastic municipal waste. The disposal of his waste has become a major social concern. Mixed plastic waste (MPW) recycling is still very much in its infancy. Approximately 20 million tons of plastic waste is generated in the United States of America, while about 15 million tons is generated throughout the Europe. With existing recycle efforts, only 7% of the MPW are recycled to produce low-grade plastic products such as plastic sacks, pipes, plastic fencing, and garden furniture. The current plastic reclamation technology options are generally grouped into the following four types: (i) Primary: The processing of plastic for use comparable to the original application. (ii) Secondary: The processing of plastics waste into new products with a lower quality level. (iii) Tertiary: The chemical or thermal processing of plastic waste to their basic hydrocarbon feedstock. The resulting raw materials are then reprocessed into plastic material or other products of the oil refining process. (iv) Quaternary: The incineration of plastics waste to recover energy. This paper deals exclusively with tertiary recycling by pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of plastics waste alone and by coprocessing with petroleum residue or heavy oils to fuels and petrochemical feedstock for further processing in existing refinery and petrochemical units. (author)

  9. ASEAN grid-connected biomass residues fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.F.; Alias, R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the major concerns in the world. With uncertainty in the main oil suppliers, the oil price is expected to remain high due to continuous demand from the world. Since oil is mostly used for electricity and transportation, its shortage would cause major disruptions in our daily activities. Thus to counter this scenario and faster depletion of fossil fuel resources, various measures have been taken to find alternative source of energy such as renewable energy. One of the renewable energy sources is from biomass residues which is aplenty particularly in ASEAN. Through one of the collaboration programme between ASEAN and EC which is The EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Programme, a number of Full-Scale Demonstration Projects (FSDP) using biomass residues have been commissioned and implemented successfully. Four of the FSDPs in Thailand and Malaysia are connected to the grid. These projects have been operating very well and since the fuel is commonly available in this ASEAN region, duplication should not be a problem. Thus, this paper would highlight the success stories in implementing biomass residues grid connected project while enhancing cooperation between ASEAN and EC. (Author)

  10. Effect of increased fuel exploitation on the main characteristics of spent WWER 440 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zib, A.

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with the effect of a higher fuel exploitation on the main characteristics (particularly radioactivity and decay heat power) of spent WWER 440 fuel. The main characteristics were calculated by using the Origen code. The study was implemented as a three-stage process. In the first stage, the radioactivity and residual thermal power time evolution values were calculated for the 'typical fuel', i. e. fuel assembly with initial enrichment of 3.6% U-235, 3 years in reactor, and burnup of 30 MWd/kg U. In the second stage, ceteris paribus radioactivity and thermal power analyses of sensitivity to changes in the fuel burnup, initial fuel enrichment, and time in reactor were carried out for the typical fuel assembly. In the third stage, the effect of changes in all three variables was investigated for fuel assemblies possessing parameters that approach those applied at the Dukovany NPP. The effect of a higher fuel exploitation on the interim fuel storage is also mentioned. (author)

  11. Cost of the radioactive residues of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The calculation of cost for the management and final storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste is presented. The continuing Research and Development activities are judged to render simplified designs. The existing and planned systems and and plans are as follows: - transport system for radioactive residues - central intermediate storage of spent fuel, CLAB - processing of spent fuel - final storing of long-lived waste - final storing of reactor waste and decommissioning waste, SFR. The total future cost of the Swedish waste management is calculated to be 39 billion SEK from 1987 and 60 years onwards. 5.3 billion SEK have been spent up to the year 1986. (G.B.)

  12. Quantification and characterization of cotton crop biomass residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton crop residual biomass remaining in the field after mechanical seed cotton harvest is not typically harvested and utilized off-site thereby generating additional revenue for producers. Recently, interest has increased in utilizing biomass materials as feedstock for the production of fuel and ...

  13. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City's Clean Heat Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-11

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP's policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  14. Neutronic analysis of a fuel element with variations in fuel enrichment and burnable poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rochkhudson B. de; Martins, Felipe; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Fortini, Angela; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: rochkdefaria@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the goal was to evaluate the neutronic behavior during the fuel burnup changing the amount of burnable poison and fuel enrichment. For these analyses, it was used a 17 x 17 PWR fuel element, simulated using the 238 groups library cross-section collapsed from ENDF/BVII.0 and TRITON module of SCALE 6.0 code system. The results confirmed the effective action of the burnable poison in the criticality control, especially at Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) and in the burnup kinetics, because at the end of the fuel cycle there was a minimal residual amount of neutron absorbers ({sup 155}Gd and {sup 157}Gd), as expected. At the end of the cycle, the fuel element was still critical in all simulated situations, indicating the possibility of extending the fuel burn. (author)

  15. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  16. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackom, Emmanuel K.; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.; Minang, Peter A.; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional biomass (woodfuel and charcoal). Policy recommendations that promote the wider uptake of modern bioenergy applications from residues are provided. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11×10 6 bone dry tonnes per annum. • 0.12–0.32 billion litres of bio ethanol annually to displace 18–48% national gasoline use. • 0.08–0.22 billion litres of biomass to BTL diesel per year to offset 17–45% of diesel use. • 0.76–2.02 TW h of electricity, representing 15–38% of Cameroon's consumption. • Residues could offset only 3% of national consumption of traditional biomass

  17. Electrocoagulation of solvent residues in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidarakos, E.; Gramatte, W.; Koehling, A.; Schmitt, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    The aim of this project was to find out the potential of the method for the electrocoagulation (EC) of colloidally dispersed particles for an improved fine feed purification in the reprocessing of high burnup nuclear fuels with the help of real fuel solutions on a laboratory scale. In EC, the particles colloidally dispersed in the solution are fed with electric charges at the electrodes; this leads to a coagulation of the particles, with separation taking place at the electrodes. The methods of analysis chosen for the EC were nephelometry for inactive experiments with RuO 2 suspensions, and gamma spectroscopy for experiments with radioactive fuel solutions, with the nuclide pair Ru/Rh-106 acting as a colloidal tracer nuclide. On the whole, the present experimental data permit the conclusion that under the experimental conditions and with the apparatus applied, EC gives rise to the separation of colloidally dispersed noble metal particles in an active fuel solution. (orig./RB) [de

  18. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  19. Forest fuel and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    Forest fuel, i.e., branches and tops that remain after felling, are not considered to give a net surplus of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. In order to, if possible, verify this theory a survey was made of the literature concerning different carbon flows related to forest fuel. Branches and needles that are not utilised as fuel nonetheless eventually become decomposed to carbon dioxide. Branches and stem wood are broken down in occasional cases to 60-80% already within 5-6 years but the decomposition rate varies strongly. A small amount of existing data suggest that branches and stems are broken down almost completely within 60-70 years, and earlier in some cases. Lignin is the component in needles and wood that is the most resistant to decomposition. Decomposition is favoured by optimal temperature and moisture, ground contact and ground animals. Material that is mulched during soil preparation is decomposed considerably faster than material that lies on the soil surface. Felling residues that are left on the soil are a large momentary addition to the soil's reserves of organic material but after a number of years the difference in soil organic material is small between places where fuel has been removed and places where felling residues have been left. High nitrogen deposition, fire control and effective forestry are factors that contribute to the increases in the reserves of soil organic material. It appears to be a good approximation to consider the forest fuel as being a neutral fuel as regards carbon dioxide in a longer perspective. In comparison with other biofuels and fossil fuels, forest fuel appears, together with Salix, to be the fuel that results in very little extra discharge of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases during its production, transport and processing. 70 refs, 5 figs, tabs

  20. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  1. Release of nitrogen precursors from coal and biomass residues in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    This work was undertaken with the aim of quantifying the relative amounts of NH{sub 3} and HCN released from different residues during their devolatilization under fluidized bed conditions. The results were compared with data collected for bituminous coals of different origin. The relation between amounts of HCN and NH{sub 3} released and the levels of NOX and N{sub 2}O formed during cocombustion was also addressed. The partitioning of nitrogen between volatiles and char was also quantified. The pyrolysis studies were undertaken in a small fluidized bed reactor of 80 mm of ID and 500 mm high using an inert atmosphere (N{sub 2}). The HCN and NH{sub 3} were quantified by bubbling the pyrolysis gases in absorbing solutions which were subsequently analyzed with selective electrodes. The combustion studies were carried out on a pilot installation. The fluidized bed combustor is square in cross section with each side being 300 mm long. There is secondary air supply to the freeboard at different heights to deal with high volatile fuels as almost all waste materials are. The temperatures in the bed and in the freeboard and that of the flue gases leaving the reactor were continuously monitored. The results obtained suggest that, while coal releases nitrogen mostly as HCN, residues like RDF and sewage sludge give out fuel-N in greater quantities as NH{sub 3}. Residues at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) temperatures release more than 80% of the fuel-N with the volatiles. The NH{sub 3} evolved during pyrolysis acted as a reducing agent on NOX emissions. The presence of calcium significantly reduces the emission of N{sub 2}O probably by interfering with HCN chemistry. With high amounts of residues in the fuel mixture, the relative importance of char on the nitrogen chemistry substantially decreases. By using cocombustion, it is possible to reduce fuel-N conversion to NOX and N{sub 2}O, by tuning the amounts of coal and residue in the mixture. 29 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Jiacheng; Gagné, Stéphanie; Chan, Tak W.; Thomson, Kevin; Fofie, Emmanuel; Cary, Robert A.; Rutherford, Dan; Comer, Bryan; Swanson, Jacob; Lin, Yue; Van Rooy, Paul; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Jung, Heejung; Barsanti, Kelley; Karavalakis, Georgios; Cocker, David; Durbin, Thomas D.; Miller, J. Wayne; Johnson, Kent C.

    2018-06-01

    Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.

  3. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  4. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  5. Economics of fuel energy in an Indian village ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisanka, S.K.; Misra, M.K.; Sahu, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel energy consumption pattern and its associated socio-economic factors have been intensively studied in the Bhabinarayanpur village ecosystem, Orissa, located on the east coast of India. About 21% of the gross annual income of the village is devoted to the fuels. Biomass, which is mostly collected free from the environment, is the major source of fuel energy. It constitutes 94.1% of the total fuel consumption. Family size and consumption of cereals and legumes significantly influence fuel use. However, there is no significant correlation between fuel consumption and other variables such as farm size, income and number of earning members in the family. The efficiency of the traditional stove is low in respect of all the biomass fuels for which more than three-quarters of the total energy is lost in the village. There is scope for improving the efficiency of fuel consumption and for ensuring a continuous supply of fuel energy to the village, for which suggestions have been made. (author)

  6. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  7. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W. Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health. PMID:29324717

  8. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City’s Clean Heat Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carrión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP, were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP’s policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53% of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  9. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  10. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  11. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Chemical decontamination and melt densification of chop-leach fuel hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.L.; Griggs, B.; Kemper, R.S.; Nelson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on decontamination and densification studies of chop-leach fuel hull residues designed to minimize the transuranic element (TRU) contaminated waste stream. Decontamination requirements have been established from studies of TRU element distribution in the fuel hull residues. Effective surface decontamination of Zircaloy requires removal of zirconium oxide corrosion products. Good decontamination factors have been achieved with aqueous solutions following high temperature HF conditioning of oxide films. Molten fluoride salt mixtures are effective decontaminants, but pose problems in metal loss and salt dragout. Molten metal decontamination methods are highly preliminary, but may be required to reduce TRU originating from tramp uranium in Zircaloy. Low melting (1300 0 C) alloy of Zircaloy, stainless steel, and Inconel have been prepared in induction heated graphite crucibles. High quality ingots of Zircaloy-2 have been prepared directly from short sections of descaled fuel clad tubing using the Inductoslag process. This material is readily capable of refabrication. Inductoslag melts have also been prepared from heavily oxidized Zircaloy tubing demonstrating melt densification without prior decontamination is technically feasible. Hydrogen absorption kinetics have been demonstrated with cast Zircaloy-2 and cast Zircaloy-stainless steel-Inconel alloys. Metallic fuel hull residues have been proposed as a storage medium for tritium released from fuel during reprocessing. (author)

  14. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland`s south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary`s Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia`s shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters.

  15. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters

  16. Assessment of the gasification characteristics of some agricultural and forest industry residues using a laboratory gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R O; Goss, J R

    1979-01-01

    Gasification means here the reaction of solid fuels with air to yield a low calorific value gas, suitable as a fuel. The solid fuels considered are agricultural and forest industry residues. A laboratory-scale downdraft gasifier was used to study the gasification properties of certain biomass fuels. The grate is the most critical part of the gasifier. Two designs were tested: a rotating eccentric grate and a perforated steel basket. The latter was specifically designed for use with granular fuels such as mulled walnut shells. Batch tests were performed with different biomass fuels and at varying fuel consumption rates. The composition of the generated gas and the mass and heat balances were determined. Substantial closure errors are reported. These are considered to be the result of tars in the gas which were not accounted for. Yields varied from 75.5% in the case of walnut shells to 46% for rice hulls. With a biomass fuel consisting of a mixture of two sizes of walnut shells, yields in excess of 80% were recorded at high fuel consumption rates. Some practical aspects concerning the gasification of biomass fuels and problems associated with cotton gin trash, rice hulls, and wood residues are discussed.

  17. Residual fluxes of salt and water in the Azhikode estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pylee, A.; Varma, P.U.; Revichandran, C.

    hours at all stations and the data were analysed to provide estimates of the residual fluxes of water and salt. The interpolated data for the non-dimensional depth was used for computation of depth, tide and cross sectional averages. A net seaward flow...

  18. British Nuclear Fuels - a dirty business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive discharges from British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield, Cumbria, reprocessing plant to the sea are discussed. Statements that have been made by various individuals and groups about the contamination of the sea, the coast and places inland, and the biological effects of plutonium and americium, are discussed in detail. Particular stress is placed on statements about increased incidence of cancers. (U.K.)

  19. Influence of dispersing additives and blend composition on stability of marine high-viscosity fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Митусова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a definition of the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel from the point of view of the colloid-chemical concept of oil dispersed systems. The necessity and importance of the inclusion in the current regulatory requirements of this quality parameter of high-viscosity marine fuel is indicated. The objects of the research are high-viscosity marine fuels, the basic components of which are heavy oil residues: fuel oil that is the atmospheric residue of oil refining and viscosity breaking residue that is the product of light thermal cracking of fuel oil. As a thinning agent or distillate component, a light gas oil was taken from the catalytic cracking unit. The stability of the obtained samples was determined through the xylene equivalent index, which characterizes the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel to lamination during storage, transportation and operation processes. To improve performance, the resulting base compositions of high-viscosity marine fuels were modified by introducing small concentrations (0.05 % by weight of stabilizing additives based on oxyethylated amines of domestic origin and alkyl naphthalenes of foreign origin.

  20. Fuel briquettes from wood and agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natividad, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A short review of the production and uses of briquettes and of machinery available for briquetting fine dry, coarse dry and coarse wet raw materials. The potential of a fuel briquette industry in the Philippines with an estimated annual production of 217 million ton of sawdust, 2.09 billion ton of rice hulls and 2.87 million ton of coconut husks is discussed. Studies at the Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI) have shown that sawdust, coir dust rice hulls briquettes with 1-2% resin binder have heating values of 6882, 5839 and 3913 cal/g respectively.

  1. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  2. Studies on the fission products behavior during dissolution process of BWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Nakai, E.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain basic data on fission products behavior in connection with the head end process of fuel reprocessing, especially to obtain better understanding on undissolved residues, small scale dissolution studies were performed by using BWR spent fuel rods which were irradiated as monitoring fuel rods under the monitoring program for LWR fuel assembly performance entitled PROVING TEST ON RELIABILITY OF FUEL ASSEMBLY . The Zircaloy-2 claddings and the fuel pellets were subjected individually to the following studies on 1) release of fission products during dissolution process, 2) characterization of undissolved residues, and 3) analysis of the claddings. This paper presents comprehensive descriptions of the fission products behavior during dissolution process, based on detailed and through PIE conducted by JNFS under the sponsorship of MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry)

  3. Reactivity of Athabasca residue and of its SARA fractions during residue hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, J.; Danial-Fortain, P.; Gauthier, T.; Merdrignac, I. [IFP-Lyon, Vermaison (France); Budzinski, H. [Bordeaux Univ. (France). ISM-LPTC, UMR CNRS

    2009-07-01

    Residue conversion processes are becoming increasingly important because of the declining market for residual fuel oil and a greater demand for middle distillates. Ebullated-bed hydroconversion is a commercially proven technology for converting heavy feedstocks with high amounts of impurities. The process enables the conversion of atmospheric or vacuum residues at temperatures up to 440 degrees C, and at liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) conditions in the range of 0.15 to 0.5 per hour. A 540 degrees C conversion of up to 80 weight per cent can be achieved under these conditions. This paper reported on a research study conducted at IFP Lyon in which the residue hydroconversion in a large-scale ebullated bed bench unit was investigated to determine the impact of operating conditions and feed properties on yield and product qualities. Hydrogen was added to the feed in the bench units to keep a high hydrogen partial pressure and favour the catalytic hydroconversion reactions. In a typical test, the reactor was fed with 50 g of feedstock and 0.45 g of crushed equilibrium industrial NiMo catalyst, pressurized hydrogen and quickly heated at the reaction temperature. This paper also discussed the conversion of Athabasca bitumen residue in the large-scale pilot plant and also in the small scale batch reactor. The effect of operating temperature and space velocity was examined. The reactivity of the saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA) fractions of the bitumen was studied separately in order to better understand the conversion mechanisms and reactivities. The Athabasca bitumen feed and SARA fractions were also analyzed in terms of standard petroleum analysis, SARA fractionation, elemental analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 13C NMR. Hydroconversion experiments were conducted in the batch unit at different reaction temperatures and reaction times. A comparison of small-scale batch results with those obtained with the continuous large-scale bench

  4. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Multicylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Two diesel engines representative of the four-stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle main propulsion units installed in U.S. Coast Guard WPB class cutters were operated in a test environment in an attempt to demonstrate significant fuel savings associated...

  6. A fuel response model for the design of spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Duffey, T.A.; Einziger, R.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Jordon, H.; Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R.; Sanders, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological source terms pertinent to spent fuel shipping cask safety assessments are of three distinct origins. One of these concerns residual contamination within the cask due to handling operations and previous shipments. A second is associated with debris (''crud'') that had been deposited on the fuel rods in the course of reactor operation, and a third involves the radioactive material contained within the rods. Although the lattermost source of radiotoxic material overwhelms the others in terms of inventory, its release into the shipping cask, and thence into the biosphere, requires the breach of an additional release barrier, viz., the fuel rod cladding. Hence, except for the special case involving the transport of fuel rods containing previously breached claddings, considerations of the source terms due to material contained in the fuel rods are complicated by the need to address the likelihood of fuel cladding failure during transport. The purpose of this report is to describe a methodology for estimating the shipping cask source terms contribution due to radioactive material contained within the spent fuel rods. Thus, the probability of fuel cladding failure as well as radioactivity release is addressed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  7. An economic analysis of small-scale cogeneration using forest biomass and sawmill residuals in northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beke, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The economic feasibility of using biomass for cogeneration in northern Ontario was investigated and the institutional factors that may affect establishment and operation of cogeneration facilities were determined. Two fuel sources for a cogeneration plant were evaluated: forest materials and sawmill residuals. To establish and operate a cogeneration plant, the policies of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Ontario Hydro needed to be analyzed. Some of the benefits of using sawmill residuals for cogeneration were identified and an inventory of sawmill residuals was compiled. The welfare effects of three pricing schemes for non-utility generated electricity are described using a neoclassical welfare model. This model is further extended to include the effects of subsidizing public utilities and using biomass to generate electricity. A competitive market for electricity generation and relating pricing structure was also examined. The results of the capital budget for the cogeneration facility indicated that by using sawmill residuals and chipped forest biomass as fuel for cogeneration, internal rates of return would be 22.7% and 8.7% and net present values would be $8,659,870 and $1,867,822, respectively. This implied that using sawmill residuals for cogeneration fuel would be both profitable and would help to reduce possible harmful effects that current dumping practices may have on the surrounding ecosystem. 84 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Prediction of the Long Term Cooling Performance for the 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, K. N.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, H. R

    2005-12-15

    In the long term cooling phase that the emergency cooling water injection ends, the performance of the residual heat removal for the 3-pin fuel test loop has been predicted by a simplified heat transfer model. In the long term cooling phase the residual heat is 1323W for PWR fuel test mode and 1449W for CANDU fuel test mode. The each residual heat is assumed as 2% of the fission power of the test fuel used in the anticipated operational occurrence and design basis accident analyses. The each fission power used for the analyses is 105% of the rated fission power in the normal operation. In the long term cooling phase the residual heat is removed to the HANARO pool through the double pressure vessels of the in-pile test section. Saturate pooling boiling is assumed on the test fuel and condensation heat transfer is expected on the inner wall of the fuel carrier and the flow divider. Natural convection heat transfer on a heated vertical wall is also assumed on the outer wall of the outer pressure vessel. The conduction heat transfer is only considered in the gap between the double pressure vessels charged with neon gas and in the downcomer filled with coolant. The heat transfer rate between the coolant temperature of 152 .deg. C in the in-pile test section and the water temperature of 45 .deg. C in the HANARO pool is predicted as about 1666W. The 152 .deg. C is the saturate temperature of the coolant pressure predicted from the MARS code. The cooling capacity of 1666W is greater than the residual heats of 1323W and 1449W. Consequently the long term cooling performance of the 3-pin fuel test loop is sufficient for the anticipated operational occurrences and design basis accidents.

  9. Management of solid residues in waste-to-energy and biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J.; Bergfeldt, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Wilen, C.; Ranta, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Schwaiger, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum mbH, Graz (Austria); Visser, H.J.M. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Gu, S.; Gyftopoulou, E.; Brammer, J. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    A literature review has been performed for getting in-depth information about quality of residues from thermal processes for waste and biomass as well as their disposal or utilisation options and current practices. Residues from waste incineration have been subject to intense research programs for many years and it can be concluded that the quality of bottom ashes has meanwhile a high standard. The question whether an utilisation as secondary building material is accepted or not depends on the definition of acceptable economic impac. For filter ashes and gas cleaning residues the situation is more complex. Their quality is known: due to their high inventory of heavy metals and organic micro-pollutants they are classified as hazardous waste which means they require specific measures for their safe long-term disposal. A number of stabilisation and treatment processes for filter ashes and gas cleaning residues including the recovery of species out of these materials have been developed but none has been implemented in full scale due to economic constraints. There is reason to speculate that even recovery processes which are not profitable for private companies might point out economically useful if future and long-term costs which have to be covered of the society, e.g. for rehabilitation of contaminated sites, are taken into account. Their quality as well as that of residues from combustion of contaminated biomass is mainly depending on the quality of the fuel. The inventory of critical ingredients in fuel produced from waste or waste fractions, especially of halogens and heavy metals, is often rather high and shows typically a wide range of variation. A reliable quality control for such fuels is very difficult. Other residues can - like gas cleaning residues from waste incineration - be inertised in order to meet the criteria for the access to cheaper landfills than those for hazardous waste. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the quality and management of

  10. Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities

  11. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2011-03-01

    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Process of heat-treating fuels of a bituminous nature, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1927-11-25

    A process is described of heat treating any kind of material of a bituminous nature usable as fuel, like shale, mineral coal, peat, etc., whereby the fuel undergoes in a retort or the like a distillation for recovering from it the total amount or the greatest part of gaseous or vaporous distillation products. The warm distillation residue is burned, characterized by the retorts, containing the fuel going through, being wholly or partly surrounded by materials to be heated. These materials and the warm distillation residue resulting from the distillation during the burning are moved forward independently one of the other.

  13. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan; Agapol Junpen; Orachorn Kamnoet; Savitri Garivait

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plant...

  14. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Fuel assembly and nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Aoyama, Motoo; Yamashita, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly and a nuclear reactor core capable of improving a transmutation rate of transuranium elements while improving a residual rate of fission products. In a reactor core of a BWR type reactor to which fuel rods with transuranium elements (TRU) enriched are loaded, the enrichment degree of transuranium elements occupying in fuel materials is determined not less than 2wt%, as well as a ratio of number of atoms between hydrogen and fuel heavy metals in an average reactor core under usual operation state (H/HM) is determined not more than 3 times. In addition, a ratio of the volumes between coolant regions and fuel material regions is determined not more than 2 times. A T ratio (TRU/Pu) is lowered as the TRU enrichment degree is higher and the H/HM ratio is lower. In order to reduce the T ratio not more than 1, the TRU enrichment degree is determined as not less than 2wt%, and the H/HM ratio is determined to not more than 3 times. Accordingly, since the H/HM ratio is reduced to not more than 1, and TRU is transmuted while recycling it with plutonium, the transmutation ratio of transuranium elements can be improved while improving the residual rate of fission products. (N.H.)

  16. Effects of initial nitrogen addition on deep-soils bioventing at a fuel-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratz, J.W.; Guest, P.R.; Downey, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    A ruptured pipe at a Burlington Northern Railroad (BNRR) fueling pump house resulted in over 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel spilling onto the surrounding soil. An initial investigation of site conditions indicated that subsurface soils were contaminated with diesel fuel to ground water, which was observed approximately 70 feet below the ground surface. State regulatory agencies requested that BNRR develop and implement a remedial action plan to treat these diesel-contaminated soils and protect local ground waters. Engineering-Science, Inc. (ES) was retained for this work and, after evaluating a variety of remediation technologies recommended using soil venting methods to enhance the immediate volatilization and long-term biodegradation of fuel residuals. ES designed and implemented a ''bioventing'' pilot test to determine soil properties such as air permeability, and to assess the potential for partial volatilization and long-term biodegradation of diesel fuel residuals at the site. Hydrocarbon concentrations, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels were monitored at a vapor extraction well (VEW) and six vapor monitoring points (VMPs) to determine the rates of volatilization and biological degradation of fuel residuals. Pilot test results confirmed that full-scale bioventing was feasible for the remediation of this site

  17. Dissolution behavior of PFBR MOX fuel in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Kapoor, Y.S.; Singh, Mamta; Meena, D.L.; Pandey, Ashish; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Present paper describes the dissolution characteristics of PFBR MOX fuel (U,Pu)O 2 in nitric acid. An overview of batch dissolution experiments, studying the percentage dissolution of uranium and plutonium in (U, Pu)O 2 MOX sintered pellets with different percentage of PuO 2 with reference to time and nitric acid concentration are described. 90% of uranium and plutonium of PFBR MOX gets dissolves in 2 hrs and amount of residue increases with the decrease in nitric acid concentration. Overall variation in percentage residue in PFBR MOX fuel after dissolution test also described. (author)

  18. Optimisation of fuel stocks under liberalisation of energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipkovs, P.; Sitenko, L.; Kashkarova, G.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of regional fuel stocks on the reliability of the energy sector's activities in a given region. The authors give classification of stocks by their purpose and describe their role in avoiding energy shortage situations. The fuel deficiency at a regional fuel market is shown in connection with the resulting loss for the national economy. The authors employ imitative modelling for investigation of fuel supply schemes acting in Latvia. They estimate possible expenses on the maintenance of fuels - such as gas, residual oil, and coal - for different variants of fuel delivery. (author)

  19. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a ventilation...

