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Sample records for coast plain rio

  1. Nova espécie de Heleobia (Rissooidea, Hydrobiidae da planície costeira do sul do Brasil New species of Heleobia (Rissooidea, Hydrobiidae from south plain coast of Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Heleobia robusta, new species from plain coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described. Conchology, conchometry, soft-part morphology including head-food, pallial structures, radula and some aspects of the female and male reproductive systems are provided.

  2. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  3. Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil.

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    Cabrini, Tatiana M B; Barboza, Carlos A M; Skinner, Viviane B; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Rocha, Rafael C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Valentin, Jean L; Cardoso, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated concentrations of eight heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co and V, in tissues of representative macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The links between contamination levels and community descriptors such as diversity, evenness, density and biomass, were also investigated. Metal concentrations from macrofaunal tissues were compared to maximum permissible limits for human ingestion stipulated by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). Generalized linear models (GLM's) were used to investigate the variability in macrofauna density, richness, eveness and biomass in the seven different regions. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (n-MDS) was used to investigate the spatial pattern of heavy metal concentrations along the seven regions of Rio de Janeiro coast. Variation partitioning was applied to evaluate the variance in the community assemblage explained by the environmental variables and the heavy metal concentrations. Our data suggested high spatial variation in the concentration of heavy metals in macrofauna species from the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. This result highlighted a diffuse source of contamination along the coast. Most of the metals concentrations were under the limits established by ANVISA. The variability in community descriptors was related to morphodynamic variables, but not with metal contamination values, indicating the lack of direct relationships at the community level. Concentration levels of eight heavy metals in macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches on Rio de Janeiro coast (Brazil) were spatially correlated with anthropogenic activities such as industrialization and urbanization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cenozoic deposits exposed along Rio de la Plata coast in the Canelones Department (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso Aguilar, C.; Spoturno, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper allows to know some sedimentological and stratigraphical features of the Cenozoic deposits exposed along Rio de la Plata coast in the Canelones department, Uruguay. The results, mainly collected from metric thickness of local stratigraphical sections and coastal outcrops of that region are presented. Both Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are present, however transitional Pleistocenic deposits of Chuy Formation and continental sediments of Libertad Formation are more dominant [es

  5. Neritic Jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa from the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast of Brazil

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    Matthews-Cascon, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the entire Brazilian coast, there are 22 published records of scyphozoans. On the other hand, only 35 species ofcubozoans were described worldwide, four of them reported for the Brazilian coast. However, little is known about thespecies of cubozoans and scyphozoans in the Northeastern states of Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform asurvey of the jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa and Scyphozoa on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeast ofBrazil. Specimens were collected using trawl net on beaches in the counties of Natal (in 2003 and Tibaú (in 2004. Forthe Rio Grande do Norte coast there were few records of large jellyfish, and new records of the following cubozoan andscyphozoan species were verified: Chiropsalmus quadrumanus; Chrysaora lactea; Lychnorhiza lucerna andStomolophus meleagris. The studied species had their distributions expanded in the coast to the State of Rio Grande doNorte.

  6. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    RENATO P. LOPES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II. This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL and electron spin resonance (ESR ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ∼220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e. Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed.

  7. Plant community composition and biomass in Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes: Responses to winter burning and structural marsh management

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    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Many marshes in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA, are managed through a combination of fall or winter burning and structural marsh management (i.e., levees and water control structures; hereafter SMM). The goals of winter burning and SMM include improvement of waterfowl and furbearer habitat, maintenance of historic isohaline lines, and creation and maintenance of emergent wetlands. Although management practices are intended to influence the plant community, effects of these practices on primary productivity have not been investigated. Marsh processes, such as vertical accretion and nutrient cycles, which depend on primary productivity may be affected directly or indirectly by winter burning or SMM. We compared Chenier Plain plant community characteristics (species composition and above- and belowground biomass) in experimentally burned and unburned control plots within impounded and unimpounded marshes at 7 months (1996), 19 months (1997), and 31 months (1998) after burning. Burning and SMM did not affect number of plant species or species composition in our experiment. For all three years combined, burned plots had higher live above-ground biomass than did unburned plots. Total above-ground and dead above-ground biomasses were reduced in burned plots for two and three years, respectively, compared to those in unburned control plots. During all three years, belowground biomass was lower in impounded than in unimpounded marshes but did not differ between burn treatments. Our results clearly indicate that current marsh management practices influence marsh primary productivity and may impact other marsh processes, such as vertical accretion, that are dependent on organic matter accumulation and decay.

  8. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

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    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of geoprocessing to assess vulnerability on the east coast aquifers of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Seabra, Vinicius Silva; Silva, Gerson Cardoso Da; Cruz, Carla Bernadete Madureira

    2009-04-01

    The east coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, shows a worrying overlap between areas with intrinsic groundwater vulnerability and the most significant urban expansion zones. It experienced a rapid population growth in recent years, mainly due to the tourism industry, resulting in a significant pressure on drinking groundwater resources. In this regard, development and use of techniques to control and protect areas susceptible to contamination is crucial. The elaboration of aquifer vulnerability maps is thus extremely helpful to support water resources management. The aim of the work is to present the methodological approach in the use of Geoprocessing techniques to obtain a suitable groundwater vulnerability model in Rio de Janeiro east coast. Considering the existing problems and the current land use and characteristics of the study region, it is clear that the most vulnerable areas (that is, “extreme” and “very high” vulnerability areas), coincide with the most significant zones of urban occupation, corresponding to 11% of the total study area, demanding adoption of urgent measures in the near future. Geoprocessing tools and remote sensing for characterization of Rio de Janeiro’s east coast aquifer vulnerability gave good results, representing a satisfactory method for management actions at low cost.

  10. Environmental quality evaluation of lakes in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain

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    Catarina da Silva Pedrozo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the environmental quality of Marcelino, Pinguela, Peixoto, Palmital, Malvas and Do Passo lakes, interconnected by canals and located in the district of Osório, RS. In this context, 29 physical and chemical variables were analyzed with sampling carried out in January, May, July and October 1997 to verify the environmental quality of the system and the existence of a gradient of quality. Canonical Analysis was applied to the data of all environmental variables measured, and showed that the lakes had different characteristics as a consequence of the organic pollution received. Marcelino lake received continuous input of organic matter from the sewage treatment works in the town of Osório, whereas Peixoto, Pinguela, Palmital, Malvas and Do Passo lakes resembled other water bodies described in the region, not showing, so far, signs of degradation caused by the input of effluents. Principal Component Analysis selected environmental element were directly linked to organic pollution, that reflected sequential non-recent effects of contamination.O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a qualidade ambiental das lagoas Marcelino, Pinguela, Peixoto, Palmital, Malvas e Lagoa do Passo, ecossistemas interligados nesta seqüência por canais e localizados próximos a cidade de Osório, Rio Grande do Sul. Foram analisadas vinte e nove variáveis ambientais físicas e químicas no período de janeiro, maio, julho e outubro de 1997. Constatou-se, através de uma análise de discriminantes canônicos utilizando-se as variáveis ambientais, que as lagoas apresentaram características limnológicas diferenciadas em função do aporte dos efluentes urbanos: a lagoa Marcelino mostrou contaminação orgânica e foi separada das demais lagoas evidenciando um gradiente de qualidade ambiental. Posteriormente, uma análise de componentes principais diferenciou as estações amostrais selecionando descritores ambientais

  11. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: Effects of structural marsh management

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    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrology of marsh ponds influences aquatic invertebrate and waterbird communities. Hydrologic variables in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain are potentially affected by structural marsh management (SMM: levees, water control structures and impoundments) that has been implemented since the 1950s. Assuming that SMM restricts tidal flows and drainage of rainwater, we predicted that SMM would increase water depth, and concomitantly decrease salinity and transparency in impounded marsh ponds. We also predicted that SMM would increase seasonal variability in water depth in impounded marsh ponds because of the potential incapacity of water control structures to cope with large flooding events. In addition, we predicted that SMM would decrease spatial variability in water depth. Finally, we predicted that ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes would be similar in water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (O2), and transparency. Using a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast, we tested these predictions by comparing hydrologic variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Specifically, we compared hydrologic variables (1) between IM and unimpounded mesohaline marsh ponds (UM); and (2) among IF, IO, and IM marshes ponds. As predicted, water depth was higher and salinity and O2 were lower in IM than in UM marsh ponds. However, temperature and transparency did not differ between IM and UM marsh ponds. Water depth varied more among months in IM marsh ponds than within those of UM marshes, and variances among and within ponds were lower in IM than UM marshes. Finally, all hydrologic variables, except salinity, were similar among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. Hydrologic changes within marsh ponds due to SMM should (1) promote benthic invertebrate taxa that tolerate low levels of O2 and

  12. ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF COASTAL PLAIN FROM PERO BEACH, CABO FRIO, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Taísa Camila Silveira de Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of palynofacies along a core drilled on the coastal plain of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Pero Beach region. The ages obtained from 14C datings allowed to verify that the studied core records the past 6761 ± 130 yrs cal BP. Thirty samples were prepared by standard methodology for palynofacies. About three hundred particles of the particulate organic material was classified and recorded for each sample. Statistical methods were employed for the associations of particulate organic matter (R-mode cluster analysis and levels (samples; Q-mode cluster analysis analyzed along the core. Furthermore, the ratio Phytoclast - Total Organic Carbon (Phy-TOC was used to verify the proximity of the source area. The three major groups of particulate organic matter found along the studied core are Phytoclasts, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM and Palynomorphs. The samples showed in general, a predominance of phytoclasts (73.2%, followed by AOM (18.6% and Palynomorphs (8.2%. Supported by statistical analysis, it was possible to deduce that the study area evolved since the middle Holocene from a marine environment to a paleolagoon.

  13. Sedimentary architecture and depositional evolution of the Quaternary coastal plain of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    André Luiz Carvalho da Silva

    Full Text Available The coastal geomorphology of Maricá (Rio de Janeiro state is characterized by a large lagoon and by two sandy barriers that confine a series of small isolated chain-like lagoons. Data collected from ground-penetrating radar and boreholes from the central coastal plain of Maricá provided information on the sedimentary architecture and evolution of this area in the Quaternary. Six lithological units were identified comprising three depositional sequences limited by erosional surfaces, related to barrier-lagoon systems that migrated onshore, offshore, and longshore, giving rise to a sedimentary deposit 25 m thick or more. The data reveal a retrograding barrier overlying a basal mud unit which rests in unconformity upon Precambrian basement, thus characterizing an important Pleistocene transgression. A second Pleistocene barrier of 45,000 cal years BP migrated over a lagoonal mud unit (48,000-45,000 cal years BP reaching over the previous barrier. A progradational phase followed due to a fall of sea level. A long interval of erosion of the barrier created an unconformity that represents the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. A beachrock in nearby Itaipuaçu, 100 m offshore from the present-day beach, dated as 8,500 cal years BP marks the onset of Holocene sedimentation due to gradually rising sea level, which continued until at about 5,000 years ago. This promoted the retrogradation of the barrier-lagoon system. A brief episode of progradation is observed as a series of paleobeach scarps. Today's rising sea level is causing the retrogradation of the barrier.

  14. BRAZIL’S NORTHEASTERN COAST AND THE ESTATE-TOURISM: BAHIA, PERNAMBUCO, CEARÁ AND RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

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    Alexandre Queiroz Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Northeast region of Brazil had its tourist preponderance planned in the last decade of the twentieth century. Before that time, the regional public policies did not see tourism as a strategic and developmental activity in Brazil and also did not evaluate the impacts arising from the real estate deals proper for summer vacation. In this paper, we propose an investigation on the diffusion models and ideas about the global and local tourism and summer vocations activities in coastal areas, focusing on the coast of the Northeastern region of Brazil. The territorial arrangement promoted by the construction of tourist-estate on the coast of Bahia, Ceará, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte were the focus of the research, as they are the largest recipients of these types of properties for leisure. Regarding the Methodologly, the study was conducted in three stages: bibliographical survey, secondary data analysis, along with the right public bodies and the preparation of cartograms that enabled the understanding of logical installation of these projects in the main cities of the Northeast region. The coast designed as recreational space is a spatiality predominantly in the main cities of the Northeast region of Brazil. There are leasing investments in non-metropolitan centers, however, the metropolitan perimeters are the ones that consolidate large private estate projects regarding on the new demands facing the tourists demands.

  15. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Biological Data for Three Water Bodies, Texas Gulf Coast Plain, 2000-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    East, Jeffery W; Hogan, Jennifer L

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000 September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas...

  16. Alguns helmintos de peixe do litoral norte fluminense - I Some fish helminths from Rio de Janeiro north coast

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    Joaquim J. Vicente

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available De 149 autópsias realizadas em peixes, os autores coletaram diversos helmintos, no litoral de Macaé, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A maior parte das espécies aqui estudadas, são redescritas, algumas apenas referidas e uma nova espécie do gênero Rhipidocotyle Diesing, 1858, é descrita nesta oportunidade.From 149 fishes examined the authors obtaied several helminths in Macaé Coast, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A new species is presently described and some only refered. The helminths were recovered from February, 1970, to December, 1971. The authors give general parasitism by helminthic groups and the percentage is calculated based only on the infested fishes. In preceding papers the authors had described two new species, that here are only refered: Procamallanus macaensis Vicente & Santos, 1972 and Pulchrascaris caballeroi Vicente & Santos, 1972. the new species now enclosed is Rhipidocotyle fluminensis sp. n. Sterrhurus imocavus Looss, 1907 and Cucullanus cirratus Mueller, 1777 are given to be new host record and new geographical distribution. Pleorchis mollis Poche, 1926, Lecithochirium microstomum Chandler, 1935, Homalometron longulum Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1965, Porrocaecum secundum Chandler, 1935 are also new host records. The authors give original camera lucidan drawings of some of the species here presented.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

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    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  18. Distribution of Iospilidae (Annelida along the eastern Brazilian coast (from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro

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    Bruna Tovar-Faro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the spatial distribution and abundance of the holoplanktonic family Iospilidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, along part of the eastern Brazilian coast, and its relation to environmental variables in the region. Samples were obtained from two collections made in 1998 and 2000 between 13°-25°S, and 28°-42°W, on the Brazilian coast, between the Bay of Todos os Santos (BA to Cape São Tomé (RJ. 216 stations were selected, covering the continental shelf, slope and oceanic regions, where plankton samples were collected for water and nutrient analysis. We analyzed environmental variables: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate and chlorophyll-a. 363 individuals were collected, identifying two species, viz., Phalacrophorus uniformis and Phalacrophorus pictus, the first being the most abundant, with 354 individuals, while only nine specimens of P. pictus were found. Both species are mainly distributed in the oceanic region stations. The distribution of P. uniformis was related to the concentration of phosphate and nitrate. Significant differences between samples and between sectors of the continental shelf and oceanic region were found.

  19. Acuariidae (Nematoda) in Procellariiformes (Aves) on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

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    Schramm, Camila Costa; Mascarenhas, Carolina Silveira; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Scheer, Simone; Müller, Gertrud; Robaldo, Ricardo Berteaux

    2018-03-05

    Acuariidae nematodes are normally found in the digestive tract of aquatic birds, including Procellariiformes. Were examined Calonectris borealis (n = 4), Diomedea exulans (n = 1), Macronectes giganteus (n = 8), Thalassarche chlororhynchos (n = 5), Thalassarche melanophrys (n = 15), Procellaria aequinoctialis (n = 4), Puffinus gravis (n = 2) and Puffinus puffinus (n = 6), collected on the southern coast of RS, Brazil. A total of 16 birds (35.5%) were parasitized by two species of Acuariidae. Stegophorus diomedeae and Seuratia shipleyi were identified, with prevalences of 26.1% and 21.7%, respectively. Few studies on nematodes in Procellariiformes have been conducted. Here, the acuariids Seuratia shipleyi in Calonectris borealis and Procellaria aequinoctialis and Stegophorus diomedeae in Diomedea exulans, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Thalassarche chlororhynchos were reported for the first time.

  20. Functional role of fouling community on an artificial reef at the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Werther Krohling

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State lacks natural consolidate substrates, making it a proper environment to the development of researches using artificial structures. After studies about the type of substrate, concrete seems to be the most appropriate for studying fouling community development. This research was carried out to investigate the functional role of biofouling in the development of the ichthyic community in the north of Rio de Janeiro State. Percentage data of the epibenthic organisms' coverage and samples of the fish community with gillnet and visual census showed that biofouling in artificial reefs might have more than one functional role, acting as a facilitator in the recruitment of fish species and as a link in the trophic marine chain. Through the increase of localized structural complexity provided by the reef itself and by the fouling organisms which act as "engineering species", additional protection options are offered to the ichthyic community, especially recruits. Also, the epibiont biomass represents an important link in the food web, acting either as a direct source or in the transference of energy to higher trophic levels. Through the relationship between the ichthyic and fouling communities we concluded that the functional role of the latter in artificial reef habitats could be characterized mainly as shelter and feeding grounds for few fish species.O litoral norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro possui uma escassez de substrato consolidado natural tornando o ambiente propício para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas com estruturas artificiais. Após estudos conclusivos sobre o tipo de substrato, o concreto parece ser o mais apropriado para o desenvolvimento da comunidade incrustante. Novas pesquisas foram realizadas para investigar o papel funcional da bioincrustação no desenvolvimento da comunidade íctica no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dados de porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos epibênticos e

  1. TOURISM AND INFORMALITY: AN ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL EVENTS ON THE NORTH COAST OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Alexandra Jochims Kruel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comes from the reflection on texts by Ignacy Sachs, an expert of development, that addresses important contemporary issues to society, in a combination of the themes: economic growth, social equity and environmental preservation. Among the themes, there is the question of eradicating poverty and social exclusion, through decent job. The author argues that the inclusion by the job combines economic and social objectives, and that exercising the right of working, promotes self-esteem, opportunities for self-fulfillment and advancement in the social scale. On the other hand, he denounces the poor distribution of workload socially necessary and a worldwide epidemic of jobless growth, and he argues that in Brazil, especially, most of the work is in small enterprises, many of those where people work in conditions of precariousness and informality. In this sense, the author points to a striking reality in the country and he asks: Who can say how it works in Brazil, the so-called informal economy, how many workers do participate in it and how does it happen? Because of those questions, this article was written, a brief attempt to demonstrate some of the ways the informal economy operates in Brazil, in a context marked by seasonality: tourism, in a which huge number of people move to different places searching for home, leisure, employment opportunities and income, formalized or not. It is perceived in this article, informal economic activity as a survival practice. The study was conducted in the ethnography method, in a medium-size city of the North Coast of Rio Grande do Sul during the summer season of 2009 and 2010. The article starts with a contextual approach, which it comes to tourism, essentially. Following, it is presented a section on informality and practical entrepreneurial survival and searching for better living conditions. The third section relates to the methodological design, followed by ‘findings’ of the research and

  2. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

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    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  3. O gênero Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta em ambientes lacustres na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Genus Hantzschia Grunow (Nitzschiaceae, Bacillariophyta in lacustrine environments of the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do gênero Hantzschia em amostragens realizadas em lagoas, banhados, canal e açudes na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul (30°40´-30°10´ S e 50°30´-51°30´ W, no outono e primavera de 2003, revelou a presença de um táxon específico e seis infra-específicos, a saber: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, suas variedades (var. amphioxys e var. vivax Grunow e forma (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow com duas variedades (var. elongata e var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grun. e Hantzschia sp. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, chave de identificação e comentários sobre as variações morfológicas e a distribuição dos táxons. Cabe ressaltar a presença de H. elongata var. linearis e Hantzschia sp. como novos registros para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The study of the genus Hantzschia in samples from lakes, wetlands, canals and ponds in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain (30°40'-30°10' S; 50°30'-50°30' W, during fall and spring of 2003, revealed the presence of one specific and six infra-specific taxa, as follows: Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehrenberg Grunow, its varieties (var. amphioxys and var. vivax Grunow and form (f. capitata O. Müller, H. elongata (Hatzsch Grunow with two varieties (var. elongata and var. linearis O. Müller, H. virgata (Roper Grunow and Hantzschia sp. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys and comments on morphological variation and the distribution of the taxa are presented. It is worth mentioning the presence of H. elongata var. linearis and Hantzschia sp. recorded for the first time in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  4. Cetaceans trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo) coasts; Monitoramento de encalhe de cetaceos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the cetaceans stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 15 cetaceans stranded were registered. The species Sotalia guianensis was prevailing in number and distribution. Megaptera novaeangliae was the second specie in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Tursiops truncatus and Peponocephala electra. (author)

  5. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Holocene paleo-sea level changes along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southern Brazil: Comment on Castro et al. (2014

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    RODOLFO J. ANGULO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work discusses and reinterprets paleo-sea level indicators used to build Holocene sea-level curve for the coast of Rio de Janeiro at former works. We conclude that: (a the paleo-sea levels inferred by vermetid remains show that sea-level has fallen over the past 4400 years, at least; (b the paleo-sea level inferred by the beachrock facies and dated shells of Jaconé shows that sea-level was near the present elevation between 8198 and 5786 years before present; and (c several shells from other beachrocks were deposited probably thousands of years after the specimens died and consequently do not allow precise reconstructions of paleo-sea levels. These conclusions differ from the conclusions of the original paper.

  7. Holocene paleo-sea level changes along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southern Brazil: Comment on Castro et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Rodolfo J; Giannini, Paulo C F; Souza, Maria Cristina DE; Lessa, Guilherme C

    2016-01-01

    The present work discusses and reinterprets paleo-sea level indicators used to build Holocene sea-level curve for the coast of Rio de Janeiro at former works. We conclude that: (a) the paleo-sea levels inferred by vermetid remains show that sea-level has fallen over the past 4400 years, at least; (b) the paleo-sea level inferred by the beachrock facies and dated shells of Jaconé shows that sea-level was near the present elevation between 8198 and 5786 years before present; and (c) several shells from other beachrocks were deposited probably thousands of years after the specimens died and consequently do not allow precise reconstructions of paleo-sea levels. These conclusions differ from the conclusions of the original paper.

  8. Contracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium (Nematoda: Anisakidae infection in Magellanic penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae on the coast of Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of infections and the disease induced by Contracaecum plagiaticium and Contracaecum pelagicum in Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. 1781 (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae were reported on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Parasites of the genus Contracaecum were present in all of the 11 studied animals. Co-infections by Csontracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium were observed in three hosts (27.27%. Gross lesions included hyperemia of the esophagus and/or stomach in six animals (54.54%. One of these animals (9.09%, parasitized by C. plagiaticium, presented a hemorrhagic area in the gastric mucosa. Histopathological findings demonstrated esophagitis with helminthes segments inserted in the epithelium, showing discrete mixed inflammatory infiltrate of heterophils and mononuclear cells. These parasites may be associated with other diseases, implicating in death of the penguins.

  9. Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Grecellé, Cristina Bergman Zaffari; Mello, Jozi Fagundes de; Costa, Marisa da

    2007-01-01

    O consumo de queijo artesanal, vendido em estabelecimentos de beira de estrada, é comum no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Geralmente estes produtos não são fabricados em acordo com as boas normas de fabricação e podem constituir perigo à saúde do consumidor. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, verificar a qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas litorâneas por meio da contagem de coliformes e pesquisa de Listeria spp. e Brucella spp. Foram analisados 80 quei...

  10. Ecology and biotechnological potential of bacterial community from three marine sponges of the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    FÁBIO V. DE ARAÚJO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marine sponges has been a large reservoir of microbial diversity, with the presence of many species specific populations as well as producing biologically active compounds, which has attracted great biotechnological interest. In order to verify the influence of the environment in the composition of the bacterial community present in marine sponges and biotechnological potential of bacteria isolated from these organisms, three species of sponges and the waters surrounding them were collected in different beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The profile of the bacterial community present in sponges and water was obtained by PCR-DGGE technique and the biotechnological potential of the strains isolated by producing amylase, cellulase, protease and biosurfactants. The results showed that despite the influence of the environment in the composition of the microbial community, studied marine sponges shown to have specific bacterial populations, with some, showing potential in the production of substances of biotechnological applications.