  20. Energy Loss of Coasting Gold Ions and Deuterons in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, N P; Brown, K; Burkhardt, H; Butler, J; Fischer, W; Harvey, M; Tepikian, S

    2008-01-01

    The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams at two different energies and deuterons at one energy were measured at RHIC, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2, 107.4 and 108.7 respectively. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.

  1. Dissolution of mixed oxide spent fuel from FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyoshi, H.; Nishina, H.; Toyota, O.; Yamamoto, R.; Nemoto, S.; Okamoto, F.; Togashi, A.; Kawata, T.; Hayashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    At the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) has been continuing operation since 1982 for laboratory scale hot experiments on reprocessing of FBR mixed oxide fuel. As a part of these experiments, dissolution experiments have been performed to define the key parameters affecting dissolution rates such as concentration of nitric acid, temperature and burnup and also to confirm the amount of insoluble residue. The dissolution rate of the irradiated fuel was determined to be in proportion to the 1.7 power of the nitric acid concentration. The activation energy determined from the experiments varied from 6 to 11 kcal/mol depending on the method of dissolution. The dissolution rate decreased as the fuel burnup increased in low nitric acid media below 5 mol/l. However, it was found that the effect of the burnup became negligible in a high concentration of nitric acid media. The amount of insoluble residue and its constituents were evaluated by changing the dissolution condition. (author)

  2. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  3. Evolution of extreme Total Water Levels along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Rasilla Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the evolution of storminess along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula through the calculation of extreme (1% Total Water Levels (eTWL on both observed (tide gauge and buoy data and hindcasted (SIMAR-44 data. Those events were first identified and then characterized in terms of oceanographic parameters and atmospheric circulation features. Additionally, an analysis of the long-term trends in both types of data was performed. Most of the events correspond to a rough wave climate and moderate storm surges, linked to extratropical disturbances following a northern track. While local atmospheric conditions seem to be evolving towards lesser storminess, their impact has been balanced by the favorable exposure of the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula to the increasing frequency and strength of distant disturbances crossing the North Atlantic. This evolution is also correctly reproduced by the simulated long-term evolution of the forcing component (meteorological sea level residuals and wave run up of the Total Water Level values calculated from the SIMAR 44 database, since sea level residuals have been experiencing a reduction while waves are arriving with longer periods. Finally, the addition of the rate of relative sea level trend to the temporal evolution of the atmospheric forcing component of the Total Water Level values is enough to simulate more frequent and persistent eTWL.

  4. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  5. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluter00.

  6. Evaluation of the interfacial shear strength and residual stress of TiAlN coating on ZIRLO™ fuel cladding using a modified shear-lag model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y., E-mail: troy.liu@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bhamji, I., E-mail: imran.bhamji@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J., E-mail: p.j.withers@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wolfe, D.E., E-mail: dew125@arl.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Motta, A.T., E-mail: atmnuc@engr.psu.edu [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Preuss, M., E-mail: michael.preuss@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    This paper investigates the residual stresses and interfacial shear strength of a TiAlN coating on Zr–Nb–Sn–Fe alloy (ZIRLO™) substrate designed to improve corrosion resistance of fuel cladding used in water-cooled nuclear reactors, both during normal and exceptional conditions, e.g. a loss of coolant event (LOCA). The distribution and maximum value of the interfacial shear strength has been estimated using a modified shear-lag model. The parameters critical to this analysis were determined experimentally. From these input parameters the interfacial shear strength between the TiAlN coating and ZIRLO™ substrate was inferred to be around 120 MPa. It is worth noting that the apparent strength of the coating is high (∼3.4 GPa). However, this is predominantly due to the large compressive residuals stress (3 GPa in compression), which must be overcome for the coating to fail in tension, which happens at a load just 150 MPa in excess of this.

  7. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  8. Influence de la nature des fuels lourds sur la qualité de leur combustion Influence of Heavy Fuel Oil Composition on Particulate Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    heavy fuel oils in a 1 MW boiler and an 0. 1 MW furnace, the conclusion was reached that Conradson carbon residue (CCR of fuel oils is a good indicator of their combustibility, but that it is not sufficient in all cases, i. e. for the same CCR, different values of particulate emissions can be measured. Several possible interpretations were proposed and checked:(a Conradson carbon residue is the result of slow pyrolysis, but it is a procedure that is not sufficiently representative of actual conditions. Yet, by subjecting various fuel oils to flash pyrolysis (heated-grid technique, a good correlation is found between the amount of residue resulting and the CCR. Therefore the CCR remains a good combustibility indicator. (b For fuel oils ex atmospheric residue, ex vacuum residue and ex deasphalting, satisfactory correlations have been observed between CCR and various physicochemical properties of the heavy fractions of fuel oils (cut point of 450°C chosen, i. e. polyaromaticity (measured by carbon 13 NMR, C/H and molecular weight. However, visbreaking fuel oils meet other correlations, as do steam-cracking residues. Hence for these classes of fuel oils, anomalies can be predicted between the particulate emissions and CCR, which is effectively observed with some equipments. (c For the same CCR value, the relative proportion between light and heavy fractions of fuels can sometimes be seen to vary quite appreciably, thus causing changes in the richness and temperature maps of the resulting flames, and hence variations in particulate emissions. The extent of such variations will depend on the types of burners and combustion chambers in which the flame develops.

  9. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  10. Model-based fault diagnosis in PEM fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobet, T; de Lira, S; Puig, V; Quevedo, J [Automatic Control Department (ESAII), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Rambla Sant Nebridi 10, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Feroldi, D; Riera, J; Serra, M [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (IRI), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, Carrer Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, Planta 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, a model-based fault diagnosis methodology for PEM fuel cell systems is presented. The methodology is based on computing residuals, indicators that are obtained comparing measured inputs and outputs with analytical relationships, which are obtained by system modelling. The innovation of this methodology is based on the characterization of the relative residual fault sensitivity. To illustrate the results, a non-linear fuel cell simulator proposed in the literature is used, with modifications, to include a set of fault scenarios proposed in this work. Finally, it is presented the diagnosis results corresponding to these fault scenarios. It is remarkable that with this methodology it is possible to diagnose and isolate all the faults in the proposed set in contrast with other well known methodologies which use the binary signature matrix of analytical residuals and faults. (author)

  11. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.

    2013-01-01

    liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0...

  12. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    To obtain quantitative data on the dissolution of high burnup spent nuclear fuel, dissolution study have been carried out at the Department of Chemistry, JAERI, from 1984 under the contract with STA entitled 'Reprocessing Test Study of High Burnup Fuel'. In this study PWR spent fuels of 8,400 to 36,100 MWd/t in averaged burnup were dissolved and the chemical composition and distribution of radioactive nuclides were measured for insoluble residue, cladding material (hull), off-gas and dissolved solution. With these analyses basic data concerning the dissolution and clarification process in the reprocessing plant were accumulated. (author)

  14. Possibility for dry storage of the WWR-K reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinkin, F.M.; Belyakova, E.A.; Gizatulin, Sh.Kh.; Khromushin, I.V.; Koltochik, S.N.; Maltseva, R.M.; Medvedeva, Z.V.; Petukhov, V.K.; Soloviev, Yu.A.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.

    2000-01-01

    This work is devoted to development of the way for dry storage of spent fuel of the WWR-K reactor. Residual energy release in spent fuel element assembly was determined via fortune combination of calculations and experiments. The depth of fission product occurrence relative to the fuel element shroud surface was found experimentally. The time of fission product release to the fuel element shroud surface was estimated. (author)

  15. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  16. Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052)

  17. Management of cladding hulls and fuel hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from power reactors based on chop-leach technology produces a solid waste product of cladding hulls and other metallic residues. This report describes the current situation in the management of fuel cladding hulls and hardware. Information is presented on the material composition of such waste together with the heating effects due to neutron-induced activation products and fuel contamination. As no country has established a final disposal route and the corresponding repository, this report also discusses possible disposal routes and various disposal options under consideration at present

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, E.G.A.; Easson, D.L.; Lyons, G.A.; McRoberts, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  19. Residual biomass resources for energy production. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, G.

    2010-06-01

    This report covers the whole problematic of energy production from biomass residues in France except the production of biofuels. It is made of two parts. The first one gives an overview of the availability of residual biomass resources, The concept of residue (or waste) is placed in its economic and regulatory context (the major part of the resource cannot be considered as waste without any further potential use). The conditions of availability of the resource for each market segment are identified. The second part describes the conditions for the use of 5 different conversion options of these residues into energy. The logistics constraints for the procurement of the fuel and the intermediate operations to prepare it are briefly summarised. The objective was the identification of key issues in all relevant aspects, without giving too much emphasis to one of them at the expense of another one in order to avoid duplicating the frequent cases of facilities that do not meet environmental and economic targets because the designers of the system have not paid enough attention to a parameter of the system. (author)

  20. 77 FR 66577 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...-XC165 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program... implemented as part of the trawl rationalization program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamie Goen, phone..., NMFS implemented a trawl rationalization program, a catch share program, for the Pacific coast...

  1. Longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Coast. Maharashtra Coast and the part between Pondicherry and Point Calimere in Tamilnadu, show negligible order of annual net transport. Annual net transport along the east coast is in north and along the west coast in south but for South Gujarat Coast....

  2. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Adhesion of Insect Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Smith, Joseph G.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residues can cause premature transition to turbulent flow on laminar flow airfoils. Engineered surfaces that mitigate the adhesion of insect residues provide, therefore, a route to more efficient aerodynamics and reduced fuel burn rates. Areal coverage and heights of residues depend not only on surface properties, but also on impact conditions. We report high speed photography of fruit fly impacts at different angles of inclination on a rigid aluminum surface, optical microscopy and profilometry, and contact angle goniometry to support the design of engineered surfaces. For the polyurethane and epoxy coatings studied, some of which exhibited superhydrophobicity, it was determined that impact angle and surface compositions play critical roles in the efficacy of these surfaces to reduce insect residue adhesion.

  3. The thermal performance of a loop-type heat pipe for passively removing residual heat from spent fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zhenqin [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gu, Hanyang, E-mail: guhanyang@stu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Minglu [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, Ye [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of applying loop-type heat pipes for SFP is studied. • The heat transfer rate of the heat pipes was tested. • The heat transfer coefficient was between 200 and 490 W/m{sup 2}/s. • The effect of the water temperature is dominant. • Three kinds of the filling ratio 27%, 21% and 14% are compared. - Abstract: Heat pipe is an efficient heat transfer device without electrically driven parts. Therefore large-scale loop type heat pipe systems have potential uses for passively removing heat from spent fuel pools and reactor cores under the accidental conditions to improve the safety of the nuclear power station. However, temperature difference between the hot water in the spent fuel pool and the ambient air which is the heat sink is small, in the range of 20–60 °C. To understand and predict the heat removal capacity of such a large scale loop type heat pipe in the situation similar to the accidental condition of the spent fuel pool (SFP) for the design purpose, a loop-type heat pipe with a very high and large evaporator has been fabricated and was tested using ammonia as the working fluid. The evaporator with inner diameter of 65 mm and length of 7.6 m is immersed in a hot water tube which simulate the spent fuel pool. The condenser of the loop-type heat pipe is cooled by the air. The tests were performed with the velocity of the hot water in the tube in the range of 0.7–2.1 × 10{sup −2} m/s, the hot water inlet temperature between 50 and 90 °C and the air velocity ranging from 0.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s. Three kinds of the ammonia volumetric filling ratio in the heat pipe were tested, i.e. 27%, 21% and 14%. It is found that the heat transfer rate was in the range of 1.5–14.9 kW, and the heat transfer coefficient of evaporator was between 200 and 490 W/m{sup 2}/s. It is feasible to use the large scale loop type heat pipe to passively remove the residual heat from SFP. Furthermore, the effect of air velocity, air temperature, water flow

  4. The thermal performance of a loop-type heat pipe for passively removing residual heat from spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Zhenqin; Gu, Hanyang; Wang, Minglu; Cheng, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of applying loop-type heat pipes for SFP is studied. • The heat transfer rate of the heat pipes was tested. • The heat transfer coefficient was between 200 and 490 W/m 2 /s. • The effect of the water temperature is dominant. • Three kinds of the filling ratio 27%, 21% and 14% are compared. - Abstract: Heat pipe is an efficient heat transfer device without electrically driven parts. Therefore large-scale loop type heat pipe systems have potential uses for passively removing heat from spent fuel pools and reactor cores under the accidental conditions to improve the safety of the nuclear power station. However, temperature difference between the hot water in the spent fuel pool and the ambient air which is the heat sink is small, in the range of 20–60 °C. To understand and predict the heat removal capacity of such a large scale loop type heat pipe in the situation similar to the accidental condition of the spent fuel pool (SFP) for the design purpose, a loop-type heat pipe with a very high and large evaporator has been fabricated and was tested using ammonia as the working fluid. The evaporator with inner diameter of 65 mm and length of 7.6 m is immersed in a hot water tube which simulate the spent fuel pool. The condenser of the loop-type heat pipe is cooled by the air. The tests were performed with the velocity of the hot water in the tube in the range of 0.7–2.1 × 10 −2 m/s, the hot water inlet temperature between 50 and 90 °C and the air velocity ranging from 0.5 m/s to 2.5 m/s. Three kinds of the ammonia volumetric filling ratio in the heat pipe were tested, i.e. 27%, 21% and 14%. It is found that the heat transfer rate was in the range of 1.5–14.9 kW, and the heat transfer coefficient of evaporator was between 200 and 490 W/m 2 /s. It is feasible to use the large scale loop type heat pipe to passively remove the residual heat from SFP. Furthermore, the effect of air velocity, air temperature, water flow rate and

  5. Coast Guard Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    looks on as Adm. Charles Ray thanks Adm. Chuck Michel for his service as the 30th vice commandant of the commandant Adm. Charles W. Ray relieved Adm. Charles D. Michel as vice commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard by . Following graduation and commissioning as an officer in the Coast Guard, Wright will be heading to the

  6. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990; Residuos renovaveis e perigosos como combustiveis industriais. Estudo sobre a dificil sustentacao ambiental da fabricacao de cimento no Brasil, anos 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed.

  7. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 > SrCl 2

  8. Hogged wood fuel price analysis in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.; Fox, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a comprehensive analysis of wood residues used for meeting energy requirements in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. These wood residues are generated primarily from cutting, sawing, planning, sanding, and debarking activities in the lumber and plywood industries. While high-quality wood residues are commonly used as raw material in the manufacture of pulp and board commodities, a very large amount of wood residues are ultimately used for plant fuel purposes. The characteristics of this market for hogged wood fuel are examined in depth, with particular emphasis given to the factors which affect the supply, demand and price of hogged wood. Hogged wood has played an enormous role in the Pacific Northwest for over sixty years, a result of the massive regional timber harvest. Utilization of this renewable energy resource continues to be a large component in regional energy supply. Despite having a large number of highly integrated mills that both use and produce wood residues, the Pacific Northwest region experiences a lively trade in hogged wood. The IGT study discussed herein examines the determinants of the regional market price for hogged wood. A number of useful leading indicators are identified, and a statistical forecasting model is prepared to help predict future hogged wood prices. This model provides insight into the factors that are, and are not, important determinants of hogged wood price. The issue of fuel substitution is addressed in relation to the potential of hogged wood to displace some amount of primary energy sources such as natural gas and electricity. Also examined in the study are techniques to estimate the actual quantity of hogged wood available, and the quantity demanded by the marketplace. Conclusions presented in the study have important ramifications for understanding the price behavior and utilization of hogged wood fuel. 4 refs., 12 figs

  9. Utilization of stabilized municipal waste combustion ash residues as construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Stabilized municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash residues were investigated for their potential as construction material that can be beneficially used in terrestrial and marine environments. End-use products, such as patio stones, brick pavers, solid blocks, and reef units, were fabricated and tested for their engineering and chemical characteristics. engineering feasibility and environmental acceptability of using stabilized ash residues as construction material are discussed in this paper. Ash samples were collected from two mass-burn facilities and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) facility in Florida

  10. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  11. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  12. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. Bioethanol production from forestry residues: A comparative techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. • Forestry residues with different bark contents were evaluated as raw materials. • The bark content negatively influenced the minimum ethanol selling price. • Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of raw material cost. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of using forestry residues with different bark contents for bioethanol production. A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. The plant was assumed to convert different forestry assortments (sawdust and shavings, fuel logs, early thinnings, tops and branches, hog fuel and pulpwood) to ethanol, pellets, biogas and electricity. The intention was not to obtain absolute ethanol production costs for future facilities, but to assess and compare the future potential of utilizing different forestry residues for bioethanol production. The same plant design and operating conditions were assumed in all cases, and the effect of including bark on the whole conversion process, especially how it influenced the ethanol production cost, was studied. While the energy efficiency (not including district heating) obtained for the whole process was between 67 and 69% regardless of the raw material used, the ethanol production cost differed considerably; the minimum ethanol selling price ranging from 0.77 to 1.52 USD/L. Under the basic assumptions, all the forestry residues apart from sawdust and shavings exhibited a negative net present value at current market prices. The profitability decreased with increasing bark content of the raw material. Sensitivity analyses showed that, at current market prices, the utilization of bark-containing forestry residues will not provide significant cost improvement compared with pulpwood unless the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars is improved.

  14. Thermal Properties of Green Fuel Briquettes from Residue Corncobs Materials Mixed Macadamia Shell Charcoal Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeta, Suminya; Nachaisin, Mali; Wanish, Suchana

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to produce green fuel briquettes from corncobs by adding macadamia shell charcoal powder. The study was sectioned into 3 parts: 1) Quality improvement of green fuel briquettes by adding macadamia; 2) Fuel property analysis based on ASTM standards and thermal fuel efficiency; and 3) Economics appropriateness in producing green fuel briquettes. This research produced green fuel briquettes using the ratio of corncobs weight and macadamia shell charcoal powder in 100:0 90:10 80:20 70:30 60:40 and 50:50 and pressing in the cold briquette machine. Fuel property analysis showed that green fuel briquettes at the ratio 50:50 produced maximum heating values at 21.06 Megajoule per kilogram and briquette density of 725.18 kilograms per cubic meter, but the percent of moisture content, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon were 10.09, 83.02, 2.17 and 4.72 respectively. The thermal efficiency of green fuel briquettes averaged 20.22%. Economics appropriateness was most effective where the ratio of corncobs weight to macadamia shell charcoal powder was at 50:50 which accounted for the cost per kilogram at 5.75 Baht. The net present value was at 1,791.25 Baht. Internal rate of return was at 8.62 and durations for a payback period of investment was at 1.9 years which was suitable for investment.

  15. Thermoeconomic analysis of a fuel cell hybrid power system from the fuel cell experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Tomas [Endesa Generacion, Ribera del Loira, 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: talvarez@endesa.es; Valero, Antonio [Fundacion CIRCE, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Montes, Jose M. [ETSIMM-Universidad Politecnica de.Madrid, Rios Rosas, 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    An innovative configuration of fuel cell technology is proposed based on a hybrid fuel cell system that integrates a turbogenerator to overcome the intrinsic limitations of fuel cells in conventional operation. An analysis is done of the application of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at the Guadalix Fuel Cell Test Facility, for the assessment of the performance of the fuel cell prototype to be integrated in the Hybrid Fuel Cell System. This is completed with a thermoeconomic analysis of the 100 kW cogeneration fuel cell power plant which was subsequently built. The operational results and design limitations are evaluated, together with the operational limits and thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction and losses) of the 100 kW fuel cell. This leads to the design of a hybrid system in order to demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of the new hybrid configuration. The results are quantified through a thermoeconomic analysis in order to get the most cost-effective plant configuration. One promising configuration is the MCFC topper where the fuel cell in the power plant behaves as a combustor for the turbogenerator. The latter behaves as the balance of plant for the fuel cell. The combined efficiency increased to 57% and NOx emissions are essentially eliminated. The synergy of the fuel cell/turbine hybrids lies mainly in the use of the rejected thermal energy and residual fuel from the fuel cell to drive the turbogenerator in a 500 kW hybrid system.

  16. Selected emissions and efficiencies of energy systems based on logging and sawmill residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, Helena; Virtanen, Yrjoe

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy has an important role in the implementation of the Kyoto agreement in Finland. The main sources of wood residues for energy production are logging areas and sawmills. The use of forest chips can be of great significance in reducing carbon dioxide emissions by replacing fossil fuels. Increasing the use of forest chips has environmental benefits, but it also includes possible environmental disadvantages. Therefore, system research is needed to assess the forest chip utilisation prospects for their environmental quality to secure sustainable forest management. Life-cycle methodology was developed and applied to assess environmental burdens and impacts of the logging and sawmill residues throughout the whole fuel chain from the forest to energy production. According to the study, the energy efficiencies of the forest chip systems are quite high. Net CO 2 emissions of the systems are low owing to the low input of external primary energy required to operate the systems. Although wood energy is renewable, it has many similarities with fossil fuels, e.g. as the emissions of the conversion phase are significant

  17. Summary report of phase I residual holdup measurements for a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsum, H.C.

    1978-03-01

    Metal surface-powder adherence tests showed that the average mean values for direct impingement was 60 to 80 g/ft 2 , whereas the average mean values of the colloidal samples were 0.2 to 2.5 g/ft 2 . Thus, it is advantageous to design powder processing equipment to reduce direct impingement wherever possible. Holdup of powder appears to be relatively independent of the surface material or finish, and it is reduced significantly by low-frequency vibration of the surface. Under colloidal conditions, ThO 2 produces more residual material than UO 2 and is preferentially deposited from a UO 2 --ThO 2 blend. Pure ThO 2 and high enrichment blends of ThO 2 in UO 2 are expected to produce a significant, persistent electrostatic charge, thus increasing residual holdup. Residual holdup in the clean scrap recovery system (CSRS) could be reduced by 25%. Comparison of CSRS holdup and powder adherence-metal surface data indicated that the areal density of residual material (40 g/ft 2 ) was considerably higher than for colloidal suspension ( 2 ). Steady-state residual holdup factor for sintered-metal filters was 13 g/ft 2 of filter surface area under optimum conditions. During the pellet grinding tests, residual material built up in the system at rate of about 100 g/h to an estimated limit of 1.4 kg, primarily within the particle collector shroud. During dry grinding, 97% of this residue was contained within the shroud, and during wet grinding only 50% was contained in the shroud owing to inertial effects of the rotating wheel and water coolant

  18. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  19. Coast Live Oak Thinning Study in the Central Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman H. Pillsbury; Michael J. DeLasaux; Timothy R. Plumb

    1987-01-01

    Abstract: Along-term thinning study was established in ten stands of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia N in the Central Coast of California. Information about diameter, basal area, and volume growth and yield is being obtained from unthinned control plots and from plots thinned to 50 and 100 square feet of basal area per acre. Descriptive information was also collected...

  20. Gadolinia experience and design for PWR fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Siemens Power Corporation's (SPC) current experience with the burnable absorber gadolinia in PWR fuel assemblies, including optimized features of SPC's PWR gadolinia designs, and comparisons with other burnable absorbers. Siemens is the world leader in PWR gadolinia experience. More than 5,900 Siemens PWR gadolinia-bearing fuel assemblies have been irradiated. The use of gadolinia-bearing fuel provides significant flexibility in fuel cycle designs, allows for low radial leakage fuel management and extended operating cycles, and reduces BOC (beginning-of-cycle) soluble boron concentrations. The optimized use of an integral burnable neutron absorber is a design feature which provides improved economic performance for PWR fuel assemblies. This paper includes a comparison between three different types of integral burnable absorbers: gadolinia, Zirconium diboride and erbia. Fuel cycle design studies performed by Siemens have shown that the enrichment requirements for 18-24 month fuel cycles utilizing gadolinia or zirconium diboride integral fuel burnable absorbers can be approximately the same. Although a typical gadolinia residual penalty for a cycle design of this length is as low as 0.02-0.03 wt% U-235, the design flexibility of gadolinia allows for very aggressive low-leakage core loading plans which reduces the enrichment requirements for gadolinia-bearing fuel. SPC has optimized its use of gadolinia in PWR fuel cycles. Typically, low (2-4) weight percent Gd 2 O 3 is used for beginning to middle of cycle reactivity hold down as well as soluble boron concentration holddown at BOC. Higher concentrations of Gd 2 O 3 , such as 6 and 8 wt%, are used to control power peaking in assemblies later in the cycle. SPC has developed core strategies that maximize the use of lower gadolinia concentrations which significantly reduces the gadolinia residual reactivity penalty. This optimization includes minimizing the number of rods with

  1. Effect of nitrate addition on biorestoration of fuel-contaminated aquifer: Field demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, S.R.; Downs, W.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Smith, G.B.; Kovacs, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    A spill of JP-4 jet fuel at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan, contaminated a water-table aquifer. An infiltration gallery (30 ft X 30 ft) was installed above a section of the aquifer containing 700 gal JP-4. Purge wells recirculated three million gallons of ground water per week through the infiltration gallery at a rate designed to raise the water table above the contaminated interval. Ground water containing ambient concentrations was first recirculated for 40 days. Concentrations of benzene in monitoring wells beneath the infiltration gallery were reduced from 760 to <1 micrograms/1. Concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were reduced from 4500 to 17,840 to 44,2600 to 490, and 1400 to 260 micrograms/1, respectively. Average core concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were reduced from 0.84 to 0.032, 33 to 0.13, 18 to 0.36, 58 to 7.4, and 26 to 3.2 mg/kg, respectively. Ground water amended with nitrate (10 mg/1 nitrate-nitrogen) and nutrients was then recirculated for 76 days. Final core concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene were 0.017, 0.036, 0.019, 0.059, and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively. Final aqueous concentrations were <1 micrograms/1 for benzene and toluene, 6 micrograms/1 for ethylbenzene, and 20 to 40 micrograms/1 for the xylene isomers, in good agreement with predicted values based on residual fuel content and partitioning theory. Although alkylbenzene concentrations have been substantially reduced, the test plot is still contaminated with the weathered fuel. Based on stoichiometry, approximately 10 times more nitrate was consumed than could be accounted for by BTX degradation alone, indicating that other compounds were also degraded under denitrifying conditions

  2. Proceedings of the 8. biennial residual wood conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference highlighted practical strategies for managing and utilizing residual wood as a true industry resource. Examples of successful wood energy projects were presented along with the technology and products of more than 30 companies involved in the residual wood business. The topics of discussion ranged from biomass supplies, quality issues, and harvesting guidelines to emerging biomass technologies, project overviews, and financing. The presentations outlined the many opportunities that exist for the forest industry to produce energy from biostock, such as healthy and diseased trees, underbrush, sawdust, wood chips, wood pulp and black liquor. Increasing fuel and energy costs along with advances in technology are improving the economy of forest-based biorefineries. The presentations showed how the industry can gain revenue from residual wood, which is steadily becoming a more valuable resource for pellet production and energy generation The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Advances in the generation of a new emulsified fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A. [Technical Consultancy, Energy Plus UC, Huitzilac, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Aseguramiento de Hidrocarburos, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Termofluidos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bolado, R.; Mora, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Combustion, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The development of a new emulsified fuel is described, from the conceptual idea to the semi-industrial tests of the final product. The starting point was the necessity to lower the particulate matter (PM) emissions produced by the combustion of more than 200 MBD of heavy fuel oil (HFO) used for electric power conversion. The major component of HFO is a vacuum residue of the oil refining process mixed with light cycle oils to make it pumpable. An alternative to handle and burn the high viscosity residue (solid at room temperature) is by converting it in an oil-in-water emulsion. The best emulsions resulted of 70% residue in 30% water, Sauter Mean Diameter of 10-20 {mu}m and a stability of more than 90 days. Spray burning tests of the emulsion against HFO in a semi-industrial 500 kW furnace showed a reduction in PM emissions of 24-36%. (orig.)