  11. Benthic Community zonation in a breakwater on the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Bruno Pereira Masi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the vertical zonation pattern of the intertidal benthic organisms on granitic boulders in the Farol de São Tomé beach (22º02'S, 41º03'W, Rio de Janeiro State. Four sampling profiles using 20 x 20 cm quadrats through a photo quadrat technique revealed four horizontal bands: (1 Littoral Fringe characterized by empty space and Littorina; (2 Upper eulittoral mainly occupied by Chthamalus and bare rock; (3 Lower eulittoral characterized by Chthamalus, Phragmatopoma, Ulva and Centroceras; and (4 Sublittoral Fringe characterized by Ulva, Phragmatopoma and Hypnea. The high variability in the relative abundance of the dominant species among the profiles may be attributed to the high topographic irregularity, reflecting in different wave action intensity at the same height, and consequently favoring the establishment of different species. The frequent substrate alternation from granitic rock to Phragmatopoma sandy reefs might contribute to the small-scale spatial variability. The implantation of a breakwater on an area without natural rocky shores allowed the study of intertidal benthic communty zonation, and provide a baseline for the experimental studies.O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um esquema de zonação vertical de organismos bênticos da região entremarés em blocos graníticos na praia do Farol de São Tomé (22º02'S, 41º03'W na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 20 x 20 cm foram sobrepostos em quatro perfis e utilizado o método por foto quadrat com 100 pontos de interseção. A análise de agrupamento e a porcentagem de cobertura de organismos bênticos indicadores sugeriram um padrão na distribuição vertical da região entremarés com quatro faixas: Franja do Supralittoral caracterizado por espaço vazio e Littorina ziczac; Médiolitoral Superior ocupado por Chthamalus spp e espaço vazio; médiolitoral inferior caracterizado por Chthamalus spp, Phragmatopoma lapidosa

  12. Geohydrology and water resources of the Papago Farms--Great Plain area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona, and the upper Rio Sonoyta area, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    The Papago Farms-Great Plain and upper Rio Sonoyta study area includes about 490 square miles in south-central Arizona and north-central Sonora, Mexico. The area is characterized by a broad, deep, sediment-filled basin bounded by low, jagged fault-block mountains. The climate is arid to semiarid. The climate and abundant ground water provide favorable conditions for irrigated agriculture. Annual precipitation averages 5 to 8 inches per year on the desert floor. Runoff, which occurs as intermittent streamflow and sheetflow, is too short lived and too laden with suspended sediment to be a reliable source for irrigation or public supply. Nearly all the water used to irrigate more than 5,000 cultivated acres in the study area is withdrawn from the unconsolidated to partly consolidated basin fill. The ground water occurs in the deposits under unconfined (water-table) conditions with a saturated thickness that ranges from zero along the mountain fronts to more than 8,000 feet in the center of the basin. The amount of recoverable ground water in storage to a depth of 400 feet below the 1978-80 water table is estimated to be about 10 million acre-feet. Depths to water range from about 500 feet near the southern boundary of the study area to about 150 feet in the center of the study area. Ground water enters the area principally as underflow beneath the San Simon and Chukut Kuk Washes and as recharge along the mountain fronts. On the basis of model results, annual inflow to the ground-water system is estimated to be about 4,390 acre-feet. Ground water moves through the study area along paths that encircle a virtually impermeable unit in the basin center, termed 'the lakebed-clay deposits,' and moves westward to an outflow point beneath the Rio Sonoyta south of Cerro La Nariz. Rates of water movement range from less than I foot per year in clays to about 160 feet per year in well-sorted, coarse stream-channel deposits. Transmissivities along the basin margins range from 10

  13. Ingestion of solid wastes by juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas (L. 1758, in the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues Awabdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the solid wastes of anthropogenic origin obtained from the stomach contents of juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, southeastern Brazil (22º50’S – 23º00’S. Between June 2009 and May 2010, the stomach contents of 49 specimens stranded on beaches were analyzed. Solid wastes were recorded in 29 stomach contents (59.2% and more than one category of wastes was found out in 22 samples. Plastic bags, categorized as flexible plastic materials, achieved the greatest occurrence frequency (96.5%. Perhaps, these wastes came from the disposal of garbage bags, raffia bags, commercial shop bags and various packaging. Wastes related to manufacture of fishing equipment were also often reported, such as nylon yarns, rubber, ropes, Styrofoam, and fishhooks. The region is an area of regular occurrence of C. mydas and the relatively large intake of solid wastes deposited in the environment poses a risk to the conservation of this species.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic signature of surface and groundwater in a highly industrialized sector of the Rio de la Plata coastal plain (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, L; Carol, E; Borzi, G; García, M G

    2017-07-15

    The coastal plain of the middle estuary of the Río de la Plata is a highly industrialized area and is densely populated by sectors. The main human activity in the sector encompassed between the cities of Ensenada and Berisso is associated with the petrochemical industry. In this work, hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of surface and groundwater in the impacted area are analyzed and the results are contrasted with those obtained in an undisturbed protected area. Major and trace elements were determined using standardized methods while the stable isotopes δ 18 O y δ 2 H were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Human impact is evidenced by the occurrence of large variations in the major chemical composition of water, and also by the elevated concentrations of some trace elements that are not contributed from natural sources. These results may contribute to the understanding of chemical processes and pollutants distribution in highly industrialized coastal plain areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vertisoles hidromórficos de la planicie costera del Río de La Plata, Argentina Hydromorphic vertisols of the Rio de La Plata coastal plain, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Imbellone

    2011-12-01

    .Hydromorphic Vertisols are the dominant soils in the coastal plain of the la Plata river, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Four repre-sentative soils in the districts of La Plata, Ensenada and Berazategui were studied. Pedological and sedimentological properties are described and analyzed. The purpose of this contribution is to discuss: a the grain size distribution and mineralogy of hydromorphic Vertisols in the rio de la Plata «mudflat»; b the influence of these properties on the generation of morphological features and c the associated pedogenic processes that take place. The morphology of the soil is related to vertic and hydromorphic features in the upper and middle horizons of the soil. Moderate and strong wedge-shaped and angular aggregates are abundant in the solum, with interpedal slickensides, sometimes striated, visible at various levels of observation. The matrix can be moderately or dominantly anisotropic and shows zones of optical anisotropism that run through the fine material with variegated patterns or anisotropic aureoles surrounding the pores. Hydromorphism is favoured by frequent pluvial flooding, the level landscape and the high water table, which is generally between 0.80 and 1.20 m deep. Therefore, endosa-turation or episaturation can occur at different times of the year. Soils have a variety of redoximorphic features, mainly reduced matrices (2.5Y, 5Y hues; chromas of 2 or less, redox concentrations of manganese and iron as nodules and concretions, surface impregnations of sesquioxides on the peds and some dark subsurface accumulations and ramifications through the matrix; there are also some depleted zones in the matrix. Concretions are hard in hand specimens and occur within the matrix; segregations are soft in hand specimens and they appear in thin sections as impregnations of the matrix with diffuse boundaries. They appear as mottles in the field. Soil textural class is clay. Fine clay markedly predominates over coarse clay. Soils are illitic Vertisols

  16. Qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bergman Zaffari

    2007-06-01

    the region along the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul. Cheese samples were taken and total and faecal coliform counting per gram sample were established. The samples were also examined for the presence of Listeria spp. and Brucella spp. In total, 80 samples, from 29 commercial establishments were analysed, of which 62 of Colonial type; 10, of Provolone; 6 of Ricotta and 2, of Cacciocavallo type. At the moment of sampling, 71% of them were not stored under refrigeration conditions. In all the samples the presence of total coliform could be demonstrated and 62 of these were tested for the presence of faecal coliforms. In 84% of the samples more then 2.73 - 3.7log.UFC g- 1 (from 500 to 5000UFC mL-1 of faecal coliform could be demonstrated, with is considered the maximum limit still allowed to be present in cheese samples. Of the 29 establishments analysed, 27 had products with coliforms counts above these limits. Of the 80 samples, 16% had Listeria sp., of which 3.7% were identified as Listeria monocytogenes. A correlation was found between the season and the isolation of Listeria spp.: in the spring the highest number was detected. Brucella spp. could not be detected in the 80 samples analysed. The high frequency of faecal coliforms and the presence of L. monocytogenes revealed that the consumption of these homemade cheeses can become a risk of infection to the population, especially for immunocompromised persons.

  17. Hidrófitas fanerogâmicas de ecossistemas aquáticos temporários da planície costeira do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Phanerogamic hydrophytes from the temporary swampy environments of coastal plains of northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Petean Bove

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das hidrófitas fanerogâmicas de ambientes aquáticos temporários da planície costeira do norte fluminense. O material botânico foi coletado em 27 expedições entre setembro/1998 a julho/2001, herborizado e identificado segundo a metodologia tradicional. As exsicatas foram depositadas no Herbário da Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (HUNI. Foram encontrados 113 táxons, distribuídos em 40 famílias. Os ambientes estudados podem ser caracterizados floristicamente pela família Cyperaceae, representada por 23 táxons (cerca de 20%; seguida pelas famílias Fabaceae e Onagraceae (sete táxons, Poaceae (seis táxons, Asteraceae e Scrophulariaceae (cinco táxons e Apiaceae, Lentibulariaceae e Polygonaceae (quatro táxons. Estes ambientes sofrem alterações fitofisionômicas marcantes relacionadas com a hidrogeologia. Algumas espécies são anuais, desaparecendo completamente na estiagem; outras suportam a seca, mas têm a população profundamente reduzida, alterando substancialmente a paisagem. Algumas espécies consideradas exclusivamente aquáticas foram encontradas em solo úmido, inclusive em floração. Isto demonstra a necessidade da inclusão de espécies anfíbias nos estudos da flora aquática pois, algumas vezes, a delimitação dos tipos biológicos não é muito definida, além de caracterizar de forma mais adequada estes ambientes.A floristic inventory of phanerogamic hydrophytes from the temporary swampy environments of coastal plains of northern of Rio de Janeiro State was made. The botanical vouchers were collected in 27 expeditions between September/1998 and July/2001. They were herborized and identified by the traditional methodology. The exsicatae were deposited in the UNIRIO herbarium (HUNI. One hundred and thirteen taxa, distributed among 40 families were found. The environment analyzed could be floristically characterized by the Cyperaceae, represented by 23 taxa (ca. 20%, followed

  18. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V., E-mail: madelaide@fumec.br [Universidade Fundacao Mineira de Educacao e Cultura (FUMEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Construcao Civil, Meio Ambiente; Barbosa, Ana Flavia S.; Ruckert, Gabriela V., E-mail: mariavasc@unilestemg.br [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  19. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  20. Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa. Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.

  1. Paracas geoglyphs of the peruvian south coast: Cerro Lechuza and Cerro Pico

    OpenAIRE

    García Soto, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the manufacture of large found drawings on desert plains and hill slopes of the Peruvian south coast was at-tributed to the Nasca society. However, since the 1980s, it is known that this cultural manifestation is a tradition that wouldhave begun towards the 750 BC during the early part of the development of the Paracas culture. Paracas geoglyphs have beenreported from Pisco to the Rio Grande Basin of Nasca, particularly in the area of Palpa where the where they have identifiedm...

  2. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  3. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, Van Benédén 1864) as indicators of the bioaccumulation of total mercury along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Vega, Claudia Maribel; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) was determined in muscle tissue of 20 Guiana dolphins stranded along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, with a mean of 1.07 μg/g wet weight. Mercury concentrations were positively related to body length, possibly related to the capacity of the dolphins to bioaccumulate this element throughout life. The Hg concentrations were not significantly different between males and females, although females (1.08 μg/g) showed slightly higher levels than males (1.04 μg/g). Concentrations were low when compared to results of studies carried out with small cetaceans in the Northern Hemisphere, and with previous studies in the Southeastern Brazil.

  4. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  5. Observações sobre a ocorrência de Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae na costa do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Remarks about the Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae occurrence in Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os espécimes foram coletados na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro no inverno. Sua distribuição era conhecida para Off Cape Lookout, Carolina do Norte até a Flórida, Golfo do México, Canal de Yucatan, Honduras, Antilhas, Venezuela e Brasil (Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia.The specimens were collected in Sepetiba Bay during the winter. Their distribution was formerly known from Off Cape Lookout, North Carolina until Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Channel, Honduras, Antilles, Venezuela and Brazil (Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia.

  6. Transferência trófica de mercúrio e selênio na costa norte do Rio de Janeiro Trophic transference of mercury and selenium in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A. Kehrig

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophic transfer of trace elements along marine food chains has been recognized as an important process influencing metal and metalloid bioaccumulation. The trophic transfer of mercury was observed between trophic levels from prey (considering fish with different feeding habits and squid to top predator (dolphin in a Northern coastal food chain of Rio de Janeiro. Selenium showed some evidence of trophic transfer between lower trophic levels. Dolphin presented the highest mercury concentrations whereas the benthic carnivorous fish showed the highest selenium concentrations. Mercury is biomagnified through the food chain while selenium does not present the same behavior.

  7. Osteopatologias e alterações dentárias em Otaria byronia (Pinnipedia, Otariidae da costa do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Osteopathologies and tooth alterations in Otaria byronia (Pinnipedia, Otariidae from Rio Grande do Sul coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues Braunn

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases and tooth alterations in 47 specimens of Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820, from southern Brazilian coast, were analized. Tooth wear and the associated bone pathologies were determined, as well as their percentuals. The main infection was osteomyelitis associated with tooth alterations, such as fractures and attrition, both of them exposing the pulp chamber. Tooth attrition increases with age, favoring fractures and their complications, including osteomyelitis, causing a high frequency of them in specimens presenting more pronounced tooth wear. In one specimen tuberculosis was found in the maxilla, perhaps primarily pulmonary. The high frequency of enamel hypoplasia might reflect cyclic food deficit. Infections and tooth fractures might be related to behaviour, such as fishermen interaction, territorial fighting, and accidents during food capture.

  8. Utilization of LANDSAT orbital imagery in the soil survey processes at Rio Grande do Norte state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Pedologic photointerpretative criteria adapted to LANDSAT orbital imagery were used: drainage (pattern, integration degree, density and uniformity degree); relief (pattern, dissection degree and crest lines); photographic texture, photographic tonnality, and the land use (type, glebas size and intensity of use). The performance of the imagery as an auxiliar tool in the soil survey processes, at Rio Grande do Norte State was evaluated. The drainage and relief elements were easily extracted from the imagery and also ones that provided the greatest deductive possibility about pedologic boundaries. Other analyzed criteria were considered only auxiliaries, corroborating some soil limits in the evidences convergence phase. The principal pedologic dominions of the 30,000 sq km are covered by the same LANDSAT image (WRS 359/16) were delimited with good precision: (1) fluvial plains, beaches, dunes and coastal mangroves; (2) North Coast line Plateau; (3) Acu Sandstone Zone; (4) residual plateaus of the Tertiary; and (6) plains of the embasement.

  9. Vitamin D status among indigenous Mayan (Kekchi) and Afro-Caribe (Garifuna) adolescents from Guatemala: a comparative description between two ethnic groups residing on the Rio Dulce at the Caribbean coast in Izabal Province, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ali; Solomons, Noel W; Campos, Raquel; Soto-Méndez, María José; Caplan, Emily; Armas, Laura; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2017-07-01

    To assess vitamin D status and the influence of risk factors such as skin pigmentation and time spent outdoors on hypovitaminosis D among Guatemalan Kekchi and Garifuna adolescents. Cross-sectional study, with convenient sampling design. Blood samples, anthropometric and behavioural data were all collected during the dry season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by RIA. Communities of Rio Dulce and Livingston, Izabal Province, Caribbean coast of Guatemala, with latitude and longitude of 15°49'N and 88°45'W for Livingston and 15°46'N and 88°49'W for Rio Dulce, respectively. Eighty-six adolescents, divided evenly by sex and ethnicity, with mean age of 14 years. Mean (sd) 25(OH)D value was 27·8 (7·2) ng/ml for the total group, with 25·8 (5·9) and 29·8 (7·9) ng/ml, respectively, in Kekchis and Garifunas (P=0·01). Use of vitamin D supplementation, clothing practices and sun protection were not statistically different between groups. Skin area exposed on the day of data collection ranged from 20·0 % minimum to 49·4 % maximum, with mean (sd) exposure of 32·0 (8.5) %. With univariate regression analysis, age (P=0·034), sex (P=0·044), ethnicity (P=0·010), time spent outdoors (P=0·006) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·001) were predictive. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only sex (P=0·034) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·044) remained as predictors of 25(OH)D. Despite residing in an optimal geographic location for sunlight exposure, nearly 65 % of study adolescents were either insufficient or deficient in vitamin D. Correction and long-term prevention of this nutritional problem may be instrumental in avoiding adverse effects in adulthood attributed to low 25(OH)D during adolescence.

  10. Contracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium (Nematoda: Anisakidae infection in Magellanic penguins (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae on the coast of Rio de Janeiro State Infecção por Contracaecum pelagicum e C. plagiaticium (Nematoda: Anisakidae em pinguins-de-Magalhães (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae na costa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina D.E. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of infections and the disease induced by Contracaecum plagiaticium and Contracaecum pelagicum in Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster. 1781 (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae were reported on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Parasites of the genus Contracaecum were present in all of the 11 studied animals. Co-infections by Csontracaecum pelagicum and C. plagiaticium were observed in three hosts (27.27%. Gross lesions included hyperemia of the esophagus and/or stomach in six animals (54.54%. One of these animals (9.09%, parasitized by C. plagiaticium, presented a hemorrhagic area in the gastric mucosa. Histopathological findings demonstrated esophagitis with helminthes segments inserted in the epithelium, showing discrete mixed inflammatory infiltrate of heterophils and mononuclear cells. These parasites may be associated with other diseases, implicating in death of the penguins.A ocorrência da infeção e a doença induzida por Contracaecum plagiaticium e Contracaecum pelagicum em pinguins-de-Magalhães, Spheniscus magellanicus Foster, 1781 (Sphenisciformes: Spheniscidae, na costa do Rio de Janeiro, foram relatadas. Parasitos do gênero Contracaecum estavam presentes em todos os 11 animais estudados. Co-infecção por Contracaecum pelagicum e C. plagiaticium foi observada em três hospedeiros (27,27%. Achados macroscópicos de necropsia incluíram hiperemia do esôfago e/ou estômago em seis animais (54,54%. Um desses animais (9,09%, parasitado por C. plagiaticium, apresentou área hemorrágica na mucosa gástrica. Os achados histopatológicos demonstraram esofagite com segmento de helminto inserido no epitélio, e discreto infiltrado inflamatório misto com heterófilos e células mononucleares. Estes parasitos podem estar associados a doenças, implicando em morte dos pinguins.

  11. Land-sea interface features of four estuaries on the South America Atlantic coast Características da interface continente-oceano de quatro estuários da zona costeira da America do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Bernardes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian coastal zone extends from 4º N to 34º S latitude and because of its long extension, the interface zone from continent to ocean includes a high diversity of geomorphologic and oceanographic characteristics. The rivers from the Northeast and East regions are marked by a typical unimodal seasonal flux patterns but with different amplitudes. As the climate indicates, the rivers from the Northeast are subject to an accentuated seasonal variability with an elevated input and flood pulses during the rainy season and low to negligible fluxes during the dry season. Small-scale rivers usually present typical torrential behaviour. In the humid eastern region, the unimodal seasonal cycle is dampened with a more constant input supply. Recently, some studies have shown that the material supply from rivers along the Northeast and Eastern coasts is diluted by surface tropical waters of oceanic currents and that the estuarine plume dispersal is restricted to a narrow coastal belt. However, human impacts of course mask or even override both natural hydrological cycles and CO2 emissions from terrestrial biomes, or depending on the nature of the human impact, can even increase extreme events. Henceforth this contribution addresses the typological, hydrological and biome diversity of the four estuarine systems fed and affected by the respective Amazon, São Francisco, Paraíba do Sul and Plata watersheds.A zona costeira brasileira se estende de 4º N a 34º S de latitude. Por causa de sua longa faixa de zona de interface do continente com o oceano, é encontrada uma grande diversidade nas características geomorfológicas e oceanográficas. Os rios das regiões nordeste e leste mostram um padrão de fluxo sazonal normalmente unimodal, mas diferentes em amplitude. Conforme o clima indica, os rios do nordeste estão sujeitos a uma acentuada variabilidade sazonal, com elevação da vazão em forma de pulsos de inundação durante a estação chuvosa e

  12. O gênero Strombomonas (Euglenophyceae pigmentadas em ambientes lênticos na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The genus Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in lentic environments of the Coastal Plains of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos 17 táxons específicos e infra-específicos do gênero Strombomonas Defl., resultado do estudo realizado em ambientes lênticos da Lagoa do Casamento e ecossistemas associados (30º03'-30º34' S e 50º25'-50º47'W e ambientes próximos ao Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'-30º38' S e 51º16'-51º29'W na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, com clima subropical. As coletas abrangeram os períodos de outono (maio e junho e primavera (outubro de 2003. São novos registros para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul: Strombomonas conspersa (Pascher Tell & Conf., S. girardiana (Playf. Defl. var. triondulata Tell & Zaloc., S. maxima (Skortz. Defl. var. oviformis Shi e S. tuberosa (Skv. Defl. var. conspersa (Skv. Defl., sendo S. maxima var. oviformis e S. tuberosa var. conspersa novos registros para a América do Sul. Strombomonas scabra (Playf. Tell var. ovata (Playf. Tell & Conf. e S. verrucosa (Daday Defl. se distinguiram por suportar ampla variação na temperatura e condutividade da água e S. scabra var. ovata f. minor Tell & Conf. e S. verrucosa (Daday Defl. por serem os únicos táxons encontrados nas duas áreas. É fornecida a amplitude de pH, temperatura e condutividade elétrica da água em que cada táxon de Strombomonas foi registrado na Planície Costeira e comparação com os de outros ambientes aquáticos do Estado.Seventeen specific and infraspecific taxa of the genus Strombomonas Defl. are described as a result of a study in lentic systems of Casamento Lake (30º03'-30º34' S and 50º25'-50º47' W and near the Tapes Butiazal (30º23'-30º38' S and 51º16'-51º29' W, coastal zone of Rio Grande do Sul state, with a subtropical climate. The qualitative samples were collected in autumn (May and June and spring (October 2003. Four taxa are new records for the state: Strombomonas conspersa (Pascher Tell & Conf., S. girardiana (Playf. Defl. var. triondulata Tell & Zaloc., S. maxima (Skv. Defl. var. oviformis Shi and S. tuberosa (Skv

  13. Dieta de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae em praias arenosas na costa do Rio de Janeiro Diet of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae in sandy beaches on coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Marcia S. Niang

    Full Text Available Estudamos a dieta dos juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766 em praias da Baía de Sepetiba (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil entre janeiro de 2000 e abril de 2001. Procuramos avaliar a plasticidade trófica de peixes desta espécie ao longo de um gradiente espacial com diferentes níveis de exposição às ondas, sazonalidade, além de avaliar mudanças ontogenéticas na dieta. Os itens alimentares foram analisados através do índice de importância relativa (IIR, determinado pelos valores das frequências de ocorrência, de número e de peso. Os itens de maior importância foram do subfilo Crustacea, ordens Mysidacea, e o representante da ordem Decapoda Emerita brasiliensis (Schmitt, 1935, além de Cefalochordata, representado por Branchiostoma platae (Fitzinger, 1862. Na zona de maior exposição às ondas (praia de Barra de Guaratiba e com substrato predominantemente arenoso, a dieta foi constituída principalmente por Emerita brasiliensis e Cirripedia, este último presente nos costões rochosos que limitam a praia; na zona de exposição intermediária (praia de Muriqui, houve um predomínio de Mysidacea e Branchiostoma platae; na zona mais protegida (praia de Itacuruçá, os itens de maior abundância foram Polychaeta, Mysidacea e Branchiostoma platae. Sazonalmente não ocorreu variação no uso de Mysidacea, enquanto Branchiostoma platae foi mais consumido durante o inverno, Polychaeta na primavera e Cirripedia e Emerita brasiliensis, no verão. Mysidacea foi o alimento predominante em todas as classes de tamanho, enquanto Polychaeta foi utilizado predominantemente por peixes menores que 20 mm de comprimento padrão e Emerita brasiliensis e Cirripedia foram consumidos principalmente por indivíduos maiores que 40 mm, somente na praia de maior exposição. O sucesso no uso de praias desprotegidas e zonas de arrebentação por esta espécie de peixe pode ser em parte devido à estratégia trófica oportunista, que utiliza uma ampla

  14. Sedimentological parameters of beach sediments on the East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

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  15. On some aspects of Barrier Islands of the west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

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  16. Determination of net shroe drift direction of central west coast of India using remotely sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

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  17. Coasts under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection.

  18. INTEGRAÇÃO ENTRE DADOS ÓPTICOS E RADAR (SRTM PARA A CARACTERIZAÇÃO GEOAMBIENTAL DA COSTA SETENTRIONAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE / RADAR (SRTM AND OPTICAL DATA COMBINATION FOR GEOENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RIO GRANDE DO NORTE NOTHERN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venerando Eustáquio Amaro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energetic resources on the country increased the exploration of hydrocarbon andconsequently the risk of oil spill on environmentally sensible areas located on the Rio Grande do Nortenorthern coast. This fact justify the environmental monitoring using remote sensing and environmentalmodeling techniques. The study area extends from São Bento do Norte to Porto do Mangue cities. It isinserted on the geological context of the Potiguar Basin with a high environmental sensitivity index. Themain geoenvironmental units are occupied by industrial activities as salt and oil industries and shrimp farms.This paper aims to describe the integration of radar (SRTM and optical (LANDSAT 7 ETM+ and CBERS2-CCD data to create images which enhance geomorphology and morphotectonic features from thearea, allowing a better environmental characterization. Altimetry, lineaments, drainage system and slopeinformation were obtained from SRTM data. RGB color images were created from the optical data withcontrast enhancement. This methodology is useful to support the understanding of the morphodynamicframework, and creating a good cartographic database which can be used on emergency plans on oilspills, and to optimize protections of the most sensitive environments. The results also aid a better planningof new oil exploration areas.

  19. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  20. Northern Plains Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    22 December 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows three circular features on the martian northern plains near 70.7oN, 311.7oW. These circular features are the locations of meteor impact craters that have been buried beneath the plains. Much of the northern plains shares this story, in which thousands of old craters have been filled or partially filled and then thinly buried beneath textured plains. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  1. Levantamento de registros dos acidentes com cnidários em algumas praias do litoral de Pernambuco (Brasil Survey of cnidarian accident records in some beaches of the coast of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Neves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os cnidários estão entre os organismos mais peçonhentos que se conhecem. Caracterizam-se por possuir células urticantes denominadas cnidócitos, e diversas espécies, como as chamadas caravelas e águas-vivas, podem ocasionar danos ao homem. Apesar da pouca atenção dada a este tipo de acidente no litoral brasileiro, os estudos existentes mostram que sua ocorrência é significativa. O presente estudo teve como principais objetivos levantar os acidentes causados por cnidários nos banhistas de algumas praias do litoral de Pernambuco e investigar o conhecimento referente a este tema por parte de profissionais de áreas relevantes. Assim, visitou-se arquivos de hospitais, postos praieiros e grupamento salva-vidas para o levantamento de registros, e foram entrevistados 17 profissionais. Foram levantados registros de 35 acidentes para um período de dois anos na Praia de Boa Viagem (Recife, além de registros informais de uma média de quatro a cinco casos por semana na Praia de Piedade e dois a três casos por semana na Praia de Pontas de Pedras. Em relação ao conhecimento dos profissionais entrevistados, a maioria das respostas está, de forma geral, de acordo com a literatura existente, apesar de ainda haver certo nível de informações inadequadas ou insuficientes em relação ao tema estudado.Cnidarians are among the most venomous organisms known to man. They are characterized by stinging cells called cnidocytes, and several species, such as the Portuguese-man-of-war and the jellyfish, can cause harm to human beings. Despite not attracting ( much attention on the Brazilian coast, the studies that have been carried out to date show that the occurrence of this kind of accident is significant. The aim of this study was to survey cnidarian related accidents with beach goers on some beaches of the state of Pernambuco, as well as to investigate the knowledge of relevant professions on this theme. ( Archives of hospitals and life guard posts

  2. Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities

  3. Density and distribution of nests of Mycetophylax simplex (Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in areas with mobile dunes on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Densidade e distribuição de ninhos de Mycetophylax simplex (Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em área de dunas móveis no litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Z. de Albuquerque

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on lower attines are scarce, especially on nesting and foraging ecology and behavior. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge of an Attini in dunes ecosystems through the description of density and spatial distribution of Mycetophylax simplex (Emery, 1887 nests in a strip of mobile dunes in the Praia Grande beach, Torres, northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The density and spatial distribution of nests were estimated in four plots of 2,500 m² each, in which were found 20, 209, 284 and 324 nests, with average densities of 0.01 nests/m², 0.09, 0.11 and 0.13 nests/m², respectively. The nests were found near to the vegetation and showed clumped distribution. The density and distribution pattern of the nests seem to be related to the availability of nesting places and foraging resources.Estudos sobre as atinis inferiores são escassos, principalmente em relação ao comportamento e ecologia da nidificação e do forrageamento. Este estudo objetivou contribuir ao conhecimento da tribo Attini em ecossistemas de dunas, através da descrição da densidade e da distribuição espacial dos ninhos de Mycetophylax simplex (Emery, 1887 em uma faixa de dunas móveis na praia Grande, município de Torres, litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul. A densidade e distribuição espacial dos ninhos foram estimadas em quatro parcelas de 2.500 m² cada, nas quais foram encontrados 20, 209, 284 e 324 ninhos, com densidades médias, de 0,01 ninhos/m², 0,09, 0,11 e 0,13 ninhos/m², respectivamente. Os ninhos encontravam-se próximos à vegetação e com distribuição agregada. É sugerido que a densidade e o padrão de distribuição dos ninhos estariam relacionados à disponibilidade de locais de nidificação e à presença de recursos para forrageamento.

  4. Monsoon-induced temporal changes in beach morphology and associated sediment dynamics, central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan

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  5. Shallow seismic and geomorphic expression of buried wave-cut terrace and erosional valleys off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

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  6. Remote sensing approach to determine net shore drift direction- A case study along the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

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  7. Anomalias ósseas congênitas em Sotalia guianensis (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae da costa centro-norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Congenital bone defects in Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Mammalia, Cetacea, Delphinidae in the northcentral coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Laeta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcaças de botos-cinza Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864 foram recuperadas entre 20 de agosto de 2001 e 13 de fevereiro de 2006, na costa centro-norte fluminense. A maior parte delas (85% entre Barra de São João (22º35'S 41º59'W e Quissamã (22º06'S 41º28'W. Foram estudadas as colunas vertebrais dos 20 exemplares que apresentavam mais de 60% das vértebras presentes. A coleção é formada por 75% de animais imaturos, e todos os esqueletos mostram alterações tafonômicas mínimas. Duas categorias de anomalias congênitas foram diagnosticadas, ambas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento do mesoderma paraxial. A sétima vértebra cervical (C7 foi a única afetada, as costelas cervicais e o não fechamento do arco neural atingiram 15 (75% dos indivíduos analisados, dos quais três (15% apresentam ambas as anomalias. Nove (45% indivíduos apresentaram costelas cervicais uni ou bilateral, e nove (45% indivíduos apresentaram não fechamento do arco neural; em todos os casos as vértebras contíguas eram normais. A ocorrência de anomalias nesta série do Rio de Janeiro é maior do que as referidas na literatura brasileira para outras séries de Sotalia do Amazonas, Ceará e Santa Catarina. A série de Sotalia descrita vem de uma região do litoral muito limitada e provavelmente representa uma população local. As costelas cervicais são geneticamente determinadas e podem estar concentradas por uma condição de grande proximidade biológica entre os animais; o não fechamento do arco pode ter também um componente ambiental, a ser investigado futuramente.Carcasses of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864 were recovered from August 20, 2001 to February 13, 2006 along the north-central coast of Rio de Janeiro state. Most of the animals (85% were found between Barra de São João (22º35'S 41º59'W and Quissamã (22º06'S 41º28'W. We studied the vertebral columns of all the 20 specimens that had more than 60% of the

  8. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  9. Variabilidade diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica em praias arenosas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul Daily zonation variation of sandy beach benthic macrofauna in north coast of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Monteiro Neves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a variação diária da zonação da macrofauna bentônica nas praias de Tramandaí, Harmonia e Jardim do Éden, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram feitas ao longo de cinco dias consecutivos, utilizando-se um tubo de PVC de 20 cm de diâmetro. Foram demarcadas três transversais distantes 50 m uma da outra, com 4 estações de coleta e três amostras cada. As estações se estenderam desde 8 m acima do limite superior da zona de varrido (definida a cada dia até 1 m de profundidade. Também foram coletados diariamente dados dos perfis topográficos de cada praia. Os resultados mostraram que a macrofauna bentônica apresenta um padrão de zonação regular ao longo dos dias. O intermareal foi marcado pela presença do isópode Excirolana armata (Dana, 1853 e do poliqueta Euzonus furciferus (Ehlers, 1897. A zona de varrido apresentou grande abundância do caranguejo hipídeo Emerita brasiliensis (Schmitt, 1935, do bivalvo Donax hanleyanus (Philippi, 1842 e do poliqueto Scolelepis gaucha (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974. As zonas de "surf" e arrebentação interna não apresentaram diferenças na composição de espécies, sendo dominantes os juvenis de D. hanleyanus, Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854, o anfípode Phoxocephalopsis zimmeri (Schellenberg, 1931, o poliqueto Hemipodus olivieri (Orensanz & Gianuca, 1974, além do bivalve Donax gemmula (Morrison, 1971. Os resultados indicaram que, apesar do padrão de zonação da macrofauna ter sido regular ao longo do estudo, algumas mudanças na posição vertical das espécies foram observadas, principalmente em função da variação da zona de varrido.This work verified the daily zonation of benthic macrofauna in Tramandaí, Harmonia and Jardim do Éden beaches, north coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, for five consecutive days. Biological data were collected with a PVC core (20 cm diameter along three transects distant 50 m of each other

  10. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  11. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  12. A new species of Probursata Bravo-Hollis, 1984 (Mogenea: Heteraxinidae: Heteraxininae) parasite of Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Takemoto, Ricardo M.; Amato, J. F. R.; Luque, José Luis

    1993-01-01

    Probursata brasiliensis n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes, O. palometa (Cuvier), Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and O. saliens (Bloch), from the Brazilian coast, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Probursata veraecrucis Bravo-Hollis, 1984, the type and only species of this genus by the presence of spines in the auricular expansions of the genital atrium, by the trifurcate supplementary process of the clamp's midsclerite, and by having a l...

  13. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  14. Rio+20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Horn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This reflection on Rio+20 examines many of the major social institutions and how they fulfilled their functions during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at Rio. The institutions are: 1. Nation-states as a collective. 2. Individual nation-states. 3. Vanguard institutions (some NGOs. 4. Action and convening NGOs. 5. Global media. 6. Governments of nation-states acting domestically 7. Individual governments in bilateral and multilateral situations. 8. Similar institutions in different countries acting together. 9. Businesses. 10. Global science. Each is considered within the assumptions of what the society expects them to deliver (in general, what is possible for them to deliver, and what they did deliver at Rio. In approaching Rio+20, our account differs considerably from much of the reportage by the mainstream media.

  15. Longshore-transport model for South Indian and Sri Lankan Coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B; RamaRaju, V.S.

    stream_size 17 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Ocean_Eng_116_408.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Ocean_Eng_116_408.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  16. Climate change's impact on Morocco's northeast coast | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... The Mediterranean is a global climate-change hotspot. Morocco's Mediterranean coast is particularly vulnerable due to the low-lying deltaic plain of the Moulouya River. Here, climate impacts could be disastrous given the river's ecological and economic importance. The Moulouya is the main water source ...

  17. Microearthquakes and crustal structure off the Makran coast of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.; Shimamura, H.; Matsu' ura, M.

    1980-05-01

    On the basis of bathymetric an seismic data collected recently off the coast of Makran in the Gulf of Oman, it has been suggested that the folding of the sediments at the northern edge of the abyssal plain is taking place at the present time. The folding is thought to be the consequence of ongoing subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasian Lithosphere along the Makran coast. Th model assigns a far more significant role to the Makran coast in shaping the tectonics of the region than has thus far been assumed.

  18. A new species of Probursata Bravo-Hollis, 1984 (Mogenea: Heteraxinidae: Heteraxininae parasite of Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. Takemoto

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Probursata brasiliensis n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes, O. palometa (Cuvier, Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider, and O. saliens (Bloch, from the Brazilian coast, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Probursata veraecrucis Bravo-Hollis, 1984, the type and only species of this genus by the presence of spines in the auricular expansions of the genital atrium, by the trifurcate supplementary process of the clamp's midsclerite, and by having a larger number of tests and clamps. This is the first record of the genus Probursata Bravo-Hollis, 1984, in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Euglenophyceae de ambientes lênticos na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil: gêneros Euglena Ehr. e Lepocinclis Perty Euglenophyceae of lentic environments at the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul State, South of Brazil: genera Euglena Ehr. and Lepocinclis Perty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 28 táxons específicos e infra-específicos dos gêneros Euglena Ehr. e Lepocinclis Perty como resultado do estudo do fitoplâncton e perifíton em ambientes lênticos (lagoas, açude e banhados da Lagoa do Casamento e ecossistemas associados (30º03'- 30º34'S e 50º25'- 50º47'W e ecossistemas próximos ao Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S e 51º16'- 51º29'W na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas abrangeram as estações de outono e primavera de 2003. As áreas úmidas (banhados associadas à Lagoa do Casamento na primavera de 2003 apresentaram maior riqueza específica destes dois gêneros. Lepocinclis salina Fritsch var. salina foi a espécie que se distinguiu quanto a distribuição por ter ocorrido em 41,2% do total de amostras analisadas. São novos registros para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul e país, L. playfairiana Defl. var. playfairiana e L. boseensis Xie, Qiu & Ling.Twenty eight specific and infra-specific taxa of the genera Euglena Ehr. and Lepocinclis Perty are presented as a result of phytoplankton and periphyton study in lentic systems next to Lagoa do Casamento (30º03'- 30º34'S and 50º25'- 50º47'W and Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S and 51º16'- 51º29'W, coastal zone of Rio Grande do Sul State. Samples were collected in autumn and spring seasons in 2003. The swamps associated to Lagoa do Casamento in spring of 2003 presented more specific richness of these two genera. Lepocinclis salina Fritsch var. salina distinguished by its distribution, occuring in 41,2% of the analized samples. Two taxa are new records for the State and Brazil: L. playfairiana Defl. var. playfairiana and L. boseensis Xie, Qiu & Ling.

  20. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  1. Efeitos das variações sazonais do clima tropical úmido sobre as águas e sedimentos de manguezais do estuário do rio Marapanim, costa nordeste do Estado do Pará Effects of seasonal variations' on the mangroves' waters and sediments of the Marapanim estuary, northeast coast of Para State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Berrêdo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o impacto das variações climáticas, de curta duração, sobre os ecossistemas de manguezais amazônicos, foi estudada a costa nordeste do Pará entre as coordenadas: 00º 32' 30" S / 00º 52' 30" S e 47º 28' 45" W / 47º 45' 00" W. Foram amostrados os sedimentos, águas superficiais e intersticiais com medidas de salinidade, potencial hidrogeniônico (pH, potencial de oxi-redução (Eh e determinações mineralógicas por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na água foram determinados o conteúdo de sulfetos dissolvidos, sulfato e cloreto, além da alcalinidade, sílica, ortofosfato, sódio, potássio, cálcio e magnésio, em meses chuvosos e de estiagem, sob marés de sizígia e quadratura. As variações sazonais do cloreto nas águas intersticiais mostram concentrações mais elevadas na estiagem que no período chuvoso, enquanto em superfície são mais elevadas nas marés de quadratura (período chuvoso e de sizígia (período de estiagem. Os sulfetos dissolvidos foram encontrados em quantidades detectáveis somente a partir da profundidade de 10 cm o que indica exposição dos sedimentos aos fluxos advectivos de oxigênio atmosférico. Os teores de ferro dissolvido aumentam entre 0-10 cm e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH tende à neutralidade. A saturação das águas intersticiais na estiagem é indicada pelos minerais evaporíticos: gipso e halita. As variações pluviométricas são responsáveis por graduais mudanças nos teores de nutrientes e nas propriedades físico-químicas (pH, Eh e salinidade das águas superficiais e intersticiais, no controle do equilíbrio salino das águas costeiras, na salinização e dessalinização dos sedimentos e na distribuição da vegetação de mangue no estuário. A exposição prolongada dos sedimentos na estiagem e as características morfológicas contribuem decisivamente para a oxidação total ou parcial dos sedimentos em superfície, o que modifica

  2. O gênero Phacus (Euglenophyceae em sistemas lênticos da Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil The genus Phacus (Euglenophyceae in lentic systems of the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plains, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento do gênero Phacus Duj. (Euglenophyceae pigmentadas desenvolvido em duas áreas localizadas na porção norte da Laguna dos Patos: a Lagoa do Casamento e ambientes associados (30º03'- 30º34'S e 50º25'- 50º47'W e ecossistemas próximos ao Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S e 51º16'- 51º29'W, resultou na identificação de 37 táxons específicos e infra-espécificos deste gênero. O estudo visou diminuir a lacuna do conhecimento de Phacus na Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. O clima local é subtropical úmido. As coletas de rede foram realizadas no outono e inverno e primavera/2003 nas margens de lagoas, banhados, alagado e açude. Dentre os táxons identificados nove são novas citações para o Estado e ainda, Phacus agilis Skuja var. inversa Bour., Phacus asymetricus Sokoloff, Phacus elegans Pochm., Phacus orbicularis Hübner f. communis Pop. e Phacus rostafinskii Drez. são novos registros para o Brasil. Todos os táxons são acompanhados das amplitudes máximas e mínimas de temperatura do ar e da água, pH e condutividade elétrica em que cada táxon ocorreu na área de estudo.A survey of the genus Phacus Duj. (pigmented Euglenophyceae undertaken in two areas located in the northern portion of Patos Lagoon - Lake Casamento and associated ecosystems (30º03' - 30º34'S; 50º25' - 50º47'W and ecosystems near Butiazal de Tapes (30º23' - 30º38'S; 51º16' - 51º29'W, revealed 37 specific and infra-specific taxa for this genus. The study aim was to increase knowledge of this genus in Rio Grande do Sul's coastal zone. The local climate is humid subtropical. The qualitative samples were collected in autumn and winter spring of 2003, on the banks of ponds, lakes, and marshes. Of the taxa identified, nine are new citations for the state while Phacus agilis Skuja var. inversa Bour., Phacus asymetricus Sokoloff, Phacus elegans Pochm., Phacus orbicularis Hübner f. communis Pop. and Phacus rostafinskii Drez. were

  3. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  4. Holocene paleogeographies of the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) and their geoarchaeological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vött, A.; Brückner, H.; Schriever, A.; Luther, J.; Handl, M.; van der Borg, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sediments from the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) were studied to establish paleogeographical scenarios of Holocene landscape evolution. Near coast vibracore profiles revealed regressive sedimentary sequences, the base of which is dominated by marine sand and/or lagoonal mud.

  5. Mapeamento Geológico-Geotécnico Preliminar, Utilizando Geoprocessamento, no Município de Campos dos Goytacazes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nogueira Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Campos dos Goytacazes County is located on the north coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The city of Camposdos Goytacazes was developed on a fl ooding plain and due to the fragility of the physical environment; the cityhas been suffering serious environmental problems. The methodology used base in acquisition of data bank,remote sensoring techniques, Field Information and application of SIG ArcGis9. In a fi rst step, the themesgeology, pedology and geomorphology units was overlaying, where could obtain a Geological-GeotechnicalUnits Map, with lowed and elevated units, the which had been defi ned in accordance with its characteristics.The purpose of this map, as well as the objective of the work is to plan the territory for the future generations.

  6. Levantamento das Cianobactérias Psâmicas em Sedimentos Superficiais Marginais da Lagoa Azul, Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of the Rio de Janeiro State presents a series of lagoons, dune fi elds and strand plains, which are the result of thepaleogeographical evolution during Neogene. The lagoa Azul is situated at 22o56’52”S and 42o04’62”W in the Arraial do Cabo, locatedabout 160 km far the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a natural hypersaline coastal aquatic body which, parallel to Atlantic Ocean. The presentwork focused on the identifi cation of psammic cyanobacteria in the surface sediments of the lagoa Azul. The samples were obtained byusing plastic tubes and were later aconditiones in opaque plastic containers and conserved in a 4% solution of formaldehyde. With thematerial obtained, permanent slides were prepared so as to characterize them phycologically. Qualitative analysis showed the presenceof 14 species and the occurrence of the families Chroococcaceae Nägeli 1849 (5 sp., Phormidiaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988(4 sp., Synechococcaceae Komárek & Anagnostidis 1995 (2 sp., Nostocaceae Kützing 1843 (1 sp., Oscillatoriaceae Gomont 1892(1 sp. and Pseudanabaenaceae Anagnostidis & Komárek 1988 (1 sp.. The incidence of these species is also recorded in other lagoons(Araruama, Pernambuco, Pitanguinha and Vermelha in the northeast of Rio de Janeiro coast, such as the frequency of cyanobacteriais justifi ed by the harsh environment, without predation, with high salinity, elevated temperature and low concentration of oxygen.

  7. Application of Kalman filter to short-term tide level prediction by Yen, P.-H., Jan, C.-D., Lee, Y.-P. and Lee, H.-F. (J. Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 122(5); 1996; pp 226-231: Discussion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Chandramohan, P.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Eng_124_213.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Eng_124_213.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Análise faciológica e estratigráfica da planície costeira de Soure (margem leste da ilha de Marajó-PA, no trecho compreendido entre o canal do Cajuúna e o estuário Paracauari Faciological and stratigraphical analysis of Soure's coastal plain (eastern Marajó island-Pará, between Cajuúna channel and Paracauari estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmena Ferreira de França

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A planície costeira de Soure, na margem leste da ilha de Marajó (Pará, é constituída por áreas de acumulação lamosa e arenosa, de baixo gradiente, sujeitas a processos gerados por marés e ondas. Suas feições morfológicas são caracterizadas por planícies de maré, estuários, canais de maré e praias-barreiras. A análise faciológica e estratigráfica de seis testemunhos a vibração, com profundidade média de 4 m, e de afloramentos de campo permitiu a caracterização dos ambientes deposicionais, sua sucessão temporal e sua correlação lateral, a elaboração de seções estratigráficas e a definição de uma coluna estratigráfica. Foram identificadas cinco associações de facies: (1 facies de planície de maré, (2 facies de manguezal, (3 facies de barra de canal de maré, (4 facies de praia e (5 facies de duna. A história sedimentar da planície costeira de Soure é representada por duas sucessões estratigráficas: (1 a sucessão progradacional, constituída pelas associações de facies de planície de maré, manguezal e barra de canal de maré; e (2 a sucessão retrogradacional, formada pelas associações de facies de praia e de duna. Essas sucessões retratam uma fase de expansão das planícies de maré e manguezais, com progradação da linha de costa (Holoceno médio a superior, e uma posterior fase de retrogradação, com migração dos ambientes de praias e dunas sobre depósitos lamosos de manguezal e planície de maré, no Holoceno atual. A história deposicional da planície costeira de Soure é condizente com o modelo de evolução holocênica das planícies costeiras do nordeste paraense.Soures's coastal plain, eastern Marajó island (Pará, is formed by muddy and sandy deposits, low gradient areas submitted to tidal and wave processes. The morphological features are tidal flats, estuaries, tidal channels and barrier-beach ridges . The faciological and stratigraphical analysis of six vibra-core with medium

  9. Fishes from Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Grande do Sul state, Atlantic Forest biome, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Marco; Bertaco, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The ichthyofauna herein presented was collected in streams, lake, and swamps from the Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Mampituba basin. The protected area is located in the northernmost part of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul state. Samplings resulted in 26 species, in 20 genera, 15 families, and six orders. Two species are listed as threatened and one near threatened in Rio Grande do Sul. This study represents the first fish survey in the protected area, Atlantic Forest biome.

  10. Helminth parasites of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae from the coast of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Helmintos parásitos de Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae de la costa de Angra dos Reis, del estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Q. Cárdenas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During a survey of the helminth parasites of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus from the Atlantic Ocean, off Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 10 species of metazoan parasites were collected: 1 species of Monogenea (Choricotyle rohdei; 3 species of Nematoda (Hysterothylacium sp. third stage larvae, Raphidascaris sp. third stage larvae, and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai third and fourth stages larvae and adults; 6 species of Digenea (Opecoeloides pedicathedrae, Opecoeloides melanopteri, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Aponurus laguncula, Parahemiurus merus and Manteriella sp.. Choricotyle rohdei and Hysterothylacium sp. had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance and an aggregated pattern of distribution was observed in both species. A positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the parasitic abundance of Hysterothylacium sp. and C. rohdei was observed. The prevalence of C. rohdei was positively correlated with standard length of the host, while in Hysterothylacium sp. there was no correlation. Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus represents a new host record to all species of Nematoda and Digenea presented herein. The genus Manteriella is reported for the first time in South America.Durante un estudio de los helmintos de Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus de la zona costera de Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 10 especies de parásitos metazoos fueron recolectados: 1 especie de Monogenea (Choricotyle rohdei; 6 de Digenea (Opecoeloides pedicathedrae, Opecoeloides melanopteri, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Aponurus laguncula, Parahemiurus merus y Manteriella sp.; 3 nemátodos (Hysterothylacium sp. y Raphidascaris sp., ambas larvas de tercer estadio y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereira, larvas de tercer y cuarto estadios y adultos. Choricotyle rohdei y Hysterothylacium sp. presentaron la mayor prevalencia, intensidad media y abundancia, así como un patrón agregado de distribución. Se observó una correlaci

  11. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, West coast of India Antotlio Mascarenhas National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa Etrlail: arztmns@nio.org Abstract... of disintegration, and some are crumbling. Coastal geomorphology, lithology of rocky coasts, location of structure and near- shore geological processes are some of the factors that seem to influence the stability of cliffs, and hence of forts. With the above...

  12. The groundwater intrinsic vulnerability map of S. Eufemia Lamezia Plain (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Cuiuli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is the plain of S. Eufemia Lamezia (Calabria located in correspondence of the homonymous gulf, along the Tyrrhenian coast. The method used for the construction of the vulnerability map of the superficial acquifer of S. Eufemia Lamezia plain is the SINTACS. This method provides an estimate of vulnerability through the calculation of the Vulnerability Index, for each cell, with which it has been discretized the zone of study. The territory has been divided into areas characterized by vulnerability degree from medium to very high, passing through the intermediate terms. In the southern sector of the plain, where the depth of groundwater is variable, between 4,00 m and 0,50 m from the ground level, are located: the industrial/ handcrafted area of Lamezia Terme, the areas with the greatest agricultural and zootechnical yields, tourist facilities and private houses along the coast. They represent a potential pollution risk for the superficial aquifer. In the northern sector, where the depth of groundwater is variable between 38,00 m from ground level (inland areas to 1,00 m from ground level (along the coast, the practiced agricultural activities, are different from those of the southern sector of the plain (olive trees, citrus groves, arable land, etc., but here there are too tourist facilities and private houses along the coast. These various activities contribute, even in this area to outline a potential risk of pollution to the superficial aquifer of S. Eufemia Lamezia plain which, however, is slightly less worrying than in the south sector.