  4. Utilisation of liquid residues; Verwertung von fluessigen Rueckstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, E [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Lab. Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    1995-05-01

    The author describes experiments in which combustible liquid residues were mixed with diesel oil in order to obtain fuels for slightly modified diesel engines. The technical problems can be solved. In a trial operation period, various refuse/diesel oil fuels were tested for more than 300 hours. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine hochwertige thermische Verwertung von fluessigen Rueckstaenden waere moeglich, wenn es gelaenge, entsprechende Rueckstaende so aufzubereiten, dass sie als Kraftstoffe verwendet werden koennten. Diese Kraftstoffe koennten dann in Verbrennungsmotoren, die Blockheizkraftwerke antreiben, eingesetzt werden. Blockheizkraftwerke liefern mit einem besonders guenstigen Wirkunkungsgrad elektrische und thermische Nutzenergie; die Verbrennungsmotoren in solchen Kraftwerken werden derzeit mit heute ueblichen Kraftstoffen, aber beispielsweise auch mit Deponie- und Biogas betrieben. (orig.)

  5. Process and catalysis for hydrocracking of heavy oil and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Kressmann, S. [Centre d' Etudes et de developpement Indutriel ' Rene Navarre' , Vernaison (France); Harle, V.; Kasztelan, S. [Division Cinetique et Catalyse, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-07-01

    Atmospheric or vacuum residue can be converted into valuable distillates using reaction temperature, high hydrogen pressure and low contact time hydroprocessing units. Various residue hydrocracking processes are now commercially employed using fixed bed, moving bed or ebullated bed reactors. The choice of process type depends mainly on the amount of metals and asphaltenes in the feed and on the level of conversion required. Various improvements have been introduced in the last decade to increase run length, conversion level, products qualities and stability of the residual fuel. These improvements include on stream catalysts replacement systems, swing reactors, improved feed distribution, guard bed materials limiting pressure drop, coke resistant catalysts, complex association of catalysts using particle size, activity and pore size grading. Further improvement of the resistance of catalysts to deactivation by coke and metal deposits and of the hydrodenitrogenation activity are two major challenges for the development of new residue hydrocracking catalysts and processes. 29 refs.

  6. Residual salts separation from metal reduced electrolytically in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    The PWR spent oxide fuel can be reduced electrolytically in a hot molten salt for the conditioning and the preparation of a metallic fuel. Then the metal product is smelted into an ingot to be treated in the post process. Incidentally, the residual salt which originated from the molten salt and spent fuel elements should be separated from the metal product during the smelting. In this work, we constructed a surrogate material system to simulate the salt separation from the reduced spent fuel and studied the vaporization behaviors of the salts

  7. Importance of low-temperature distillation of coal for German fuel economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, F

    1942-01-01

    Improved processes are available to give low-temperature distillation products economic importance. Low-temperature distillation is limited to the utilization of high-volatile nut coals and briquets. The coke formed can be used as a smokeless fuel, and the tar directly as a fuel oil. Phenols can be extracted, in order to work up the residue into fuel oil and motor fuel. Large deposits of coal in Upper Silesia and in the Saar District are suitable for low-temperature distillation.

  8. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  9. HEU Measurements of Holdup and Recovered Residue in the Deactivation and Decommissioning Activities of the 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEWBERRY, RAYMOND; SALAYMEH, SALEEM R.; CASELLA, VITO R.; MOORE, FRANK S.

    2005-03-11

    This paper contains a summary of the holdup and material control and accountability (MC&A) assays conducted for the determination of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 321-M at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The 321-M facility was the Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at SRS and was used to fabricate HEU fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the SRS production reactors. The facility operated for more than 35 years. During this time thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) production reactor fuel tubes were produced. After the facility ceased operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The bulk of this residue was located in the equipment that generated and handled small U-Al particles and in the exhaust systems for this equipment (e.g., Chip compactor, casting furnaces, log saw, lathes A & B, cyclone separator, Freon{trademark} cart, riser crusher, ...etc). The D&D project is likely to represent an important example for D&D activities across SRS and across the Department of Energy weapons complex. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked to conduct holdup assays to quantify the amount of HEU on all components removed from the facility prior to placing in solid waste containers. The U-235 holdup in any single component of process equipment must not exceed 50 g in order to meet the container limit. This limit was imposed to meet criticality requirements of the low level solid waste storage vaults. Thus the holdup measurements were used as guidance to determine if further decontamination of equipment was needed to ensure that the quantity of U-235 did not exceed the 50 g limit and to ensure that the waste met the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the solid waste storage vaults. Since HEU is an accountable nuclear material, the holdup assays and assays of recovered

  10. HDHPLUS/SHP : heavy residue hydroconversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F. [Axens, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described an integrated refinery process that achieves nearly full conversion of heavy and refractory residues into ultra high quality and ultra low sulphur transportation fuels with a yield great than 100 volume per cent. The Axens, IFP and Intevep/PDVSA Alliance combined the HDHPLUS vacuum residue slurry technology with Sequential Hydro Processing (SHP) of primary hydrocracked products. Both technologies have undergone extensive testing at a refinery in Puerto La Cruz (RPLC), Venezuela to begin production of 50,000 BPSD in 2012. The demonstration unit at Intevep has been used to investigate production of effluent for the downstream SHP processing. This paper also reviewed the SHP bench unit operations at IFP's Lyon research center in France and disclosed the final product yields and qualities. The test results have shown the expected RPLC deep conversion commercial unit performances and fully secure its design basis. tabs., figs.

  11. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. - DDE and β-HCH residues were higher in an endangered compared to an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway

  12. Forest residue baling due diligence assessment, proving and transport trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Transport is known to be the most significant cost element to wood fuel supply cost, with the cost of comminution being the most variable depending on the method chosen. It has been shown in previous studies that wood fuel compaction in the form of compression can significantly increase the net load capability of the transport systems currently available, thereby leading to significant savings in delivered price. The study identified the Fiberpac residue compression machine suitable for use under UK conditions. The Fiberpac machine was trialled for a period of approximately 6 months to gain information on productivity, reliability and production costs. (author)

  13. Economic valuation of the environmental impact of logging residue recovery and nutrient compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the environmental impact of logging residue recovery (LRR) and nutrient compensation (NC) in Sweden is analysed and evaluated economically. Logging reside recovery and recirculation of wood ash can generate local environmental benefits, such as reduced soil acidification and, primarily in southern Sweden, also improved nitrogen balance and reduced nutrient leaching from forest land. Recovery of residues leads to a slight increase in net emissions of carbon dioxide, compared with on site decomposition, but this increase is small compared with the net emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel cycles. The impact of toxic compounds is estimated to be insignificant, as is that on biodiversity, when current guidelines for forestry management methods are followed. The total cost, including direct costs and environmental costs/benefits, of LRR and NC is estimated to be about 1.1, 3.3 and 4.6 US dollars/GJ in southern, central and northern Sweden, respectively. For comparison, the current direct cost of LRR, excluding NC, is, on average, about 4.0 US dollars/GJ in Sweden. Almost one-third of the Swedish forest fuel potential is estimated to be located in the south, but this potential varies from about 50 to over 100 PJ per year depending on the assumptions made. Thus, when local environmental benefits are also considered, the overall economic benefit derived from the utilisation of forest fuels could increase significantly in southern Sweden, where large quantities of logging residues are available. (author)

  14. Spatial Reconnaissance : Technical Report ComCoast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Ahlhorn, F.

    2005-01-01

    ComCoast (Combined Functions in Coastal Defence Zones) is an INTERREG IIIB project funded by the EU. ComCoast aims to develop and demonstrate innovative solutions for flood protection in coastal areas. In ComCoast, five countries from the North Sea Region are involved: Belgium, Denmark, The

  15. Hydrographic data report, west coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Asencio, R.

    1975-01-01

    The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. Classical oceanographic methods were used in sampling and analyzing sea water at depths from 10 to 300 meters. This report includes data from two sites: the Punta Higuero site, PHI, is the site of the former ''BONUS'' nuclear power plant and the Cabo Rojo Platform, CRP, is a possible site for offshore power generating plants. The two west coast sites are centered about 30 kilometers apart. (CH)

  16. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  18. Characterization, leachability and valorization through combustion of residual chars from gasification of coals with pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhetas, Margarida; Lopes, Helena; Freire, Márcia; Abelha, Pedro; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of char residues produced during co-gasification of coal with pine with the aim of characterizing them for their potential use for energy. These residues are generally rich in carbon with the presence of other elements, with particular concern for heavy metals and pollutant precursors, depending on the original fuel used. The evaluation of environmental toxicity of the char residues was performed through application of different leaching tests (EN12457-2, US EPA-1311 TCLP and EA NEN 7371:2004). The results showed that the residues present quite low toxicity for some of pollutants. However, depending on the fuel used, possible presence of other pollutants may bring environmental risks. The utilization of these char residues for energy was in this study evaluated, by burning them as a first step pre-treatment prior to landfilling. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and ash fusibility studies revealed an adequate thermochemical behavior, without presenting any major operational risks. Fluidized bed combustion was applied to char residues. Above 700°C, very high carbon conversion ratios were obtained and it seemed that the thermal oxidation of char residues was easier than that of the coals. It was found that the char tendency for releasing SO(2) during its oxidation was lower than for the parent coal, while for NO(X) emissions, the trend was observed to increase NO(X) formation. However, for both pollutants the same control techniques might be applied during char combustion, as for coal. Furthermore, the leachability of ashes resulting from the combustion of char residues appeared to be lower than those produced from direct coal combustion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 33 CFR 23.10 - Coast Guard emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section... DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The distinctive emblem of the Coast Guard shall be as follows: On a disc the shield of the Coat of Arms of the United...

  20. Concept Design of a Gravity Core Cooling Tank as a Passive Residual Heat Removal System for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwonyeong; Chi, Daeyoung; Kim, Seong Hoon; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Yoon, Juhyeon

    2014-01-01

    A core downward flow is considered to use a plate type fuel because it is benefit to install the fuel in the core. If a flow inversion from a downward to upward flow in the core by a natural circulation is introduced within a high heat flux region of residual heat, the fuel fails instantly due to zero flow. Therefore, the core downward flow should be sufficiently maintained until the residual heat is in a low heat flux region. In a small power research reactor, inertia generated by a flywheel of the PCP can maintain a downward flow shortly and resolve the problem of a flow inversion. However, a high power research reactor more than 10 MW should have an additional method to have a longer downward flow until a low heat flux. Usually, other research reactors have selected an active residual heat removal system as a safety class. But, an active safety system is difficult to design and expensive to construct. A Gravity Core Cooling Tank (GCCT) beside the reactor pool with a Residual Heat Removal Pipe connecting two pools was developed and designed preliminarily as a passive residual heat removal system for an open-pool type research reactor. It is very simple to design and cheap to construct. Additionally, a non-safety, but active residual heat removal system is applied with the GCCT. It is a Pool Water Cooling and Purification System. It can improve the usability of the research reactor by removing the thermal waves, and purify the reactor pool, the Primary Cooling System, and the GCCT. Moreover, it can reduce the pool top radiation level

  1. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of the use of forest residues for bioenergy production in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Carly; Mortimer, Nigel; Murphy, Richard; Matthews, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle analysis is used to assess the energy requirements and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with extracting UK forest harvesting residues for use as a biomass resource. Three forest harvesting residues were examined (whole tree thinnings, roundwood and brash bales), and each have their own energy and emission profile. The whole forest rotation was examined, including original site establishment, forest road construction, biomass harvesting during thinning and final clear-fell events, chipping and transportation. Generally, higher yielding sites give lower GHG emissions per ‘oven dried tonne’ (ODT) forest residues, but GHG emissions ‘per hectare’ are higher as more biomass is extracted. Greater quantities of biomass, however, ultimately mean greater displacement of conventional fuels and therefore greater potential for GHG emission mitigation. Although forest road construction and site establishment are “one off” events they are highly energy-intensive operations associated with high diesel fuel consumption, when placed in context with the full forest rotation, however, their relative contributions to the overall energy requirements and GHG emissions are small. The lower bulk density of wood chips means that transportation energy requirements and GHG emissions are higher compared with roundwood logs and brash bales, suggesting that chipping should occur near the end-user of application. -- Highlights: ► GHGs and fuel consumption assessed for UK clear-fell conifer forest residues. ► Energy use and GHG emissions for forest road construction characterised. ► Lower energy requirements and GHG emissions per ODT for higher yielding sites. ► Transport energy and GHG emissions higher for wood chip than roundwood or brash bales. ► Results useful in predicting GHG mitigation potential from UK commercial conifer forest residues.

  3. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.

    1994-01-01

    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  4. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-15

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li{sub 2}O, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SrCl{sub 2} were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li{sub 2}O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li{sub 2}O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl{sub 2} > SrCl{sub 2}.

  5. Part 1: Logging residues in piles - Needle loss and fuel quality. Part 2: Nitrogen leaching under piles of logging residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtikangas, P.; Lundkvist, H.

    1991-01-01

    Part 1: Experimental piles were built in three geographical locations during May-Sept. 1989. Logging residues consisted of 95% spruce and 5% pine. Height of the piles varied between 80 and 230 cm. Needles were collected by placing drawers under 40 randomely chosen piles. The drawers were emptied every two weeks during the storage period. Natural needle loss was between 18 and 32% of the total amount of needles after the first two months of storage. At the end of the storage period, 24-42% of the needles had fallen down to the drawers. At the end of the experiment the total needle fall was 95-100% in the shaken piles. According to the results of this study piles smaller than 150 cm had the most effective needle fall. Piles should be placed on open places where the air and sun heat penetrate and dry them. Needles were the most sensitive fraction to variations in precipitation compared to the other components, such as branches. Piles usually dried quickly, but they also rewet easily. This was especially true in the smaller piles. The lowest moisture content was measured at the end of June. The ash content in needles varied between 4 and 8%. 16 refs., 15 figs. Part 2: Three field experiments were equipped with no-tension humus lysimeters. Pairs of lysimeters with the same humus/field layer vegetation material were placed in pairs, one under a pile of felling residues and another in the open clear felling. Leaching of nitrogen as well as pH and electric conductivity in the leachate was followed through sampling of the leachate at regular intervals. The results from the investigation show that: * the amount of leachate was higher in lysimeters in the open clear felling, * pH in the leachate was initially lower under piles of felling residues, * the amount of nitrogen leached was higher in the open clear felling. Thus, storing of felling residues in piles during the summer season did not cause any increase in nitrogen leaching, which had been considered to be a risk

  6. Good practice at Tokai No. 2 Power Station at the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kimihito

    2017-01-01

    At Tokai No. 2 Power Station, one of the three seawater pumps for cooling the emergency diesel generator (D/G) became unusable due to the tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, and one of the functions of two residual heat removal systems was lost. However, due to the cooperation and accurate judgment of many power station staff, partner companies, and many stakeholders, cold shutdown was successfully achieved. This is the results of day-to-day power plant operation management and correct response to the tasks that occurred during response process. Good practice included the following items. (1) Continuous tsunami countermeasures: Although a serious accident was escaped by level raising work, the above mentioned seawater pump function loss occurred due to the incomplete part. (2) Judgment on core cooling at the time of D/G function loss. (3) Early securing of preliminary power and fuel. (4) Power securing for waste disposal system. (5) Reflection of precedent cases and experiences: Installation of seismic isolation building as emergency measures, fixation of fluorescent lamp louvers, and earthquake response drills at central control room. (6) Collaboration among departments: Arrangement of communicators other than operators, preparation of equipment/articles corresponding to large tsunami warnings, placement of monitoring personnel, placement of personnel for check of power interchange, and securing of a circulation bus for commuting. (A.O.)

  7. Modification of fuel properties under thermal load; Veraenderung von Kraftstoffeigenschaften unter thermischer Belastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Kornelia; Richter, Beate; Schuemann, Ulrike; Crusius, Svetlana; Streibel, Thorsten W.; Harndorf, Horst [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Abt. Analytische und Technische Chemie

    2013-10-01

    Diesel fuel without FAME and additives as well as rapeseed methyl ester were thermally stressed (150 C) at laboratory conditions. In the course of the performed study, the chemical composition of the fuels and possibly generated residues were analyzed with regards to the influence of oxygen availability and test duration. Therefore, chromatographic methods as GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) and HP-SEC (High Performance-Size Exclusion Chromatography) have successfully been applied. In the formed solid B 0-residues mainly oxygen-containing aromatic compounds were identified, while the biodiesel samples show mostly decomposition products of the biofuel like carbonic acids and aldehydes. In both fuels an increasing amount of compounds with high molecular weights was observed versus test duration. It is assumed that these components consist of oligo- and polymers with high oxygen content. However, this needs to be proved by further analytical methods. On the basis of these results prospective tailor-made additive packages for the stabilisation of fuels and the prevention of deposits in fuel injection systems, can be developed and applied. (orig.)

  8. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.M.; Hadder, G.R.; Singh, S.P.N.; Whittle, C.

    1985-07-01

    The Department of the Navy (DON) requires an improved capability to forecast mobility fuel availability and quality. The changing patterns in fuel availability and quality are important in planning the Navy's Mobility Fuels R and D Program. These changes come about primarily because of the decline in the quality of crude oil entering world markets as well as the shifts in refinery capabilities domestically and worldwide. The DON requested ORNL's assistance in assembling and testing a methodology for forecasting mobility fuel trends. ORNL reviewed and analyzed domestic and world oil reserve estimates, production and price trends, and recent refinery trends. Three publicly available models developed by the Department of Energy were selected as the basis of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System. The system was used to analyze the availability and quality of jet fuel (JP-5) that could be produced on the West Coast of the United States under an illustrative business-as-usual and a world oil disruption scenario in 1990. Various strategies were investigated for replacing the lost JP-5 production. This exercise, which was strictly a test case for the forecasting system, suggested that full recovery of lost fuel production could be achieved by relaxing the smoke point specifications or by increasing the refiners' gate price for the jet fuel. A more complete analysis of military mobility fuel trends is currently under way.

  9. Modelling of the spent fuel heat-up in the spent fuel pools using one-dimensional system codes and CFD codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazevicius, Audrius; Kaliatka, Algirdas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Lab. of Nuclear Installation Safety

    2017-07-15

    The main functions of spent fuel pools are to remove the residual heat from spent fuel assemblies and to perform the function of biological shielding. In the case of loss of heat removal from spent fuel pool, the fuel rods and pool water temperatures would increase continuously. After the saturated temperature is reached, due to evaporation of water the pool water level would drop, eventually causing the uncover of spent fuel assemblies, fuel overheating and fuel rods failure. This paper presents an analysis of loss of heat removal accident in spent fuel pool of BWR 4 and a comparison of two different modelling approaches. The one-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic computer code RELAP5 and CFD tool ANSYS Fluent were used for the analysis. The results are similar, but the local effects cannot be simulated using a one-dimensional code. The ANSYS Fluent calculation demonstrated that this three-dimensional treatment allows to avoid the need for many one-dimensional modelling assumptions in the pool modelling and enables to reduce the uncertainties associated with natural circulation flow calculation.

  10. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  11. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo, E-mail: swkuk@kaeri.re.kr [Next Generation Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock [Next Generation Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Young-Sang [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yun [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry & Nuclear Nonproliferation, University of Science & Technology, Gajeong-ro 217, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  12. Residual radioactivity investigation and radiological assessments for self-disposal of concrete waste in nuclear fuel processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Jeung Gun; Ryu, Jae Bong; Cho, Suk Ju; Yoo, Sung Hyun; Song, Jung Ho; Baek, Hoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Jin Seong; Park, Hyun Kyoun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, domestic regulatory requirement was investigated for self-disposal of concrete waste from nuclear fuel processing facility. And after self-disposal as landfill or recycling/reuse, the exposure dose was evaluated by RESRAD Ver. 6.3 and RESRAD BUILD Ver. 3.3 computing code for radiological assessments of the general public. Derived clearance level by the result of assessments for the exposure dose of the general public is 0.1071Bq/g (3.5% enriched uranium) for landfill and 0.05515 Bq/cm 2 (5% enriched uranium) for recycling/reuse respectively. Also, residual radioactivity of concrete waste after decontamination was investigated in this study. The result of surface activity is 0.01Bq/cm 2 for emitter and the result of radionuclide analysis for taken concrete samples from surface of concrete waste is 0.0297Bq/g for concentration of 238 U, below 2w/o for enrichment of 235 U and 0.0089Bq/g for artificial contamination of 238 U respectively. Therefore, radiological hazard of concrete waste by self-disposal as landfill and recycling/reuse is below clearance level to comply with clearance criterion provided for Notice No. 2001-30 of the MOST and Korea Atomic Energy Act

  13. Performance of U-Pu-Zr fuel cast into zirconium molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.C.; Lahm, C.E.; Tsai, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current fabrication techniques for the integral fast reactor (IFR) fuel utilize injection casting into quartz molds after reprocessing in the IFR fuel cycle facility. The quartz molds are destroyed during the fuel demolding process, and the quartz residue must therefore be treated as contaminated waste. Alternatively, if the fuel can be cast into molds that remain as part of the fuel slugs (i.e., if the fuel can be left inside the molds for irradiation), then the quartz mold contribution to the waste stream can be eliminated. This possibility is being addresssed in an ongoing effort to evaluate the irradiation performance of fuel cast into zirconium sheaths rather than quartz molds. Zirconium was chosen as the sheath material because it is the component of the U-Pu-Zr fuel alloy that raises the alloy solidus temperatures and provides resistance to fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI)

  14. Gasification characteristics of auto shredder residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navee, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Given the large volume of used tyre waste generated each year it is imperative that suitable re-use and disposal techniques are developed for dealing with this problem; presently these include rethreading, reprocessing for use as safe playground and sports surfaces, use as noise reduction barriers and utilisation as a fuel source. This paper reports on pilot scale studies designed to investigate the suitability of automotive waste for energy recovery via gasification. The study was carried out into auto shredder residue, which is a mixture of three distinct waste streams: tyres, rubber/plastic and general automotive waste. The tests included proximate, ultimate and elemental analysis, TGA, as well as calorific value determinations. In addition, the waste was tested in a desktop gasifier, and analysis was carried out to determine the presence and type of combustible gases. It was concluded that tyre waste and rubber/plastic waste are quite suitable fuels for gasification. (author)

  15. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then sieved into different grain particles of 350 μm, 250 μm and 150 μm, before mixing with MF in the ratios: 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 ...

  16. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  17. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 120813333-2647-01] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  18. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  19. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  20. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  1. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... 101206604-1758-02] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  2. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... 101206604-1620-01] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  3. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    .... 120813333-3107-02] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  4. Comparative ecobalancing accounting of semi-central house heat supply from wood residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemann, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 almost 40 percent of the German final energy demand was used for room heating and hot water supply. To decrease environmental burdens and to save fossil resources a restructuring of the heating sector is needed. Therefore legislation enforces higher insulation standards of buildings and a more frequent use of renewable energies as well as heating networks. Wood as a renewable and storable energy source is an attractive fuel. However, it must be used as efficiently as possible because of limited wood supplies. Connecting buildings via a heating network is a good option since bigger heating plants can operate at higher efficiencies than small heaters. However, the higher insulation standards of the buildings often oppose the construction of a heating network, because heating networks work best with high energy demands and low network lengths. Therefore the environmental and economic feasibility of new heating networks needs to be checked beforehand. This thesis explores the environmental burdens of different semi- centralized heating networks using wood residues as fuel. A semi- centralized heating network is a network with no more than 500 customers and a heating plant with less than 5 MWth. While wood residues are used in the base load plant, peak load is covered by a gas heating plant. As a method to analyze the potential environmental burdens of the heat supply a life cycle assessment according to ISO 14040/44 is used. Opposed to former life cycle assessment studies, construction and operation of the network is included in the assessment. Even though the environmental impacts of the semi- centralized heating from wood residues are dominated by the heat supply, an observation of the impacts solely at the heating plant is not sufficient. By varying the boundary conditions of the heating network two main contributors to the environmental impacts are found. In addition to the heat production at the plant the type of the buildings in the settlement has a huge

  5. Conventional OTSG development for heavy liquid fuel firing in thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setchfield, W.P. [Mitchell Engineers Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Roset, J.N. [Total S.A., Paris (France); Schaffer, M. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); O' Connor, D. [MEG Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kense, K. [TIW Western Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The demand for natural gas is expected to increase as a result of future expansion in Canadian extra heavy oil in-situ thermal production, such as steam assisted gravity drainage or SAGD projects. Natural gas is the current predominant fuel utilized for the associated steam generation. Potential natural gas shortages and related price volatility require that operators consider alternative fuels for the projected growth of in-situ thermal production in Alberta. This paper targeted the use of bitumen from upstream sites and derivative residues from upgrading activities as the most convenient alternative fuel sources for thermal operators of established horizontal type gas fired once through steam generators (OTSGs). The paper presented the methodology, the issues associated with bitumen or residue burning and the related technical solutions in developing a multi-fuel OTSG product. The paper provided background information on conventional OTSG design development, conventional OTSG existing deign, and general description of conventional OTSG. The paper also described the configuration of a radiant furnace, convection module, and theories and definitions such as heavy liquid fuels. A description and application of the equipment and processes as well as a presentation of the data and results was then offered. The multi fuel OTSG design is considered to be a practical and workable product capable of firing heavy liquid fuels. However, the design changes have had a significant impact when compared with conventional OTSG boilers. 11 figs.