  13. Rio report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, D.

    1992-01-01

    At the world-wide Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, two new legally binding documents were signed by over 140 countries: the Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. These conventions will come into force when ratified by 50 and 30 countries respectively. The objectives of these conventions, the steps to be taken toward their compliance, and their implications for Canada are discussed. Since climatic change could bring about adverse effects such as water shortages and loss of permafrost, Canada has committed itself to a quick start toward compliance with preparation of a detailed national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. The biodiversity convention could make it harder to develop hydropower in Canada at the same time that the climate change convention makes hydropower more attractive. Other documents from the Earth Summit included declarations on forestry management, sustainable development, and future conventions on desertification and fishing. Notable features of the summit included a refocusing of the environmental agenda to the priorities of the poorer countries, a recognition that environmental issues are linked to poverty and economic development, and an attack on the consumption patterns of the richer countries

  14. Skin lesions in envenoming by cnidarians (Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish: etiology and severity of accidents on the Brazilian coast Lesões dermatológicas observadas nos acidentes por cnidários (águas-vivas e caravelas: etiologia e gravidade dos envenenamentos no litoral do Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work attempts to establish dermatological identification patterns for Brazilian cnidarian species and a probable correlation with envenoming severity. In an observational prospective study, one hundred and twenty-eight patients from the North Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil were seen between 2002 and 2008. About 80% of these showed only local effects (erythema, edema, and pain with small, less than 20 cm, oval or round skin marks and impressions from small tentacles. Approximately 20% of the victims had long, more than 20 cm, linear and crossed marks with frequent systemic phenomena, such as malaise, vomiting, dyspnea, and tachycardia. The former is compatible with the common hydromedusa from Southeast and Southern Brazil (Olindias sambaquiensis. The long linear marks with intense pain and systemic phenomena are compatible with envenoming by the box jellyfish Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and the hydrozoan Portuguese man-of-war (Physalis physalis. There was an association between skin marks and probable accident etiology. This simple observation rule can be indicative of severity, as the Cubozoa Class (box jellyfish and Portuguese man-of-war cause the most severe accidents. In such cases, medical attention, including intensive care, is important, as the systemic manifestations can be associated with death.Cnidários são animais que apresentam no corpo (especialmente nos tentáculos organelas de defesa chamadas nematocistos, podendo causar graves envenenamentos. Este trabalho procura estabelecer padrões clínicos auxiliares na identificação das espécies de cnidários brasileiros e pesquisar provável correlação das lesões na pele com a gravidade do acidente. Cento e vinte e oito pacientes foram observados no Pronto-Socorro de Ubatuba (Litoral Norte do estado de São Paulo em período de seis anos (2002-2008. Cerca de 80% dos acidentes mostraram apenas manifestações locais (dor, eritema e edema. Nestes casos

  15. Determinaçao de metais classificados como de importância toxicológica no molusco bivalve Anadara notabilis (Röding, 1798: Encontrado em Galinhos, Rio grande do norte, Brasil Determination of metals of toxicological importance in the bivalve Anadara notabilis (Röding, 1798 of Galinhos, coast of Rio grande do norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A Urbano de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os moluscos bivalves são consumidos por todo o mundo, constituindo-se em um recurso natural de boa aceitação pela população. Foi escolhido o molusco Anadara notabilis (conhecido como Xibiu ou Búzio para este trabalho pelo seu tamanho característico, bem maior que os mariscos mais comuns, e também por não ter sido encontrado na literatura nenhuma informação toxicológica sobre esta classe de moluscos. Todos os íons metálicos foram determinados por espectroscopia de emissão ótica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-OES descrito pela metodologia U.S. EPA 6010C. Os resultados mostraram que estiveram presentes no molusco vários metais de caráter tóxico, porém apenas o cromo obteve valor acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira. Dentre os metais classificados como tóxicos o cobre que apresentou valor de 5,7 mg/Kg, o níquel que apresentou teor de 4,23 mg/Kg e o cromo, o único acima dos valores permitidos pela legislação brasileira, com teor de 1,7 mg/Kg, sempre considerando a amostra in natura. Como os moluscos têm a propriedade de acumular metais em seu organismo, para o consumo desse tipo de alimento, deve-se tomar cuidado com as áreas próximas de sua coleta ou se cultivado, é necessário prevenir fatores que influenciem em sua contaminação.Bivalve molluscs are consumed throughout the world, constituting a natural resource with good acceptance by the population. The mollusc Anadara notabilis (know as eared ark was chosen for this study due to its characteristic size, much larger than most common shellfish, and the lack of toxicological information found in literature for this class of mollusks when considering metal ions toxicity. Metal ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES, method described by U.S. EPA 6010C. Results showed that several toxic metals were present in shellfish, however only chrome was measured in levels higher than those allowed by Brazilian

  16. Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Masi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer e na Barra do Furado (Barra, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m em relação ao Píer (2,2 m. Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos

  17. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  18. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  19. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    Station lie between these branches. The undeveloped flood plains of Toms River and its tributaries have limited agricultural use, but blueberries and...March 6, a violent storm - perhaps coast were not spared completely from the the worst within memory - smashed the New storm ravages. Snow clogged county

  20. Late Holocene evolution of a coupled, mud-dominated delta plain-chenier plain system, coastal Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijma, Marc P.; Shen, Zhixiong; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Mauz, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Major deltas and their adjacent coastal plains are commonly linked by means of coast-parallel fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients. Observations of the evolution of these interlinked systems over centennial to millennial timescales are essential to understand the interaction between point sources of sediment discharge (i.e. deltaic distributaries) and adjacent coastal plains across large spatial (i.e. hundreds of kilometres) scales. This information is needed to constrain future generations of numerical models to predict coastal evolution in relation to climate change and other human activities. Here we examine the coastal plain (Chenier Plain, CP) adjacent to the Mississippi River delta, one of the world's largest deltas. We use a refined chronology based on 22 new optically stimulated luminescence and 22 new radiocarbon ages to test the hypothesis that cyclic Mississippi subdelta shifting has influenced the evolution of the adjacent CP. We show that over the past 3 kyr, accumulation rates in the CP were generally 0-1 Mt yr-1. However, between 1.2 and 0.5 ka, when the Mississippi River shifted to a position more proximal to the CP, these rates increased to 2.9 ±1.1 Mt yr-1 or 0.5-1.5 % of the total sediment load of the Mississippi River. We conclude that CP evolution during the past 3 kyr was partly a direct consequence of shifting subdeltas, in addition to changing regional sediment sources and modest rates of relative sea-level (RSL) rise. The RSL history of the CP during this time period was constrained by new limiting data points from the base of overwash deposits associated with the cheniers. These findings have implications for Mississippi River sediment diversions that are currently being planned to restore portions of this vulnerable coast. Only if such diversions are located in the western portion of the Mississippi Delta plain could they potentially contribute to sustaining the CP shoreline. Our findings highlight the importance of a better

  1. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  2. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    W. Benjamin Smith; Gretchen R. Miller; Zhuping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) may be successful, especial...

  3. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique; Caracterizacao dos sedimentos depositados nas planicies de inundacao do Rio Solimoes/Amazonas, utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z {>=} 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs.

  4. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  5. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Sardar Anisul; Maza, Marc Moreno

    2012-01-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 2 12 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 2 6 . We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 2 18 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  6. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  7. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  8. Composição florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de uma Floresta Paludosa na planície costeira da bacia do rio Itaguaré, Bertioga, SP, Brasil. Floristic composition andstructure of an arboreal component of the Paludal Forest in the coastal plain of the Itaguaré river basin, Bertioga (São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina de Gouveia SOUZA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As Florestas Paludosas costeiras ou “caxetais” ocorrem no Domínio Atlântico, em geral associadas a depressões paleolagunares, cujos terrenos são permanentemente encharcados. Essas florestas se caracterizam por apresentar elevada densidade de indivíduos da espécie Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., conhecida popularmente por “caxeta”. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em uma Floresta Paludosa situada na planície costeira do rio Itaguaré, município de Bertioga, Baixada Santista, Estado de São Paulo. A composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica foram investigadas através da amostragem por parcelas, sendo incluídos todos os indivíduos com 10 cm ou mais de diâmetro a 1,3 m de altura do peito (DAP. Foram registradas 20 espécies e 11 famílias botânicas, resultando em uma densidade total de 450 ind./ha-1. A família com maior riqueza de espécies foi Myrtaceae, com quatro espécies. A análise de similaridade indicou dois grupos florísticos. Tabebuia cassinoides foi, de fato, a espécie mais importante, apresentando grande densidade e dominância de indivíduos, o que reforça sua posição de espécie indicadora deste tipo vegetacional, conforme difundido na literatura. The coastal Paludal Forest or “Caxetal” occurs on the Atlantic Domain, associated to wetlands within palaeolagoonal depressions. It is characterized by a high density of individuals of Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., which is popularly known as “caxeta”. A Paludal Forest located in the Itaguaré river coastal plain, in the municipality of Bertioga, Santos Lowland, São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. The floristic composition and phytossociological structure was investigated through a plot method including all individuals with diameter at 1.3 m (DBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 20species and 11 botanic families were sampled, resulting in a total density of 450 ind./ha-1. Myrtaceae showed the highest species richness. The similarity index indicated

  9. Coast Guard SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Independence in 1783 and the beginning of the Quasi-War with France in 1798. Acts of Congress in 1790, 1797, and 1799 indexed Revenue-Marine pay to that of...undeclared war with France until a new program of battleship construction could be completed. As depicted in Figure 1, the Coast Guard again conducted...Embassy. ITD members serve as advisers to the Panamanian Servicio Maritima Nacional (National Maritime Service), an agency modeled after the US

  10. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  11. Litoral norte do estado do Rio Grande do Sul: indicadores socioeconômicos e principais problemas ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Simone Vilaverde Moura Fujimoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The north littoral region of Rio Grande do Sul is a coastal zone segment where a sequence of environments organized in a longitudinal orientation to the coast occurs. A sedimentary coastal plain is identified landwards from the shoreline, formed by dunes deposits and by interconnected coastal lagoons, and extending its area up to the scarps of the Planalto Meridional (basement highlands, which are deeply incised by the valleys of Maquiné and Três Forquilhas rivers. The relationships between society and nature have increased in the last decades, in special in the Coastal Zone, due to the urbanizationprocesses, among other factors. However, the quick grow of urbanization resulted in some problems for an environment that is characterized by an ecosystem diversity of great sensibility. The analysis of the index of social-economic development allows classifying the north littoral region of Rio Grande do Sul in a profile of a medium development rate. The investments on healthy and education of the last years have increased the regional socio-economical indicators. However, more investments are necessary in key-sectors of the study area, mainly in respect to: the demand for high school opportunities, availability of water by a general net, collection and discharge of urban effluents and waste disposal. The most significant environmental changes, increased during summer months (December to March, are related to the high demand and quality of waters, the high demand for healthy services, beach quality, sanitarycollapse, disposal of residual solids, conflicts on the use of the beach area, increase on the number of irregular properties, water, sound and visual pollution, a general lack of respect to the environment,among others.

  12. Coasts in Crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  13. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  14. Fishers' knowledge on the coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2016-06-01

    Although fishers' knowledge has been recently considered into management programmes, there is still the need to establish a better understanding of fishers' perceptions and cognition. Fishers can provide novel information on the biology and ecology of species, which can potentially be used in the management of fisheries. The knowledge fishers have and how they classify nature is empirically based. It is common, for example, to observe that fishers' taxonomy is often represented by the generic level, one of the hierarchical categories of folk classification that is somewhat analogous to the Linnean genus, as it groups organisms of a higher rank than the folk species.In this study we compiled the knowledge fishers have on local fish, such as their folk names, diet and habitat. Five coastal communities widely distributed along the Brazilian coast were studied: two from the northeast (Porto Sauípe and Itacimirim, in Bahia State, n of interviewees = 34), two from the southeast (Itaipu at Niterói and Copacabana at Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, n = 35) and one from the south coast (Pântano do Sul, in Santa Catarina State, n = 23). Fish pictures were randomly ordered and the same order was presented to all interviewees (n = 92), when they were then asked about the species name and classification and its habitat and diet preferences. Fishers make clusters of fish species, usually hierarchically; fishers of the coast of Brazil use mostly primary lexemes (generic names) to name fish; and fishers did not differentiate between scientific species, since the same folk generic name included two different scientific species. Fishers provide information on species to which there is scarce or no information on diet and habitat, such as Rhinobatos percellens (chola guitarfish, arraia viola or cação viola), Sphoeroides dorsalis (marbled puffer, baiacu), Mycteroperca acutirostris (comb grouper, badejo) and Dasyatis guttata (longnose stingray, arraia, arraia

  15. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  16. Targeting the Plains of Venus from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    Lowland plains house a spectacular array of poorly understood volcanic, tectonic, and impact features that are key to settling the continuing global stratigraphy debate and resolving how the only other accessible Earth-sized planet has evolved.

  17. Plain Language: Getting Started or Brushing Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes at NIH » NIH Office of the Director » Office of Communications & Public Liaison » Clear Communication » Plain ... This website consists of five sections and a checklist you can print. In each section, you will ...

  18. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  19. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  20. Genetic and grade and tonnage models for sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposits, Texas Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tureck, Kathleen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hannon, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The coincidence of a number of geologic and climatic factors combined to create conditions favorable for the development of mineable concentrations of uranium hosted by Eocene through Pliocene sandstones in the Texas Coastal Plain. Here 254 uranium occurrences, including 169 deposits, 73 prospects, 6 showings and 4 anomalies, have been identified. About 80 million pounds of U3O8 have been produced and about 60 million pounds of identified producible U3O8 remain in place. The development of economic roll-type uranium deposits requires a source, large-scale transport of uranium in groundwater, and deposition in reducing zones within a sedimentary sequence. The weight of the evidence supports a source from thick sequences of volcanic ash and volcaniclastic sediment derived mostly from the Trans-Pecos volcanic field and Sierra Madre Occidental that lie west of the region. The thickest accumulations of source material were deposited and preserved south and west of the San Marcos arch in the Catahoula Formation. By the early Oligocene, a formerly uniformly subtropical climate along the Gulf Coast transitioned to a zoned climate in which the southwestern portion of Texas Coastal Plain was dry, and the eastern portion humid. The more arid climate in the southwestern area supported weathering of volcanic ash source rocks during pedogenesis and early diagenesis, concentration of uranium in groundwater and movement through host sediments. During the middle Tertiary Era, abundant clastic sediments were deposited in thick sequences by bed-load dominated fluvial systems in long-lived channel complexes that provided transmissive conduits favoring transport of uranium-rich groundwater. Groundwater transported uranium through permeable sandstones that were hydrologically connected with source rocks, commonly across formation boundaries driven by isostatic loading and eustatic sea level changes. Uranium roll fronts formed as a result of the interaction of uranium-rich groundwater

  1. Hiding video in plain sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiene, Carolyn P.; Rosiene, Joel A.

    2000-05-01

    With the increasing number of digital transmissions, there is an opportunity to utilize existing broadcast channels to send hidden video transmissions. This presentation outlines and demonstrates a technique to insert a hidden video channel within a larger standard video feed, or 'hide in plain sight.' The approach outlined consists of three parts: data (or video) insertion, data security, and data recovery. These three components are essential to complete a secured digital transmission. To insert the data, knowledge of the standard (for example, MPEG 1, 2, or 4) is used to place the information to be hidden into the compressed data stream post quantization. Since the encoder has perfect knowledge of the receiver's model, it is possible to place the data in the compressed data in a manner that is visually un-intrusive. The technique to hide the data will be presented and an example given. Since, the data (or video) to be inserted may be of a sensitive nature, it is necessary to provide a level of security, which will render the video stream useless if its presence is detected. Both, spatial and temporal dispersion are used to reduce the likelihood of detection with the addition of a modulation of the signal to reduce the image to noise unless the key is known. The intended viewer of the embedded data (or video stream), with knowledge of the key recovers the data by encoding the incoming video stream with the appropriate standard, and extracting the data prior to quantization. While the work in this paper focuses on the insertion of hidden video into a broadcast signal, the same technique serves to prevent tampering to the broadcast signal, since modification of the image data will corrupt the hidden signal. In this way, this provides a level of tamper protection/detection for video, which may be used in legal proceedings.

  2. Andrew spares Florida Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    When geologists heard of the intensity of Hurricane Andrew, which struck the Florida coast on August 25 and then moved on to southern Louisiana, they were expecting the same kinds of coastal damage that Hurricane Hugo brought to the Caribbean and Carolina shores in 1989. Both storms were category 4 hurricanes, having winds of 131-155 mph and surges of 13-18 feet. However, the coastal damage never materialized, leaving geologists to analyze the factors that lessened the impact of the storm. “For minimum coastal damage, you couldn't have designed a better storm,” said Orrin Pilkey, director of the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines (PSDS) in Durham, N.C. This was due in part to the nature of the storm itself and where it hit land, and in part to the regional geology, said Rob Thieler of PSDS. Despite the huge amounts of damage to buildings, there was virtually no evidence of coastal process destruction, he said.

  3. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  4. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  5. Regional drought early warning, impacts, and assessment for water and agriculture in the lower Rio Grande basin, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA’s Southern Plains Climate Hub (SPCH) and the University of Oklahoma’s Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP) contributed to a broad, multi-partnered effort to provide drought early warning information to water and agriculture management interests in the middle and lower Rio Grande ba...

  6. Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A dengue fever outbreak has plagued Rio de Janeiro since January 2002. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease. The elimination of standing water, which is a breeding ground for the mosquitoes, is a primary defense against mosquito-borne diseases like dengue. Removing such water remains a difficult problem in many urban regions. The International Space Station astronauts took this image (ISS001-ESC-5418) of Rio de Janeiro in December 2000. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  7. Analytical data of holocene sediments in the Miyazaki Plain, Southern Kyushu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Masafumi; Niwa, Masakazu; Takatori, Ryoichi; Kamataki, Takanobu; Kurosawa, Hideki

    2014-06-01

    Since the devastated tsunami induced by the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, a lot of geologists have started to focus on the study of subduction-zone giant earthquakes using tsunami deposits. After the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, a lot of geologists studying tsunami deposits suggest the importance of the study concerning the tsunamis in the eastern coastal side of Kyushu. On the other hand, the Miyazaki Plain, facing the Hyuga-nada, had been attacked repeatedly by historical tsunami events induced by the giant earthquakes whose hypocenters were located in the Hyuga-nada or Nankai Trough. However, scientific studies concerning the tsunami events are still poor in this area. We are studying paleo-tsunami deposits in the Miyazaki Plain to develop investigation methods of tsunami deposits and elucidate the process of uplift and erosion for several thousand years in regional area. This data set shows the result of this study. A DVD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  8. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  9. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  10. Explanatory guide: Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Published in July 2015, the Explanatory Guides offer a detailed introduction to each sport at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, as well as providing information on a variety of other fundamental topics that may be of importance to teams as they continue their planning and preparations.

  11. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  12. Mountains and plains Denver's geologic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    A slice of geologic history is exposed to view in the Denver, Colorado area. Denver is situated on the High Plains near the east front of the Rocky Mountains. As one travels westward from Denver toward the mountains, successively older rocks are crossed from the geologically young rocks of the High Plains and the South Platte River valley to the older rocks of the foothills and the ancient rocks of the mountains. Thus, within a few miles,the journey turns back the pages of time in a lifesized textbook that vividly illustrates the geologic events that shaped the landscape.

  13. Plain packaging policy: Preventing industry innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2017-04-20

    The pack is a marketing tool for the tobacco industry - its shape, colour, fonts, descriptors and logos attract and mislead smokers. Health warnings on cigarette packs serve as a knowledge reminder for smokers to quit smoking. Plain packaging eliminates brand imagery elements from cigarette packs and has many benefits, including the reduction of intention to smoke and the denormalization of smoking behaviour. The tobacco industry has devised pack and product marketing innovations that thwart the effectiveness of health warnings. Plain packaging policy needs to address these innovations by restricting their use and preventing them from undermining health warnings.

  14. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  15. Plain language as alternative textualisation | Cornelius | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain language is a form of intra-lingual translation, a process during which particular interventions are brought to bear on a complex text, such as an act, in order to fit the linguistic competence of a particular target audience (Bhatia, 1983; 1993). In this way, complicated content is unlocked and meaning mediated. The aim is ...

  16. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  17. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  18. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, groundwater quality monitoring and protection are essential to sustain the Tasuj plain aquifer. For this purpose, a fundamental understanding of hydrogeochemi- cal processes and hydrogeological conditions for an aquifer system is important (Adams et al. 2001;. Keywords. Graphical method; hydrogeochemistry ...

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  20. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    a problem, as Kimble (1992: 14-15) argues in the following quote: […] It is no criticism that Plain .... Formulas do not consider the motivation, interests, purpose, and social and cultural background and context of .... way that gives a cooperative, motivated person a good chance of understanding the document at first reading, ...

  1. Unusual plain film appearance of extrapleural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranner, G.; Kullnig, P.; Dirnhofer, R.; Sigrist, T.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of extrapleural hematoma, proven during autopsy, are presented. Plain chest films did not demonstrate the typical signs of an extrapleural mass lesion. The roentgenologic differential diagnosis of a free or partially encapsulated pleural effusion, as well as the pathogenesis of extrapleural hematoma is discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  3. FLEXURAL IMPROVEMENT OF PLAIN CONCRETE BEAMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, this study carryout experimental, numerical and analytical investigation to study the behaviour of plain concrete (PC) beams strengthened with High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) layer using three different jacketing configurations and tested in flexure. Results show significant improvement in ...

  4. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  5. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  6. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  7. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... delineates the base flood plain by using detailed HUD flood insurance maps and other available data, as... practicable alternatives to the proposed project that would not cause adverse effects on the base flood plain... beneficial values in base (100-year) flood plains as part of technical and financial assistance in the...

  8. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  9. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  10. Rio+20, biodiversity marginalized

    OpenAIRE

    Carrière, Stéphanie M.; Rodary, Estienne; Méral, Philippe; Serpantié, Georges; Boisvert, Valérie; Kull, C.A.; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Lhoutellier, Louise; Moizo, Bernard; Smektala, G.; Vandevelde, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    At the Rio+20 Conference (June 2012), the biodiversity conservation agenda was subsumed into broader environmental issues like sustainable development, “green economy,” and climate change. This shoehorning of biodiversity issues is concomitant with a trend toward market-based instruments and toward standardized biodiversity assessment and monitoring. This article raises concern that these trends can marginalize important and specific aspects of biodiversity governance, including other policy ...

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  12. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  13. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    Beach rock is a common rock type in many parts of the southern hemisphere and also some areas north of the equator. Its distribution particularly in the Indian Ocean islands and atolls and coasts of India is reviewed. The mineralogic and faunal...

  14. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  15. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  16. Does 'Plain Packaging' of Tobacco matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Clancy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incremental tightening of the tobacco industry’s advertising capabilities led to the investment of billions of dollars into increasingly creative packaging. Today, packing remains one of the industry’s sole methods of promotion and marketing. The size, shape, colour, and font on cigarette packs serve to differentiate brands and promote a certain image associated with the given cigarette package Many studies in recent years have tested the association between pack standardisation and peoples’ attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of tobacco packaging. The results show that plain packs are thought to be less attractive and associated with less positive characteristics, the health warnings are more salient, and smokers report feelings of wanting to smoke less when using standardised packs. Now we have the real life results from Australia, which show the tobacco control advances that are possible with standardised packaging. This must increase the pressure to have 'plain packaging' introduced throughout the EU.

  17. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  18. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to.... exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to...

  19. 75 FR 41383 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to... U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, North of 40 10.00' N. lat. This action, which is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...

  20. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... management measures for several groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast...

  1. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to... management measures for several groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast...

  2. 75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Harvest Specifications... economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to prevent exceeding...

  3. Chalk coast dynamics: Implications for understanding rock coast evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Cherith; Robinson, David

    2011-12-01

    Rock cliffs and shore platforms are linked components of the world's coastal zone. Understanding of the dynamics of their relationships has been hindered by the often imperceptible changes that occur within human time scales. The Cretaceous Chalk coasts of northwest Europe, and particularly those of southeast England, are among the most dynamic, and most intensively studied, cliffed rock coasts in the world. Perceptible changes to both cliffs and platforms have been measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. Through a review of previously published data and the addition of data not previously published, average cliff retreat rates are calculated as 0.49 ± 0.38 m y - 1 and platform erosion rates 3.999 ± 3.208 mm y - 1 . This paper highlights some of the interactions over time and space between process and measurement that continue to limit our understanding of the dynamics of rock coasts; in particular the link between rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion. It concludes by identifying fruitful areas for future research.

  4. Some important shipwrecks on Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gudigar, P.; Sundaresh

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_3_48.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_3_48.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Portuguese shipwrecks on the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakkar, M.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_2_107.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_2_107.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Shoreline dynamics of the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_112.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_112.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Megaliths off the coast of Tranquebar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    stream_size 23 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Man_Environ_18_147.pdf.txt stream_source_info Man_Environ_18_147.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Email: sila@nio.org ...

  8. Land subsidence threats and its management in the North Coast of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, D.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Cities on the north coast of Java such as Jakarta, Semarang, Pekalongan, and Surabaya are vulnerable to environmental pressures such as sea level change and land subsidence. Land subsidence can be caused by natural and anthropogenic processes. Geologically, the north coastal plain of Java consists of unconsolidated Holocene alluvial deposit. The recent alluvial deposit is prone to compaction, and further aggravated by anthropogenic forces such as groundwater extraction and land development. Understanding the complex interaction of natural and manmade factors is essential to establish mitigation strategy. Although the impacts of land subsidence are widely felt, many do not realize that land subsidence is taking place. This paper presents a brief review of the land subsidence threats in the North coast of Java and proposes a recommendation for suitable management response.

  9. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  10. Reflections on Rio conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1992-01-01

    The Rio Conference on environment and development clearly evidenced the strongly contrasting positions between industrialized and developing countries which, in their struggle to achieve higher standards of living, require a considerable amount of assistance in terms of technology transfer and investment capital so as to be able to conform to the new environmental standards being proposed by the international community. The industrialized countries instead are hesitant in these times of global economic uncertainty to risk putting further strains on their fragile economies and cite unrestrained third world population growth as being currently the most serious threat to world economic and environmental stability. Evidence of this impasse was given in the debate on whether or not to have industries introduce surcharges on carbon dioxide emissions so as to help finance sustainable development in the developing countries

  11. Les larmes de Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Corps

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le 21 avril 1960, Rio de Janeiro n’est plus la capitale du Brésil. Le pouvoir fédéral, ses ministères, ses administrations et ses fonctionnaires doivent être transférés à Brasília, la nouvelle capitale du pays située sur le planalto central. Ce jour là, le Président Juscelino Kubitschek peut savourer la réalisation d’un très vieux rêve, celui d’installer la capitale du pays au centre des terres. Cette inauguration concentre donc les attentions, par sa dimension et sa portée, elle est un insta...

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in lagoon and coastal processes of the southern Brazilian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Herz, R.

    1980-01-01

    From a collection of information gathered during a long period, through the orbital platforms SKYLAB and LANDSAT, it was possible to establish a method for the systematic study of the dynamical regime of lagoon and marine surface waters, on coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul. The series of multispectral images analyzed by visual and automatic techniques put in evidence spatial and temporal variations reflected in the optical properties of waters, which carry different loads of materials in suspension. The identified patterns offer a synoptic picture of phenomena of great amplitude, from which trends of circulation can be inferred, correlating the atmospheric and hydrologic variables simultaneously to the overflight of orbital vehicles.