  6. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Return of vitrified residues from France to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    For more than 15 years now, COGEMA facilities in La Hague have received, stored and reprocessed spent fuel from France, Japan and other countries: Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands. According to contracts, COGEMA ensures the reprocessing service, consisting in separating the recyclable products (uranium and plutonium) from the wastes which are then duly conditioned and returned to their owners for final disposal. The transportation aspects of returning the reprocessed residues to Japan is presented. (K.A.)

  8. Environmental interpretation using insoluble residues within reef coral skeletons: problems, pitfalls, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Ann F.; Mann, Keith O.; Guzmán, Hector M.

    1993-03-01

    Insoluble residue concentrations have been measured within colonies of four massive reef corals from seven localities along the Caribbean coast of Panama to determine if detrital sediments, incorporated within the skeletal lattice during growth, record changes in sedimentation over the past twenty years. Amounts of resuspended sediment have increased to varying degrees at the seven localities over the past decades in response to increased deforestation in nearby terrestrial habitats. Preliminary results of correlation and regression analyses reveal few consistent temporal trends in the insoluble residue concentration. Analyses of variance suggest that amounts of insoluble residues, however, differ among environments within species, but that no consistent pattern of variation exists among species. D. strigosa and P. astreoides possess high concentrations at protected localities, S. siderea at localities with high amounts of resuspended sediment, and M. annularis at the least turbid localities. Little correlation exists between insoluble residue concentration and growth band width within species at each locality. Only in two more efficient suspension feeders ( S. siderea and D. strigosa) do weak negative correlations with growth band width exist overall. These results indicate that insoluble residue concentrations cannot be used unequivocally in environmental interpretation, until more is known about tissue damage, polyp behavior, and their effects on the incorporation of insolubles in the skeleton during growth in different coral species. Insoluble residue data are highly variable; therefore, large sample sizes and strong contrasts between environments are required to reveal significant trends.

  9. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  10. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... proposed Trawl Rationalization Program. We are interested in feedback concerning proposed regulations to... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a trawl rationalization program that...

  11. Characterization methods of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillos, O.W.R.; Teixeira, S.R.; Lordello, A.R.; Imakuma, K.; Rodrigues, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to organize quality control and quality assurance activities for PWR fuel production, the laboratory of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) has developed various chemical and physical methods to be employed for fuel characterization of UO 2 pellets. The techniques developed are the determination of total residual gases by vacuum fusion method, determination of impurity elements by optical spectrography and characterization methods by X-ray diffraction. The development and the implementation of these techniques under the implementation of these techniques under the general scheme of characterization and quality control is the major theme discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Zr-rich layers electrodeposited onto stainless steel cladding during the electrorefining of EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Mariani, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent nuclear fuels. The initial demonstration of this process is being conducted on U-Zr alloy fuel elements irradiated in the experimental breeder reactor II (EBR-II). We report the first metallographic characterization of cladding hull remains for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent metallic fuel. During the electrorefining process, Zr-rich layers, with some U, deposit on all exposed surfaces of irradiated cladding segments (hulls) that originally contained the fuel alloy that was being treated. In some cases, not only was residual Zr (and U) found inside the cladding hulls, but a Zr-rind was also observed near the interior cladding hull surface. The Zr-rind was originally formed during the fuel casting process on the fuel slug. The observation of Zr deposits on all exposed cladding surfaces is explained with thermodynamic principles, when two conditions are met. These conditions are partial oxidation of Zr and the presence of residual uranium in the hulls when the electrorefining experiment is terminated. Comparisons are made between the structure of the initial irradiated fuel before electrorefining and the morphology of the material remaining in the cladding hulls after electrorefining. (orig.)

  13. Tritium distribution between the fuel can and the oxide of fuel elements of light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.

    1986-12-01

    The study on the measurement of tritium and other radionuclide contained in zircaloy fuel cans of the water cooled reactor fuel elements had two aims: the first was to estimate with accuracy the distribution of tritium in a fuel element (can + oxide). The measurement of tritium in the zircaloy fuel cans of the BORSSELE fuel elements associated with the measurement of tritium in the oxide allowed the establishment of a complete tritium balance on an industrial spent fuel element. This result has been compared to the values calculated by the code CEA/SEN and will allow to validate or adjust this calculation. The second aim delt with the characterization of the other radionuclides gaseous (Kr85) or not (Cs 134 and 137) contained in the solid zircaloy wastes (hulls) coming from the industrial reprocessing of ''water cooled'' fuel elements. These activity measurements in the hulls allowed to estimate the residual content of tritium, Kr 85 and other radionuclides which may be found in these solid wastes (high-level βγ radioactive wastes). Original experimental methods have been developed to reach these aims (dissolution in ammonium bifluoride medium and quantitative recovery of gases produced, radiochromatography, and liquid scintillation after double distillation). One tries to explain the presence of Kr 85 in the irradiated can [fr

  14. Net emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when using forest residues for production of heat and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterberg, L.; Hansen, O.

    1998-05-01

    This study estimates net emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from the use of forest residues for production of heat and electricity. In the report, the use of forest residues for energy production is called residue-usage. Our results show that for a turnover period of 80 years, the net emission of CO 2 to the atmosphere is 15.8 kg CO 2 -C/MWh (3.1-31.6 kg CO 2 -C/MWh), which represents 16% of the total carbon content in the wood fuel (3%-32%). Fossil fuel consumption is responsible for 3.1 kg CO 2 -C/MWh of this. Residue-usage may produce indirect emissions or uptake of carbon dioxide, e.g. through changes in production conditions, changes in the turnover of carbon in the humus layer or through a reduction of the amount of forest fires. Due to uncertainties in data it is hard to quantify these indirect effects. In some cases it is hard even to determine their signs. As a consequence of this, we have chosen not to include the indirect effects in our estimates of net emissions from residue-usage. Instead we discuss these effects in a qualitative manner. It may seem surprising that the biogenic part of the residue-usage produces a net emission of carbon dioxide considering that carbon has originated from the atmosphere. The explanation is that the residue-usage systematically leads to earlier emissions than would be the case if the residues were left on the ground. If forest residues are left to decay, in the long run a pool of carbon might be created in the ground. This does not happen with residue-usage 33 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  15. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sardinella aurita from the coastal waters of Accra-Tema, Ghana and their potential health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, E.; Botwe, B.O.; Bampoe, A.A.; Addo, S.; Armah, A.K.; Ntow, W.J.; Kelderman, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sardinella aurita and seawater samples from the Accra-Tema coast of Ghana were analysed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). Residues of DDTs (p,p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE,p,p'-DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs - α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH), endosulfan (α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate) and heptachlor were detected in fish at average concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 1235.0 μg/kg wet wt. These residues were, however, below the detection limit in seawater samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in residue levels were also observed across sites, decreasing from Chorkor to Kpone for seven (7) of the residues that were detected in S. aurita. Evaluation of hazard ratios (HRs) and the health risk associated with OC exposure from consumption of sardinellas revealed a probability of adverse health effect due to p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH and heptachlor. Hence, p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH and heptachlor may be of particular health concern. (au)

  17. Cabira rangarajani n. sp. (Polychaeta: Pilargidae) from the Goa coast, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, Sumit; Harkantra, S.N.; Salazar-Vallejo, S.I.

    Cabira rangarajani n. sp., is described from the Goa coast, in central west coast of India. It differs from C. brevicirris (Rangarajan, 1964), by having a single type of neurochaetae while the other species has three types. The new species also...

  18. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  19. Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P. K.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Nicks, D. K., Jr.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S. M.; Stroud, V.; Johnson, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on 5 and 17 May and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) to propane (C3H8), and, on May 5, the percentage of particles measured by the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast over a range of latitudes and altitudes for the entire ITCT 2K2 period, showed that air masses from Southeast Asia and China were generally observed at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for Southeast Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude, this qualitatively explains the increase with altitude, averaged over the whole ITCT 2K2 period, of the different biomass-burning indicators.

  20. Six months after the Gulf war - Fuel prices and taxes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    During the first half of 1991, national average gasoline and diesel No. 2 fuel prices declined in many countries in terms of US dollars, due to the stronger US currency and weaker crude oil prices. However, in countries' own currencies, consumer prices were unchanged or higher than they were at the end of 1990. This issue of Energy Detente features findings from their ongoing Fuel Price/Tax Series and closely compares fuel price and tax levels around the world. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of August 23, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, August 1991 Edition. 6 figs., 11 tabs

  1. NASA fuel cell applications for space: Endurance test results on alkaline fuel cell electrolyzer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheibley, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells continue to play a major role in manned spacecraft power generation. The Gemini and Apollo programs used fuel cell power plants as the primary source of mission electrical power, with batteries as the backup. The current NASA use for fuel cells is in the Orbiter program. Here, low temperature alkaline fuel cells provide all of the on-board power with no backup power source. Three power plants per shipset are utilized; the original power plant contained 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. For extended life and better power performance, each power plant now contains three 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. One of the possible future applications for fuel cells will be for the proposed manned Space Station in low earth orbit (LEO)(1, 2, 3). By integrating a water electrolysis capability with a fuel cell (a regenerative fuel cell system), a multikilowatt energy storage capability ranging from 35 kW to 250 kW can be achieved. Previous development work on fuel cell and electrolysis systems would tend to minimize the development cost of this energy storage system. Trade studies supporting initial Space Station concept development clearly show regenerative fuel cell (RFC) storage to be superior to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries with regard to subsystem weight, flexibility in design, and integration with other spacecraft systems when compared for an initial station power level ranging from 60 kW to 75 kW. The possibility of scavenging residual O 2 and H 2 from the Shuttle external tank for use in fuel cells for producing power also exists

  2. COAST code conversion from Cyber to HP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-04-01

    The transient thermal hydraulic behavior of reactor coolant system in a nuclear power plant following loss of coolant flow is analyzed by use of COAST digital computer code. COAST calculates individual loop flow rates and steam generator pressure drops is a function of time following coast-down of any number of reactor coolant pumps. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of COAST on HP 9000/700 series and code validation results after installation. Secondly, a series of work is also describes in relation to installation of COAST on Apollo DN10000 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new

  3. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  4. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... opportunities to harvest available healthy stocks and meet the objective of the Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No... Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine...

  5. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  6. Forest fuel reduces the nitrogen load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1993-03-01

    A study of the literature was made on the basis of the following hypothesis: ''If nitrogen-rich felling residues are removed from the forest, the nitrogen load on the forest ecosystem is decreased and the risk of nitrogen saturation also decreases''. The study was designed to provide information on how the nitrogen situation is influenced if felling residues are removed from nitrogen-loaded forests and used as fuel. Felling residues release very little nitrogen during the first years after felling. They can immobilize nitrogen from the surroundings, make up a considerable addition to the nitrogen store in the soil, but also release nitrogen in later stages of degradation. The slash has an influence on the soil climate and thus on soil processes. Often there is an increase in the mineralization of litter and humus below the felling residues. At the same time, nitrification is favoured, particularly if the slash is left in heaps. Felling residues contain easily soluble nutrients that stimulate the metabolization of organic matter that otherwise is rather resistant to degradation. The slash also inhibits the clear-cut vegetation and its uptake of nitrogen. These effects result in increased leaching of nitrogen and minerals if the felling residues are left on the site. (99 refs.)

  7. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iye, Edward; Bilsborrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km 3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km 3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km 3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  8. Upgrading of directrly liquefied biomass to transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevert, B. (Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (SE). Dept. of Engineering Chemistry 1)

    1987-01-01

    Gasoline and diesel fuel were produced from directly liquefied biomass (the PERC process) by: * Extraction of the crude liquefied oil with a diesel fuel type solvent at the atmospheric boiling point of the solvent. * Hydroprocessing of the extracted oil at 370 degrees C and 10 MPa with a suphided cobolt-molybdenum on gamma-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (Akzo Ketjen 742). * The hydroprocessed oil was distilled to produce gas, gasoline, gas oil and an atmospheric residue. * The residue was catalytically cracked to produce lighter products with a commercial catalyst (EKZ-2). The coke is produced in the catalytic cracking step and is used as an energy source in the catalytic cracker and elsewhere in the refinery. In the proposed refinery vacuum gas oil is recirculated through the hydroprocessing unit to improve the yields of transportation fuels. The residue from the extraction step is proposed to be used to meet needs for steam, hydrogen and carbon monoxide in liquefaction and upgrading. Hydrodeoxygenation of methyl-substituted phenols over Akzo Ketjen 742 as a catalyst proceeded by two parallel paths leading to an aromatic product and a naphthenic product, respectively, at the conditions used (300 degrees C, 5 MPa). Kinetic analysis showed both paths to be inhibited by reactant, addition of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. Steric hindrance was observed, and two types of active sites were proposed to be responsible for the two paths. Oxygen in non-volatile organic materials was determined with a modified method on a LECO RO-116 oxygen determinator. (The thesis contains 8 papers and articles. 98 refs.).

  9. Liquid fuel resources and prospects for ligno-cellulosic ethanol: An Egyptian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia R. Tewfik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal presently represent about 90% of the world’s total commercial primary energy demand. Yet, they are depletable sources of energy. Growth in the production of easily accessible oil, the main source of high energy liquid transportation fuels, will not match the projected rate of demand growth, especially in developing countries. In the transport sector, today, the only alternative to non-sustainable fossil fuels is biofuels that are produced from biomass, a stored environmentally neutral solar energy. These fuels are compatible with current vehicles and blendable with conventional fuels. Moreover, they share the long-established distribution infrastructure with little, if any, modification of equipment. The main biofuels presently in commercial production are bioethanol and biodiesel. Industrial countries started production of the 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel from food products (grains and edible oil since a few decades and these fuels are currently available at petrol stations. Second generation bioethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials is on the research, pilot and/or demonstration stage. This paper discusses the current situation regarding liquid fuels in Egypt which are experiencing imbalance between total production and demand for gasoline and diesel fuels. The quantified need for nonconventional sources is presented. Based on a thorough assessment of current and prospective generated agriculture residues as distributed over the political areas, mapping of the number and capacity of plants to be installed for production of bioethanol from available residues namely rice straw, sugar cane residues and cotton stalks has been developed. Annual capacities of 3000, 10,000 and 20,000 tons ethanol/year until year 2021 have been proposed. Capital and operating requirements and economic indicators have been estimated. It has been concluded that at current price of ethanol of about $0.6/kg, the

  10. Biogas from manure and waste residues; Biogas ur goedsel, avfall och restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The consumption of fossil fuels must be reduced if we are to meet environmental and climate related goals and reduce the greenhouse effect. In contrast to fossil fuels, biogas is renewable and carbon dioxide neutral. Biogas is also the cleanest fuel on the market and has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuel used in Sweden. The residue produced after anaerobic digestion is a valuable fertilizer and soil conditioner. Organic wastes are recycled through the biogas process to become a resource. This creates a sustainable recycling of nutrients and energy between urban and rural areas, and between consumption and production. This handbook is intended as a source of information on biogas, targeting politicians and decision- and policy makers in local authorities, farmers and farmers' organisations, and indeed anyone with an interest in biogas in Sweden and abroad. The handbook starts with an introduction of biogas in Sweden today. In part two general information is given about biogas technologies, a description of the biogas process, from the use of substrates to the final distribution of biogas and organic residues, followed by short information about economic support and incentives. In the last part twelve Swedish biogas plants are described, which have been particularly successful, and which can therefore serve as models for the future. The plants are grouped into four different categories: codigestion plants, farm-based biogas plants, sewage treatment plants and industrial plants. Each case study is described as of March 2012. Production figures are given for 2011, unless otherwise stated.

  11. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  12. Alternative fuels in fire debris analysis: biodiesel basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Eric; Byron, Doug

    2007-03-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming more prominent on the market today and, soon, fire debris analysts will start seeing them in liquid samples or in fire debris samples. Biodiesel fuel is one of the most common alternative fuels and is now readily available in many parts of the United States and around the world. This article introduces biodiesel to fire debris analysts. Biodiesel fuel is manufactured from vegetable oils and/or animal oils/fats. It is composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and is sold pure or as a blend with diesel fuel. When present in fire debris samples, it is recommended to extract the debris using passive headspace concentration on activated charcoal, possibly followed by a solvent extraction. The gas chromatographic analysis of the extract is first carried out with the same program as for regular ignitable liquid residues, and second with a program adapted to the analysis of FAMEs.

  13. Safety aspects in fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, K.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear energy is used for generation of electricity and for production of a wide range of radionuclides for use in research and development, healthcare and industry. Nuclear industry uses nuclear fission as source of energy so a large amount of energy is available from very small amount of fuel. As India has adopted c losed fuel cycle , spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactor is considered as a material of resource and reprocessed to recovery valuable fuel elements. Main incentive of reprocessing is to use the uranium resources effectively by recovering/recycling Pu and U present in the spent fuel. This finally leads to a very small percentage of residual material present in spent nuclear fuel requiring their management as radioactive waste. Another special feature of the Indian Atomic Energy Program is the attention paid from the very beginning to the safe management of radioactive waste

  14. State of the art and the future fuel portfolio of fluidized bed combustion systems; Status und kuenftiges Brennstoffportfolio bei Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szentannai, Pal; Friebert, Arpad; Winter, Franz [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrens-, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    Coal, biomass and substitute fuels energetically can be used efficiently and with low pollution in fluidized bed plants. In comparison to biomass there are significant differences between the circulating and stationary fluidized bed technology. The stationary fluidised bed is fed predominantly with biomasses and residual substances. Coal usually is the basis fuel in the circulating fluidised bed. Biomass and residual substances frequently are course-fired. The state of the art is the employment of a broad fuel mixture in small and large fluidized-bed combustion systems. Future developments present an increased use of sewage sludge, fluidized bed combustion systems with wood as a basis fuel, utilization of household waste and the gas production.

  15. Energetic potential of coffee residues to coffee industry; Potencialidade energetica da borra de cafe para as industrias de cafe soluvel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, L.A.H.; Flores, L.F.V. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This work aims to discuss the energetic viability of coffee residues as for steam generators and furnaces. The capacity of co-generation is presented. Economic analysis are also performed concerning the partial substitution of conventional fuel by residue. It was concluded that the above mentioned substitution is economically viable. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The improvement of performances for PWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes

    2001-01-01

    UO 2 fuels used in French nuclear power plants are authorized for values of burn-ups up to 52 GWj/t. Constant technological progress concerning pellets, cladding, and the design of the assembly has led to better performance and a broader safety margin. EDF is gathering all the elements to qualify and back its demand to increase the limit burn-up to 65 GWj/t in 2004 and to 70 GWj/t in 2008. For the same amount of energy produced, this policy of higher burn-ups will allow: - a reduction of the number of spent fuel assemblies, - a direct economic spare by using less fuel assemblies, - a reduction of personnel dosimetry because of longer irradiation campaigns, and - less quantity of residual plutonium produced. (A.C.)

  17. Increase in efficiency and reduction of generation cost at hard coal-fired power plants. Post-combustion of combustion residues from co-firing of RDF and biomass during dry ash removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Guenter [Magaldi Power GmbH, Esslingen (Germany); Spindeldreher, Olaf [RWE Generation SE, Werne (Germany); RWE Generation SE, Essen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Secondary as well as substitute fuels are being used in hard coal-fired power plants to improve efficiency and to enlarge fuel flexibility. However, grinding and firing systems of the existing coal-fired plants are not designed for those co-fuels. Any deterioration of the combustion performance would reduce the power output and increase ash disposal costs by increased content of combustion residues. The application of air-cooled ash removal, with simultaneous and controlled post-combustion of unburned residues on the conveyor belt, enlarges the furnace and maintains combustion efficiency even with different fuel qualities. Plant efficiency can also be increased through heat recovery. (orig.)

  18. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  19. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Bergfeldt, Britta; Vehlow, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    the influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching......Air pollution control residues stabilised by means of the Ferrox process can be sager disposed of due to lower contents of soluble salts and lesssoluble heavy metals stabilised in iron oxides. Co-combustion tests in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA were carried out in order to investigate...... behaviour of the bottom ashes could be found. During the co-combustion process an increase in SO2 concentrations in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed....

  20. Failure Analysis of a Helicopter External Fuel-Tank Pylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Lindenberg, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    An eight-inch-long (0.2 m) crack was found in an external fuel-tank pylon of a U.S. Coast Guard HH-60 helicopter. The damaged pylon was removed from service and destructively examined at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the cause of the crack. Results of the analysis revealed that crack initiation occurred at corrosion pits in a fastener hole and crack propagation was a result of cyclic loading.

  1. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  2. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol... impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and specimens is shown in Figure 50.10-25(b...

  3. Modeling Emissions and Vertical Plume Transport of Crop Residue Burning Experiments in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Baker, K. R.; Napelenok, S. L.; Pouliot, G.; Elleman, R. A.; ONeill, S. M.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wong, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Crop residue burning has long been a common practice in agriculture with the smoke emissions from the burning linked to negative health impacts. A field study in eastern Washington and northern Idaho in August 2013 consisted of multiple burns of well characterized fuels with nearby surface and aerial measurements including trace species concentrations, plume rise height and boundary layer structure. The chemical transport model CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model) was used to assess the fire emissions and subsequent vertical plume transport. The study first compared assumptions made by the 2014 National Emission Inventory approach for crop residue burning with the fuel and emissions information obtained from the field study and then investigated the sensitivity of modeled carbon monoxide (CO) and PM2.5 concentrations to these different emission estimates and plume rise treatment with CMAQ. The study suggests that improvements to the current parameterizations are needed in order for CMAQ to reliably reproduce smoke plumes from burning. In addition, there is enough variability in the smoke emissions, stemming from variable field-specific information such as field size, that attempts to model crop residue burning should use field-specific information whenever possible.

  4. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, K.E.; Kumm, W.H.; O'Callaghan, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars

  5. Disposal of residue from sifting of combustible waste; Avsaettning av siktrest fraan foerbehandling av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    In waste to energy plants, unwanted species in the fuel may cause corrosion, deposits, agglomeration in the fuel bed, and emissions of pollutants. Countermeasures to such problems are often costly. For at least some of the waste, the fuel properties can be improved by introducing a pretreatment system in which the fine fraction is separated from the waste by sifting. This method has been studied in an earlier Waste Refinery project, WR-06. That study pointed at advantages in performance of the boiler plant and a rough economical analysis indicated substantial benefits. The drawback of the pretreatment was that the residue (the fine fraction) showed as high content of total organic carbon (TOC) as 37 %, by weight. Such a waste fraction is not allowed to be landfilled in Sweden. High TOC content is also a limiting factor for usage as a secondary construction material. To become an applicable pretreatment method, it is necessary to find an appropriate disposal method for the residue material. Present work investigates different possibilities to handle the sifting residue, assuming it has the same properties as in previous study. The residue from sifting needs further treatment, preferably with energy recovery. There are some alternatives, such as combustion, gasification, anaerobic or aerobic digestion. To reduce problems associated by combustion, the waste may be burnt in another more suitable furnace. An alternative is gasification, but that treatment method is not yet an established process for waste fuels. Another option is treatment by anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The high concentrations of metals, however, limit the use of the biologically treated waste to landfilling sites, where it may be utilized as a construction material. The high metal concentrations in the sifting residue imply that it must be kept separate from other biodegradable wastes which are used to produce fertilizers. Thus, this treatment alternative will likely require substantial new

  6. A longshore sediment transport estimation for the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.

    in Tamilnadu, and the Maharashtra Coast experience negligible annual net transport. The direction of annual net transport along the east coast is towards north and along the west coast towards south except at south Gujarat Coast...