  13. Plain Language Summary: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Neil; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Mahoney, Kathryn; O'Connor, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, abbreviated BPPV. This summary applies to patients ≥18 years old with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV and is based on the 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update)." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing BPPV by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  14. Middle Holocene marine flooding and human response in the south Yangtze coastal plain, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanghua; Ryves, David B.; Lei, Shao; Nian, Xiaomei; Lv, Ye; Tang, Liang; Wang, Long; Wang, Jiehua; Chen, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Coastal flooding catastrophes have affected human societies on coastal plains around the world on several occasions in the past, and are threatening 21st century societies under global warming and sea-level rise. However, the role of coastal flooding in the interruption of the Neolithic Liangzhu culture in the lower Yangtze valley, East China coast has been long contested. In this study, we used a well-dated Neolithic site (the Yushan site) close to the present coastline to demonstrate a marine drowning event at the terminal stage of the Liangzhu culture and discuss its linkage to relative sea-level rise. We analysed sedimentology, chronology, organic elemental composition, diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts for several typical profiles at the Yushan site. The field and sedimentary data provided clear evidence of a palaeo-typhoon event that overwhelmed the Yushan site at ∼2560 BCE, which heralded a period of marine inundation and ecological deterioration at the site. We also infer an acceleration in sea-level rise at 2560-2440 BCE from the sedimentary records at Yushan, which explains the widespread signatures of coastal flooding across the south Yangtze coastal plain at that time. The timing of this mid-Holocene coastal flooding coincided with the sudden disappearance of the advanced and widespread Liangzhu culture along the lower Yangtze valley. We infer that extreme events and flooding accompanying accelerated sea-level rise were major causes of vulnerability for prehistoric coastal societies.

  15. Plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Ho; Lee, Eil Weong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Park, Ju Youn; Kim, Soo Hyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hong Suk; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang Ik Won

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation. Our study included 72 burn patients who had suffered smoke inhalation. On admission, all underwent serial portable chest AP radiography. We retrospectively reviewed the plain chest radiographs taken between admission and pootburn day five, evaluating the pattern, distribution, and time onset of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation. The lesions were also assessed for change. In 16 of 72 patients (22%), abnormal findings of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation were revealed by the radiographs. Abnormal findings were 15 pulmonary lesions and one subglottic tracheal narrowing. Findings of pulmonary lesions were multiple small patchy consolidations (10/15), peribronchial cuffing (8/15), and perivascular fuzziness (6/15). Patterns of pulmonary lesions were mixed alveolar and interstitial lesion (n=3D9), interstitial lesion (n=3D5), and alveolar lesion (n=3D1). No interlobular septal thickening was observed. Pulmonary edema was distributed predominantly in the upper lung zone and perihilar region, with asymmetricity. Its time of onset was within 24 hours in 13 cases, 24-48 hours in two cases, and 48-72 hours in one. Five of 16 patients progressed to ARDS. Chest radiographs showed that pulmonary lesions caused by inhalation injury were due to pulmonary edema, which the pattern of which was commonly mixed alveolar and interstitial. (author)

  16. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  17. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  18. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  19. Moving mountains in Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, D.

    1992-01-01

    The June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro has been planned more as a discussion of environment and development, rather than sustainable development as suggested by the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). The Canadian agenda for UNCED is like that of most of the developed countries, and focuses mainly on climatic change, deforestation, loss of biodiversity in the tropics, and health of the oceans. The agenda of the developing countries is based on the knowledge that most of these global problems have been caused or aggravated by the industrialized countries. The developing countries fear that actions imposed to solve environmental problems will threaten their economic development. A key demand from the developing countries is a commitment by developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, leaving space for the developing countries to increase their emissions as they develop. There is little or no pressure on governments in the developed world to come to such a comprehensive deal. For Canada, much remains to be done in setting national priorities, and many of the issues to be discussed at UNCED are under provincial jurisdiction

  20. Flood Plain Aggradation Rates Based on Tree-Ring Growth-Suppression Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    When woody riparian plants are partially buried subsequent tree rings of the buried stems resemble those of roots. Annual rings in a buried stem are narrower and have larger vessels then those in unburied sections of the same stem. We have used this phenomenon to date flood plain sediments exposed in trenches, along two ephemeral streams in New Mexico (Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash) where the sediments are predominantly silt and very fine sand and the plants are predominantly tamarisk and willow. Cross dating down the stem allows dating of the first growth-season following burial by thick beds, and constrains the age of all stratigraphic units deposited since germination of the tree. We observed that the anatomical reaction to burial increases with bed thickness and cumulative deposition. Beds that are thicker than 30 cm can be dated to the year of the deposition event. Beds 10 to 30 cm thick can usually be dated to within several years. The period of deposition of multiple very thin beds can be constrained to the decade. Results can be improved by analyzing multiple stems from one tree and multiple trees linked together by the stratigraphy. Along our study streams, sites far from the channel tend to have moderate and relatively steady point-aggradation rates. Levees next to the channel tend to have the thickest deposits per flood and variable long-term rates, which can differ from the whole flood plain aggradation rates by several fold. Cross-sectionally averaged flood plain aggradation has been as large as a meter per decade along our study streams.

  1. Precise Dating of Flood-Plain Stratigraphy Using Changes in Tree-Ring Anatomy Following Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. M.; Shafroth, P. B.; Vincent, K. R.; Scott, M. L.; Auble, G. T.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of sediment deposition rates from stratigraphy is typically limited by a scarcity of chronological information. We present a method for precise dating of sedimentary beds based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When stems of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) are buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried portions become narrower and vessels within the rings become larger. Observation of these changes can be combined with tree ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds that are at least 10 cm thick. Using a backhoe we dug trenches across the flood plain at three locations along the arroyo of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. At each cross section we prepared a detailed stratigraphic description and excavated several tamarisks to depths as great as 5 meters. From each excavated tree we cut and sanded 10-50 slabs for tree-ring analysis. We cross-dated slabs within and between plants and used the burial signature in the tree rings to date all sedimentary beds in the stratigraphic profile near each plant. We then used the trench stratigraphy to convert depths of sediment deposition around individual trees to areas of deposition in the cross section. In the lower Rio Puerco introduction of tamarisk in 1926 occurred just prior to the beginning of channel narrowing and arroyo filling. Thus the tamarisks record a process of channel change to which they may have contributed. Aggradation has not been synchronous along the lower arroyo. For example, near Highway 6 and Belen, the flood plain has aggraded more than 2 m since 1970, while there has been little aggradation downstream at Bernardo. Much of the sediment deposition in levies at Highway 6 occurred during a flood in 1988. Future work will document longitudinal variation in the arroyo so that we can convert areas of sediment deposition in cross sections to volumes in the arroyo.

  2. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  3. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  4. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... proposed Trawl Rationalization Program. We are interested in feedback concerning proposed regulations to... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a trawl rationalization program that...

  5. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . Foreign travellers have mentioned the names of active ports on the Saurashtra coast since the early historical period. During the medieval period this coast has witnessed hectic maritime activities and international trade and commerce. Marine...

  6. Late Holocene evolution of a coupled, mud-dominated delta plain–chenier plain system, coastal Louisiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Hijma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Major deltas and their adjacent coastal plains are commonly linked by means of coast-parallel fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients. Observations of the evolution of these interlinked systems over centennial to millennial timescales are essential to understand the interaction between point sources of sediment discharge (i.e. deltaic distributaries and adjacent coastal plains across large spatial (i.e. hundreds of kilometres scales. This information is needed to constrain future generations of numerical models to predict coastal evolution in relation to climate change and other human activities. Here we examine the coastal plain (Chenier Plain, CP adjacent to the Mississippi River delta, one of the world's largest deltas. We use a refined chronology based on 22 new optically stimulated luminescence and 22 new radiocarbon ages to test the hypothesis that cyclic Mississippi subdelta shifting has influenced the evolution of the adjacent CP. We show that over the past 3 kyr, accumulation rates in the CP were generally 0–1 Mt yr−1. However, between 1.2 and 0.5 ka, when the Mississippi River shifted to a position more proximal to the CP, these rates increased to 2.9 ±1.1 Mt yr−1 or 0.5–1.5 % of the total sediment load of the Mississippi River. We conclude that CP evolution during the past 3 kyr was partly a direct consequence of shifting subdeltas, in addition to changing regional sediment sources and modest rates of relative sea-level (RSL rise. The RSL history of the CP during this time period was constrained by new limiting data points from the base of overwash deposits associated with the cheniers. These findings have implications for Mississippi River sediment diversions that are currently being planned to restore portions of this vulnerable coast. Only if such diversions are located in the western portion of the Mississippi Delta plain could they potentially contribute to sustaining the CP shoreline. Our findings

  7. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of life...

  8. Dermatology nursing in the community: The Mitchell's Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    250 CME July 2013 Vol. 31 No. 7. Dermatology nursing in the community: The Mitchell's Plain experience. Dermatology is an important element of community nursing. J Stevens, RN, RM, CPN, PG Dip Derm Nursing. Clinical and Dermatology Nurse Practitioner, Mitchell's Plain Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South ...

  9. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  10. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  11. Efficient retention of mud drives land building on the Mississippi Delta plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Shen, Zhixiong; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Marshak, Jonathan; White, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Many of the world's deltas - home to major population centers - are rapidly degrading due to reduced sediment supply, making these systems less resilient to increasing rates of relative sea-level rise. The Mississippi Delta faces some of the highest rates of wetland loss in the world. As a result, multibillion dollar plans for coastal restoration by means of river diversions are currently nearing implementation. River diversions aim to bring sediment back to the presently sediment-starved delta plain. Within this context, sediment retention efficiency (SRE) is a critical parameter because it dictates the effectiveness of river diversions. Several recent studies have focused on land building along the open coast, showing SREs ranging from 5 to 30 %. Here we measure the SRE of a large relict crevasse splay in an inland, vegetated setting that serves as an appropriate model for river diversions. By comparing the mass fraction of sand in the splay deposit to the estimated sand fraction that entered it during its life cycle, we find that this mud-dominated sediment body has an SRE of ≥ 75 %, i.e., dramatically higher than its counterparts on the open coast. Our results show that transport pathways for mud are critical for delta evolution and that SRE is highly variable across a delta. We conclude that sediment diversions located in settings that are currently still vegetated are likely to be the most effective in mitigating land loss and providing long-term sustainability.

  12. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to... fishery management measures for several groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access more...

  13. 77 FR 66577 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ...-XC165 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program... implemented as part of the trawl rationalization program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamie Goen, phone..., NMFS implemented a trawl rationalization program, a catch share program, for the Pacific coast...

  14. Taxonomy of Ophiuroidea (Echinonermata) from the continental shelf and slope of the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Michela; Monteiro, Ana Maria Gouveia [UNESP; Amaral, Antonia Cecília Zacagnini

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the ophiuroids collected during the Programme of Evaluation of the Living Resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone for the Brazilian coast (REVIZEE), South Score/Benthos, in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Ilha Grande Bay), São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Tramandaí) (24° 07,113' S and 29° 48,500' S; and 43° 46,759' W and 49° 06,800' W). Samples were collected on the continental shelf and slope (60-810 m) using the following equipment: van Veen, box...

  15. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  16. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  17. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, James, E-mail: j.goff@unsw.edu.au [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Knight, Jasper, E-mail: jasper.knight@wits.ac.za [School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sugawara, Daisuke, E-mail: sugawara@irides.tohoku.ac.jp [Hazard and Risk Evaluation Research Division, International Research, Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Aoba 468-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan); Terry, James P., E-mail: james.terry@zu.ac.ae [College of Sustainability Sciences and Humanities, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M{sub w} 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal

  18. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, James; Knight, Jasper; Sugawara, Daisuke; Terry, James P.

    2016-01-01

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the M w 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10 2 –10 4 years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20–100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~ 1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~ 3 m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. - Highlights: • The Tōhoku-oki earthquake led to seismogenic landslides inland. • Seismogenic sediments are reworked through river systems to the coast. • River dams are capturing these sediments, reducing sediment supply to the coast. • Reduced coastal sediment supply is increasing tsunami risk. • Engineering of river systems is making coastal engineering more

  19. Analysis of extreme wave events on the southern coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, P. V.; Farina, L.; Toldo, E. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Using the wave model SWAN (simulating waves nearshore), high waves on the southwestern Atlantic generated by extra-tropical cyclones are simulated from 2000 to 2010, and their impact on the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) coast is studied. The modeled waves are compared with buoy data and good agreement is found. The six extreme events in the period that presented significant wave heights above 5 m, on a particular point of interest, are investigated in detail. It is found that the cyclogenetic pattern between the latitudes 31.5 and 34° S is the most favorable for developing high waves. Hovmöller diagrams for deep water show that the region between the south of Rio Grande do Sul up to a latitude of 31.5° S is the most energetic during a cyclone's passage, although the event of May 2008 indicates that the location of this region can vary, depending on the cyclone's displacement. On the other hand, the Hovmöller diagrams for shallow water show that the different shoreface morphologies were responsible for focusing or dissipating the waves' energy; the regions found are in agreement with the observations of erosion and progradation regions. It can be concluded that some of the urban areas of the beaches of Hermenegildo, Cidreira, Pinhal, Tramandaí, Imbé and Torres have been more exposed during the extreme wave events on the Rio Grande do Sul coast, and are more vulnerable to this natural hazard.

  20. Analysis of extreme wave events in the southern coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, P. V.; Farina, L.; Toldo, E.

    2014-06-01

    Using the model SWAN, high waves on the Southwestern Atlantic generated by extra-tropical cyclones are simulated from 2000 to 2010 and their impact on the Rio Grande do Sul coast is studied. The modeled waves are compared with buoy data and good agreement is found. The six extreme events in the period which presented significant wave heights above 5 m, on a particular point of interest, are investigated in detail. It is found that the cyclogenetic pattern between the latitudes 31.5 and 34° S, is the most favorable for developing high waves. Hovmöller diagrams for deep water show that the region between the south of Rio Grande do Sul up to latitude 31.5° S is the most energetic during a cyclone's passage, although the event of May 2008 indicate that the location of this region can vary, depending on the cyclone's displacement. On the oher hand, the Hovmöller diagrams for shallow water show that the different shoreface morphologies were responsable for focusing or dissipating the waves' energy; the regions found are in agreement with the observations of erosion and progradation regions. It can be concluded that some of the urban areas of the beaches of Hermenegildo, Cidreira, Pinhal, Tramandaí, Imbé and Torres have been more exposed during the extreme wave events at Rio Grande do Sul coast, and are more vulnerable to this natural hazard.

  1. Analysis of extreme wave events on the southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the wave model SWAN (simulating waves nearshore, high waves on the southwestern Atlantic generated by extra-tropical cyclones are simulated from 2000 to 2010, and their impact on the Rio Grande do Sul (RS coast is studied. The modeled waves are compared with buoy data and good agreement is found. The six extreme events in the period that presented significant wave heights above 5 m, on a particular point of interest, are investigated in detail. It is found that the cyclogenetic pattern between the latitudes 31.5 and 34° S is the most favorable for developing high waves. Hovmöller diagrams for deep water show that the region between the south of Rio Grande do Sul up to a latitude of 31.5° S is the most energetic during a cyclone's passage, although the event of May 2008 indicates that the location of this region can vary, depending on the cyclone's displacement. On the other hand, the Hovmöller diagrams for shallow water show that the different shoreface morphologies were responsible for focusing or dissipating the waves' energy; the regions found are in agreement with the observations of erosion and progradation regions. It can be concluded that some of the urban areas of the beaches of Hermenegildo, Cidreira, Pinhal, Tramandaí, Imbé and Torres have been more exposed during the extreme wave events on the Rio Grande do Sul coast, and are more vulnerable to this natural hazard.

  2. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  3. COAST code conversion from Cyber to HP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-04-01

    The transient thermal hydraulic behavior of reactor coolant system in a nuclear power plant following loss of coolant flow is analyzed by use of COAST digital computer code. COAST calculates individual loop flow rates and steam generator pressure drops is a function of time following coast-down of any number of reactor coolant pumps. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of COAST on HP 9000/700 series and code validation results after installation. Secondly, a series of work is also describes in relation to installation of COAST on Apollo DN10000 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new

  4. Climatic-eustatic control of Holocene nearshore parasequence development, southeastern Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Stewart, Laura B.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores, seismic profiles, radiocarbon dates, and faunal assemblages were used to interpret the depositional setting and geological evolution of the southeastern Texas coast during the last glacio-eustatic cycle. Discrete lithofacies and biofacies zones in the ebb-dominated Sabine Lake estuary and adjacent chenier plain record alternating periods of rapid marine flooding and gradual shoaling related to linked climatic/eustatic fluctuations. Monospecific zones of the mollusks Rangia cuneata and Crassostrea virginica, respectively, indicate high fresh water outflow followed by invasion of marine water, whereas intervening organic-rich zones record bayhead delta deposition. High-frequency parasequence stacking patterns within the valley fill and across the adjacent interfluve reflect an initial rapid rise in sea level about 9 ka that flooded abandoned alluvial terraces and caused onlap of Holocene marsh in the incised valley. The rapid rise was followed by slowly rising and oscillating sea level that filled the deepest portions of the incised valleys with fluvially dominated estuarine deposits, and then a maximum highstand (+1 m msl) about 5 ka that flooded the former subaerial coastal plain between the incised valleys and constructed the highest beach ridges. Between 3.5 and 1.5 ka, sea level oscillated and gradually fell, causing a forced regression and rapid progradation of both the chenier plain and accretionary barrier islands. The only significant sands in the valley fill are (1) falling-stage and lowstand-fluvial sediments between the basal sequence boundary and transgressive surface unconformity, and (2) highstand beach-ridge sediments of the chenier plain.

  5. The road from Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornos, W

    1992-12-01

    The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED in Rio de Janeiro has passed and future plans and expectations are forming for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. UNCED did not come up with a miracle cure. Some argued that population control should have been included in the agenda; actually the population issue was not ignored entirely, as both the UNCED Secretary-General and chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development population growth affect both economics and environment. Population must be stabilized. The interrelationships between poverty, population, and environment must be recognized in the formulation of policies. A human rights approach with increased educational opportunities for women, increased women's status, and improved public health and family planning is needed. The UNCED principal document, Agenda 21, devoted an entire chapter to the dynamics of population growth and sustainability. The implications of national demographic trends must be assessed and demographic features included in policies and plans. Debating the accomplishments of UNCED is secondary to planning for the 1994 conference and dealing with the issues: family planning (FP) and well-being, women's status, urbanization and migration, and population policies and programs. The delivery of FP information, education, and services must be expedited by all agencies and organizations; there must be universal availability of maternal and child health care. 500 million women are currently in need of FP. Research is needed to improve contraceptive safety, efficiency, and effectiveness. More than 500,000 maternal deaths occur each year; many could be prevented. 15 million births/year are spaced too closely and infant health is jeopardized. Education and employment of women holds the hope for eliminating some of the social and cultural barriers to women's rights. 45 out of 100 people living in cities today are not experiencing upward mobility

  6. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios caused by dissolution of Na carbonate salts. The compositions of the carbonate and silicate components of the sediments were determined from sequential leaches of floodplain bedloads and these were used to partition the dissolved cation load between silicate and carbonate sources. The 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios of the carbonate inputs were derived from the acetic-acid leach compositions and silicate Na/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios derived from

  7. The sources and fluxes of dissolved chemistry in a semi-confined, sandy coastal aquifer: The Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Caroline E.A.; Galy, Albert; Hovius, Niels; Bickle, Mike; Lin, In-Tian; Horng, Ming-Jame; Calmels, Damien; Chen, Hongey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analysed groundwater chemistry from 43 wells in the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. ► Sources of dissolved chemistry were assessed using ternary mixing relationships. ► Groundwater chemical fluxes were computed using hydraulic head and conductivities. ► Rain, hot springs, seawater and weathering contribute to groundwater chemistry. ► Subsurface chemical fluxes range from 1% to 12% of total flow (surface and subsurface). - Abstract: Groundwater chemical fluxes from the Pingtung Plain in SW Taiwan to the ocean were determined by analysing waters from 43 wells at varying depths through a 237 m deep window across the Pingtung Plain, for major dissolved cations, anions, dissolved SiO 2 , and stable isotopic composition of O and H, and computing their subsurface water fluxes from measurements of hydraulic heads and formation permeabilities. The results show that between 1.5% (SO 4 2- ) and 12.3% (Ba 2+ ) of the total chemical weathering flux discharged to the ocean (Kaoping River combined with groundwater) can be attributed to the groundwater. Estimated propagated errors at 1σ on subsurface fluxes are ±20%. Multi-year daily hydraulic head data give the direction of groundwater flow through the plain, and indicate that pumping has led to episodic reversals of flow, facilitating seawater intrusion in the near-coast aquifer. Tracing end-member proportions using mixing relationships shows that, in addition to seawater and meteoric water, hot-spring activity contributes to the dissolved chemistry of the groundwater. In addition to these three end-members, the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals in the plain accounts for the remainder of the chemical budget. Hydrological connectivity exists throughout the drilled depth of the basin, but chemical gradients show that flow is stratified, with up to a twofold increase in silicate-derived Na + seen in deeper horizons as compared to the near surface. For all ions except SO 4 2- , the average

  8. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized "plain" cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers' interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts.

  9. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  11. Ocean coast effect on magnetotelluric data: a case study from Kachchh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhananjai; Sinha, Martin; MacGregor, Lucy; Singh, Satish

    2008-09-01

    The effects of the ocean coast on magnetotelluric (MT) data have been studied and results are described in this article. MT soundings from various sites along coastal plains of Kachchh were acquired where volcanic rocks overlie Mesozoic sediments having potential resource prospects. The region of our study lies in the proximity of Gulf of Kachchh and Arabian Sea. This article describes the effects the presence of a conductive body on the acquired MT data. With the help of synthetic MT modelling and induction arrows we demonstrate the influence of shallow conductive body on the MT data. The modelling results when compared to the field observations show that much of the high frequencies are unaffected by the coast, however low frequencies of the data do seem to be distorted by onshore offshore resistivity contrasts. The least affect on high frequencies can be attributed to very shallow water depth as well as to the fact that the onshore offshore resistivity contrasts are not large enough to influence the high frequency data badly. The results presented here report for the first time the effect of the coast on the analysis on MT data from Kachchh. Due to several academic as well as industrial onshore offshore MT experiments presently being carried out to explore its hydrocarbon potential, our results have an important bearing on designing and acquisition of future MT surveys in this region.

  12. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  13. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters. Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about 31

  14. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  15. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  16. Marine debris ingestion by sea turtles (Testudines) on the Brazilian coast: an underestimated threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; Lacerda, Pedro Dutra; da Silva Mendes, Sarah; Barbosa, Bruno Corrêa; Paschoalini, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-12-30

    Assessment of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles is important, especially to ensure their survival. From January to December 2011, 23 specimens of five species of sea turtles were found dead or dying after being rehabilitated, along the coast of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To detect the presence of marine debris in the digestive tract of these turtles, we conducted a postmortem examination from the esophagus until the distal portion of the large intestine for each specimen. Of the total number of turtles, 39% had ingested marine debris such as soft plastic, hard plastic, metal, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle caps, human hair, tampons, and latex condoms. Five of the seven sea turtles species are found along the Brazilian coast, where they feed and breed. A large number of animals are exposed to various kinds of threats, including debris ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or 4000

  18. Comportamento Sedentário

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro

    2015-01-01

    Desde o início dos anos 2000 se observou um crescente número de trabalhos científicos voltados à compreensão do comportamento sedentário. Adotando uma linha cautelosa, visto que o conjunto de evidências existentes ainda deixa mais dúvidas do que certezas, e realista, uma vez que muitas destas atividades fazem parte do cotidiano das pessoas e não podem ser extintas a qualquer custo, o presente ensaio oferece um panorama das pesquisas voltadas ao comportamento sedentário, desde a delimitação do...

  19. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for a Plain Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhamra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior for a plain classic bearing (fluid bearing lubricated by a non-Newtonian fluid of a turbo machine rotating with high speed; this type of fluid contains additives viscosity (couple-stress fluid film. The solution of the nonlinear dynamic problem of this type of bearing is determined with a spatial discretisation of the modified Reynolds' equation written in dynamic mode by using the optimized short bearing theory and a temporal discretisation for equations of rotor motion by the help of Euler's explicit diagram. This study analyzes the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by two couple-stress fluid film journal lubricant enhances the dynamic stability of the rotor-bearing system considerably compared to that obtained when using a traditional Newtonian lubricant. The analysis shows that the dynamic behavior of a shaft which turns with high velocities is strongly nonlinear even for poor eccentricities of unbalance; the presence of parameters of couple stress allows strongly attenuating the will synchrony (unbalance and asynchrony (whipping amplitudes of vibrations of the shaft which supports more severe conditions (large unbalances.

  1. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  3. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  4. Recognition of Plain Objects Using Local Region Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Sakata, Katsutoshi; Das, Dipankar; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Conventional interest point based matching requires computationally expensive patch preprocessing and is not appropriate for recognition of plain objects with negligible detail. This paper presents a method for extracting distinctive interest regions from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of plain objects or scene. We formulate the correspondence problem in a Naive Bayesian classification framework and a simple correlation based matching, which makes our system fast, simple, efficient, and robust. To facilitate the matching using a very small number of interest regions, we also propose a method to reduce the search area inside a test scene. Using this method, it is possible to robustly identify objects among clutter and occlusion while achieving near real-time performance. Our system performs remarkably well on plain objects where some state-of-the art methods fail. Since our system is particularly suitable for the recognition of plain object, we refer to it as Simple Plane Object Recognizer (SPOR).

  5. Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma: comparison of CT with plain chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chun Hwan; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Eun Ju; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    Saprophytic intracavitary fungus ball is the most common form of pulmonary involvement of aspergillosis. Crescent-shaped air shadow surrounded by a creativity wall is known to be a characteristic of pulmonary aspergilloma on plain chest radiograph. However, in case of early lesion in which intracavitary aspergilloma is overlapped with adjacent destroyed lung or mediastinal and hilar density, the air meniscus can not be demonstrated on plain radiograph. In such a case, CT scan might provide additional information that suggests fungus ball. The aim of this study is to describe the variable CT appearances of pulmonary aspergilloma in addition to air meniscus sign and to correlate the findings on CT with those of plain radiograph and pathology. The diagnosis of intracavitary aspergilloma was suggested on both CT and plain radiograph in case that air-meniscus sign was visible. CT scans could add more diagnostic information over chest radiographs such as small peripheral air density or sponge-like air shadow

  6. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  7. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  8. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  9. On the wave energy potential along the southern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Leandro Eduardo; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean wave energy resource is a real alternative to supply part of the energy demand in various countries, since some locations have a remarkable capacity to generate electricity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the energy resource of ocean waves in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southern state of Brazil. This note presents the first results. The wave data used were collected in the sea area near the Port of Rio Grande during the years 1996 to 1999, amounting to sixteen months of monitoring. The data set was treated and grouped resulting information monthly, seasonal and annual basis. The annual average was found to be 8.6 kW per meter of wave front, reaching 14.0 kW per meter for the month of May and 4.0 kW per meter for the month of January. The results indicate good perspectives in obtaining power supplies.