  7. Use of fluoride systems for some fission product separation from residues of fast reactor spent fuel fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, Yu.D.; Khomyakov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated has been a possibility of the use of fluoride systems (acid nitrozyl fluoride and molten salts) for americium extraction from residues of fluorination of irradiated fuel containing mainly fluorides of rare earth compounds, alkali and alkaline earth elements. At treatment of fission product fluorides by acid nitrozyl fluoride only cesium and uranium fluorides dissolve, while americium and rare earth fluorides are practically non-soluble in it. The solubility of cesium, strontium, barium and fluorides of some other rare earth elements in molten cryolite at the temperature of 1000 deg C, Li-NaF and LiF-CaF 2 of eutectic content at 750 and 800 deg C are respectively 15-77 %. Cerium fluoride presents an exception, its solubility in cryolite being only 0.73%. At treatment of mixture of americium and lanthanum fluorides by molten salts in the weight ratio of 1:1, approximately 50% of lanthanum and 65-70% of americium turn into melt independent of the type of melt. The maximum melt output of americium is obtained at treatment of lanthanum and americium fluoride mixture by cryolite melt at the temperature of 1000 deg C. It is shown that the presence of rare earth of fluorides, except lanthanum fluoride, effect significantly of americium distribution over phases in the process of fluoride processing by the fluoride molten salts

  8. Solid fuel block as an alternate fuel for cooking and barbecuing: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monikankana; Mukunda, H.S.; Sridhar, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large part of the rural people of developing countries use traditional biomass stoves to meet their cooking and heating energy demands. These stoves possess very low thermal efficiency; besides, most of them cannot handle agricultural wastes. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternate cooking contrivance which is simple, efficient and can handle a range of biomass including agricultural wastes. In this reported work, a highly densified solid fuel block using a range of low cost agro residues has been developed to meet the cooking and heating needs. A strategy was adopted to determine the best suitable raw materials, which was optimized in terms of cost and performance. Several experiments were conducted using solid fuel block which was manufactured using various raw materials in different proportions; it was found that fuel block composed of 40% biomass, 40% charcoal powder, 15% binder and 5% oxidizer fulfilled the requirement. Based on this finding, fuel blocks of two different configurations viz. cylindrical shape with single and multi-holes (3, 6, 9 and 13) were constructed and its performance was evaluated. For instance, the 13 hole solid fuel block met the requirement of domestic cooking; the mean thermal power was 1.6 kW th with a burn time of 1.5 h. Furthermore, the maximum thermal efficiency recorded for this particular design was 58%. Whereas, the power level of single hole solid fuel block was found to be lower but adequate for barbecue cooking application

  9. Study of a nickel-copper filter for the future conditioning of insoluble residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr

    2016-10-15

    This paper deals with the feasibility of a separate conditioning for insoluble residues coming from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The two possible conditioning routes considered for insoluble residues were (i) added with cladding hulls with the considered filter (route #1) or (ii) melted with a nickel copper alloy already studied (route #2). Only route #2 was dealt with in this study. In France, the current practice is to store insoluble residues in a water suspension. For the two conditioning routes described here, dry insoluble residues are required for safety with melted metals. A nickel-copper filter was developed that can serve for the two types of conditioning. A filtration test performed with molybdenum particles as insoluble residue surrogates was done. The particle-charged filter was sintered, and Mo particles were kept inside the filter. Thus an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues was demonstrated. - Highlights: • The basics for an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues were demonstrated. • The filter can serve as an immobilization matrix or can be added in another metal waste. • A theoretical calculation has shown that the conception of the filter should be done to avoid an excessive heat-up.

  10. Supply of wood fuel from small-scale woodlands for small-scale heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study aimed at stimulating a market for wood fuels. A desk study of harvesting in existing small woodland was conducted, and thirteen case studies covering early broadleaved thinnings, mixed broadleaved coppice, and crownwood, scrub and residues were examined to obtain information on woodland types, wood fuel supply, and combustion equipment. Details are given of the measurement of moisture content of woodchips and stacked roundwood, wood volume and green density, harvesting options, crop and site variables, and production and costs of wood fuels. Usage of wood fuels, and the drying of small roundwood was considered. (UK)

  11. Oxidation behavior of fuel cladding tube in spent fuel pool accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Chihiro; Nakashima, Kazuo; Tojo, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    In spent fuel pool (SFP) under loss-of-cooling or loss-of-coolant severe accident condition, the spent fuels will be exposed to air and heated by their own residual decay heat. Integrity of fuel cladding is crucial for SFP safety therefore study on cladding oxidation in air at high temperature is important. Zircaloy-2 (Zry2) and zircaloy-4 (Zry4) were applied for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) in different temperatures in air at different flow rates to evaluate oxidation behavior. Oxidation rate increased with testing temperature. In a range of flow rate of air which is predictable in spent fuel lack during a hypothetical SFP accident, influence of flow rate was not clearly observed below 950degC for the Zry2, or below 1050degC for Zry4. In higher temperature, oxidation rate was higher in high rate condition, and this trend was seen clearer when temperature increased. Oxide layers were carefully examined after the TGA analyses and compared with mass gain data to investigate detail of oxidation process in air. It was revealed that the mass gain data in pre-breakaway regime reflects growth of dense oxide film on specimen surface, meanwhile in post-breakaway regime, it reflects growth of porous oxide layer beneath fracture of the dense oxide film. (author)

  12. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Bottcher, J.H.; Shikakura, S.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Is the biochar produced from sewage sludge a good quality solid fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulka Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sewage sludge torrefaction temperature on fuel properties was investigated. Non-lignocellulosic waste thermal treatment experiment was conducted within 1 h residence time, under the following temperatures: 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. Sawdust was used as lignocellulosic reference material. The following parameters of biochar have been measured: moisture, higher heating value, ash content, volatile compounds and sulfur content. Sawdust biochar has been confirmed to be a good quality solid fuel. High ash and sulfur content may be an obstacle for biochar energy reuse. The best temperature profile for sawdust torrefaction and fuel production for 1 h residence time was 220°C. At this temperature the product contained 84% of initial energy while decreased the mass by 25%. The best temperature profile for sewage sludge was 240°C. The energy residue was 91% and the mass residue was 85%. Higher temperatures in both cases caused excessive mass and energy losses.

  14. Numerical investigation for combustion characteristics of vacuum residue (VR) in a test furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedhara, S.; Huh, Kang Y.; Park, Hoyoung

    2007-01-01

    It has become inevitable to search for alternative fuels due to current worldwide energy crisis. In this paper combustion characteristics of vacuum residue (VR) is investigated numerically against experimental data in typical operating conditions of a furnace. Heat release reaction is modeled as sequential steps of devolatilization, simplified gas phase reaction and char oxidation as for pulverized coal. Thermal and fuel NO are predicted by the conditional moment closure (CMC) method for estimation of elementary reaction rates. It turns out that Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of VR droplets is a crucial parameter for better combustion efficiency and lower NO. Reasonable agreement is achieved for spatial distributions of major species, temperature and NO for all test cases with different fuel and steam flow rates

  15. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  16. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  17. Zooplankton along the Tamil Nadu coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Saraswathy, M.

    Zooplankton abundance along two sectors at Cape Comorin and Tuticorin of Tamil Nadu Coast, southeast coast of India was studied. High biomass contributed by Ostracods, Salps, Chaetognaths etc., were observed along Tuticorin transect. In the Cape...

  18. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  19. PIN99W, Modelling of VVER and PWR Fuel Rod Thermomechanical Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valach, M.; Strizhov, P.; Svoboda, R.

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Code is developed to describe fuel rod thermomechanical behaviour in operational conditions. The main goal of this code is to calculate fuel temperature, gap conductivity, fission gas release and inner gas pressure. 2 - Methods: - fuel rod temperature response is solved by using one-dimensional finite element method combined with weighted residuals method; - the code involves models describing physical phenomena typical for the fuel irradiated in Light Water Power Reactors (densification, restructuring, fission gas release, swelling and relocation) ; - this code is updated and improves PIN-micro code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - simplified mechanistic solution; - only steady-state solution; - no cladding failure criterion; - no model for axial fuel-cladding interaction

  20. Clarification of dissolved irradiated light-water-reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.C.

    1983-02-01

    Bench-scale studies with actual dissolved irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuels showed that continuous centrifugation is a practical clarification method for reprocessing. Dissolved irradiated LWR fuel was satisfactorily clarified in a bench-scale, continuous-flow bowl centrifuge. The solids separated were successfully reslurried in water. When the reslurried solids were mixed with clarified centrate, the resulting suspension behaved similar to the original dissolver solution during centrifugation. Settling rates for solids in actual irradiated fuel solutions were measured in a bottle centrifuge. The results indicate that dissolver solutions may be clarified under conditions achievable by available plant-scale centrifuge technology. The effective particle diameter of residual solids was calculated to be 0.064 microns for Oconee-1 fuel and 0.138 microns for Dresden-1 fuel. Filtration was shown unsuitable for clarification of LWR fuel solutions. Conventional filtration with filter aid would unacceptably complicate remote canyon operation and maintenance, might introduce dissolved silica from filter aids, and might irreversibly plug the filter with dissolver solids. Inertial filtration exhibited irreversible pluggage with nonradioactive stand-in suspensions under all conditions tested

  1. Study on the Potential of Rice Straws as a Supplementary Fuel in Very Small Power Plants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residue is a major raw material for renewable energy production, particularly heat production, in Thailand. Meanwhile, the process-based residue, such as bagasse, rice husk, wood residue, palm fiber, palm shell, and saw dust, is used as a fuel for energy production in the agro-industry. Hence, this study is intended to assess the net potential and capacity of alternative agricultural residues, specifically rice straws, to serve as the supplementary fuel for very small power plants (VSPPs in Thailand. According to the results obtained during the crop season of 2015/2016, approximately 26 Mt of rice straws were generated upon the harvesting process. The net potential of rice straws, including those that were burned and those that were left in the fields, was only about 15% or 3.85 Mt, which could be used for heat and electricity production at 1331 kilotons of oil equivalent (ktoe or 457 MWe. As agro-residues vary by seasonality, the peak season of rice straws was in November, where approximately 1.64 Mt (43% were generated, followed by December, at 1.32 Mt (34%. On the basis of the results, rice straw has the potential to serve as a fuel supply for VSPPs at 14.2%, 21.6%, 26.3%, and 29.0% for the radii of compilation at 24, 36, 48 km and 60 km, respectively.

  2. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan; Transport de combustible mox d' Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  3. Radiological and environmental safety in front-end fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    The front end nuclear fuel cycle comprises of mining and processing of beach mineral sands along the southern coast of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Orissa, mining and processing of uranium ore in Singhbhum-East in Jharkhand and refining and fuel fabrication at Hyderabad. The Health Physics Units (HPUs)/Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) set up at each site from inception of operation to carry out regular in-plant, personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance to ensure safe working conditions, evaluate radiation exposure of workers, ensure compliance with statutory norms, help in keeping the environmental releases well within the limits and advise appropriate control measures. This paper describes the occupational and environmental radiological safety measures associated with the operations of front end of nuclear fuel cycle. Radiological monitoring in these facilities is important to ensure safe working environment, protection of workers against exposure to radiation and comply with regulatory limits of exposure. The radiation exposure of workers in different units of the front end nuclear fuels cycle facilities operated by IREL, UCIL and NFC and environmental monitoring results are summarised in this paper

  4. Influence of single-phase heat transfer correlations on safety analysis of research reactors with narrow rectangular fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawashdeh, A.; Altamimi, R.; Lee, B.; Chung, Y. J.; Park, S.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different single-phase heat transfer correlations on the fuel temperature and minimum critical heat flux ratio (MCHFR) during a typical accident of a 5 MW research reactor is investigated. A reactor uses plate type fuel, of which the cooling channels have a narrow rectangular shape. RELAP5/MOD3.3 tends to over-predict the Nusselt number (Nu) at a low Reynolds number (Re) region, and therefore the correlation set is modified to properly describe the thermal behavior at that region. To demonstrate the effect of Nu at a low-Re region on an accident analysis, a two-pump failure accident was chosen as a sample problem. In the accident, the downward core flow decreases by a pump coast-down, and then reverses upward by natural convection. During the pump coast-down and flow reversal, the flow undergoes a laminar flow regime which has a different Nu with respect to the correlation sets. Compared to the results by the original RELAP5/MOD3.3, the modified correlation set predicts the fuel temperature to be a little higher than the original value, and the MCHFR to be a little lower than the original value. Although the modified correlation set predicts the fuel temperature and the MCHFR to be less conservative than those calculated from the original correlation of RELAP5/MOD3.3, the maximum fuel temperature and the MCHFR still satisfy the safety acceptance criteria

  5. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue for the production of fuel-grade gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, L.L.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Every year eight to ten million cars and trucks are disposed of by shredding at one of the 200 auto shredders located in the United States. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is a by-product created in the dismantling of automobiles. Figure 1 illustrates the process by which ASR is generated. An automobile is stripped of useful and/or hazardous items, such as the gas tank, battery, tires, and radiator. Although it is beneficial to have these items removed for safety and environmental concerns, this is not always accomplished. After removal of some or all of these items, the automobile is shredded to provide a material less than 4 inches in size and composed of approximately 50% organic and 50% inorganic fractions. Ferrous scrap is then separated out magnetically. This ferrous scrap supplies the steel industry with 12 to 14 million tons per year for electric arc furnace feedstock. Air cyclone separators isolate a low density open-quotes fluffclose quotes from the nonferrous fraction (aluminum, copper, etc.). This fluff (shredder residue) is composed of a variety of plastics, fabrics, foams, glass, rubber, and an assortment of contaminants. Fluff bulk density is approximately 20 lb/ft

  6. Steam injection and enhanced bioremediation of heavy fuel oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dablow, J.; Hicks, R.; Cacciatore, D.

    1995-01-01

    Steam injection has been shown to be successful in remediating sites impacted by heavy fuel oils. Field demonstrations at both pilot and full scale have removed No. 2 diesel fuel and Navy Special Fuel Oil (No. 5 fuel oil) from impacted soils. Removal mechanisms include enhanced volatilization of vapor- and adsorbed-phase contaminants and enhanced mobility due to decreased viscosity and associated residual saturation of separate- and adsorbed-phase contaminants. Laboratory studies have shown that indigenous biologic populations are significantly reduced, but are not eliminated by steam injection operations. Populations were readily reestablished by augmentation with nutrients. This suggests that biodegradation enhanced by warm, moist, oxygenated environments can be expected to further reduce concentrations of contaminants following cessation of steam injection operations

  7. Biomass fuels - effects on the carbon dioxide budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, H.; Hallsby, G.

    1992-02-01

    It is highly desirable that the effects on the carbon dioxide balance of alternative energy sources are evaluated. Two important alternatives studied in Sweden are the extraction of logging residues left in the forest and willow production on farmland. Considered in isolation, a conversion from stem-wood harvest to whole-tree harvest has a negative effect on the carbon dioxide balance, because the amount of soil organic matter decreases. With the assumption that it takes 20 years for the logging residues to decompose, the net decrease in emissions that would result from the replacement of fossil fuels by logging residues appear moderate after 20 years. However, it will grow significantly as time passes. After 100 years with an annual combustion of logging residues the emissions are 12% of those associated with the production of an equivalent amount of energy through oil combustion. Corresponding values for 300 and 500 years are 4% and 2.5% respectively. In less than 100 years there should be a considerable reduction in the Swedish CO 2 -C emissions even if only every second new logging residue-produced TWH replaces a fossil-fuel-produced TWh. From a long-term perspective, effects on carbon reservoirs in Sweden, caused by conversions to whole-tree harvesting in forestry and to willow production on redundant farmland, can be considered negligible in terms of their influence on the carbon dioxide budget of Sweden. The orders of magnitude of influencing fluxes is exemplified in the following: The annual production of 50 TWh, whereof 40 TWh from logging residues, 8 TWh from willow and 2 TWh from annual crops is estimated to cause a total net decrease of the carbon reservoirs within Sweden corresponding to 32 Tg CO 2 -C, whereas the annual production of 50 TWh from oil combustion should emit 1200 Tg CO 2 -C in 300 years, 2000 Tg CO 2 -C in 500 years and so on. (au). 17 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Improvement of test methodology for evaluating diesel fuel stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, M.; Tartakovsky, L.; Kirzhner, Y.; Zvirin, Y. [Internal Combustion Engines Lab., Haifa (Israel); Luria, D. [Fuel Authority, Tel Aviv (Israel); Weiss, A.; Shuftan, M. [Israel Defence Forces, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1995-05-01

    The storage stability of diesel fuel has been extensively investigated for many years under laboratory conditions. Although continuous efforts have been made to improve testing techniques, there does not yet exist a generally accepted correlation between laboratory methods (such as chemical analysis of the fuel) and actual diesel engine tests. A testing method was developed by the Technion Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory (TICEL), in order to address this problem. The test procedure was designed to simulate diesel engine operation under field conditions. It is based on running a laboratory-modified single cylinder diesel engine for 50 h under cycling operating conditions. The overall rating of each test is based on individual evaluation of the deposits and residue formation in the fuel filter, nozzle body and needle, piston head, piston rings, exhaust valve, and combustion chamber (six parameters). Two methods for analyzing the test results were used: objective, based on measured data, and subjective, based on visual evaluation results of these deposits by a group of experts. Only the residual level in the fuel filter was evaluated quantitatively by measured results. In order to achieve higher accuracy of the method, the test procedure was improved by introducing the measured results of nozzle fouling as an additional objective evaluating (seventh) parameter. This factor is evaluated on the basis of the change in the air flow rate through the nozzle before and after the complete engine test. Other improvements in the method include the use of the nozzle assembly photograph in the test evaluation, and representation of all seven parameters on a continuous scale instead of the discrete scale used anteriorly, in order to achieve higher accuracy. This paper also contains the results obtained by application of this improved fuel stability test for a diesel fuel stored for a five-year period.

  9. Radiological criteria for the remediation of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Titov, A V; Smith, G M; Novikova, N Ya; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s, two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in Northwest Russia, at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and are now designated sites of temporary storage (STSs). An analysis of the radiation situation at these sites demonstrates that substantial long-term remediation work will be required after the removal of the waste and spent nuclear fuel. Regulatory guidance is under development to support this work. Having in mind modern approaches to guaranteeing radiation safety, the primary regulatory focus is on a justification of dose constraints for determining acceptable residual contamination which might lead to exposure to workers and the public. For these sites, four principal options for remediation have been considered-renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. This paper describes a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels formulated for each option. The unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection provides the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimisation principle. The developed criteria relate to the condition of the facilities and the STS areas after the termination of remediation activities. The proposed criteria for renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation are entirely within the dose limits adopted in Russia for the management of man-made radiation sources, and are consistent with ICRP recommendations and national practice in other countries. The proposed criteria for STS remediation and new industrial (non-radiation-hazardous) facilities and buildings on

  10. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  11. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  12. A Review on Recycling of Sunflower Residue for Sustaining Soil Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Babu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is now at the crossroads ecologically, economically, technologically, and socially due to soil degradation. Critical analysis of available information shows that problems of degradation of soil health are caused due to imbalanced, inadequate and promacronutrient fertilizer use, inadequate use or no use of organic manures and crop residues, and less use of good quality biofertilizers. Although sizeable amount of crop residues and manure is produced in farms, it is becoming increasingly complex to recycle nutrients, even within agricultural systems. Therefore, there is a need to use all available sources of nutrients to maintain the productivity and fertility at a required level. Among the available organic sources of plant nutrients, crop residue is one of the most important sources for supplying nutrients to the crop and for improving soil health. Sunflower is a nontraditional oil seed crop produced in huge amount of crop residue. This much amount of crop residues is neither used as feed for livestock nor suitable for fuel due to low energy value per unit mass. However, its residue contains major plant nutrients in the range from 0.45 to 0.60% N, 0.15 to 0.22% P, and 1.80 to 1.94% K along with secondary and micronutrients, so recycling of its residue in the soil may be one of the best alternative practices for replenishing the depleted soil fertility and improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil in the present era of production. However, some researchers have reported allelopathic effects of sunflower residue on different crops. So, selection of suitable crops and management practices may play an important role to manage the sunflower residue at field level.

  13. High Temperature Corrosion Problem of Boiler Components in presence of Sulfur and Alkali based Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Material degradation and ageing is of particular concern for fossil fuel fired power plant components. New techniques/approaches have been explored in recent years for Residual Life assessment of aged components and material degradation due to different damage mechanism like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion etc. Apart from the creep, the high temperature corrosion problem in a fossil fuel fired boiler is a matter of great concern if the fuel contains sulfur, chlorine sodium, potassium and vanadium etc. This paper discusses the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion in different critical components of boiler like water wall, superheater and reheater tubes and also remedial measures to avoid the premature failure. This paper also high lights the Residual Life Assessment (RLA) methodology of the components based on high temperature fireside corrosion. of different critical components of boiler.

  14. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  15. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  16. Effect of secondary fuels and combustor temperature on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

    2007-08-15

    The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion at 1000 and 1300{sup o}C. High volatile bituminous coal is used as a reference case and chicken manure, olive residue, and B quality (demolition) wood are used as secondary fuels with 10 and 20% thermal shares. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor with a fuel input of 7-8 kWth. Elemental and total gaseous mercury concentrations in the flue gas of the reactor are measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. Animal waste like chicken manure behaves very differently from plant waste. The higher chlorine contents of chicken manure cause higher ionic mercury concentrations whereas even with high unburnt carbon, particulate mercury reduces with increase in the chicken manure share. This might be a problem due to coarse fuel particles, low surface area, and iron contents. B-wood and olive residue cofiring reduces the emission of total gaseous mercury and increases particulate mercury capture due to unburnt carbon formed, fine particles, and iron contents of the ash. Calcium in chicken manure does not show any effect on particulate or gaseous mercury. It is probably due to a higher calcium sulfation rate in the presence of high sulfur and chlorine contents. However, in plant waste cofiring, calcium may have reacted with chlorine to reduce ionic mercury to its elemental form. According to thermodynamic predictions, almost 50% of the total ash is melted to form slag at 1300{sup o}C in cofiring because of high calcium, iron, and potassium and hence mercury and other remaining metals are concentrated in small amounts of ash and show an increase at higher temperatures. No slag formation was predicted at 1000{sup o}C. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, R.W.; Henslee, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    For approximately 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory was developed a fast reactor fuel cycle based on dry processing. When the US fast reactor program was canceled in 1994, the fuel processing technology, called the electrometallurgical technique, was adapted for treating unstable spent nuclear fuel for disposal. While this technique, which involves electrorefining fuel in a molten salt bath, is being developed for several different fuel categories, its initial application is for sodium-bonded metallic spent fuel. In June 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved a radiation demonstration program in which 100 spent driver assemblies and 25 spent blanket assemblies from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) will be treated over a three-year period. This demonstrated will provide data that address issues in the National Research Council's evaluation of the technology. The planned operations will neutralize the reactive component (elemental sodium) in the fuel and produce a low enriched uranium product, a ceramic waste and a metal waste. The fission products and transuranium elements, which accumulate in the electrorefining salt, will be stabilized in the glass-bonded ceramic waste form. The stainless steel cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and insoluble residues from the process will be stabilized in a stainless steel/zirconium alloy. Upon completion of a successful demonstration and additional environmental evaluation, the current plans are to process the remainder of the DOE sodium bonded fuel

  18. Fuel gas production by anaerobic digestion of kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, R.A. (Dynatech R/D Co., Cambridge, MA); Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D.C.; Kispert, R.G.; Cooney, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of the experimental program was to explore the feasibility of the anaerobic digestion of kelp to produce methane. Experiments were carried out with freshly harvested U.S. East Coast kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The use for fuel conversion of the rapidly growing U.S. West Coast kelp, the so-called ''giant kelp,'' Macrocystis pyrifera, has been elsewhere. L. saccharina is similar to M. pyrifera in physical structure as well as chemical composition. Both are brown algae (phaeophyta) of the order Laminariales (kelp). Their principal products of photosynthesis are the sugar alcohol, mannitol, and the polysaccharide, laminarin. The cell walls are composed mostly of algin with some cellulose and fucoidin (a phycocolloid-like algin) and the brown color is due to fucoxanthin pigment. It was anticipated that all these constituents of kelp would be subject to anaerobic digestion. The digester operation, alkali pretreatment of kelp, and a comparison of kelp digestion with other substrates are discussed.

  19. DEVISING STRATEGIES FOR RECLAMATION OF DERELICT SITES DUE TO MINING OF RESIDUAL SOIL (“SAIBRO” AT UBATUBA, NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: THE VIEWS AND ROLES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Ferreira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Between the late 60's and early 90's intensive exploitation of residual soil for civil construction took place in the municipality of Ubatuba, North Coast of São Paulo State. Tropical climatic conditions associated with a hilly landscape bordered by the Atlantic Ocean gave rise to thick (10-30m weathering profiles derived from Precambrian granitic-gneissic rocks. Exploitation of large volumes of this material required only very simple technology, which on the other hand has caused highly adverse environmental impacts, such asdeforestation, soil erosion, land instability hazards, scenic eterioration, pollution and disturbance of local water flow regime. This paper deals with the devising of strategies thus identifying stakeholders and describing their roles both on the dereliction and reclamation processes related with residual soil exploitation. The evaluation approach focused on the analysis of the regulatory framework and its practical implications and issues in terms of licensing for mining operations, commercialization of construction materials, and the relations of such mining activities with regional and urban planning. A survey of stakeholderviewpoints was successfully achieved through a two-day workshop. The attendance included decision-makers, officials and representatives of governmental and regulatory bodies (Federal, State and Municipal, environmental research institutions, private miners (entrepreneurs and consultants, public attorney, and NGOs. The outcomes have ndicated that State and local authorities properly managed to stop illegal exploitation of residual soil in the early 90´s. However no land reclamation was undertaken until present. One of the main problems would be related with the procedures for mining and environmental licensing that were considered to be too complex and long (usually involving up to seven decisional instances and 2,5 years in average. Other key issues and needs identified included: aorganization of a

  20. The energy system of choice for the east coast : natural gas lessons learned in east coast Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, S.

    2001-01-01

    Maritime and Northeast Pipeline is a partnership between Westcoast Energy, Duke Energy, Exxon Mobil, and Emera representing an investment of $2 billion. Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline will play a major role in future resource development off Canada's east coast. Graphs depicting North American annual natural gas demand were presented for Canada, Mexico and the United States. The current energy supply shortage is driven by a growth in power generation. Natural gas is the fuel of choice because of its capital cost, environmental advantages as well as its efficient and proven technology. A map was included which illustrating the locations of North American natural gas supply basins along with their estimated remaining reserves. The presentation also made reference to natural gas price impacts. Natural gas in New England is destined mostly for use in power generation. Maps were included which showed the pipeline distribution to get Maritime and Northeast Pipeline gas to markets in eastern Canada and New England. The challenge will be to maintain a healthy price environment, to continue with successful drilling programs, and to identify transportation routes to take advantage of expanding markets. tabs., figs

  1. Economic factors influencing potential use of cellulosic crop residues for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines cellulosic crop residues for biopower production in the context of (greenhouse gas) GHG emission mitigation. We employ sector modeling to simulate future market potential for biopower production from crop residues. Our findings suggest that in order for crop residues to have any role in electricity generation either the carbon or (carbon dioxide) CO 2 equivalent GHG price must rise to about 15 dollars per ton or the price of coal has to increase to about 43 dollars per ton. We find that crop residues with higher heat content have greater opportunities in biopower production than the residues with lower heat content. In addition, our evidence shows that improvements in crop yields do not have much impact on biopower production. However, the energy recovery efficiency does have significant positive impact but only if the CO 2 equivalent price rises substantially. Moreover, our analysis indicates the desirability of cofiring biomass as opposed to 100% replacement because this reduces transportation cost and increases the efficiency of heat recovery. In terms of policy implications, imposing carbon emission pricing could be an important step in inducing electric power producers to include biomass feedstocks in their fuel-mix power generation portfolios and achieve GHG emission reductions. - Highlights: • Crop residues with higher heat content have greater market opportunities. • Improvement in crop and residue yields does not have much impact on biopower production. • Advancement in biopower production technology does not encourage more use of crop residues. • The main factor that induces biopower production is an increase in future carbon prices

  2. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  3. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 2: solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Larry D

    2014-01-01

    The combustion of solid fuels (like wood, animal dung, and coal) usually involves elevated temperatures and altered pressures and genotoxicants (e.g., PAHs) are likely to form. These substances are carcinogenic in experimental animals, and epidemiological studies implicate these fuels (especially their emissions) as carcinogens in man. Globally, ∼50% of all households and ∼90% of all rural households use solid fuels for cooking or heating and these fuels often are burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Exposed women and children often exhibit low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, head and neck cancer, and lung cancer although few studies have measured exposure directly. Today, households that cannot meet the expense of fuels like kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity resort to collecting wood, agricultural residue, and animal dung to use as household fuels. In the more developed countries, solid fuels are often used for electric power generation providing more than half of the electricity generated in the United States. The world's coal reserves, which equal approximately one exagram, equal ∼1 trillion barrels of crude oil (comparable to all the world's known oil reserves) and could last for 600 years. Studies show that the PAHs that are identified in solid fuel emissions react with NO2 to form direct-acting mutagens. In summary, many of the measured genotoxicants found in both the indoor and electricity-generating combustors are the same; therefore, the severity of the health effects vary with exposure and with the health status of the exposed population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Hydrographic data report: south coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Asencio, R.