  10. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines. (author)

  11. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  12. Preliminary environmental analysis of Gondwana in Candiota Region, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Fontes, L.C. da; Cava, L.T.

    1980-10-01

    The geological results obtained in the Candiota Region by NUCLEBRAS, during the evaluation of the uranium economic potential from basal Gondwana Sequence - Itarare Group and Rio Bonito Formation - at South-East of the Parana Sedimentary Basin, are studied. The analysis of 18 geologic sections (scales 1:5.000 x 1:500), 21 drill holes and fotogeologic interpretation in the scale 1:50.000, are included. The Itarare Group sedimentation was conditioned by paleo - relief with valleys formed from differential erosion on 'horst - graben' structures. The deposition of its rhythmites, diamictites and siltstones was made in periglacial and marine environments. The sedimentation of the Rio Bonito Formation is related to the main Itarare Group depositional axes. The typical lithologies are: sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and coals, representing progradational fluvial sediments over coastal - plain areas. (Author) [pt

  13. No (more) logo: plain packaging and communicative agency

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Pottage

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry’s archives suggest that the global campaign for the plain packaging of tobacco products originated in 1986, when the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution calling for cigarettes to be sold in packages bearing only a brand name and the health message ‘this product is injurious to your health’. In most jurisdictions, regulations requiring the apposition of health warnings to cigarette packs have been in force for decades. Proposals for plain packaging aim to go f...

  14. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  16. Eco-environmental quality evaluation of Huaibei Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Lü, H.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the destruction of the ecological environment in Huaibei Plain has limited the development of the economy. Doing research on eco-environment quality evaluation methods may be helpful to the recovery of the eco-environment in Huaibei Plain and the construction of ecological civilization. A new assessment system was introduced in this paper on the basis of a traditional eco-environmental evaluation method; the NPP index was used to replace biological abundance index and vegetation coverage index. This new method was used to evaluate the eco-environment quality of Huaibei Plain. Results indicate that: (a) the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain has been getting worse since 1990, but has improved since 2000; (b) the water-network density index is the key factor which affects the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain; (c) If human activities, pollution control, land degradation and urban area development are not taken into consideration, the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain in dry years will be serious.

  17. Morphological and molecular diagnostic of Anisakis typica and Anisakis brevispiculata of southeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Juliete dos Reis Sardella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Sardella C.J. & Luque J.L. [Morphological and molecular diagnostic of Anisakis typica and Anisakis brevispiculata of southeastern coast of Brazil.] Diagnóstico morfológico e molecular de larvas de Anisakis typica e Anisakis brevispiculata em peixes do litoral do Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl. 3:87-98, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, 23890-000, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. E-mail: luqueufrrj@gmail.com The nematodes of the family Anisakidae Skrjabin and Karokhin, 1945 are parasites of aquatic organisms, e.g. fishes, marine mammals and piscivorous birds, being distributed throughout the world. Their larvae are of major importance in the industry of fisheries, since they are known as etiological agents of the human anisakiasis, which occurs through the ingestion of live larvae in raw or poorly cooked seafood. The aim of the present study was to characterize the larvae of Anisakis spp. infecting Brazilian sandperch Pinguipes brasilianus Cuvier, 1829, Frigate tuna Auxis thazard Lacépède, 1800 (fish of commercial importance and Silvery John dory Zenopsis conchifer Lowe, 1852 in coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using morphological and molecular approaches. Thirty fish of the species P. brasilianus (Pinguipedidae, 02 of A. thazard (Scombridae and 10 of Z. conchifer (Zeidae were analyzed, being collected a total of 04 larvae of Anisakis spp. through the molecular analyzes using mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological studies, the species Anisakis typica Diesing, 1860 and Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1966 were confirmed. Zenopsis conchifer representsa new host record for A. typica, and A. brevispiculata was reported for the first time in Brazilian waters.

  18. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  19. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  20. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  1. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  2. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district 1,...

  3. Human interreference along the coast of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    , the promotion of tourism, increase in population and construction activities have created a heavy demand for resources resulting in congestion on coasts, increase in density of constructions and pressures on infrastructure. Large scale conversions of dune belts...

  4. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  5. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  6. Geological and geophysical surveys of Visakhapatnam coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, K.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    Continuous records of the total earth's magnetic field and the surface sediment samples from the ocean bottom have been collected off Ramakrishna Beach and Lawsons Bay along the Visakhapatnam Coast. The magnetic data has recorded significant...

  7. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Seagrass environments, from the main coast of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands, were surveyed for seagrass and marine algal composition. Extensive seagrass meadows and the maximum number of species (seven genera and 12 species) occurred along...

  8. Hurricane Linda Off the Baja Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie captures Hurricane Linda moving off the Baja California coast in September 1997. The strongest hurricane on record for the eastern Pacific at that time, Hurricane Linda invaded Southern California with winds that had gusted to 105 mph (174 kph). While off the coast of Mexico, her winds gusted up to 220 mph (354 kph). Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  9. RIO Country Report 2016: Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    DŐRY TIBOR; CSONKA LÁSZLÓ; SLAVCHEVA MILENA

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 series of the RIO Country Report analyses and assesses the development and performance of the national research and innovation system of the EU-28 Member States and related policies with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the EU policy implementation as well as facilitating policy learning in the Member States.

  10. Rio de Janeiro: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Students from Latin America were able to get hands-on experience in state-of-the-art physics instrumentation in this year's School on Instrumentation for High Energy Physics organized by the active Instrumentation Panel of ICFA (the International Committee for Future Accelerators) at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquicas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, in July

  11. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program... 7372

  12. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  13. 33 CFR 23.10 - Coast Guard emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section... DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The distinctive emblem of the Coast Guard shall be as follows: On a disc the shield of the Coat of Arms of the United...

  14. Em foco: sustentabilidade Rio 2016, Agosto 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Neste endereço, é possível encontrar o primeiro relatório de sustentabilidade do Rio 2016, "Abraçando Mudanças", bem como o Plano de Gestão de Sustentabilidade, o Relatório de Gestão de Pegada de Carbono e o Relatório de Impacto dos Jogos.

  15. Criteria, in the field of geology, about uranium prospecting at the plain coast of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado L, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    Use is made of the existing theories about uranium prospecting in sedimentary deposits. A classic method is used for this purpose, that is to say that the geology of the area is studied on the basis of aerial photogrpahy and reconnaissance on the ground for verification. According to the observations on the field it was determined what environments were the most favorable and what formations were susceptible of mineralization. In the studied area the Formation Frio No Marino and Formation Jackson are the most indicated for prospecting. It is suggested to realize detailed studies of paleosedimentation in the above mentioned formations, as well as a general study (stratigraphic) of the Cuenca de Burgos in order to fix the future prospectings

  16. Carcinoma inflamatório mamário canino.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cristiano; Voll, Juliana; Ferreira, Kelly; Ferreira, Rafael Rodrigues; Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira de; Contesini, Emerson Antônio; Oliveira, Rosemari Teresinha de

    2006-01-01

    O carcinoma inflamatório mamário é um carcinoma anaplásico com características clínicas e histopatológicas como crescimento rápido, envolvimento difuso, eritema, calor e dor nas mamas, edema nos membros posteriores, extensa infiltração de células inflamatórias, células epiteliais malignas nos linfonodos regionais apresentando um péssimo prognóstico. O cão é a única espécie animal em que esta neoplasia ocorre espontaneamente, entretanto apresenta uma incidência bastante rara tanto em humanos q...

  17. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  18. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  19. Late Quarternary evolution of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    The sedimentary history and seismic structure of a deep-water turbidite basin in the Western North Atlantic Ocean has been investigated to understand further the evolution of abyssal plains. This study integrates analyses of sedimentary and seismic facies in order to examine the temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain during the Late Quaternary. Forty deep-sea sediment cores and 6000 km of high resolution (3.5 kHz) seismic reflection profiles from within 31-34 0 N and 69-74 0 W include portions of the Hatteras Outer Ridge, Lower Continental Rise and Bermuda Rise as well as the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. Seismic profiles (within 32-33 0 N, 70-71.5 0 W) define two acoustically-transparent seismic units beneath the Plain. The composition of these seismic units has been investigated with sediment cores. This study has found two notable features in the sedimentary framework of the Plain that appear to have resulted from temporal changes in sediment supply. The most recent change, a postglacial decline in turbidity current activity, produced a diagenetic iron enrichment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The stratigraphic thickness affected by diagenesis is related spatially to patterns of turbidite sedimentation. An earlier change, discovered in this research, occurred during the Wisconsinian glaciation and brought coarser-grained turbidity currents to the northern Plain. Deposition of sands from these flows appears to have been locally controlled by a broad topographic feature with less than ten meters relief. As a result of the topographic influence, there are abrupt boundaries, both verically and laterally, between an older mud facies and a younger sandy turbidite facies of the Plain

  20. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  1. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  2. A Bayesian-Based System to Assess Wave-Driven Flooding Hazards on Coral Reef-Lined Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, S. G.; Storlazzi, C. D.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Tissier, M. F. S.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Many low-elevation, coral reef-lined, tropical coasts are vulnerable to the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and wave-induced flooding. The considerable morphological diversity of these coasts and the variability of the hydrodynamic forcing that they are exposed to make predicting wave-induced flooding a challenge. A process-based wave-resolving hydrodynamic model (XBeach Non-Hydrostatic, "XBNH") was used to create a large synthetic database for use in a "Bayesian Estimator for Wave Attack in Reef Environments" (BEWARE), relating incident hydrodynamics and coral reef geomorphology to coastal flooding hazards on reef-lined coasts. Building on previous work, BEWARE improves system understanding of reef hydrodynamics by examining the intrinsic reef and extrinsic forcing factors controlling runup and flooding on reef-lined coasts. The Bayesian estimator has high predictive skill for the XBNH model outputs that are flooding indicators, and was validated for a number of available field cases. It was found that, in order to accurately predict flooding hazards, water depth over the reef flat, incident wave conditions, and reef flat width are the most essential factors, whereas other factors such as beach slope and bed friction due to the presence or absence of corals are less important. BEWARE is a potentially powerful tool for use in early warning systems or risk assessment studies, and can be used to make projections about how wave-induced flooding on coral reef-lined coasts may change due to climate change.Plain Language SummaryLow-lying tropical coasts fronted by coral reefs are threatened by the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and flooding caused by waves. However, the reefs on these coasts differ widely in their shape, size, and physical characteristics; the wave and water level conditions affecting these coastlines also vary in space and time. These factors make it difficult to predict flooding caused by waves along coral reef-lined coasts. We

  3. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  4. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...: Modification of fishing seasons; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 23 inseason actions in... allowing fishers access to the available fish at the time the fish were available while ensuring that.... 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast...

  5. Artificial Regeneration of Blue and Coast Live Oaks in the Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim R. Plumb; Bennie Hannah

    1991-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to find economical and effective planting techniques that will ensure the establishment and early survival of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) and blue oak (Q. douglasii H. and A.) in the Central Coast region of California. Eight treatments were evaluated ranging from unprotected seed spots...

  6. Distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; Andrade, Mônica Kramer de Noronha; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Flynn, Matthew; Braga, José Ueleres; Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Lino, Valéria Teresa Saraiva

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of the tuberculosis endemic in Rio de Janeiro State from 2002 to 2011. A retrospective study was conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 2002 to 2011. Spatial analysis techniques were used to describe the distribution of tuberculosis incidence in the state. Multilevel Poisson regression model was used to access the relationship of tuberculosis and the following factors: "sex", "age-group" and "diagnostic year" (individual-level factors). Demographic density and municipality were also included in the model as contextual-level factors. A reduction in endemic tuberculosis was observed over the years. The highest incidence rates were concentrated on the south coast of the state, covering Rio de Janeiro City (capital) and neighboring cities. We detected a significant clustering of high TB incidence rates on the south coast of the state and a cluster of low incidence in the northeastern region of state. The risk of tuberculosis was higher in early 2000s, in males and in 40-59 age group. Metropolitan regions are important risk areas for the spread of tuberculosis. These findings could be used to plan control measures according to the characteristics of each region.

  7. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  8. Sigilo bancário

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carina Filipa das Neves

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Contabilidade e Gestão das Instituições Financeiras O objectivo do presente trabalho é a realização de um estudo aprofundado sobre o sigilo bancário, bem como as suas limitações na esfera social e económica do país. O trabalho parte da fundamentação de sigilo bancário, que consiste numa abordagem onde contempla todos os interesses e responsabilidades à qual está inerente. A seguir, faz referência à sua evolução histórica, a nível mundial, especificamente a Portugal, apontand...

  9. Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) Experiment Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Parsons, D [NCAR; Geerts, B [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming

    2015-03-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment is a large field campaign that is being supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with contributions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The overarching goal of the PECAN experiment is to improve the understanding and simulation of the processes that initiate and maintain convection and convective precipitation at night over the central portion of the Great Plains region of the United States (Parsons et al. 2013). These goals are important because (1) a large fraction of the yearly precipitation in the Great Plains comes from nocturnal convection, (2) nocturnal convection in the Great Plains is most often decoupled from the ground and, thus, is forced by other phenomena aloft (e.g., propagating bores, frontal boundaries, low-level jets [LLJ], etc.), (3) there is a relative lack of understanding how these disturbances initiate and maintain nocturnal convection, and (4) this lack of understanding greatly hampers the ability of numerical weather and climate models to simulate nocturnal convection well. This leads to significant uncertainties in predicting the onset, location, frequency, and intensity of convective cloud systems and associated weather hazards over the Great Plains.

  10. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  11. Health Needs Assessment of Plain Populations in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Abbott, Christina; Thompson, Scottie; Dlugi, Emily; Adams, Zachary; Schulman, Meryl; Strauss, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    We performed a health needs assessment for three Plain communities in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania from a random sample of households. Compared with the general population of adults, Plain respondents were more likely to be married, to have children, and they had large families; they were more likely to drink well water, to eat fruit and vegetables, to drink raw milk, and to live on a farm. Plain respondents had better physical and mental health and were less likely to have been diagnosed with various medical conditions compared with the general population of adults in Lancaster County but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have been diagnosed compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Plain respondents usually have a regular doctor and often receive preventive care but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have a regular doctor, to receive preventive care, to have had their children vaccinated, and to receive routine dental care compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Despite their relative geographic and genetic isolation, and despite the small, relative differences noted, the health of Plain communities in Lancaster County is similar to that of other adults in the County.

  12. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain, volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  13. Between Land and Sea: Mangroves and Mollusks along Brazil’s Mangal Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Carney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Westerners have long viewed mangroves as forbidding, pestilential landscapes. While modern medicine transformed their deadly reputation, the perception lingered of an environment that was little more than a tropical wasteland. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro profoundly changed this view by drawing attention to the ecosystem as a habitat crucial to the life cycles of many species and endangered fauna yet increasingly at risk from deforestation. Conservation initiatives in the years since the Rio Summit, however, seldom recognize mangroves as a habitat that has also long supported human life. This is evident in the shell middens found along mangrove coasts and in the historical record of shellfish harvested for dietary protein. With a focus on Brazil, this article examines the shellfish that sustained Amerindians, enslaved Africans, and their descendants along the mangal coast since pre-Columbian times. The discussion contends that Brazil’s mangrove forests cannot be separated from the history of the tropical peoples who have successively lived in and managed this ecosystem from ancient times to the present. Finally, the article concludes that a research focus on shellfish suggests broader linkages to South Atlantic history.

  14. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a 'tipping point' whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  15. Were sea level changes during the Pleistocene in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain a driver of speciation in Petunia (Solanaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fregonezi, Aline M C; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Cybis, Gabriela B; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2015-05-20

    Quaternary climatic changes led to variations in sea level and these variations played a significant role in the generation of marine terrace deposits in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. The main consequence of the increase in sea level was local extinction or population displacement, such that coastal species would be found around the new coastline. Our main goal was to investigate the effects of sea level changes on the geographical structure and variability of genetic lineages from a Petunia species endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. We employed a phylogeographic approach based on plastid sequences obtained from individuals collected from the complete geographic distribution of Petunia integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group. We used population genetics tests to evaluate the degree of genetic variation and structure among and within populations, and we used haplotype network analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to estimate divergence times and population growth. We observed three major genetic lineages whose geographical distribution may be related to different transgression/regression events that occurred in this region during the Pleistocene. The divergence time between the monophyletic group P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group (P. integrifolia ssp. integrifolia) was compatible with geological estimates of the availability of the coastal plain. Similarly, the origin of each genetic lineage is congruent with geological estimates of habitat availability. Diversification of P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata possibly occurred as a consequence of the marine transgression/regression cycles during the Pleistocene. In periods of high sea level, plants were most likely restricted to a refuge area corresponding to fossil dunes and granitic hills, from which they colonized the coast once the sea level came down. The modern pattern of lineage geographical distribution and population variation was established by a range

  16. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  17. Older Smooth Plains on Mercury Obscured by Impact Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Whitten, J.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    On the basis of morphology and spectral reflectance, the surface of Mercury can be broadly divided into three major terrain types: low-reflectance material, intermediate terrain, and smooth plains. This last terrain type is distinguished morphologically by a comparatively smooth and gently rolling surface, has a lower density of impact craters and basins than other surface units on the planet, and typically occupies low-lying areas. Their smooth texture, embayment of other landforms, and distinctive partial to complete burial of older impact features suggests that most of these plains are probably volcanic in nature. Recent mapping work has shown that smooth plains younger than the end of the late heavy bombardment (LHB) occupy ~30% of Mercury's surface. An outstanding question concerns the distribution and nature of older plains units on the planet, especially those that underlie large impact features and may correspond morphologically to smooth plains but have not yet been mapped accordingly. A preliminary survey of such terrain yielded five exemplar sites: at the Amaral (26.5°S, 117.8°E; 101 km diameter), Mickiewicz (23.2°N, 256.7°E; 103 km), and Vivaldi (13.8°N, 274.1°E; 212 km) basins and at two unnamed features at 53.1°S, 38.6°E (83 km in diameter) and 7.1°N, 38.3°E (118 km). We expect that more thorough mapping will uncover additional candidate areas. In each of the example sites, an extensive continuous ejecta deposit and secondary impact field characterize the proximal and distal facies, respectively, of the impact feature; and in each case, the secondaries field (and impact-sculpted terrain in the case of Vivaldi) is superposed upon patches of plains that otherwise appear smooth and host numerous, flooded antecedent craters tens of kilometers in diameter. Moreover, these smooth patches occur at several ranges of azimuths surrounding each crater or basin, suggesting that they may have formed contiguous units prior to formation of the younger

  18. Attack on Australia: tobacco industry challenges to plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Holly

    2013-08-01

    In 2011, the Australian Government passed landmark legislation requiring tobacco manufacturers to adopt 'plain packaging', a government-mandated design standardized across all brands of tobacco products. In response, plain packaging policy in Australia has faced multiple, simultaneous challenges from a global, well-resourced industry able to use all available fora to seek redress. Generalizing from the Australian experience, we analyze four types of challenges to plain packaging from the tobacco industry. We characterize three ways in which industry questions public health policies through international trade and investment law, on: (i) the intent or purpose of the policy; (ii) the economic consequences of it; and (iii) the regulatory authority behind it. We make recommendations and suggest that public health policymakers can know with some precision what attacks will be launched on tobacco control policies, and prepare their strategies and legislation accordingly.

  19. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  20. Risks associated with rainfall and floods in the Moldavian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan BURUIANĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, less effective land exploitation and insufficient security infrastructure against extreme phenomena induce vulnerabilities for the Moldavian Plain, where floods are relatively frequent. The middle and lower segments of the major streams dispose of improved hydro-technical infrastructure to prevent floods, still, the secondary streams and tributaries, with pronounced torrential characterremain vulnerable. The torrential character of the majority of rivers inthe Moldavian Plain results in management difficulties related with risksat maximum flow, especially on the first rank tributaries. Our studyanalyzes the main causes and consequences of floods in the MoldavianPlain and identifies potentially significant flood risks areas.

  1. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1986-01-01

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  2. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  3. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  4. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  5. Further description of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) halitrophus comb. n. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from flounder off the Brazilian coast by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2005-06-01

    Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) halitrophus Fusco and Overstreet, 1978 from the intestines of flounders (Syacium papillosum and Citharichthys macrops) from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is redescribed. This study, which is based on results obtained by light and scanning electron microscopy, clarifies many morphological aspects of this species. Some taxonomic features, such as the cephalic structures, the topography of the cuticle, the vulva, the localization of caudal papillae on males, and the excretory pore, are observed for the first time. C. macrops represents a new host record, and Rio de Janeiro is a new geographical record for this species.

  6. Northern Atlantic hurricanes possible connections with receded tides in Southern Brazilian and Uruguay Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, M. T.; Azevedo, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Harvey was formed around 17 august with maximum winds 40 miles/hour. At the moment, Irma formation started in 20 august faster becoming a hurricane category five. Some days before these two events, the Uruguay and Brazil coast suffered a recede in the oceans near Punta del Este and Rio Grande do Sul it happened in the week of 11 august. The energy accumulated in the recede of waters was not released by a tsunami and the water slowly was back to the shore. This event repeated at August 25, however at higher latitudes as in Parana and Sao Paulo. And consequent high tides in Chile again. The absence of a recurrent tsunami at the Brazilian coast indicates the energy accumulated from the recede ocean was released as a tsunami in the oceans, it became another huge hurricane formation as Jose and Katia. All those events pointed out for an atmospheric pressure disturbance on the Atlantic East Coast. In South America happened a suddenly increase at the atmospheric pressure which made the ocean waves receded for many days. A similar disturbance happened in Caribe area resulting in several huge hurricanes.

  7. Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Plain and Rolled Images from Paired Fingerprint Cards (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 29 is being distributed for use in development and testing fingerprint matching systems. The data consist of 216 ten-print fingerprint card pairs with both the rolled and plains (from a bottom of the fingerprint card) scanned at 19.7 pixels per mm. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  8. Population typing of the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight in the Eastern Plains of Colombia using two types of molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, César A; Arias-Rojas, Nathalia; Poulin, Lucie; Medina, César A; Tapiero, Anibal; Restrepo, Silvia; Koebnik, Ralf; Bernal, Adriana J

    2014-06-19

    Molecular typing of pathogen populations is an important tool for the development of effective strategies for disease control. Diverse molecular markers have been used to characterize populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), the main bacterial pathogen of cassava. Recently, diversity and population dynamics of Xam in the Colombian Caribbean coast were estimated using AFLPs, where populations were found to be dynamic, diverse and with haplotypes unstable across time. Aiming to examine the current state of pathogen populations located in the Colombian Eastern Plains, we also used AFLP markers and we evaluated the usefulness of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) as new molecular markers for the study of Xam populations. The population analyses showed that AFLP and VNTR provide a detailed and congruent description of Xam populations from the Colombian Eastern Plains. These two typing strategies clearly separated strains from the Colombian Eastern Plains into distinct populations probably because of geographical distance. Although the majority of analyses were congruent between typing markers, fewer VNTRs were needed to detect a higher number of genetic populations of the pathogen as well as a higher genetic flow among sampled locations than those detected by AFLPs. This study shows the advantages of VNTRs over AFLPs in the surveillance of pathogen populations and suggests the implementation of VNTRs in studies that involve large numbers of Xam isolates in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the pathogen to improve the strategies for disease control.

  9. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  10. O RIO CAPITAL IMAGINADO PELA CRÍTICA CINEMATOGRÁFICA: os casos de Rio Fantasia e Rio, 40 graus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Altmann

    Full Text Available No artigo, busca-se verificar como o Rio de Janeiro, “cidade-capital”, foi imaginado por críticos cinematográficos brasileiros. Por meio de críticas aos filmes Rio fantasia (1957, de Watson Macedo, e Rio, 40 graus (1955, de Nelson Pereira dos Santos, pretende-se entender como a então Capital Federal foi descrita e legitimada por agentes que formam julgamentos, quiçá, para a posteridade.

  11. Vertical land motion along the coast of Louisiana: Integrating satellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. H.; A Karegar, M.; Uebbing, B.; Kusche, J.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing the highest rate of relative sea-level rise in North America due to the combination of sea-level rise and subsidence of the deltaic plain. The land subsidence in this region is studied using various techniques, with continuous GPS site providing high temporal resolution. Here, we use high resolution tide-gauge data and advanced processing of satellite altimetry to derive vertical displacements time series at NOAA tide-gauge stations along the coast (Figure 1). We apply state-of-the-art retracking techniques to process raw altimetry data, allowing high accuracy on range measurements close to the coast. Data from Jason-1, -2 and -3, Envisat, Saral and Cryosat-2 are used, corrected for solid Earth tide, pole tide and tidal ocean loading, using background models consistent with the GPS processing technique. We reprocess the available GPS data using precise point positioning and estimate the rate uncertainty accounting for correlated noise. The displacement time series are derived by directly subtracting tide-gauge data from the altimetry sea-level anomaly data. The quality of the derived displacement rates is evaluated in Grand Isle, Amerada Pass and Shell Beach where GPS data are available adjacent to the tide gauges. We use this technique to infer vertical displacement at tide gauges in New Orleans (New Canal Station) and Port Fourchon and Southwest Pass along the coastline.