    1975-01-01

    The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority (PRWRA) in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. This report includes data from two sites and an offshore transect between the sites. The Punta Verraco site, PVE, is on the west side of Guayanilla Bay and the Cabo Mala Pascua site, CMP, is located on the southeast corner of the island. Data were also collected seaward from Jobos Bay, OJB, to determine the effects of the open sea on nearshore oceanographic parameter characteristics. The two south coast sites are about 90 kilometers apart. The offshore Jobos Bay transect was made about 25 kilometers west of Cabo Mala Pascua. (auth)

  5. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  6. Resource and energy recovery options for fermentation industry residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, S C [Santa Clara Univ., CA (USA); Manning, Jr, J F [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the fermentation industry has provided facility planners, plant operators and environmental engineers with a wide range of residuals management challenges and resource/energy recovery opportunities. In response, the industry has helped pioneer the use of a number of innovative resource and energy recovery technologies. Production of animal feed supplements, composts, fertilizers, soil amendments, commercial baking additives and microbial protein materials have all been detailed in the literature. In many such cases, recovery of by-products significantly reduces the need for treatment and disposal facilities. Stable, reliable anaerobic biological treatment processes have also been developed to recover significant amounts of energy in the form of methane gas. Alternatively, dewatered or condensed organic fermentation industry residuals have been used as fuels for incineration-based energy recovery systems. The sale or use of recovered by-products and/or energy can be used to offset required processing costs and provide a technically and environmentally viable alternative to traditional treatment and disposal strategies. This review examines resource recovery options currently used or proposed for fermentation industry residuals and the conditions necessary for their successful application. (author).

  7. UTILIZATION OF AGROINDUSTRIALES RESIDUES AS BIOFUELS AND BIOREFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Muñoz-Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of residues generated in the process agro-industrials are interest worldwide. At present, research is this in lignocellulosic biomass for energy, fuels, chemicals and biomaterials through clean technologies and closed systems that conserve the environment. In this research, based on the characteristics of the typical agro-industrial residues of Cauca Department, sugarcane bagasse, sisal dust, cassava bran and the mixtures, was evaluated use as biorefinery. Were determined the thermal, physical chemical and morphologic properties in seven samples of residues, were performed exploratory tests, were determined pretreatments and applications and the possible use were identified. We conclude that the sample M6 with 9,93 % moisture, 4,12% ash, 43,97% carbon, 5,86% hydrogen, 0,43% nitrogen, 15 MJ/kg of lower heating value and 22,25%of cellulose, 9,30% of hemicellulose and 4,56% lignin, presents characteristics appropriate to be used in furnaces and boilers less power for the rural sector by the amount of ash, which keeps the low heating power stable and reduces the emission of particulate matter. For the thermal, physical, chemical and morphological characteristics, all the samples of M1 to M7, they can be hydrolyzed, densified and taken advantage like biofuel and / or biorefinery

  8. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan; Transport de combustible mox d' Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  9. A productivity and cost comparison of two systems for producing biomass fuel from roadside forest treatment residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel Anderson; Woodam Chung; Dan Loeffler; John Greg Jones

    2012-01-01

    Forest operations generate large quantities of forest biomass residues that can be used for production of bioenergy and bioproducts. However, a significant portion of recoverable residues are inaccessible to large chip vans, making use financially infeasible. New production systems must be developed to increase productivity and reduce costs to facilitate use of these...

  10. THE MARINE HEAVY FUEL IGNITION AND COMBUSTION BY PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOROIANU CORNELIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuous damage of the used fuel quality, of its dispersion due to the increasing viscosity, make necessary the volume expansion and the rise of the e electric spark power used at ignition. A similar situation appears to the transition of the generator operation from the marine Diesel heavy fuel to the residues of water-fuel mixture. So, it feels like using an ignition system with high specific energy and power able to perform the starting and burning of the fuels mentioned above. Such a system is that which uses a low temperature plasma jet. Its use involves obtaining a high temperature area round about the jet, with a high discharge power, extending the possibility of obtaining a constant burning of different concentration (density mixtures. Besides the action of the temperature of the air-fuel mixture, the plasma jet raises the rate of oxidation reaction as a result of appearance of lot number of active centers such as loaded molecules, atoms, ions, free radicals.

  11. Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

  12. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  13. Supply chain modeling of forest fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Helene; Lundgren, Jan T.; Roennqvist, Mikael

    2001-04-01

    We study the problem of deciding when and where forest residues are to be converted into forest fuel, and how the residues are to be transported and stored in order to satisfy demand at heating plants. Decisions also include whether or not additional harvest areas and saw-mills are to be contracted. In addition, we consider the flow of products from saw-mills and import harbors, and address the question about which terminals to use. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. The supply chain problem is formulated as a large mixed integer linear programming model. In order to obtain solutions within reasonable time we have developed a heuristic solution approach. Computational results from a large Swedish supplying entrepreneur are reported.

  14. Supply chain modeling of forest fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, Helene; Lundgren, Jan T.; Roennqvist, Mikael

    2001-04-01

    We study the problem of deciding when and where forest residues are to be converted into forest fuel, and how the residues are to be transported and stored in order to satisfy demand at heating plants. Decisions also include whether or not additional harvest areas and saw-mills are to be contracted. In addition, we consider the flow of products from saw-mills and import harbors, and address the question about which terminals to use. The planning horizon is one year and monthly time periods are considered. The supply chain problem is formulated as a large mixed integer linear programming model. In order to obtain solutions within reasonable time we have developed a heuristic solution approach. Computational results from a large Swedish supplying entrepreneur are reported

  15. The regional effects of a biomass fuel industry on US agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at the potential competitiveness of the emerging biomass-based biofuel industry in the current economic environment. A simulation model suggests that a mature biomassbased biofuel industry is potentially competitive with gasoline, and capable of filling a significant fraction of motor fuel supplies. However, the existing land policy has a narrow definition of agricultural land for a biomass-based fuel industry. A broader definition of agricultural land suitable for biomass inputs would reduce biofuel processing costs, relieve the food versus fuel conflict, and increase the net gain to fuel consumers, food consumers, and producers of food and fuel. - Highlights: • We look at the potential competitiveness of a mature biomass fuel (BF) industry in the US. • We model a land policy that allows BF-cattle competition for forage, crop residues, and pasture. • We estimate the cost reductions and welfare gains associated with modifying the land use policy

  16. Radioactive waste management of experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible DUPIC fuel from spent PWR fuel material. Real spent PWR fuel was used in IMEF M6 hot cell to carry out DUPIC experiment. Afterwards, about 200 kg-U of spent PWR fuel is supposed to be used till 2006. This study has been conducted in some hot cells of PIEF and M6 cell of IMEF. There are various forms of nuclear material such as rod cut, powder, green pellet, sintered pellet, fabrication debris, fuel rod, fuel bundle, sample, and process waste produced from various manufacturing experiment of DUPIC fuel. After completing test, the above nuclear wastes and test equipment etc. will be classified as radioactive waste, transferred to storage facility and managed rigorously according to domestic and international laws until the final management policy is determined. It is desirable to review management options in advance for radioactive waste generated from manufacturing experiment of DUPIC nuclear fuel as well as residual nuclear material and dismantled equipment. This paper includes basic plan for DUPIC radwaste, arising source and estimated amount of radioactive waste, waste classification and packing, transport cask, transport procedures

  17. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  18. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emission risks from storage of wood residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihersaari, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels is one of the most important means of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. In Finland, wood energy is considered to be a very important potential energy source in this sense. There might, however, still be some elements of uncertainty when evaluating biofuel production chains. By combining data from a stack of composting biodegradable materials and forest residue storage research there was an indication that rather great amounts of greenhouse gases maybe released during storage of wood chip, especially if there is rapid decomposition. Unfortunately, there have not been many evaluations of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass handling and storage heaps. The greenhouse gas emissions are probably methane, when the temperature in the fuel stack is above the ambient temperature, and nitrous oxide, when the temperature is falling and the decaying process is slowing down. Nowadays it is still rather unusual to store logging residue as chips, because the production is small, but in Finland storage of bark and other by-products from the forest industry is a normal process. The evaluations made indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from storage can, in some cases, be much greater than emissions from the rest of the biofuel production and transportation chain

  19. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  20. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  1. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  2. US Progress on Property Characterization to Support LEU U-10 Mo Monolithic Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Laboratory; Rabin, Barry H [Idaho National Laboratory; Smith, James Arthur [Idaho National Laboratory; Scott, Clark Landon [Idaho National Laboratory; Benefiel, Bradley Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Larsen, Eric David [Idaho National Laboratory; Lind, Robert Paul [Idaho National Laboratory; Sell, David Alan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    The US High Performance Research Reactor program is pursuing development and qualification of a new high density monolithic LEU fuel to facilitate conversion of five higher power research reactors located in the US (ATR, HFIR, NBSR, MIT and MURR). In order to support fabrication development and fuel performance evaluations, new testing capabilities are being developed to evaluate the properties of fuel specimens. Residual stress and fuel-cladding bond strength are two characteristics related to fuel performance that are being investigated. In this overview, new measurement capabilities being developed to assess these characteristics in both fresh and irradiated fuel are described. Progress on fresh fuel testing is summarized and on-going hot-cell implementation efforts to support future PIE campaigns are detailed. It is anticipated that benchmarking of as-fabricated fuel characteristics will be critical to establishing technical bases for specifications that optimize fuel fabrication and ensure acceptable in-reactor fuel performance.

  3. Proposed model for fuel-coolant mixing during a core-melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    If complete failure of normal and emergency coolant flow occurs in a light water reactor, fission product decay heat would eventually cause melting of the reactor fuel and cladding. The core melt may then slump into the lower plenum and later into the reactor cavity and contact residual liquid water. A model is proposed to describe the fuel-coolant mixing process upon contact. The model is compared to intermediate scale experiments being conducted at Sandia. The modelling of this mixing process will aid in understanding three important processes: (1) fuel debris sizes upon quenching in water, (2) the hydrogen source term during fuel quench, and (3) the rate of steam production. Additional observations of Sandia data indicate that the steam explosion is affected by this mixing process

  4. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  5. Development of a Computer Program for the Analysis Logistics of PWR Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Cha, Jeong Hun

    2008-01-01

    It is expected that the temporary storage facilities at the nuclear power plants will be full of the spent fuels within 10 years. Provided that a centralized interim storage facility is constructed along the coast of the Korean peninsula to solve this problem, a substantial amount of spent fuels should be transported by sea or by land every year. In this paper we developed a computer program for the analysis of transportation logistics of the spent fuels from 4 different nuclear power plant sites to the hypothetical centralized interim storage facility and the final repository. Mass balance equations were used to analyze the logistics between the nuclear power plants and the interim storage facility. To this end a computer program, CASK, was developed by using the VISUAL BASIC language. The annual transportation rates of spent fuels from the four nuclear power plant sites were determined by using the CASK program. The parameter study with the program illustrated the easiness of logistics analysis. The program could be used for the cost analysis of the spent fuel transportation as well.

  6. Structural design considerations for micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikar, V. T.; Turner, Kevin T.; Andrew Ie, Tze Yung; Spearing, S. Mark

    Micromachined solid-oxide fuel cells (μSOFCs) are among a class of devices being investigated for portable power generation. Optimization of the performance and reliability of such devices requires robust, scale-dependent, design methodologies. In this first analysis, we consider the structural design of planar, electrolyte-supported, μSOFCs from the viewpoints of electrochemical performance, mechanical stability and reliability, and thermal behavior. The effect of electrolyte thickness on fuel cell performance is evaluated using a simple analytical model. Design diagrams that account explicitly for thermal and intrinsic residual stresses are presented to identify geometries that are resistant to fracture and buckling. Analysis of energy loss due to in-plane heat conduction highlights the importance of efficient thermal isolation in microscale fuel cell design.

  7. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  8. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  9. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc [AREVA NC, La Hague plant - Nuclear Measurement Team, F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a {sup 137}Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional {sup 3}He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  10. Status of the nuclear measurement stations for the process control of spent fuel reprocessing at AREVA NC/La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleon, Cyrille; Passard, Christian; Hupont, Nicolas; Estre, Nicolas; Battel, Benjamin; Doumerc, Philippe; Dupuy, Thierry; Batifol, Marc; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear measurements are used at AREVA NC/La Hague for the monitoring of spent fuel reprocessing. The process control is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy, passive neutron counting and active neutron interrogation, and gamma transmission measurements. The main objectives are criticality and safety, online process monitoring, and the determination of the residual fissile mass and activities in the metallic waste remained after fuel shearing and dissolution (empty hulls, grids, end pieces), which are put in radioactive waste drums before compaction. The whole monitoring system is composed of eight measurement stations which will be described in this paper. The main measurement stations no. 1, 3 and 7 are needed for criticality control. Before fuel element shearing for dissolution, station no. 1 allows determining the burn-up of the irradiated fuel by gamma-ray spectroscopy with HP Ge (high purity germanium) detectors. The burn-up is correlated to the 137 Cs and 134 Cs gamma emission rates. The fuel maximal mass which can be loaded in one bucket of the dissolver is estimated from the lowest burn-up fraction of the fuel element. Station no. 3 is dedicated to the control of the correct fuel dissolution, which is performed with a 137 Cs gamma ray measurement with a HP Ge detector. Station no. 7 allows estimating the residual fissile mass in the drums filled with the metallic residues, especially in the hulls, from passive neutron counting (spontaneous fission and alpha-n reactions) and active interrogation (fission prompt neutrons induced by a pulsed neutron generator) with proportional 3 He detectors. The measurement stations have been validated for the reprocessing of Uranium Oxide (UOX) fuels with a burn-up rate up to 60 GWd/t. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of the nuclear measurement stations. (authors)

  11. Hanford tank residual waste - Contaminant source terms and release models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael L.; Jeffery Serne, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Residual waste from five Hanford spent fuel process storage tanks was evaluated. → Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations. → Non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P ± H phases are common in the U-rich residual. → Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples. → Uranium release is highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions. - Abstract: Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. In the long term, the residual wastes may represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt.%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt.%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2-29.1 wt.%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low ( 2 -saturated solution, or a CaCO 3 -saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO 3 -saturated solution than with the Ca(OH) 2 -saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH) 2 -saturated solution than by the CaCO 3 -saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt.% of the

  12. Biomass fuel exposure and respiratory diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Abhijeet; Garg, Rajiv; Giridhar, Giridhar B

    2012-10-01

    One half of the world's population relies on biomass fuel as the primary source of domestic energy. Biomass fuel exposure causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality in humans. This is especially true in the context of developing countries, which account for 99% of the world's biomass fuel use. Biomass fuel consists of fire wood, dung cakes, agricultural crop residues such as straw, grass, and shrubs, coal fuels and kerosene. Together, they supply 75% of the domestic energy in India. An estimated three-quarters of Indian households use biomass fuel as the primary means for domestic cooking. Ninety percent of rural households and 32% of urban households cook their meals on a biomass stove. There are wide variations between the rural and urban households regarding the specific type of biomass fuel used. Globally, almost 2 million deaths per year are attributable to solid fuel use, with more than 99% of these occurring in developing countries. Biomass fuel accounts for 5-6% of the national burden of disease. Burning biomass fuels emits toxic fumes into the air that consist of small solid particles, carbon monoxide, polyorganic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and formaldehyde. Exposure to biomass fuels has been found to be associated with many respiratory diseases such as acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and asthma. Biomass fuel exposure is closely related to the burden of disease in India. Hopes are that future studies will examine the morbidity associated with biomass exposure and seek to prevent it. Concerted efforts to improve stove design and transition to high-efficiency low-emission fuels may reduce respiratory disease associated with biomass fuel exposure.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of PWR fuel rods during intermediate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffioux, P.; Dalmas, R.; Bernaudat, C.

    2000-01-01

    EDF, which owns the irradiated fuel coming from its NPPs, has initiated studies regarding the mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod and the integrity of its cladding, in the case where the spent fuel is stored for a significant duration. During the phases following in-reactor irradiation (ageing in a water-pool, transport and intermediate storage), many phenomena, which are strongly coupled, may influence the cladding integrity: - residual power and temperature decay; - helium production and release in the free volume of the rod (especially for MOX fuel); - fuel column swelling; - cladding creep-out under the inner gas pressure of the fuel rod; - metallurgical changes due to high temperatures during transportation. In parallel, the quantification of the radiological risk is based on the definition of a cladding integrity criterion. Up to now, this criterion requires that the clad hoop strain due to creep-out does not exceed 1%. A more accurate criterion is being investigated. The study and modelling of all the phenomena mentioned above are included in a R and D programme. This programme also aims at redefining the cladding integrity criterion, which is assumed to be too conservative. The R and D programme will be presented. In order to predict the overall behaviour of the rod during the intermediate storage phases, the AVACYC code has been developed. It includes the models developed in the R and D programme. The input data of the AVACYC code are provided by the results of in-reactor rod behaviour simulations, using the thermal-mechanical CYRANO3 code. Its main results are the evolution vs. time of hoop stresses in the cladding, rod internal pressure and cladding hoop strains. Chained CYRANO-AVACYC calculations have been used to simulate the behaviour of MOX fuel rods irradiated up to 40 GWd/t and stored under air during 100 years, or under water during 50 years. For such fuels, where the residual power remains high, we show that a large part of the cladding strain

  14. Development in the manufacture of fuel assembly components at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2012-01-01

    The integrity of the fuel bundle and pellet-clad mechanical and chemical interaction (PCMCI) is the major limiting factor in achieving high burn up in thermal as well as fast reactors. Zircaloy based fuel bundle used for Indian pressurized heavy water reactor consists of number of components such as fuel clad tube, end cap bearing pad and spacer pad. These tubular, bar and sheet components are manufactured at Nuclear Fuel Complex using a series of thermomechanical processes involving hot and cold working with intermediate heat treatment. This paper is aimed at bringing out recent advances in NFC in the manufacture of fuel assembly components. Zircaloy based double clad tube adopting co-extrusion route followed by cold pilgering was successfully produced for its potential usage for high burnup in advance thermal reactors such as Advanced Heavy Water Reactors, This paper also includes process modifications carried out in the manufacture of clad tube and end cap components based on in-depth metallurgical studies. A radial forging process was established for primary breakdown of arc melted ingot which allows for better soundness and homogeneous microstructure. Manufacturing route of bar components for end caps was suitably modified by adopting only barrel straightening to minimize the residual stress and thereby increasing the recovery appreciably. NFC also supplies clad tube for fast breeder reactors where limiting factor for burn up are void swelling and fuel-clad interaction. In view of this, advance claddings such as P/M based 9Cr - Oxide Dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel clad and Zirconium lined T91 (9Cr-1 Mo) steel double clad have been successfully produced. Zirconium lined T91 (9Cr-1 Mo) double clad tubes required was successfully produced by adopting the method of co-pilgering, as a candidate material for clad tubes of Fast Breeder Reactors. (author)

  15. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN TM 81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN TM 85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN TM 81 and TN TM 85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN TM 81 and the TN TM 85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  16. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    the premonsoon and monsoon periods. Waters from deeper layers of the shelf appear to reach the surface causing considerable fall of surface temperature near the coast. The probable causes for these differences in upwelling along the coast are discussed...

  17. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  18. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order

  19. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Gaydos

    Full Text Available Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA, British Columbia (Canada, and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as

  20. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  1. Fuel prices around the world: From prosperity to turmoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This issue examines price changes of petroleum products in some 40 countries around the world. Both political turmoil and economic prosperity shape government policy in managing consumer prices of petroleum products. Brazil has experienced extreme political and economic instability that sent prices skyrocketing and the national currency plummeting. Meanwhile, economic growth in South Korea has given the population the wealth for automobiles and stretched the country's ability to supply its unquenchable demand. Fuel prices around the world were higher in July 1992 than in January 1992, mainly due to higher crude prices. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of October 23, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, October 1992 edition

  2. Burner and dissolver off-gas treatment in HTR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Heidendael, M.; Kirchner, H.; Merz, E.; Schroeder, G.; Vygen, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the reprocessing of HTR fuel, essentially all of the gaseous fission products are released during the heat-end tratment, which includes burning of the graphite matrix and dissolving of the heavy metallic residues in THOREX reagent. Three facilities for off-gas cleaning are described, the status of the facility development and test results are reported. Hot tests with a continuous dissolver for HTR-type fuel (throughput 2 kg HM/d) with a closed helium purge loop have been carried out. Preliminary results of these experiments are reported

  3. Five years of successful CANDU-6 fuel manufacturing in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, A.C.; Pascu, A.; Andrei, G.; Bailescu, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing in Romania at FCN Pitesti, after the completion of the qualification in 1994. Commercial production was resumed early 1995 and fuel bundles produced were entirely delivered to Cernavoda Plant and charged in the reactor. More than 12,000 fuel bundles have been produced in the last five years and the fuel behaved very well. Defective bundles represents less than 0.06% from the total irradiated fuel, and the most defects are associated to the highest power positions. After qualification, FCN focused the effort to improve braze quality and also to maintain a low residual hydrogen content in graphite coated sheaths. The production capacity was increased especially for component manufacturing, appendages tack welding and brazing. A new graphite baking furnace with increased capacity, is under design. In the pelleting area, a rotating press will replace the older hydraulic presses used for pelleting. Plant development taken inter consideration the future demands for Cernavoda Unit 2. (author)

  4. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1981-01-01

    The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  6. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    rocks of the central west coast of India. Vol. 10, No.2, 1990 bonate and Miliolite Problems of Gujarat, PRL Ahmedabad:41 42 Kale VS, RajagllIU SN (1985) Neogene and Quaternary transgres sional and regressional history of the west coast of India... (1990) 10: 111-115 Geo-Marine Letters ~1990 Springtr-Vtrlng Ntw Yolldnc. Beach Rocks of the Central West Coast of India B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403004 Abstract Along the central west coast of India several...

  7. Preliminary study on metallic inclusion in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Imoto, Shosuke

    1984-01-01

    In recent postirradiation tests, metallic fission products such as Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd are known to precipitate as metallic inclusions in the fuel. These inclusions remain as insoluble residues and provide various problems in different fields of the reprocessing. In this report are presented preliminary results of the study on the ternary phase diagram of Mo-Ru-Pd system and on their properties in nitric acid or various oxidative environments. It is concluded that (1) most of metallic inclusions which are insoluble in nitric acid show epsilon phase, Ru base hcp alloy, in which a large amount of Mo and Pd are soluble, (2) Pd, however, seems to deposit separately in the fuel pin because of its high vapor pressure, (3) Mo fraction in the inclusion would be highly dependent on oxygen potential in the fuel pin. (author)

  8. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  9. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  10. A durable and dependable solution for RTR spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, J.

    1999-01-01

    RTR Operators need efficient and cost-effective services for the management of their spent fuel and this, for the full lifetime of their facility. Thanks to the integration of transport, reprocessing and conditioning services, COGEMA provides a cogent solution, with the utmost respect for safety and preservation of the environment, for the short, medium and long terms. As demonstrated in this paper, this option offers the only durable and dependable solution for the RTR spent fuel management, leading to a conditioning for the final residues directly suitable for final disposal. The main advantage of such an option is obviously the significant reduction in terms of volume and radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste when compared to direct disposal of spent fuels. The efficiency of such a solution has been proven, some RTR operators having already trusted COGEMA for the management of their aluminide fuel. With its commitment in R and D activities for the development of a high performance and reprocessable LEU fuels, COGEMA will be able to propose a solution for all types of fuels, HEU and LEU

  11. Studies on the dissolution of mixed oxide spent fuel from FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Shin-ichi; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Shioura, Takao; Okamoto, Fumitoshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1995-01-01

    At the Chemical Processing Facility(CPF) in the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation(PNC), since 1982 Laboratory scale hot experiments have been carried out on the development of reprocessing technology for FBR mixed oxide fuel. The spent fuel pins which have been used in out experiments were irradiated in Experimental Fast Reactor 'Joyo' Phenix (France) and DFR(UK). Burn-up of the fuel pins were 4,400-100,000 MWd/t. This paper Summarizes a dissolution study that have been performed to define the Key parameters affecting dissolution rate such as concentration of nitric acid, burn-up, and temperature. And this paper also discusses about the character of releasing 85 Kr in chopping and dissolution process, and about the amount of insoluble residue. (author)

  12. Packaging and transport case of test fuel assembly irradiated in the Creys-Malville reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Vivien, J.; Pouard, M.; Dujardin, G.N.; Veron, B.; Michoux, H.