  12. Planejamento Tributário

    OpenAIRE

    Lidércio Januzzi; Maria Raquel de Almeida; Patrícia Neves de Castro; Simone Campos do Amaral; Tais Araújo Nascimento; Valéria Costa Barros

    2009-01-01

    Antecipar os créditos e protelar os débitos". Essa sentença do planejamento do fluxo de caixa transpõe-se Para o planejamento tributário, partes o qual credor e devedor procuram vantagens financeiras antagônicas. O sucesso contemplará o que melhor planejar dispêndios e recebimentos. O imposto representa um ônus para a empresa e para o cidadão, empresa fazendo do fisco sócio para aquele e um dependente para este. É preciso dosar as despesas deste sócio-parente ' Entretanto, levado ao limi...

  13. IMAGINÁRIO, UTOPIA, DEMOCRACIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Marcondes Cesar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O papel da imaginação na vida social é estudado por Ricoeur no âmbito de uma teoria geral da imaginação. Em sua filosofia, a ideologia e a utopia são focalizadas como duas expressões do imaginário social. Examinaremos, primeiro, o papel da imaginação, em seguida focalizaremos a questão da utopia e, finalmente, as relações entre ética e utopia.

  14. Petricola pholadiformis Lam. on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernhout, J.H.

    1912-01-01

    In 1907 Mr. Caesar R. Boettger 1) called attention to the fact that this species, an inhabitant of the North-American seas, since the last decennium of past century is spreading on the European coast. In Europe it was found first in England at Cricksea on the river Crouch, in July 1890 2), and on

  15. Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.

    2004-12-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea.

  16. Upwelling along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, C.S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    but with the following differences: (1) Off Madras and Karaikal, weak upwelling is indicated. Water from shallow depths reach the surface nearshore and there is no marked lowering of the surface temperature near the coast. (2) Upwelling is prominent off Waltair during...

  17. Submarine canyons off the Coromandel coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    During the 26th Cruise of I.N.S. `KISTNA', a bathymetric survey was carried out in some detail off the Pondicherry coast. This survey has revealed the existence of three sets of distinctly separate canyons between Cuddalore and Palar River...

  18. Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael

    2012-04-13

    The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.

  19. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-10-01

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  20. prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clay, electrical and hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and acidity ... significantly correlated with clay and pH (H2O), while SPI and CTI correlated significantly with clay, pH, organic carbon and ... Key words: coastal plain sands, DEM, soil characteristics, modelling.

  1. Removal of nanoparticles from plain and patterned surfaces using nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.; Duisterwinkel, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to quantitatively characterize the capability of surface nanobubbles for surface cleaning, i.e., removal of nanodimensioned polystyrene particles from the surface. We adopt two types of substrates: plain and nanopatterned (trench/ridge) silicon wafer. The method used to

  2. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  3. Aerodynamic force coefficients of plain bridge cables in wet conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoni, Giulia; Georgakis, Christos T.

    In this paper, the aerodynamic forces and force coefficients from preliminary static wind tunnel tests on a plain cable in wet conditions are presented. The presented results are for several different relative cable wind-angles. A comparison is made with tests in dry conditions. In dry conditions...

  4. Diagnostic value of plain abdominal radiographs in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The plain film of the abdomen (PAX) is still utilised in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Aap). Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PAX in the diagnosis of Aap in children, since it continues to be a controversial subject. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gazi ...

  5. Visualizing Gender Variability in Plains Indian Pictographic Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Max

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the few published references to gender variation among Plains Indians in order to contribute to a growing corpus of literature concerned with building a more complete picture of the social and cultural lives of individuals accustomed to these practices. In recent years these people have been known among Native Americans under…

  6. Traditional Plains Indian Art and the Contemporary Indian Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakes, Fraser

    1987-01-01

    Examines underlying concepts in traditional Plains Indian arts and encourages incorporation of traditional concepts into contemporary art education. Discusses spiritual foundations, holism, art for art's sake, portability, body art, conservation, tribal identity, aesthetic features, age/sex differentiation in art production, white society's…

  7. Inclusivity, Gestalt principles, and plain language in document design.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Blog post introducing Turner & Schomberg's (2016) paper on inclusive practices in document design, using Gestalt components to illustrate the process of writing and designing material, in order to foster online discussion in the Information Literacy Journal Club. Turner, J. and Schomberg, J. (2016) ‘Inclusivity, Gestalt principles, and plain language in document design’, In the Library with the Lead Pipe.

  8. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius STANCIU; Costel NISTOR; Loredana DUMITRASCU; Nicoleta STANCIUC; Isabelle METAXA

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  9. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  10. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...

  11. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  12. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The proposed model is able to capture size effect appropriately which is an important aspect in fracture mechanics study of concrete structures. Further, in another study by the same authors, Ray & Chandra Kishen (2010), they have employed the population growth model to study the fatigue crack propagation in plain ...

  13. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  14. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; Kalb, Juan; Hemmingsson, Peter; Pinheiro, Miguel; Davenport, James; Guidi, Pier Luigi; Simoes da Silva, Ana Paula; Martinho, Goncalo; Spennacchio, Pietro; Postnov, Yury; Dreiangel, Niv; Junior, Nelson Gomes; Frangez, Igor; Bissell, Iain; Khan, Yasir; Toom, Alar; Bergen, Christiaan van; Liszka, Henryk; Moreno, Nestor; Patczai, Balázs; van den Bogaert, Max; Marquis, Christopher; Hussein, Amro Kamal; Andersen, Mette; Botezatu, Lozefina; Santos, Francisco Flores; Nery, Caio; Becirbegovc, Semin; Stoffel, Cristhopher Lucca; Ferrao, Paulo; Rakovac, Ivan; Darabos, Nikica; Sicchiero, Paolo; Tengiz, Kostava; Keiserman, Luciano; Yeap, Ewe Juan; Rocha de Souza, Andrè Luiz; Abdulsalam, Samir; Ramos, Acacio; Martinelli, Nicolú; Verfaillie, Stefaan; Silva, Carmen; Stufkens, Sjoerd; Chouliaras, Vasileios; da Costa, Daniel; Freihaut, Richard; Bulstra, Gythe; Burg, Alon; Rudge, Ben; Abdelwahab, Ali; Sirio, Adrian; Watson, Troy; Gaspar, Ana Rita; Sharp, Ian; Hossain, Munier; van Deurzen, Derek; van den Bekerom, Michel; Wiegerinck, Jan-Joost; van Eekeren, Inge; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  15. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  16. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  17. Wind measurement on the Linth plain; Windmessung in der Linthebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langraf, B.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of wind measurements made on the Linth plain, a flat alluvial plain in eastern Switzerland located between mountain ranges. The data, which were collected using temporary measurement masts at two locations are presented in the form of tables, diagrams and maps showing the wind-energy potential of various areas of the plain. The actual measurements are compared with prognoses from a geo-information system. The wind measurement equipment and installations are described, as are the software models for the calculation of wind direction, wind intensity and of a prognosis for energy production. Particular attention was also paid to the question of wind turbulence. Further factors investigated included the possibility of icing-up in winter and the choice of a meteorological station in the neighbourhood with similar characteristics that could be used as a reference station. The report also presents the results of the evaluation of various possible locations for wind turbines on the Linth plain. Visual, noise and shadow-casing factors are considered.

  18. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  19. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  20. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun

    1994-01-01

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts

  1. Destruction of the arid plains by tubing in Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Chichagov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The expedition researches results of natural state after functioning of the water and oil extraction tubes on the territory of Kalmykia republic. It’s shown that any linear destroyment of the North-West Caspian plain makes complex activity of exogenic processes, main of which are: erosion, suffusion and deflation.

  2. Computations Of Critical Depth In Rivers With Flood Plains | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical flows may occur at more than one depth in rivers with flood plains. The possibility of multiple critical depths affects the water-surface profile calculations. Presently available algorithms determine only one of the critical depths which may lead to large errors. It is the purpose of this paper to present an analytical ...

  3. Vertisols in the Central Clay Plain of the Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Clay Plain is situated between latitudes 16° and 10° North and longitudes 32° and 37° East, in the Republic of the Sudan. The parent materials of the clay soils which cover almost this entire area belong to two broad groups: alluvial, deltaic and paludal sediments from rivers belonging

  4. A Plain English Map of the Human Glycolysis Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the gene coding for the glycolysis enzymes in humans to be used as a teaching tool. The map can be used to illustrate that every reaction in a cell requires an enzyme, and that every enzyme is a protein coded for by a gene somewhere on the chromosomes. (WRM)

  5. Plain strain problem of poroelasticity using eigenvalue approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A plain strain problem of an isotropic elastic liquid-saturated porous medium in poroelasticity has been studied. The eigenvalue approach using the Laplace and Fourier transforms has been employed and these transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique. An application of infinite space with ...

  6. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1976-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the coastal Plain of Virginia. The inventory was started in February 1975 and completed in November 1975. Three previous inventories, completed in 1940, 1956, and 1966, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this report, the primary...

  7. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Field work began in October 1990 and was completed in March 1991. Five previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, 1976, and 1985, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 51 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the...

  8. Forest statistics for the Coastal Plain of Virginia, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Gerald C. Craver

    1985-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Fieldwork began in September 1984 and was completed in February 1985. Four previous surveys, completed in 1940, 1956, 1966, and 1976, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 45 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on the changes...

  9. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Skull and other bone contents were mostly (about 90%) of Gerbilliscus robusta, suggesting this rodent to still be an important food item of the barn owl in the ... Their biology and ecology on the plains have received but few studies (Senzota 1990, Reed 2011). Gerbils are ground dwelling rodents that have also been tamed ...

  10. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data...

  11. Recent marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Recent marine archaeological explorations have brought to light data on the existence of ancient ports at Miyani and Kindari Creek (Mul Dwarka) on the Saurashtra coast. A large number and varieties of stone anchors have been documented at both sites...

  12. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery Management Council's website at http://www...--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The authority citation for part 660 is amended to read as follows...

  13. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  14. California coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  15. Washington coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  16. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  17. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program, as required by the... affect all trawl rationalization program sectors (Shorebased Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program...

  18. 78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule Extension AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations. This emergency rule... trawl rationalization program. Background on this rule was provided in the proposed rule, published on...

  19. Subtidal benthic macrofauna of the Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    Subtidal macrobenthic fauna from the Mangalore Coast was studied from the shelf areas between the old Mangalore Port and Suratkal, covering an area of approximately 40 km sup(2). Benthic bivalves were the most abundant group, (36160/m sup(2...

  20. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  1. Review of the NURE assessment of the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Historic exploration and development were used to evaluate the reliability of domestic uranium reserves and potential resources estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy national uranium resource evaluation (NURE) program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Uranium Province. NURE estimated 87 million pounds of reserves in the $30/lb U3O8 cost category in the Coast Plain uranium resource region, most in the Gulf Coast Uranium Province. Since NURE, 40 million pounds of reserves have been mined, and 38 million pounds are estimated to remain in place as of 2012, accounting for all but 9 million pounds of U3O8 in the reserve or production categories in the NURE estimate. Considering the complexities and uncertainties of the analysis, this study indicates that the NURE reserve estimates for the province were accurate. An unconditional potential resource of 1.4 billion pounds of U3O8, 600 million pounds of U3O8 in the forward cost category of $30/lb U3O8 (1980 prices), was estimated in 106 favorable areas by the NURE program in the province. Removing potential resources from the non-productive Houston embayment, and those reserves estimated below historic and current mining depths reduces the unconditional potential resource 33% to about 930 million pounds of U3O8, and that in the $30/lb cost category 34% to 399 million pounds of U3O8. Based on production records and reserve estimates tabulated for the region, most of the production since 1980 is likely from the reserves identified by NURE. The potential resource predicted by NURE has not been developed, likely due to a variety of factors related to the low uranium prices that have prevailed since 1980.

  2. Transport and diffusion climatology of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    This study is part of a larger study of coastal meteorology and diffusion and was planned to assist in site selection of energy facilities by describing the transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts in as much detail as can be extracted from readily available meteorological data. The area covered in this study is the United States east and Gulf coasts from Maine to Texas. The region studied is all within the coastal plain and is generally characterized by flat beaches and very gentle slopes inland except in New England, where the coast is more rugged and the terrain hilly close to the sea. Meteorological variables of primary concern in this study are those which govern or influence transport and diffusion of airborne gases and particles. The most important are wind direction and speed and some measure of diffusive capacity such as turbulence, gustiness or lapse rate. Eight stations were chosen to give four pairs for comparison between a coastal station and another somewhat farther inland. The pairs are Boston and Bedford, Massachusetts; Belmar and Lakehurst, New Jersey; Cape Kennedy and Orlando, Florida; and Galveston and Houston, Texas. The same years of data were obtained for both stations in each pair. Results of selected examples are presented. The frequency of calms and of winds in the three sectors relative to the coastline is reported for the 25 coastal stations from Portland, Maine (PWM) to Brownsville, Texas (BRO). Differences between day and night in wind direction distribution are shown for six selected stations. The frequency of the five diffusion rating classes at the same coastal stations during onshore winds is also shown. Differences in dffusion conditions between day and night at six selected stations are given. The results obtained were arranged for easy use with diffusion models in which the primary meteorological inputs are wind speed and measures of lateral and vertical diffusion

  3. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Wildlife Service Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS... Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft [[Page 17654

  4. Occurrence of Porphyra vietnamensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Agadi, V.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The occurrence of a red alga, Porphyra vietnamensis has been studied along the Goa Coast (west coast of India). The growth period was observed during the monsoon (July-October) and optimum growth was recorded during August, when temperature...

  5. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    subcommittee of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Vice Admiral John P. Currier, the Vice Commandant of the Coast Guard, testified...55 Calvin Biesecker, “Coast Guard Requests Information On Heavy Polar Icebreaker,” Defense...

  6. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian, T.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  7. Oblique Aerial Photography of the Arctic Coast of Alaska, Nulavik to Demarcation Point, August 7-10, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities and encompasses unique habitats of global significance. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic and widespread; recent evidence suggests that erosion rates are among the highest in the world (up to ~16 m/yr) and may be accelerating. Coastal erosion adversely impacts energy-related infrastructure, natural shoreline habitats, and Native American communities. Climate change is thought to be a key component of recent environmental changes in the Arctic. Reduced sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is one of the probable mechanisms responsible for increasing coastal exposure to wave attack and the resulting increase in erosion. Extended periods of permafrost melting and associated decrease in bluff cohesion and stability are another possible source of the increase in erosion. Several studies of selected areas on the Alaska coast document past shoreline positions and coastal change, but none have examined the entire North coast systematically. Results from these studies indicate high rates of coastal retreat that vary spatially along the coast. To address the need for a comprehensive and regionally consistent evaluation of shoreline change along the North coast of Alaska, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of their Coastal and Marine Geology Program's (CMGP) National Assessment of Shoreline Change Study, is evaluating shoreline change from Peard Bay to the United States/Canadian border, using historical maps and photography and a standardized methodology that is consistent with other shoreline-change studies along the Nation's coastlines (for example, URL http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/shoreline-change/ (last accessed March 2, 2009). This report contains photographs collected during an aerial-reconnaissance survey conducted in support of this study. An accompanying ESRI ArcGIS shape file (and plain-text copy

  8. Moessbauer studies of one representative hydromorphic soil of the coastal area of the Rio de La Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guichon, B. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C., E-mail: mercader@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, IFLP-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    In the present work, we have applied Moessbauer spectroscopy as well as the traditional chemical analyses to assess the contents of different states of Fe in oxides and hydroxides in an Entisol soil from the Argentine coastal plain of the Rio de La Plata. Tentative assignments for the different Fe ion sites are proposed. Our findings show that the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are sensitive to the changes detected in the Fe{sup 2+} contents of the soluble phase while others remain constant within the experimental uncertainties.

  9. Moessbauer studies of one representative hydromorphic soil of the coastal area of the Rio de La Plata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, B. A.; Desimoni, J.; Mercader, R. C.; Imbellone, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we have applied Moessbauer spectroscopy as well as the traditional chemical analyses to assess the contents of different states of Fe in oxides and hydroxides in an Entisol soil from the Argentine coastal plain of the Rio de La Plata. Tentative assignments for the different Fe ion sites are proposed. Our findings show that the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are sensitive to the changes detected in the Fe 2+ contents of the soluble phase while others remain constant within the experimental uncertainties.

  10. 41 CFR 102-2.140 - What elements of plain language appear in the FMR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements of plain language appear in the FMR? 102-2.140 Section 102-2.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... MANAGEMENT REGULATION SYSTEM Plain Language Regulatory Style § 102-2.140 What elements of plain language...

  11. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR...

  12. 44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assure that its comprehensive plan is consistent with the flood plain management objectives of this part. (h) The community shall adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations based on data provided..., the community shall not adopt and enforce flood plain management regulations based upon modified data...

  13. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  14. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  15. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Radiological Dept., Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Kallio, P.; Puntila, J. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Vehmas, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-09-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  16. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  17. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodio, C.; Antico, E.; Montesi, A.; Zaccarelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  18. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan; Chung, Chen-Tung; Huang, Ming-Zi; Kuo, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northern side and the Central Range in the southern side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from igneous intrusion associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use reflection seismic survey to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially in SanShin, Wujie, and Lize area. We aim to find the relationship between underground structures and geothermal forming mechanism. The research uses reflection seismic survey to investigate the high geothermal gradient area with two mini-vibrators and 240-channel system. The total length of seismic lines is more than 30 kilometers. The results show that alluvial sediments covering the area about 400 600 meters thick and then thin out to the west in SanShin area. In SanShin , the Taiyaqiao anticline in Hsuehshan Range has entered the plain area and is bounded by the Zhuoshui fault (south) and the Zailian fault (north). In Wujie and Lize , Zhuoshui fault cut through a strong reflector which is the top of the gravel layer near the bottom of the alluvial layer, while the SanShin fault seems to cut near very shallow strata. These two faults are a strike-slip fault with a bit of normal fault component distributing over a range of 600 meters. In Ilan Plain, the geothermal forming mechanism is controlled by anticlines and faults. The hydrothermal solution which migrates upward along these anticline or fault zones to the shallow part causing high geothermal gradients in these areas.

  19. Acute paediatric ankle trauma: MRI versus plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohman, M.; Kivisaari, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Vehmas, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis of acute physeal ankle fractures on plain radiographs using MRI as the gold standard. Methods: Sixty consecutive children, 29 with a clinical diagnosis of lateral ligament injury and 31 with physeal ankle fractures, were examined using both radiographs and MRI in the acute period. The imaging data were reviewed by three ''masked'' radiologists. The fracture diagnosis and Slater-Harris classification of radiographs were compared with findings on MRI. Results: Plain radiography produced five of 28 (18%) false negative and 12 of 92 (13%) false positive fracture diagnoses compared with MRI. Six of the 12 false positive fractures were due to a misclassification of lateral ligament disruption as SH1 fractures. Altogether a difference was found in 21% of cases in either the diagnosis or the classification of the fractures according to Salter- Harris. All bone bruises in the distal tibia and fibula and 64% of bone bruises in the talus were seen in association with lateral ligament injuries. Talar bone bruises in association with fractures occurred on the same side as the malleolar fracture; talar bone bruises in association with lateral ligament disruption were seen in different locations. The errors identified on radiographs by MRI did not affect the management of the injury. Conclusions: The incidence of false negative ankle fractures in plain radiographs was small and no complex ankle fractures were missed on radiographs. The total extent of complex fractures was, however, not always obvious on radiographs. In an unselected series of relatively mild ankle injuries, we were unable to show a single case where the treatment or prognosis based on plain radiography should have been significantly altered after having done a routine MRI examination. Plain radiography is still the diagnostic cornerstone of paediatric ankle injuries. (orig.)

  20. Coast Guard Strategic Management: Law Enforcement in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Di NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL. Monterey, California In 0 SRDDTIC S ELECTE MARO 11991 THESIS B . . COAST GUARD STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT : LAW ENFORCEMENT IN...NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO. 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) COAST GUARD STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT : LAW...GROUP SUB-GROUP 8oas Guar strategy; Coast Guara Strategc Management; Coast Guard Strategic Management -- Law Enforcement 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  1. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol... impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and specimens is shown in Figure 50.10-25(b...

  2. 47 CFR 80.72 - Antenna requirements for coast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for coast stations. 80.72 Section 80.72 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.72 Antenna requirements for coast stations. All emissions of a coast station a marine-utility...

  3. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... revenues of Rio Tinto's predecessor companies have come from their mining and natural resource processing... growth. c. Activities of Officers and Directors. Rio Tinto states that its executive directors and... Rio Tinto's taxation policies and meeting with investors. Apart from the Chief Financial Officer, the...

  4. Influence of sea ice on Arctic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Kay, J. E.; Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a focal point for population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A key difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Changes in sea ice cover can influence the coast because (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can interact with open ocean water, which in turn governs nearshore water level and wave field. We first focus on the interaction of sea ice and ice-rich coasts. We combine satellite records of sea ice with a model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic: the median length of the open-water season has expanded by 90 percent, while coastal erosion rates have more than doubled from 8.7 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, NW winds increase shoreline water levels that control the incision of a submarine notch, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. The maximum water-level setup at Drew Point has increased consistently with increasing fetch. We extend our analysis to the entire Arctic using both satellite-based observations and global coupled climate model output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project. This 30-member ensemble employs a 1-degree version of the CESM-CAM5 historical forcing for the period 1920-2005, and RCP 8.5 forcing from 2005-2100. A control model run with constant pre-industrial (1850) forcing characterizes internal variability in a constant climate. Finally, we compare observations and model results to

  5. Status of heavy mineral investigation off Konkan coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nambiar, A.R.; Sukumaran, P.V.; Zaheer, B.; Venkataramana, P.; Kannan, S.T.; Pai, P.R.; Rahothaman, V.K.; Gujar, S.; Srinivas, K.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name GSI_News_Lett_(Mar_Wing)_8_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info GSI_News_Lett_(Mar_Wing)_8_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Earth_Sci_19_189.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Earth_Sci_19_189.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Deep water wave characteristics off Karwar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Pednekar, P.S

    stream_size 43 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name NIO_TR-4_1993_38pp.pdf.txt stream_source_info NIO_TR-4_1993_38pp.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached

  9. Zooplankton studies in the south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Narayanan, B.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_264.pdf.txt stream_source_info 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_264.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Marine archaeological surveys off Tranquebar Tamilnadu coast - preliminary results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, K.M.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Recent_Adv_Mar_Archaeol_1991_127.pdf.txt stream_source_info Recent_Adv_Mar_Archaeol_1991_127.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Benthic faunal composition along Princess Astrid Coast, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name DOD_Tech_Publ_1995_8_181.pdf.txt stream_source_info DOD_Tech_Publ_1995_8_181.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Rio Blanco massive hydraulic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    The Piceance Basin in Colorado contains an estimated 600 trillion cu ft of natural gas in place. Both the Rulison and Rio Blanco events have been detonated to determine the feasibility of nuclear fracturing to stimulate natural gas production in this basin. A demonstration program to test the relative effectiveness of massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) to achieve natural gas production stimulation from the same gas reservoir is presented. Details are included on MHF design parameters, including surface and subsurface equipment, pumping requirements, evaluation of fracturing results, and all associated test programs; site characteristics and preparation; proposal for gas utilization program; environmental surveillance and comparative analysis of environmental aspects of MHF and nuclear stimulation; gas delivery estimates; project administration; and costs and scheduling.

  13. relatório final

    OpenAIRE

    Damas, Ana Luisa Isidoro

    2012-01-01

    Este relatório visa apresentar o percurso prático ao longo do Mestrado em educação Pré-Escolar e Ensino do 1º ciclo do Ensino Básico (CEB). Aqui são relatadas as experiências no estágio de educação pré-escolar numa instituição particular de solidariedade social (IPSS) com um grupo de 5 anos, bem como no estágio levado a cabo no 1º ciclo do ensino básico com uma turma do 2º ano de escolaridade. Estas experiências divergem não só pelas idades das cienaças, mas também pelas educadora/professora ...

  14. Sumário / Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elias Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CONSELHO EDITORIAL DA REVISTA DE LETRAS Abuêndia Padilha Pinto Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPEabuendia@elogica.com.br Benjamin Abdala Jr. Universidade de São Paulo (USP benjaminjr@terra.com.br Eduardo Kenedy Universidade Federal Fliminense (UFF edu.kenedy@gmail.com Edwiges Maria Morato Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP edwigesmorato@hotmail.com Eneida Leal Cunha Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA eneidalealcunha@uol.com.br leal@ufba.br Ermelinda Ferreira Araújo Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE ermelindaferreir@uol.com.br Germana Araújo Sales Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA gmaa.sales@gmail.com Leci Borges Barbisan Pontifícia Univ. Católica do R.G. do Sul (PUC/RS barbisan@pucrs.br Letícia Maria Sicuro Corrêa Pontifícia Univ. Católica do R.G. do Sul (PUC/RS lscorrea@puc-rio.br João Azenha Júnior Universidade de São Paulo (USP azenha@usp.br José Luiz Fiorin Universidade de São Paulo (USP jolufi@uol.com.br Leonor Scliar-Cabral Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC lsc@th.com.br Marcia Arbex Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG marphi@larnet.com.br Marcus Maia Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ maiamarcus@gmail.com Maria Armanda Martins da Costa Universidade de Lisboa (UL armandacosta@letras.ulisboa.pt Maria das Graças Soares Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN gracasrodrigues@gmail.com Maria do Socorro Silva de Aragão Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC acaragao@terra.com.br Maria Esther Maciel Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG memaciel@yahoo.com.br Maria Eduarda Giering Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS eduardajg@gmail.com Maria Helena Mira Mateus Universidade de Lisboa (UL mhm@.ip.pt Maria Helena Moura Neves Universidade Est. Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/Araraquaramhmneves@uol.com.br Marilia Ferreira Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA mariliaferreira1@gmail.com Marli Fantini Scarpelli Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG

  15. Rio sambas to research drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatern, R. von

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps the most published graphic in the oil industry is one that traces the price of oil through time. It is used as an overlay to correlate everything from the history of rig activity levels to predicting coming oil shortages and gluts. In Rio de Janeiro this month during the 17th World Petroleum Congress, Dr Don Paul of ChevronTexaco and Saudi Aramco's Abdulaziz Al-Kaabi used it to illustrate the role research and technology development must play within the oil industry. The author discusses the way the oil industry is spending money on research and development, he explains that in the past 20 years the biggest innovation in the industry has been 3D seismic. The critical strategy for oil business was the adaptation of 3D seismic from another industry which was then moulded for its own needs. The article goes on to describe the importance of the development of a portfolio of research and development

  16. Artificial urethral sphincters: Value of plain film radiography in evaluation of prosthesis malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.C.; Hansen, M.E.; Webster, G.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    Case records were reviewed to determine the diagnostic efficacy of plain radiographs in the evaluation of inflatable artificial urethral sphincters. Of 84 patients with prostheses, 21 (25%) developed complications. Fluid leaks were found in 16 patients who presented with recurrent incontinence; plain radiographs demonstrated an interval decrease in balloon reservoir diameter. Kinked tubing, which was evident on plain films, caused acute urinary retention in three patients. However, plain radiographs failed to detect evidence of prosthesis erosion into the urethra in either of two patients with this complication. Although urethroscopy is needed to detect urethral erosion, plain radiographs are inexpensive and reliable in the initial evaluation of artifical sphincter malfunction

  17. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  18. Coasting beam theory applied to bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereward, H.