    1986-06-01

    Some irradiated fuel assemblies from the fast neutron Creys Malville reactor will be sent to hot laboratories to follow fuel behavior. These test assemblies will be examined after a limited cooling time and transport is realized at high residual power (about 10kW) and cladding temperature should not rise over 500deg C. The fuel assemblies are not dismantled and transported into sodium. The assembly is placed into a case containing sodium plugged and put into a packaging. Dimensioning, thermal behavior, radiation protection and containment are examined [fr

  13. Interfacing solvent extraction in the recovery of pyrochemical residues at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional feedstock for plutonium recovery at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been spent reactor fuel elements and irradiated targets. Feed sources have included both onsite reactors and a wide variety of domestic and foreign reactors. For the past few years, a growing and increasingly varied mix of unirradiated plutonium residues has been purified through SRP aqueous-based processes. Recently, plutonium residues generated in various chloride salt melts have become a significant offsite source of feed for SRP recovery operations. Impure plutonium metal and plutonium alloys have also been processed. A broader range of molten salt and other high temperature residues is anticipated for the future. The major advantage of solvent extraction for scrap purification is the versatility of the solvent extraction system which allows numerous contaminants to be removed by routine operations. Major concerns are nuclear safety control, corrosion of equipment, and control of releases to the environment. SRP's past, present, and future interfacing of solvent extraction in processing pyrochemical and other plutonium-containing residues is reviewed

  14. A preliminary evaluation of a combined tire- and refuse-derived fuel (TDF-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stessel, R.I.; Amari, T.; Themelis, N.J.; Wearnick, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    In dense urban areas of the US, it is now becoming clear that waste management is far from economically-optimum. Even with the popularity of inexpensive land disposal, hauling and recycling costs are driving up the average waste bill. An historic option has been refuse-derived fuel, or RDF. Difficulties included low energy content and difficulty obtaining uniformity. Today, many resource-recovery technologies used in RDF are finding their way into materials recovery facilities (MRFs), some of which are reviving the automated processing of waste. Any MRF, automated or not, will have residue streams. Currently, one of the most significant problems is waste tires. Local options are difficult to locate in dense urban areas. As fuels, tires typically have energy contents considerably above those for which most solid-fuel combustors are designed, leading to thermal imbalances and various forms of failure. This paper suggests a new fuel that can be either co-fired with coal, or used in its own right in a combustor primarily designed for coal: TDF-RDF. A preliminary examination is undertaken of thermal and emissions characteristics, and possible costs for a few applications of the fuel. Immediately, TDF is already cleaner-burning than many coals, even in sulfur emissions. RDF has been widely-regarded as being similarly cleanly. Posited MRF residue streams should be still cleaner, and more consistent, than RDF. Overall, there is quite a potential for developing a fuel that would allow old coal powerplants in historic urban centers to be better neighbors, while helping with a few problems in municipal waste management.

  15. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  16. Evaluation of electricity generation from lignin residue and biogas in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0.19-0.27tons of biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of wastewater, equivalent to 4335-5981kWh and 1946-2795kWh of electricity by combustion of the generated lignin residue and biogas, respectively. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The study on process of recycling uranium in mixture of residue and liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Shen Weiwei; Hao Jidong; Wu Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    The treat method of mixture of residue and liquid produced from HWR nuclear fuel chemical process using some kind of U_3O_8 powder was studied in this experiment. For recycling the uranium in mixture of residue and liquid, chemical dissolving method, washing and centrifuging method and dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was contrasted in this test. The merit of dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method is simpler, more effective and higher uranium recycling ratio. Next, dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was studied systematically. As a result, the main influence factors of uranium recycling ratio is dip sour degree and dip sour temperature. The influence law of factors to uranium recycling ratio and filtering effect was found out also. Along with increasing of dip sour degree and dip sour temperature, uranium recycling ratio increases and speed of filtrate increases also. At last, the process of batch treating mixture of residue and liquid was build and abundant uranium was recycled. (authors)

  18. Model-based fault detection for proton exchange membrane fuel cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an intelligent model-based fault detection (FD) is developed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) dynamic systems using an independent radial basis function (RBF) networks. The novelty is that this RBF networks is used to model the PEMFC dynamic systems and residuals are generated based ...

  19. Subtidal benthic macrofauna of the Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    Subtidal macrobenthic fauna from the Mangalore Coast was studied from the shelf areas between the old Mangalore Port and Suratkal, covering an area of approximately 40 km sup(2). Benthic bivalves were the most abundant group, (36160/m sup(2...

  20. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Utilization of the ocean resources on the Saurashtra coast is dating back to the Harappan period (3rd millennium BC) and evidences on the same have been recorded from various archaeological sites such as Lothal, Padri, Nageshwar and Bet Dwarka...

  1. Environmental impact data for fuels. Part 2: Background information and technical appendix (New revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Almemark, M.; Brandel, M.; Lindfors, L.G.; Marcus, H.O.; Stripple, H.; Wachtmeister, A.; Zetterberg, L.

    2001-05-01

    This report is a compilation of data concerning environmental impacts from the utilization of different fuels. The entire life cycle is studied, from the extraction of raw materials to combustion. The fuels under study are gasoline, gasoline with MTBE, diesel, fuel oil, LPG, coal, natural gas, peat, refuse, ethanol, RME, DME, methane and wood fuels (forestry residues, Salix, pellets/briquettes). Utilization areas studied are heating plants, cogeneration plants, power plants, domestic boilers, and light and heavy vehicles. In this new edition, the following changes were made: New life cycle analyses have been included, a few new fuels added, electricity from hydroelectric plants, wind power plants and nuclear power plants have been included and some other minor changes

  2. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  3. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis visit the coasts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Counts and photographs of right whales Eubalaena australis taken on aerial surveys of the southern coast of. South Africa between ... of 0.08–2.89 km.h-1. Theodolite tracking of undisturbed groups of right whales from Cape Columbine produced ...... right whales on the coast of Argentina (Outer Coast) between 1971 and ...

  4. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  5. Consolidation of cladding hulls from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    To consolidate metallic waste that is residual from Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, waste ingots are currently being cast using an induction furnace located in a hot cell. These ingots, which have been developed to serve as final waste forms destined for repository disposal, are stainless steel (SS)-Zr alloys (the Zr is very near 15 wt.%). The charge for the alloys consists of stainless steel cladding hulls, Zr from the fuel being treated, noble metal fission products, and minor amounts of actinides that are present with the cladding hulls. The actual in-dated cladding hulls have been characterized before they were melted into ingots, and the final as-cast ingots have been characterized to determine the degree of consolidation of the charge material. It has been found that ingots can be effectively cast from irradiated cladding hulls residual from the electrometallurgical treatment process by employing an induction furnace located in a hot cell

  6. Demand and supply of wood fuels in the emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Laitila, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emission trade according to the EU directive on greenhouse gas emission allowance started at the beginning of the year 2005. This will boost the demand for wood fuels because of the addition-al value of CO 2 neutrality compared to fossil fuels. This bulletin covers the development of the demand and supply of wood fuels from 2002 to 2010 both at a national and a provincial level. The demand and supply balance of wood fuels will be evaluated both without the effect of emission trade and when the emission trade price level is 20 euro/ton- CO 2 for emission rights in 2010. The evaluations of fuel consumption for individual boilers were made with the help of the databases of Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd. The demand for wood fuels was estimated to double by the year 2010, being almost 50 TWh. The share of forest chips of the demand was one third, i.e. 17 TWh. The supply potential was divided into forest chips and solid by-products from forest industry. Forest chip sources included small diameter wood from young forests and logging residues and stumps from re-generation felling sites. The supply potential calculations of logging residues and stump biomass were based on databases of regeneration felling stands. The biomass potential from small diamreter wood was evaluated on the basis of field measurements of NFI 8 and 9 at a provincial level and multi-source data at a municipal level. In 2010, the supply potential of by-products was estimated to be 28 TWh of which 11 TWh was marketable out-side of the internal use of forest industry. Correspondingly, the theoretical potential of forest chips was estimated to be 51 TWh and the techno-economical potential 24 TWh. As a result of the regional optimization model, the energy use of wood fuels was 29 TWh, which was 59 % of the potential demand. In emission trade the demand was 33 TWh, which was 68 % of the potential demand. Regionally, the potential demand for wood fuels for energy use was higher than the supply in all provinces

  7. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  8. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  9. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment

  10. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  11. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m 3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m 3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO's will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C

  13. Fuels and materials for transmutation. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The safe and efficient management of spent fuel from the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. Worldwide, more than 250 000 tons of spent fuel from reactors currently operating will require disposal. These numbers account for only high-level radioactive waste generated by present-day power reactors. Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from the long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to only about 1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium (called transuranic elements) and the long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium. When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal, the toxic nature of the spent fuel drops below that of natural uranium ore (that which was originally mined for the nuclear fuel) within a period of several hundred to a thousand years. This significantly reduces the burden on geological repositories and the problem of addressing the remaining long-term residues can thus be done in controlled environments having timescales of centuries rather than millennia stretching beyond 10 000 years. Transmutation is one of the means being explored to address the disposal of transuranic elements. To achieve this, advanced reactor systems, appropriate fuels, separation techniques and associated fuel cycle strategies are required. This report describes the current status of fuel and material technologies for transmutation and suggests technical R and D issues that need to be resolved. It will be of particular interest to nuclear fuel and material scientists involved in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P and T), and in advanced fuel cycles in general. (author)

  14. Fuel Behaviour in Transport after Dry Storage: a Key Issue for the Management of used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issard, Herve

    2014-01-01

    , embrittlement of cladding, pellet swelling, technical basis for the amount of residual water, measurement of residual water, drying procedures and criteria, corrosion issues. The challenge is to provide the most adequate R and D and safety studies which will demonstrate the ability of the interim storage system to fulfill its objectives: first to protect the public and second to be an intermediate step to allow time to implement a long term and final used fuel management solution. For the industry, this step is an additional cost, which is necessary in order to maintain flexibility. But this step must not be transformed into an argument for no decision. Currently R and D studies are progressing satisfactorily to demonstrate of the safety of dry storage as an intermediate step. The remaining unresolved issues to reach today's demonstrated level of safety for long term storage of vitrified and compacted waste are important. This would require a very significant effort (R and D and investment) and would not necessarily guarantee results. (author)

  15. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  16. Near-coast tsunami waveguiding: phenomenon and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Adytia, D.; Adytia, D.; Andonowati, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that shallow, elongated parts in a sloping bottom toward the coast will act as a waveguide and lead to large enhanced wave amplification for tsunami waves. Since this is even the case for narrow shallow regions, near-coast tsunami waveguiding may contribute to an explanation

  17. Renewable energy from corn residues by thermochemical conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei

    Declining fossil oil reserve, skyrocket price, unsecured supplies, and environment pollution are among the many energy problems we are facing today. It is our conviction that renewable energy is a solution to these problems. The long term goal of the proposed research is to develop commercially practical technologies to produce energy from renewable resources. The overall objective of my research is to study and develop thermochemical processes for converting bulky and low-energy-density biomass materials into bio-fuels and value-added bio-products. The rationale for the proposed research is that, once such processes are developed, processing facility can be set up on or near biomass product sites, reducing the costs associated with transport of bulky biomass which is a key technical barrier to biomass conversion. In my preliminary research, several conversion technologies including atmospheric pressure liquefaction, high pressure liquefaction, and microwave pyrolysis have been evaluated. Our data indicated that microwave pyrolysis had the potential to become a simple and economically viable biomass conversion technology. Microwave pyrolysis is an innovative process that provides efficient and uniform heating, and are robust to type, size and uniformity of feedstock and therefore suitable for almost any waste materials without needing to reduce the particle size. The proposed thesis focused on in-depth investigations of microwave pyrolysis of corn residues. My first specific aim was to examine the effects of processing parameters on product yields. The second specific research aim was to characterize the products (gases, bio-oils, and solid residues), which was critical to process optimization and product developments. Other research tasks included conducting kinetic modeling and preliminary mass and energy balance. This study demonstrated that microwave pyrolysis could be optimized to produce high value syngas, liquid fuels and pyrolytic carbons, and had a great

  18. Strength of Anode‐Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faes, A.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Nickel oxide and yttria doped zirconia composite strength is crucial for anode‐supported solid oxide fuel cells, especially during transient operation, but also for the initial stacking process, where cell curvature after sintering can cause problems. This work first compares tensile and ball....... Even though the electrolyte is to the tensile side, it is found that the anode support fails due to the thermo‐mechanical residual stresses....

  19. Long term integrity of spent fuel and construction materials for dry storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T [CRIEPI (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    In Japan, two dry storage facilities at reactor sites have already been operating since 1995 and 2002, respectively. Additionally, a large scale dry storage facility away from reactor sites is under safety examination for license near the coast and desired to start its operation in 2010. Its final storage capacity is 5,000tU. It is therefore necessary to obtain and evaluate the related data on integrity of spent fuels loaded into and construction materials of casks during long term dry storage. The objectives are: - Spent fuel rod: To evaluate hydrogen migration along axial fuel direction on irradiated claddings stored for twenty years in air; To evaluate pellet oxidation behaviour for high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels; - Construction materials for dry storage facilities: To evaluate long term reliability of welded stainless steel canister under stress corrosion cracking (SCC) environment; To evaluate long term integrity of concrete cask under carbonation and salt attack environment; To evaluate integrity of sealability of metal gasket under long term storage and short term accidental impact force.

  20. Hollow-Wall Heat Shield for Fuel Injector Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Russell B. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A fuel injector component includes a body, an elongate void and a plurality of bores. The body has a first surface and a second surface. The elongate void is enclosed by the body and is integrally formed between portions of the body defining the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of bores extends into the second surface to intersect the elongate void. A process for making a fuel injector component includes building an injector component body having a void and a plurality of ports connected to the void using an additive manufacturing process that utilizes a powdered building material, and removing residual powdered building material from void through the plurality of ports.

  1. Lab-scale pyrolysis of the Automotive Shredder Residue light fraction and characterization of tar and solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina

    2017-06-01

    The general aim of this study is the recovery of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR). The ASR light fraction, or car fluff, that was collected at an Italian shredding plant was pyrolysed at various temperatures (500-800°C) in a lab-scale reactor. The condensable gases (tar) and solid residue yields increased with decreasing temperature, and these products were characterized to suggest a potential use to reclaim them. The higher heating value (HHV) of tar was 34-37MJ/kg, which is comparable with those of fossil fuels. Furthermore, the ash content was low (0.06-4.98%). Thus, tar can be used as an alternative fuel. With this prospect, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tar were determined. The toxicity of tar changes with temperature (1-5ng I-TEQ/g), and the PCDFs significantly contribute to tar toxicity, which was 75-100% with a maximum of 99.6% at 700°C. Regarding the characterization of the solid residue, the low HHV (2.4-3.3MJ/kg) does not make it suitable for energy recovery. Regarding material recovery, we considered its use as a filler in construction materials or a secondary source for metals. It shows a high metal concentration (280,000-395,000mg/kg), which is similar at different pyrolysis temperatures. At 500°C, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not detected in the solid residue, whereas the maximum total PAH concentration (19.41ng/g, 700°C) was lower than that in fly ash from MSWI. In conclusion, 500°C is a suitable pyrolysis temperature to obtain valuable tar and solid residue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Hernandez, David; Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Science (UEX), Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain); Garcia, Jesus-Pablo [Toxicology Area, National Centre of Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; Lopez-Beceiro, Ana [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science (USC), Estrada de Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p {<=} 0.01) and razorbill (22%, p {<=} 0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min{sup -} {sup 1} mg{sup -} {sup 1} protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6 {+-} 95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0 {+-} 60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6 {+-} 66.9). (author)

  3. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; De Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-02-15

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20 ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG.

  4. Removal of sulphur-containing odorants from fuel gases for fuel cell-based combined heat and power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wild, P.J.; Nyqvist, R.G.; de Bruijn, F.A.; Stobbe, E.R. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-09-22

    Natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are important potential feedstocks for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell-based (e.g. proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) or solid oxide fuel Cells (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) applications. To prevent detrimental effects on the (electro)catalysts in fuel cell-based combined heat and power installations (FC-CHP), sulphur removal from the feedstock is mandatory. An experimental bench-marking study of adsorbents has identified several candidates for the removal of sulphur containing odorants at low temperature. Among these adsorbents a new material has been discovered that offers an economically attractive means to remove TetraHydroThiophene (THT), the main European odorant, from natural gas at ambient temperature. The material is environmentally benign, easy to use and possesses good activity (residual sulphur levels below 20ppbv) and capacity for the common odorant THT in natural gas. When compared to state-of-the-art metal-promoted active carbon the new material has a THT uptake capacity that is up to 10 times larger, depending on temperature and pressure. Promoted versions of the new material have shown potential for the removal of THT at higher temperatures and/or for the removal of other odorants such as mercaptans from natural gas or from LPG. (author)

  5. Zymomonas mobilis for fuel ethanol and higher value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jeon, Y J; Lee, K J; Lawford, H G

    2007-01-01

    High oil prices, increasing focus on renewable carbohydrate-based feedstocks for fuels and chemicals, and the recent publication of its genome sequence, have provided continuing stimulus for studies on Zymomonas mobilis. However, despite its apparent advantages of higher yields and faster specific rates when compared to yeasts, no commercial scale fermentations currently exist which use Z. mobilis for the manufacture of fuel ethanol. This may change with the recent announcement of a Dupont/Broin partnership to develop a process for conversion of lignocellulosic residues, such as corn stover, to fuel ethanol using recombinant strains of Z. mobilis. The research leading to the construction of these strains, and their fermentation characteristics, are described in the present review. The review also addresses opportunities offered by Z. mobilis for higher value products through its metabolic engineering and use of specific high activity enzymes.

  6. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  7. Modelling of thermal mechanical behaviour of high burn-Up VVER fuel at power transients with special emphasis on the impact of fission gas induced swelling of fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.; Medvedev, A.; Khvostov, G.; Bogatyr, S.; Kuzetsov, V.; Korystin, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the modelling of unsteady state mechanical and thermo-physical behaviour of high burn-up VVER fuel at a power ramp. The contribution of the processes related to the kinetics of fission gas to the consequences of pellet-clad mechanical interaction is analysed by the example of integral VVER-440 rod 9 from the R7 experimental series, with a pellet burn-up in the active part at around 60 MWd/kgU. This fuel rod incurred ramp testing with a ramp value ΔW 1 ∼ 250 W/cm in the MIR research reactor. The experimentally revealed residual deformation of the clad by 30-40 microns in the 'hottest' portion of the rod, reaching a maximum linear power of up to 430 W/cm, is numerically justified on the basis of accounting for the unsteady state swelling and additional degradation of fuel thermal conductivity due to temperature-induced formation and development of gaseous porosity within the grains and on the grain boundaries. The good prediction capability of the START-3 code, coupled with the advanced model of fission gas related processes, with regard to the important mechanical (residual deformation of clad, pellet-clad gap size, central hole filling), thermal physical (fission gas release) and micro-structural (profiles of intra-granular concentration of the retained fission gas and fuel porosity across a pellet) consequences of the R7 test is shown. (authors)

  8. Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Crop Residues and Animal Manure Common in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhao, Guanglu; Zhang, Yang; Han, Lujia; Xiao, Weihua

    2017-10-25

    Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98% for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24% for animal manure of dry basis. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (k A ) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (k P ) ranged from 3.97 to 4.57 and from 2.76 to 4.31 for crop residues and animal manure, respectively. Of note, conversion factors were strongly affected by amino acid composition and levels of nonprotein nitrogen. Thus, k P values of 4.23 for crop residues, 4.11 for livestock manure, and 3.11 for poultry manure are recommended to better estimate protein content from total nitrogen.

  9. TNTM85 and TNTM81 transports / storage flasks: An optimized solution for vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, D.; Verdier, A.; Dyck, P.

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing flask designs. Therefore COGEMA LOGISTICS decided in the late nineties to develop a design with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters. The TN TM 85 flask shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the highest vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW. The challenge for the TN TM 85 flask design was that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by COGEMA Specification 300AQ16 relative to vitrified residue canister. In addition, the cask had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  10. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Ellicott, Evan; Badarinath, K.V.S.; Vermote, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1σ) and 0.32 (-1σ). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: → MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. → The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. → MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. → AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  11. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Residual shear strength variability as a primary control on movement of landslides reactivated by earthquake-induced ground motion: Implications for coastal Oregon, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; Wang, Gonghui

    2014-01-01

    Most large seismogenic landslides are reactivations of preexisting landslides with basal shear zones in the residual strength condition. Residual shear strength often varies during rapid displacement, but the response of residual shear zones to seismic loading is largely unknown. We used a ring shear apparatus to perform simulated seismic loading tests, constant displacement rate tests, and tests during which shear stress was gradually varied on specimens from two landslides to improve understanding of coseismic landslide reactivation and to identify shear strength models valid for slow gravitational failure through rapid coseismic failure. The landslides we studied represent many along the Oregon, U.S., coast. Seismic loading tests resulted in (1) catastrophic failure involving unbounded displacement when stresses represented those for the existing landslides and (2) limited to unbounded displacement when stresses represented those for hypothetical dormant landslides, suggesting that coseismic landslide reactivation may be significant during future great earthquakes occurring near the Oregon Coast. Constant displacement rate tests indicated that shear strength decreased exponentially during the first few decimeters of displacement but increased logarithmically with increasing displacement rate when sheared at 0.001 cm s−1 or greater. Dynamic shear resistance estimated from shear strength models correlated well with stresses observed during seismic loading tests, indicating that displacement rate and amount primarily controlled failure characteristics. We developed a stress-based approach to estimate coseismic landslide displacement that utilizes the variable shear strength model. The approach produced results that compared favorably to observations made during seismic loading tests, indicating its utility for application to landslides.

  13. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    We discuss a method to obtain the spatial estimates of rainfall on the Indian west coast for calculating the surface water budget. The region includes the basin of the Mandovi River, a typical west-coast river whose catchment area includes...

  14. The role of research and development work on the production costs of logging residue chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nousiainen, I.

    1998-01-01

    Purchase of logging residue chips in the early 80s was mainly based on production chains in which the residues were collected with load-carrying tractors at the road-side storage, from which it was chipped or crushed directly into the trailer of a waiting lorry. Six new production chains were developed in the national Bioenergy Research Programme. Three of these are now commercial. Kotimaiset Energiat Pekka Lahti Ky has developed, on the basis of a traditional logging residue production chain, a high-efficiency EVOLUTION intermediate storage chipper, suitable for chipping of logging residues. Oy Logset Ab has developed a new type of lot-chipping chip-harvester, the LOGSET 536C. Nested containers have also been developed for the lot-chipping method. MOHA multi-purpose chipper, in which the chipping and lorry-transportation of chips have been integrated, has also been developed as a part of the research programme. In addition to these, a chipper-container lorry combination, transportation of complete logging residues, and whole- tree skidding have been developed in the project for production of logging residue chips. In the beginning of the 80s the production costs of logging residues at the place of utilization were about 52 FIM/MWh, and the average transportation distance 50 km. In 1992 the production costs, 64 FIM/MWh at the distance of 100 km, was significantly higher than the price of alternative fuels. The lowest production cost level, obtainable by the developed methods is 46 FIM/MWh

  15. Extra heavy oil and refinery residues upgrading through Eni Slurry Technology : first EST commercial unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, G.; Sanfilippo, D.; Amoroso, A [Eni S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils is projected to continue to grow in the upstream oil industry given that large reserves of unconventional extra heavy crude and bitumen exist in several geographic areas including Canada and Venezuela. As reserves of conventional crude oil continue to decline, these unconventional feedstocks are becoming an opportunity to pursue, but they require effective technologies for upgrading and meeting the growing demand for light and middle distillate fuels. This paper described the proprietary technology that offers a solution to upstream and downstream oil producers for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. En i Slurry Technology (EST) is constructing an industrial plant in its Sannazzaro refinery in Italy. The plant is designed to convert 23,000 BPSD of vacuum residue into high quality diesel and other valuable refinery streams such as liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and jet fuel. EST is an H-addition process characterized by the use of a special homogeneous isothermal intrinsically safe reactor, and of a nano-dispersed non-ageing catalyst. EST converts more than 98 per cent of any type of residues to about 110 per cent volume of light products and distillates or extra heavy oils to high quality bottomless SCO. In typical performance, HDS is greater than 85 per cent, HDM greater than 99 per cent and HDCCR greater than 97 per cent. EST also achieves the target of zero fuel oil - zero coke. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. From the African Coast, the invention of two territories: Equatorial Guinea and Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjoa Nathalie Chiyé Kessé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the African coast starts Latin American history and part of Europe’s. This article includes a comprehensive analysis on the cultural influence of Africa especially Equatorial Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire in Latin America. From the first European incursions into African coast (xvi century and throughout the colonial era, the paper highlights interethnic relations that occurred following the meeting and coexistence between cultures of both continents, an analysis that is essential to study the survival of traditions, beliefs and African customs that survive today in many regions of Latin America. Considering the importance now given to the recovery of identity traits of the past for studies of multi-ethnicity and re-construction of identities, this article can be used by researchers at Afro-descendance, notable in Latin America, whose research is related to African identity traits in their respective nations. Equatorial Guinea was a Spanish colony along with the Protectorate of Morocco and Western Sahara. The duration of this colony ran from 1885 to 1968. In 1926, it became the Spanish Guinea, and in 1968 it acquired its independance from Spain while retaining the Spanish cultural architecture. Furthermore, the French presence in this first stage of the conquest in Côte d’Ivoire, is provided by the army. The colonial authorities in Paris were not yet sufficiently organized to move their representatives to what was then known as the Poor or Bad People Coast or Coast of teeth. It was the military from Senegal, as base of the French colonial army who assumed the conquest and organization of the Ivorian territory for immediate exploitation of economic resources. It is this improvised framework without legal planning, which led to the idea of the invention of Africa supported by Valentin Mudimbe (1988 and Achille Mbembe (2000.

  17. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  18. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  19. Global carbon impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLain, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. Carbon remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional carbon is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the global carbon balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered carbon present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, carbon emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of carbon emission reduction for district heating to carbon emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels

  20. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E

    2016-03-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC-MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity.

  1. Tracing the origin of Pb using stable Pb isotopes in surface sediments along the Korean Yellow Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Choi, Man-Sik; Song, Yunho; Lim, Dhong-Il

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the factors controlling lead (Pb) concentration and identify the sources of Pb in Yellow Sea sediments along the Korean coast, the concentration of Pb and Pb isotopes in 87 surface and 6 core sediment samples were analyzed. The 1 M HCl leached Pb concentrations had a similar geographic distribution to those of fine-grained sediments, while the distribution of residual Pb concentrations resembled that of coarse-grained sediments. Leached Pb was presumed to be associated with manganese (Mn) oxide and iron (Fe) oxy/hydroxide, while residual Pb was associated with potassium (K)-feldspar, based on good linear relationships between the leached Pb and the Fe/Mn concentrations, and the residual Pb and K concentrations. Based on a ratio-ratio plot with three isotopes (207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb) and the geographic location of each sediment, sediments were categorized into two groups of samples as group1 and group2. Group 1 sediments, which were distributed in Gyeonggi Bay and offshore (north of 36.5°N), were determined to be a mixture of anthropogenic and natural Pb originating from the Han River, based on a 208Pb/206Pb against a Cs/Pbleached mixing plot of core and surface sediments. Group 2 sediments, which were distributed in the south of 36.5°N, also showed a two endmembers mixing relationship between materials from the Geum River and offshore materials, which had very different Pb concentrations and isotope ratios. Based on the isotopes and their concentrations in core and surface sediments, this mixing relationship was interpreted as materials from two geographically different origins being mixed, rather than anthropogenic or natural mixing of materials with the same origin. Therefore, the relative percentage of materials supplied from the Geum River was calculated using a two endmembers mixing model and estimated to be as much as about 50% at 35°N. The spatial distribution of materials derived from the Geum River represented that of fine

  2. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Raja, P; Sudhakar, S; Rajeswari, V; Asanulla, R Mohamed; Mohan, R; Sutharsan, P

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten commercial fish species and water samples in three estuaries along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Fish and water samples collected from Tamilnadu coast, India, were extracted and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy. The petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) in coastal waters and fish species varied between 2.28 and 14.02 μg/l and 0.52 and 2.05 μg/g, respectively. The highest PHC concentration was obtained in Uppanar estuarine waters (14.02 ± 0.83) and the lowest was observed in Vellar estuarine waters (2.28 ± 0.25). Among the ten fish species, Sardinella longiceps have high PHC concentration from all the locations. This study suggests that S. longiceps can be used as a good biological indicator for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters along Tamilnadu coast is markedly higher than that in the background, but there is no evidence for its increase in fish of this region. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels. At present, as Tamilnadu coastal area is in a rapid development stage of new harbour, chemical industries, power plants, oil exploration and other large-scale industries, further assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and the various hydrodynamic conditions acting in the region are to be studied in detail and continuous pollution monitoring studies should be conducted for improving the aquatic environment. The results will also be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  4. Eddy current testing of PWR fuel pencils in the pool of the Osiris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Marchand, L.

    1983-12-01

    A nondestructive testing bench is described. It is devoted to examination of high residual power fuel pencils without stress on the cladding nor interference with cooling. Guiding by fluid bearings decrease the background noise. Scanning speed is limited only by safety criteria and data acquisition configuration. Simultaneous control of various parameters is possible. Associated to an irradiation loop, loaded and unloaded in a reactor swinning pool, this bench can follow fuel pencil degradation after each irradiation cycle [fr

  5. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills †

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  6. Refuse-derived fuel from municipal solid waste residuals : a feasibility study[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgess, C.; Johnson, R. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Environmental Technologies; Schubert, J. [EWMC Operations, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Edmonton's Waste Management Centre (EWMC) consists of a composting plant and a materials recovery facility, which accepts over 230,000 tonnes of residential waste per year. It removes 74,000 tonnes of residuals from these two facilities through a series of processing and refining stages and landfilling. Alternative waste management strategies are being considered to handle these residuals as the city's landfill site is approaching its maximum capacity. One option that takes advantage of the high calorific value of these residues is gasification. To ensure consistent and uniform gasification, the residuals have to be processed to a homogenous feedstock. This paper outlined the steps that were taken to characterize the four distinct residual streams, process them to a refuse-derived fluff and pelletize mixtures of these four streams with specific additives. The paper discussed pellet criteria; feedstock preparation; the physical and chemical properties of the fluff and pelletized mixture; pelletization; and, cost estimates of the processing stages involved. Last, a summary of the project was provided. The first phase of the project has been completed. The second phase of the project involves the development of the optimum business case, which includes further cost assessment of the feedstock preparation stage; leasing commercial scale equipment to establish efficiency and robustness of the process; assessing an alternative feeding system for the gasification system; and evaluating methanol production using a catalyst to convert the syngas to methanol. 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Chemical residues in Dolphins from the US Atlantic coast including atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, D.W.; Haebler, R.; Potter, C.

    1991-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for anthropogenic chemical contaminants. Average contaminant concentrations in adult males were higher than the average concentrations measured in adult females. Females could be divided into two groups by contaminant concentrations, one with low concentrations, and another with concentrations 4.4 times (PCBs) to 8.9 times (p,p'-DDE) greater. Contaminant concentrations in bottlenose were generally greater than the concentrations measured in either common (Delphinus delphis) or white-sided (Lagernorhynchus acutus) dolphins from the western North Atlantic Ocean. A subset of animals screened for unusual chemical contaminants showed that numerous polybrominated chemicals were present, including polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers not previously found in marine mammals from U.S. coastal waters.

  8. The development of a wood fuel gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues: project ARBRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, K.F.; Lundbergt, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of ARBRE Energy, a joint venture company that includes Yorkshire Environmental of the United Kingdom and Tenniska Processer AB of Sweden. The project will establish 2000 hectares of short rotation coppices, some of which will be organically fertilized with digested sewage sludges, to provide 80% of the fuel requirements of a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) electricity generation plant. The remaining 20% of the fuel requirements will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years all the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be examined in detail, together with the award of its planning permit and agreement on its operating license. (author)

  9. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity anomaly map of Paso Robles 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of an effort to map the three-dimensional distribution of rocks in the central California Coast Ranges and will serve as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the Paso Robles quadrangle. Local spatial variations in the Earth\\'s gravity field, after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithological or structural boundaries. High-density rocks exposed within the central Coast Ranges include Mesozoic granitic rocks (exposed northwest of Paso Robles), Jurassic to Cretaceous marine strata of the Great Valley Sequence (exposed primarily northeast of the San Andreas fault), and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Franciscan Complex [exposed in the Santa Lucia Range and northeast of the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Parkfield, California]. Alluvial sediments and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities; however, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of older basement rocks.

  10. A setup for active neutron analysis of the fissile material content in fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushuev, A. V.; Kozhin, A. F., E-mail: alexfkozhin@yandex.ru; Aleeva, T. B.; Zubarev, V. N.; Petrova, E. V.; Smirnov, V. E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    An active neutron method for measuring the residual mass of {sup 235}U in spent fuel assemblies (FAs) of the IRT MEPhI research reactor is presented. The special measuring stand design and uniform irradiation of the fuel with neutrons along the entire length of the active part of the FA provide high accuracy of determination of the residual {sup 235}U content. AmLi neutron sources yield a higher effect/background ratio than other types of sources and do not induce the fission of {sup 238}U. The proposed method of transfer of the isotope source in accordance with a given algorithm may be used in experiments where the studied object needs to be irradiated with a uniform fluence.

  11. Determination of catalyst residues in hydrocarbon fuels by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the determination of entrained catalytic cracking catalyst in hydrocarbon fuels. Aluminium is measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis and the amount of catalyst present is calculated from the amount of aluminium found and the known composition of the catalyst. Entrained catalyst may be determined at levels above 3 ppm with a precision of +-2%-25% according to sample composition. Only simple procedures are required. Vanadium may reduce sensitivity by dead time and pulse pile-up. No other interferences were observed. (author)

  12. Gelation of Oil Slicks by Amine Carbamates as an Adjunct to U.S. Navy Oil Spill Recovery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-14

    plan for a field test in Boston Harbor was to be developed and submitted to the EPA, Coast Guard, state and municipal water control authorities. Di ...Residual Special Fuel Oil #6, and similar oils) was found to be a mixture of 40 g. dodecylamine, 25 R. tetradecylamine, and 4.5 g. hexadecylamine In...solution with 100 g. methyl alcohol. By far the best system, however, was a mixture of 70% dehydroabletylamine ("Amine D", as manufactured by Hercules Corp

  13. Nutrient demand in bioventing of fuel oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedveld, G.D.; Hauge, A.; Olstad, G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of nutrient addition on bioventing of fuel oil pollution in an artificially polluted sandy soil has been studied at different experimental scales to assess the predictive value of laboratory treatability studies. The results of batch studies, laboratory column studies, and pilot-scale field tests (10 tons of soil) were compared. The qualitative response to nutrient addition was comparable in all experiments. Without nutrient addition, a minimal respiration rate was observed. With nutrient addition, respiration rates increased almost instantaneously. The highest rates were observed in the batch studies. The column study and pilot-scale field test indicated similar respiration rates, at approximately one sixth the respiration rates in the batch study. Respiration rates in the pilot-scale field study decreased during the winter season. Analysis of the residual oil composition in soil samples showed a relation between the degree of weathering, measured as the n-C 17 /pristane and n-C 18 /phytane ratio, and nutrient addition. Lower n-C 17 /pristane ratios were observed at higher total nitrogen content. After 1 year of bioventing with nutrient addition, a 66% reduction in TPH content was observed. Without nutrient addition, the residual oil still closely resembled the original fuel oil product, with only minor removal of the light-end compounds

  14. [Nursing perspective on psychiatric care in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Michaël Bilson is a nurse at the psychiatric hospital of Bingerville, in Ivory Coast. Here, he describes his mission supporting the National Health Worker Training Institute. It is the only nurse training school in Ivory Coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Fission gas release from fuels at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Yves; Pointud, M.L.; Vignesoult, Nicole; Atabek, Rosemarie; Baron, Daniel.

    1982-04-01

    Determinations of residual gas concentrations by heating and by X microanalysis were respectively carried out on particles (TANGO program) and on sections of fuel rods, perfectly characterized as to fabrication and irradiation history. A threshold release temperature of 1250 0 C+-100 0 C was determined irrespective of the type of oxide and the irradiation history in the 18,000-45,000 MWdt -1 (U) specific burnup field. The overall analyses of gas released from the fuel rods show that, in the PWR operating conditions, the fraction released remains less than 1% up to a mean specific burnup of 35000 MWdt -1 (U). The release of gases should not be a limiting factor in the increase of specific burnups [fr

  16. 33 CFR 125.11 - Form of Coast Guard Port Security Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Coast Guard Port Security... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.11 Form of Coast Guard Port Security Card. The Coast Guard Port... data. ...

  17. Virginia Coast Reserve 2007 Remote Sensing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    beaches, maritime forests , wetlands, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons ; - Natural lands and built up areas along Cape Charles, VA are...representative of barrier island coasts , worldwide; and - It is a major natural resource for the Mid Atlantic Region. Imagery-derived information for...support Joint Logistics Over the Shore. This experiment uses the VCR to study a barrier island coast with coastal lagoons , tidal inlets, and

  18. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Insect Residue Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow over airfoils used on current commercial aircraft transitions from laminar to turbulent at relatively low chord positions. As a result, drag increases, requiring more thrust to maintain flight. An airfoil with increased laminar flow would experience reduced drag and a lower fuel burn rate. One of the objectives of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation project is to identify and demonstrate technologies that will enable more environmentally friendly commercial aircraft. While more aerodynamically efficient airfoil shapes can be designed, surface contamination from ice, dirt, pollen, runway debris, and insect residue can degrade performance.

  19. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  20. Cocombustion of secondary fuels with Rhenish brown coal; Mitverbrennung von Sekundaerbrennstoffen mit rheinischer Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, Alexander; Kull, Rene; Zepf, Eva; Fuller, Aaron; Maier, Joerg; Scheffknecht, Guenter [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen; Jong, Martin de [KEMA Nederland B.V. (Netherlands); Glorius, Thomas [REMONDIS Trade and Sales GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The Institute of Combustion and Power Plant of Technology of the University of Stuttgart (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) performs scientific research within the range of solid firings. The cocombustion of secondary fuels in coal-fired power stations as well as the production of secondary fuels are examined in the project RECOFUEL. The production of secondary fuels is performed from harmless house wastes and commercial wastes as well as from biological residues from forestry and agriculture. Secondary fuels offer an alternative to fossil fuels for the power production in different branches of industry and reduce the emission of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. For the attempts in two power stations of RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) the quality-certified secondary fuel SBS1 registered of the company Remondis GmbH (Luenen, Federal Republic of Germany) was used. This secondary fuel was developed and subjected to an intensive analysis. Experiments in a pulverized fuel furnace and in a fluidised bed were performed at the power stations Weisweiler and Berrenrath in order to examine different aspects of the cocombustion.

  1. Analysis of fuel oxidation for long-term dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Dry storage is one of the temporary end of life channels for PWR fuel assemblies after leaving the reactor. According to results of currently available digital simulations, the residual power will maintain at a temperature of over 150 degrees Celsius for several years for UO 2 and several decades for MOX. At such temperatures, the UO 2 , which constitutes the fuel wholly or partially (MOX) can oxidise in the presence of air to form the compound U 3 O 8 . The paper discusses parameters that influence the evolution of compounds formed as the reaction progresses, the morphological transformations accompanying their formation and the kinetic conditions according to the temperature and the nature of the initial products

  2. Respiratory involvements among women exposed to the smoke of traditional biomass fuel and gas fuel in a district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Md Abdul; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Selim, Shahjada; Karim, Md Rizwanul; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-03-01

    Burning of biomass fuel (cow-dung, crop residue, dried leaves, wood, etc.) in the kitchen releases smoke, which may impair the respiratory functions of women cooking there. This paper aimed to compare the respiratory symptoms between biomass fuel users and gas fuel users in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews and chest examination of 224 adult women using biomass fuel in a rural village and 196 adult women using gas fuel in an urban area. The prevalence of respiratory involvement (at least one among nine symptoms and two diseases) was significantly higher among biomass users than among gas users (29.9 vs. 11.2 %). After adjustment for potential confounders by a logistic model, the odds ratio (OR) of the biomass users for the respiratory involvement was significantly higher (OR = 3.23, 95 % confidence interval 1.30-8.01). The biomass fuel use elevated symptoms/diseases significantly; the adjusted OR was 3.04 for morning cough, 7.41 for nasal allergy, and 5.94 for chronic bronchitis. The mean peak expiratory flow rate of biomass users (253.83 l/min) was significantly lower than that of gas users (282.37 l/min). The study shows significant association between biomass fuel use and respiratory involvement among rural women in Bangladesh, although the potential confounding of urban/rural residency could not be ruled out in the analysis. The use of smoke-free stoves and adequate ventilation along with health education to the rural population to increase awareness about the health effects of indoor biomass fuel use might have roles to prevent these involvements.

  3. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  5. Analysis of cold flow fluidization test results for various biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.Z.; Husain, Z.; Pong, S.L.Y. [University Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A systematic theoretical and experimental study was conducted to obtain hydrodynamic properties such as particle size diameter, bulk density, fluidizing velocity, etc. for locally available biomass residue fuels in Malaysia like rice husk, sawdust, peanut shell, coconut shell, palm fiber as well as coal and bottom ash. The tests were carried out in a cold flow fluidization bed chamber of internal diameter 60 mm with air as fluidizing medium. Bed-pressure drop was measured as a function of superficial air velocity over a range of bed heights for each individual type of particle. The data were used to determine minimum fluidization velocity, which could be used to compare with theoretical values. The particle size of biomass residue fuel was classified according to Gildart's distribution diagram. The results show that Gildart's particle size (B) for sawdust, coal bottom ash, coconut shell have good fluidizing properties compared to rice husk, type (D) or palm fiber, type (A). The bulk density and voidage are found to be main factors contributing to fluidizing quality of the bed.

  6. A study on the smelting of electrolytically reduced spent fuel by using surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Jeong, Myoung-Soo; Cho, Soo-Haeng; Seo, Chung-Seok; Park, Seong-Won

    2005-01-01

    A smelting as a part of the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) was studied by using surrogate materials. Residual salts including LiCl-Li 2 O were successfully separated from the metal components by an evaporation at 950degC. The melting of the metal was characterized, especially by considering the oxidation of the fine metal particles. The operation procedure of the smelting was set up as 1) removal of residual salts, 2) melting of the metal powder, and 3) a solidification of the melted mass to an ingot. (author)

  7. Emissions, energy return and economics from utilizing forest residues for thermal energy compared to onsite pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Woodam Chung; Susan Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The emissions from delivering and burning forest treatment residue biomass in a boiler for thermal energy were compared with onsite disposal by pile-burning and using fossil fuels for the equivalent energy. Using biomass for thermal energy reduced carbon dioxide emissions on average by 39 percent and particulate matter emissions by 89 percent for boilers with emission...

  8. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  9. Large-Scale Production of Fuel and Feed from Marine Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, Mark [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In summary, this Consortium has demonstrated a fully integrated process for the production of biofuels and high-value nutritional bioproducts at pre-commercial scale. We have achieved unprecedented yields of algal oil, and converted the oil to viable fuels. We have demonstrated the potential value of the residual product as a viable feed ingredient for many important animals in the global food supply.

  10. Studies on Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce phosphors prepared by gel combustion using new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, L.E., E-mail: laura_muresan2003@yahoo.com [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Oprea, B.F.; Cadis, A.I.; Perhaita, I. [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ponta, O. [Faculty of Physics, Babeş Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce was prepared by combustion using aspartic or glutamic acid as fuels. • Combustion process occurs differently depending on the fuels amount. • Single phase X2-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phosphors were obtained in fuel rich conditions. • PL measurements indicate that aspartic acid is a better fuel than glutamic. • Optimal preparative conditions were established for synthesis of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce. - Abstract: Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by combustion, using yttrium–cerium nitrate as oxidizer, aspartic or glutamic acid as fuel and TEOS as source of silicon. In this study, aspartic and glutamic acid are used for the first time for the synthesis of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce phosphors. The fuels molar amount was varied from 0.5 mol to 1.5 mol in order to reveal the thermal behavior of intermediary products (gels and ashes) same as the structural and luminescent characteristics of final products (phosphors). According to thermal analysis correlated with FTIR and XPS investigations, the combustion process occurs differently depending on the fuel amount; unreacted nitrate compounds have been identified in fuel lean conditions and carbonate based compounds along with organic residue in rich fuel conditions. The conversion to well crystallized silicates was revealed by changes of FTIR vibration bands and confirmed by XRD measurements. Based on luminescent spectra, aspartic acid is a better fuel than glutamic acid. A positive effect on the luminescence have been observed for samples fired in air due to complete remove of organic residue. The best luminescence was obtained for combustions with 0.75 mol aspartic acid and 1.25 mol glutamic respectively, fired at 1400 °C for 4 h in air atmosphere.

  11. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Catharina; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2011-01-01

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of 'before disregarded' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds.

  12. Risk-based approach for bioremediation of fuel hydrocarbons at a major airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a risk-based approach for bioremediation of fuel-hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and ground water at a major airport in Colorado. In situ bioremediation pilot testing, natural attenuation modeling, and full-scale remedial action planning and implementation for soil and ground water contamination has conducted at four airport fuel farms. The sources of fuel contamination were leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) or pipelines transporting Jet A fuel and aviation gasoline. Continuing sources of contamination were present in several small cells of free-phase product and in fuel residuals trapped within the capillary fringe at depths 15 to 20 feet below ground surface. Bioventing pilot tests were conducted to assess the feasibility of using this technology to remediate contaminated soils. The pilot tests included measurement of initial soil gas chemistry at the site, determination of subsurface permeability, and in situ respiration tests to determine fuel biodegradation rates. A product recovery test was also conducted. ES designed and installed four full-scale bioventing systems to remediate the long-term sources of continuing fuel contamination. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected in ground water at concentrations slightly above regulatory guidelines

  13. Methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels at decommissioned nuclear facilities/sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hoenes, G.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ultimate disposition of decommissioned nuclear facilities and their surrrounding sites depends upon the degree and type of residual contamination. Examination of existing guidelines and regulations has led to the conclusion that there is a need for a general method to derive residual radioactive contamination levels that are acceptable for public use of any decommissioned nuclear facility or site. This paper describes a methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels based on the concept of limiting the annual dose to members of the public. It is not the purpose of this paper to recommend or even propose dose limits for the exposure of the public to residual radioactive contamination left at decommissioned nuclear facilities or sites. Unrestricted release of facilities and/or land is based on the premise that the potential annual dose to any member of the public using this property from all possible exposure pathways will not exceed appropriate limits as may be defined by Federal regulatory agencies. For decommissioned land areas, consideration should be given to people living directly on previously contaminated areas, growing crops, grazing food animals and using well water. Mixtures of radionuclides in the residual contamination representative of fuel reprocessing plants, light water reactors and their respective sites are presented. These mixtures are then used to demonstrate the methodology. Example acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels, based on an assumed maximum annual dose of one millirem, are calculated for several selected times following shutdown of a facility. It is concluded that the methodology presented in this paper results in defensible acceptable residual contamination levels that are directly relatable to risk assessment with the proviso that an acceptable limit to the maximum annual dose will be established. (author)

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in the marine environment of Bassein-Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouksey, M.K.; Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports PHc contamination in water, sediment and biota of the coastal area of Bassein-Mumbai in relation to relatively less polluted sites (Dabhol and Ratnagiri) off the west coast of India. To facilitate inter-comparison three standards have been used though the results are reported in terms of SAM (Residue of Saudi Arabian Mix crude). The concentration of PHc in water off Bassein-Mumbai varies widely (2.9-39.2 μg l -1 ) as compared to the average baseline (2.8 μgl -1 ) with higher values generally confined to creeks and estuaries. The higher concentration of PHc in the bottom water of shallow areas is attributed to the contribution from the sediment-associated petroleum residue. High concentration of PHc in the surficial sediment of inshore area Ratnagiri (107.7 ppm, dry wt) is perhaps the remnants of an oil spill that occurred in the Bombay High region on May 17, 1993. The majority of values of PHc concentration in the surficial sediment of the Bassein-Mumbai region exceed 15 ppm (dry wt) against the expected background ( -1 respectively is estimated for cores U11 and U12. Substantial increase in the concentration of PHc in sediment after 1950 in cores T8 and T10 correlates well with the establishment of refineries on the western shore of the Thane Creek in 1955-1960. A minor peak in most cores in the top 10 cm sediment probably results from biological transfer of PHc lower into the sediment by benthic organisms. Excess of PHc retained in the sediment of the Bassein-Mumbai region over the biogenic background is estimated at 40,000 t. The PHc residues (1.8-10.8 ppm, wet wt) in fish caught off Bassein-Mumbai do not suggest bioaccumulation. (author)

  15. Influence of the pressure holding time on strain generation in fuel injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basara, Adis; Alt, Nicolas; Schluecker, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    An influence of the pressure holding time on residual strain generation during the autofrettage process was studied experimentally for the first time in the present work. It is the state of the art that fuel injection lines are held at the autofrettage pressure for only a few seconds in an industrial production. In doing so, it is assumed that a desirable residual stress-strain pattern is generated. However, the results of the experimental investigations outlined in this work indicated that completion of the plastic deformation caused by the autofrettage process and generation of the desirable stress-strain pattern require a much longer period. As shown, a third-order polynomial equation best described the interdependence between the time required for the completion of the process, the corresponding autofrettage pressure and the generated strain state. The method presented can be used as a tool for the determination of the optimal autofrettage process parameters in industrial production of fuel injection lines.

  16. Analysis of radwaste material management options for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. S.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, J. W.; Yim, S. P.; Hong, D. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Baik, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Lee, E. P.; Kang, I. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This report is desirable to review management options in advance for radioactive waste generated from manufacturing experiment of DUPIC nuclear fuel as well as residual nuclear material and dismantled equipment. This report was written for helping researchers working in related facilities to DUPIC project understanding management of DUPIC radioactive waste as well as fellows in DUPIC project. Also, it will be used as basic material to prove transparency and safeguardability of DUPIC fuel cycle. In order to meet these purposes, this report includes basic experiment plan for manufacturing DUPIC nuclear fuel, outlines for DUPIC manufacturing facility and equipment, arising source and estimated amount of radioactive waste, waste classification and packing, transport cask, transport procedures. 15 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  17. A survey of residual analysis and a new test of residual trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Klapes, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    A survey of residual analysis in behavior-analytic research reveals that existing methods are problematic in one way or another. A new test for residual trends is proposed that avoids the problematic features of the existing methods. It entails fitting cubic polynomials to sets of residuals and comparing their effect sizes to those that would be expected if the sets of residuals were random. To this end, sampling distributions of effect sizes for fits of a cubic polynomial to random data were obtained by generating sets of random standardized residuals of various sizes, n. A cubic polynomial was then fitted to each set of residuals and its effect size was calculated. This yielded a sampling distribution of effect sizes for each n. To test for a residual trend in experimental data, the median effect size of cubic-polynomial fits to sets of experimental residuals can be compared to the median of the corresponding sampling distribution of effect sizes for random residuals using a sign test. An example from the literature, which entailed comparing mathematical and computational models of continuous choice, is used to illustrate the utility of the test. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. A case study: Residue reduction at Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geehan, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    With input from Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc. (SSFI), Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (DPRLP) analyzed options for managing the bottom of the barrel to extinction, with an objective of high return on investment. DPRLP is a joint venture of PEMEX and Shell Oil Company. This Gulf Coast refiner processes 227M BBL/D of heavy, high sulfur crude. This paper discusses the process options considered, their advantages and disadvantages, and the option selected as well as the options still open. Recent modernization projects at DPRLP are now on stream with high yield of clean products.There remains one by-product, petroleum coke, which presents opportunity as a low cost feed for one or more process options yielding attractive products. The Shell Coke (or Coal) Gasification Process is one of the options now being considered

  19. Phenomenological model of sintering of oxide nuclear fuel with doping admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. G.; Devyatko, Yu. N.; Tenishev, A. V.; Khomyakov, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that a change in the linear dimension of compacted UO2 in the sintering process is associated with its plastic yielding under the action of the forces of residual stress and capillary forces. From the curves of sintering of a fuel with doping admixtures in various gaseous media, its rate of creep is reduced.

  20. Life Prediction of Spent Fuel Storage Canister Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald

    2018-04-16

    The original purpose of this project was to develop a probabilistic model for SCC-induced failure of spent fuel storage canisters, exposed to a salt-air environment in the temperature range 30-70°C for periods up to and exceeding 100 years. The nature of this degradation process, which involves multiple degradation mechanisms, combined with variable and uncertain environmental conditions dictates a probabilistic approach to life prediction. A final report for the original portion of the project was submitted earlier. However, residual stress measurements for as-welded and repair welds could not be performed within the original time of the project. As a result of this, a no-cost extension was granted in order to complete these tests. In this report, we report on the results of residual stress measurements.