    1975-01-01

    It is plausible to apply coasting beam criteria to bunches if one has short wavelength disturbances of the bunch and short memory wake fields, where short means short compared with a bunch length, for then one can argue that a piece of the bunch near the middle does not even know that the bunch has ends. Some other conditions probably required to validate this approach are discussed. The local Keil-Schnell criterion is derived from the local dispersion integral

  19. Coast Guard AHLTA Technology Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-27

    TISCOM-approved Citrix client software product found standard on the Workstation III. A local system management console is used to perform system...Coast Guard is dedicated to the Citrix solution, and new thin terminals have been installed in all clinics offices and are being installed in all clinic...Network will be made available by TISCOM for Citrix AHLTA placement and be robust enough to transmit AHLTA. 4. TISCOM will require the DOD network

  20. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  2. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. CINAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.

  3. Coast-down time measuring system based on photoelectric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-min; Wang, Da-yong; Qi, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Coast-down time measuring system can measure the time when speed values of Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing change from initial velocity to end velocity under different load in a given speed range. This coast-down time will represent characters of Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing such as Dynamometer inertia weight, constant load coast-down time, variable load coast-down time, Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing can be calibrated by comparing these coast-down time with theoretical values. Working principle of coast-down time measuring system is a photoelectric sampler of coast-down time measuring system collects speed values information of Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing. Then, determine speed values through calculation. When the velocity is equal to initial velocity Vb value, measuring system starts a timer. When speed reaches end velocity Ve value, measuring system stops the timer. So time interval is coast-down time from Vb to Ve. It is obvious that accuracy of coast-down time measurement lies on whether start and end velocity can be judged accurately and determined quickly, whether accuracy of timing can be admitted, and lies on how long these can be done. Coast-down time measuring system with photoelectric sampler proposed in this paper involves all the above factors, as well as improves measurement accuracy of coast-down time.

  4. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dapeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances, fabric structure phases (SPs. By comparing theoretical and experimental results from the PTFE/Kevlar fabric wear experiment, it can be concluded that the model can present a trend of the component area ratio variations along with the thickness of fabric, but has a inherently large error in quantitative analysis as an idealized model.

  5. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...... under human rights law. Surprisingly, the legal challenges arising from their potential use in modern military operations have so far received only limited scholarly attention. This article tries to fill that gap and endeavours to contribute to the broader debate on the interplay between human rights...... and humanitarian law in (international) military operations. Drawing on the relevant preparatory works as well as subsequent practice and recent jurisprudence, this article shows that the humanitarian law rules on the use of riot control agents, expanding bullets and plain-clothed personnel provide...

  6. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  7. The measurement of plain weft-knitted fabric stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Ayhan Haji; Cassidy, Thomas; Brydon, Alan; Halley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument and a test method are presented in this paper that can evaluate the stiffness of plain weft-knitted fabrics. The WIRA Instrumentation Tester can measure torsion data for various flexible fibre assemblies whilst they are being twisted. The torsional properties of two types of fabrics, namely nonwoven and knitted fabrics, were analyzed. Then, comparisons between bending rigidity and torsional rigidity have been conducted using FAST-2, Shirley, Heart Loop and the new WIRA method for the assessment of fabric stiffness. The results show high correlation between bending rigidity and torsional rigidity in assessment of nonwoven fabric stiffness; they also reveal that the WIRA tester and torsional rigidity are more suitable for characterizing the stiffness of plain weft-knitted fabrics than the other test methods. (paper)

  8. Blog literário: alguns comentários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Aquino Corrêa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p420 Se o conceito de literatura é marcado por discussões e reformulações ao longo da história, parece-nos importante partir da ideia que “as escritas de si” presentes na pós-modernidade apontam para a revisão de algumas noções a respeito do ficcional e da literariedade presentes em textos que são veiculados na internet, especificamente o blog. A escrita de autoria feminina, tradicional espaço de expressão subjetiva recolhida muitas vezes apenas em diários íntimos, encontrou na internet um meio para fazer ecoar vozes antes silenciadas devido à condição da mulher na sociedade e, portanto, também terá destaque dentre os assuntos aqui discutidos, ao lado de reflexões sobre a canonicidade de textos e da configuração do blog como espaço de autorreferencialidade e de publicidade da escrita literária.

  9. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality, especially in terms of nitrate, sulfate, chloride sodium, spatial and temporal variations and the origin of them in the groundwater of Borazjan plain, are studied. Groundwater samples from 12 wells were collected in April and August 2012 and assessed to determine the parameters of hydrochemistry and pollution. Results: Based on these results, severe nitrate contamination of groundwater, especially in the southern part of the plain, by agricultural activities, cesspool wells, domestic sewage and livestock and poultry wastewater the influence of the effluent from the aviculture, were occurred. Also, the quality of groundwater resources showed that concentration of Cl- , Na+, SO42- , and NO3- are more than standard limit and only in some areas of plain, concentration of ions such as NO3- and Na+ is less than the standard limit. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using chemical fertilizers in terms of time period and amount of consumption should be properly managed. Furthermore, domestic wastewater, livestock and poultry wastewater should be controlled and the monitoring system for measuring the exact quantity and quality of groundwater resources must be completed.

  10. Herbage productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana | Fleischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana was measured between January 1990 and February 1992. Ten sampling sites were chosen for the study. An area of 5.0 m W 5.0 m was demarcated and within it an area of 1.0 m W 1.0 m was harvested at monthly intervals, clipped by means of sickle at 5 cm above ...

  11. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  12. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levelized cost of energy (LCOE from wave energy converters (WECs needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power take-off (PTO system consisting of a discrete displacement cylinder (DDC, which will allow different hydraulic cycles to operate at constant pressure levels. This setup increases the conversion efficiency, as well as decouples the electricity production from the pressure variations within the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings. The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing.

  13. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  14. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  15. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  16. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Jish Prakash, P.; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m-2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the mineralogical and chemical results alone. These aerosol data are the first of their kind from the Red Sea region. They will help assess their potential nutrient input into the Red Sea, as well the impact on human health

  17. Orthorad - the online reference database of skeletal plain film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkmann, F.M.; Heberlein, C.; Greess, H.; Ketelsen, D.; Klose, K.J.; Grunewald, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: it is evident that there is a growing need for internet-based reference databases for reasons of practicability and due to the increasing use of reporting on digital workstations. The main advantages of online databases are expected with respect to plain film radiography and cross-sectional imaging. A reference database of skeletal plain film radiography was to be created using the Orthorad program. Materials and methods: the most important standard settings and special images of young and healthy adults in plain film radiography were collected over one year. All samples were approved for the Orthorad database by a board qualified radiologist. Based on the workflows of radiographers and radiologists, the records were organized by body part (http://www.idr.med.uni-erlangen.de/orthorad/orthorad.htm). This logical data structure will ensure that the tool serves as a source of information in two ways: On the one hand, the radiographer can access information on positioning, tube voltage and cassette format. On the other hand, the radiologist receives important knowledge regarding X-ray anatomy, reference data regarding the human skeleton, and information about the correct reporting for an image. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of Holocene pollen records from the Romanian Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu

    2000-05-01

    This study is a critical review of pollen analyses carried out on Holocene sequences from 15 sites in and near the Romanian Plain. Three sites come from natural sediments, 10 sites are from anthropogenic deposits and two are from both anthropogenic and natural settings. The general reconstruction is of a steppe-forest-steppe vegetation through the Holocene. The nature of the deposits, however, casts doubts on this reconstruction. Deposits of archaeological sites generally yield pollen spectra that are influenced by human activities and thus unsuitable for vegetation reconstructions. Loess deposits are also unfavorable for pollen preservation because of high pH and porosity. Consequently, pollen spectra from loess deposits are strongly biased by selective pollen destruction. Research and experiments carried out by several authors suggest that spectra dominated by Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae or Pinus pollen in soils and loess are a result of selective pollen destruction, especially if low pollen concentrations, progressive pollen deterioration or high frequencies of deteriorated or unidentifiable pollen are evidenced. The fact that pollen records from the Romanian Plain come from loess, alkaline peat or archaeological sites reduces their reliability for reconstructions of vegetation. The vegetation history of similar regions in Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey suggests that early Holocene steppe vegetation was gradually replaced by forest or forest-steppe vegetation in the late Holocene. Records from lake sediments are required to find out whether the Holocene vegetation history of the Romanian Plain was similar.

  19. Diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis by plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of plain radiography in the diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis was studied in 116 patients using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. The most significant signs found in central spinal stenosis were short pedicles, high narrow intervertebral foramina, small interlaminar windows and deep posterior concavity of the vertebral bodies. The sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of central spinal stenosis as compared to CT was 66%, the specificity was 93% and the accuracy was 86%. The midsagittal and interpedicular diameters were measured from plain radiograms and were compared with corresponding CT diameters. In approximately half of the cases, the sagittal diameters were compatible. The maximum error was 6 mm. On average, the interpedicular distances were measured as too wide. The reliability of CT measurements were established by taking the measurements from the vertebral column of a moose calf, and then comparing these to the real measurements obtained with a calibrated ruler. The maximal differences were 2 mm. (author). 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje; Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers (κ values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: κ 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  1. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vesali Naseh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP. Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  2. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-01

    Although Iran’s Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region’s potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain. PMID:29361791

  3. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers ({kappa} values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: {kappa} 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  4. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan

    1994-01-01

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy

  5. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy.

  6. Groundwater Pollution Sources Apportionment in the Ghaen Plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesali Naseh, Mohammad Reza; Noori, Roohollah; Berndtsson, Ronny; Adamowski, Jan; Sadatipour, Elaheh

    2018-01-22

    Although Iran's Ghaen Plain provides saffron to much of the world, no regional groundwater quality (GQ) assessment has yet been undertaken. Given the region's potential for saltwater intrusion and heavy metal contamination, it is important to assess the GQ and determine its main probable source of pollution (MPSP). Such knowledge would allow for informed mitigation or elimination of the potential adverse health effects of this groundwater through its use as drinking water, or indirectly as a result of the consumption of groundwater-irrigated crops. Total dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the water of the majority of 16 wells sampled within the region exceeded World Health Organization and Iranian permissible standards for drinking water. The groundwater proved to only be suitable for irrigating salt tolerant crops under good drainage conditions. Due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the water supply facilities, the water from all wells was deemed unsuitable for industrial purposes. Heavy metal pollution and contamination indices showed no groundwater contamination. Analysis of ionic ratios and the application of principal components analysis indicated the MPSP to be saltwater intrusion, with the geology subtending the plain, and to a lesser extent, anthropogenic activities. Reducing groundwater withdrawals, particularly those for agricultural production by using high performance irrigation methods could reduce saltwater intrusion and improve GQ in the Ghaen Plain.

  7. Geo-enviromental analysis in the recent alluvial plains of the large menderes and the small menderes

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    In the recent alluvial plains of the Large Menderes and the Small Menderes, there were some harbor-cities called Priene, Milet, and Ephesos. Although these harbor-cities prospered during the ancient Greek period and the ancient Roman period, they have become ruins. These harbor-cities are now located far from the present coast, as the coastline has since moved dramatically. How did the coastline move at the historical period, why did it move, and how did the city residents cope with the ch...

  8. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  10. A New Boundary for the High Plains - Ogallala Aquifer Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Nozari, S.; Kendall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In the semi-arid Great Plains, water is the key ingredient for crop growth: the difference between meager yields for many crops and an agricultural bonanza. The High Plains-Ogallala Aquifer complex (HPA) underlies 452,000 square kilometers of the region, and over 95% of water withdrawn from the aquifer is used for irrigation. Much of the HPA is being pumped unsustainably, and since the region is heavily reliant on this resource for its social and economic health, the High Plains has been a leader in groundwater management planning. However, the geographic boundary of the High Plains region fails to reflect the hydrogeological realities of the aquifer. The current boundary, recognizable from countless textbooks and news articles, is only slightly modified from a version from the 1980's, and largely follows the physiographic borders of the High Plains - defined by surface features such as escarpments and rivers - rather than the edges of water-bearing sediment sufficient for high-volume pumping. This is supported by three lines of evidence: hydrogeological observations from the original aquifer boundary determination; the extent of irrigated land, as estimated by MODIS-MIrAD data; and statistical estimates of saturated thickness, incorporating improved maps of the aquifer base and an additional 35 years of water table measurements. In this project, new maps of saturated thickness are used to create an updated aquifer boundary, which conforms with the standard definition of an aquifer as a package of sediment that yields enough water to be economically pumped. This has major implications for social and physical models, as well as water planning and estimates of sustainability for the HPA. Much of the area of the HPA that has been labeled `sustainable' based upon estimates of recharge relative to pumping estimates falls outside the updated aquifer boundary. In reality, the sustainably-pumped area of this updated aquifer boundary is far smaller—a fact that if more

  11. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g −1  lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g −1  lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  12. do rio grande do sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of quantifying the production of wood in the Area of the Fourth Colony of Italian Immigration in Rio Grande do Sul. Firstly, using a questionnaire, a census of the consuming companies of wood in that area was made, investigating mainly the amount, type, origin of the consumed raw material, and the amount, type and end use of wood products. As principal results, it was verified that such area presents 77 consuming companies and wood processing units. These were classified into micro and small companies, with familiar features and capital, and low industrialization. In the visits made to the industries, it was evident that many technological aspects are not known or are neglected, thus causing loss of the raw material and/or in low quality of the final products. A great amount of raw material (96,8% of the boards and 98,9% of the timber comes from other areas of the State or the country. In the same way the main products are sold abroad (wood frames 86,3%, panelings 99,7%, sawed wood 53%.

  13. Anthropogenic disruption to the seismic driving of beach ridge formation: The Sendai coast, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, James; Knight, Jasper; Sugawara, Daisuke; Terry, James P

    2016-02-15

    The expected geomorphic after-effects of the Mw 9.0 Tōhoku-oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 (eastern Japan) are summarized by a schematic model of seismic driving, which details seismogenic disturbances to sediment systems that affect the rate or timing of sediment delivery to coastlines over timescales of 10(2)-10(4)years. The immediate physical environmental responses to this high-magnitude earthquake included a large tsunami and extensive region-wide slope failures. Normally, slope failures within mountain catchments would have significant impacts on Japan's river and coastal geomorphology in the coming decades with, for example, a new beach ridge expected to form within 20-100 years on the Sendai Plain. However, human activity has significantly modified the rate and timing of geomorphic processes of the region, which will have impacts on likely geomorphic responses to seismic driving. For example, the rivers draining into Sendai Bay have been dammed, providing sediment traps that will efficiently capture bedload and much suspended sediment in transit through the river system. Instead of the expected ~1 km of coastal progradation and formation of a ~3m high beach ridge prior to the next large tsunami, it is likely that progradation of the Sendai Plain will continue to slow or even cease as a result of damming of river systems and capture of river sediments behind dams. The resulting reduction of fluvial sediment delivery to the coast due to modification of rivers inadvertently makes seawalls and other engineered coastal structures even more necessary than they would be otherwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, Ken D; Flint, Paul L; Meixell, Brandt W; Gaglioti, Benjamin V

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are <1 m above sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes. (letter)

  15. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientí­cas, que se propõem a torná-los acessí­veis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equí­vocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mí­dia para os

  16. Do Otters Occasionally Visit Israel’s Coastal Plain?

    OpenAIRE

    Kronfeld-Schor N.; Saltz D.; Dolev A.; Guter A.

    2006-01-01

    Signs of otters have been found on three occasions in recent years - in 1986, 2000 and 2006. This probably indicates sporadic transient otters from the Lebanese coast, and may represent an important source of genetic variability for the largely isolated Israeli otter population.

  17. Evaluation of Perna perna (Linné, 1758 as a tool to monitoring trace metals contamination in estuarine and coastal waters of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francioni Eleine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna was collected from several sites along the coast of Rio de Janeiro and analysed for the content of copper, zinc, cadmium and chromium. In spite of the observed concentration variability in organisms pertaining to the same population, statistical evaluation allowed metal level differentiation among regions and sites as well as between males and females. Differences in metal contents did not confirm expectations based on source strength and existing data on water concentration.

  18. Geomorphic evolution of the San Luis Basin and Rio Grande in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, Cal; Machette, Michael; Thompson, Ren A.; Miggins, Dan M; Goehring, Brent M; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The San Luis Basin encompasses the largest structural and hydrologic basin of the Rio Grande rift. On this field trip, we will examine the timing of transition of the San Luis Basin from hydrologically closed, aggrading subbasins to a continuous fluvial system that eroded the basin, formed the Rio Grande gorge, and ultimately, integrated the Rio Grande from Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico. Waning Pleistocene neotectonic activity and onset of major glacial episodes, in particular Marine Isotope Stages 11–2 (~420–14 ka), induced basin fill, spillover, and erosion of the southern San Luis Basin. The combined use of new geologic mapping, fluvial geomorphology, reinterpreted surficial geology of the Taos Plateau, pedogenic relative dating studies, 3He surface exposure dating of basalts, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate supports a sequence of events wherein pluvial Lake Alamosa in the northern San Luis Basin overflowed, and began to drain to the south across the closed Sunshine Valley–Costilla Plain region ≤400 ka. By ~200 ka, erosion had cut through topographic highs at Ute Mountain and the Red River fault zone, and began deep-canyon incision across the southern San Luis Basin. Previous studies indicate that prior to 200 ka, the present Rio Grande terminated into a large bolson complex in the vicinity of El Paso, Texas, and systematic, headward erosional processes had subtly integrated discontinuously connected basins along the eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift and southern Rocky Mountains. We propose that the integration of the entire San Luis Basin into the Rio Grande drainage system (~400–200 ka) was the critical event in the formation of the modern Rio Grande, integrating hinterland basins of the Rio Grande rift from El Paso, Texas, north to the San Luis Basin with the Gulf of Mexico. This event dramatically affected basins southeast of El Paso, Texas, across the Chisos Mountains and southeastern Basin and Range province, including the Rio

  19. Sedimentary paleoenvironments of the Candeleros Formation(Rio Limay Subgroup)upper cretaceous, Ezequiel Ramos Mexia, Neuquen, Argentina daming west, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary facies from the Candeleros Formation (Rio Limay Subgroup), cropping out at the El Escondido creek, at the Ezequiel Ramos Mexia dam, are analyzed and interpreted in this paper. A sedimentological detailed section was measured to get the main goal of this paper which is the sedimentary paleoenvironment. The outcroppings were pictured and a section was measured, geometries and espacial relation between them were analyzed. Eight lithofacies were identified which are: coarse sandstone facies (Se), sandstones (Sm, St, Sp, Sh t Sr), siltstones and shales (Fl and Fr). These lithofacies were agrupated into eight facies associations (FA). AFA constitutes the registration of multiepisodic events of sheet floods; AFB, C and D are product of the depositation in a braided channel belt, AFE represents units of lateral accretion, AFF is assigned deposits of crevasse splay and AFG and H are assigned to plain of flood. The distribution of these associations in the column defines an terminal fan paleoenvironment where is represented of base to top: distal (AFA, B and G) and proximal area (AFD and G) of the distributary plain; zone of feeding of the system (AFC, And, F and G), media-proximal distributary plain (AFD and F), proximal distributary plain (AFC, And, F and G); and flood basin (AFF, G and H) [es

  20. Rio Grande Channel, El Paso Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey.The original map is a Xerox of a Photolithographic Copy of Salazar...

  1. EKA urbanistika osakond / Lilia del Rio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rio, Lilia del

    2006-01-01

    Lilia del Rio magistritöö "Beyond the player's manual / Mänguõpetus edasijõudnutele. Experiencing the world (and the city) as a playground / Kogedes maailma (ja linna) mänguväljakuna". Juhendaja Andres Kurg

  2. Rio Grande Channel, Guadalupe Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.- Mexican Boundary Survey. The original map is a xerox of a map entitled Boundary between the United...

  3. 76 FR 18709 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ..., ex-vessel prices declined to about $119.00 per ton, presumably due to the worldwide recession. For..., September 27, 1993, May 14, 1996, and December 15, 1999, pertaining to the effects of the Pacific Coast... resources that would have the effects of foreclosing the formulation or implementation of any reasonable and...

  4. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.; Kol'nenkov, V.P.; Glaz, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  5. Hiperaldosteronismo Primário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guimarães Camargo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O hiperaldosteronismo primário (HAP é uma síndrome decorrente do aumento da secreção autônoma de aldosterona pela glândula adrenal, independente do controle da renina. O rastreamento do HAP está indicado em indivíduos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS e hipocalemia espontânea ou grave com doses moderadas de diuréticos ou HAS refratária ao tratamento (≥ 3 agentes anti-hipertensivos. No presente relato, paciente masculino apresentava diabete melito (DM de início recente e HAS, emagrecimento, poliúria, polidipsia, e cansaço aos médios esforços. Apresentava hipocalemia grave e investigação laboratorial confirmou a suspeita de HAP, com medida de aldosterona sérica e urinária elevadas com diminuição da atividade da renina plasmática e aumento da razão aldosterona sérica/renina. Tomografia computadorizada de adrenais mostrou adenoma na adrenal esquerda. Após cirurgia, o paciente evoluiu com melhora dos níveis tensionais e normalização do metabolismo da glicose. Embora a prevalência de HAP em pacientes com DM não seja diferente da população de hipertensos não-diabéticos, a sua presença deve ser investigada nos casos de HAS refratária ou quando há hipocalemia. Em pacientes com DM, o metabolismo do cortisol também deve ser investigado para afastar a concomitância de hipercortisolismo decorrente de adenoma misto.

  6. East coast development overview : why now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Progress achieved in developing East coast natural gas markets was discussed. Mobil, Shell, Imperial, Mosbacher and Nova Scotia Resources received the go-ahead for the Sable Offshore Energy Project last December. The owner companies created Sable Offshore Energy Inc. (SOE Inc.) for managing and operating the development. Mobil (which has 50 per cent of the total invested in the Sable offshore project) and their partners will spend an average of one million dollars per day in Nova Scotia over the next 22 months in order to ensure that they will deliver gas from the offshore site by late 1999. That is in addition to the 400 million dollars already spent by the consortium in the province of Nova Scotia. Job creation, of particular significance in the Atlantic provinces, is also expected to be a significant factor in lifting the GDP of Nova Scotia to three per cent in 1998. According to an estimate by the Bank of Nova Scotia, the Sable and pipeline projects alone will create more than 7,500 spin-off jobs. The five major factors which make eastern Canada development possible and economically attractive are: (1) resource potential, (2) technological advancements, (3) alliances, (4) market proximity, and (5) the rapidly expanding global market for natural gas. Each of these factors and how they impact on the East coast natural gas industry were discussed in some detail

  7. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  8. OTEC thermal resource report for Ivory Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, W. A.

    1979-05-01

    The thermal resource off the Ivory Coast is quite good for OTEC purposes. There are consistently large ..delta..T (surface temperature--temperature at depth) values throughout the year. The mean ..delta..T at 1000 meters is approximately 22/sup 0/C. A mean annual ..delta..T of 20/sup 0/C can be reached at a depth of only 600 meters. The thermal resource for the coldest month of the year is also adequate at 600 meters. Water 1000 meters deep is available within 35 kilometers from the shore. The waters south of the Ivory Coast do not have a particularly good mixed layer depth. Strong winds and tropical storms are a rare occurrence. Similarly, the sea and swell conditions do not present a problem for OTEC development in this area. Currents are generally moderate, although occasional periods of weak currents less than 1/4 knot can be expected. The consistently large thermal resource without major environmental problems recommends this location as a potential OTEC site.

  9. East coast gas - the big picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    The North American conventional gas resource base was reviewed and an explanation of how Canada's East coast fits into the overall picture was given. At 1996 year end, the total conventional ultimate natural gas resource base for North America was estimated to be 2,695 trillion cubic feet. The most important supply areas are Canada and the United States. Mexico and Alaska are expected to play only a minor role in the overall North American supply. Approximately half of the conventional gas estimated to exist in North America remains to be discovered. Only 78 per cent from the half that has been discovered has been produced, and only 22 per cent of it is remaining as reserves. Of the undiscovered natural gas resource, 38 per cent is in the frontier regions of Alaska and Canada. The growing importance of the East coast of North America as markets for natural gas was reviewed. The distribution of ultimate conventional marketable gas resources for Canada was described. The potential of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and selected frontier areas were assessed. The report showed an undiscovered conventional marketable gas estimate of 122 trillion cubic feet for the WCSB and 107 trillion cubic feet for the Frontier areas. The two most significant areas of discovery in eastern Canada were considered to be the Hibernia oil field on the Grand Banks and the Venture gas field of the Scotian Shelf. 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  11. High-performance plain bearings for diesel engines. Hochleistungs-Gleitlager fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.M.; Mathias, M.; Herrmann, B. (MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The crankshaft bearings are among the most highly stressed engine components. Conventional plain bearings no longer fulfill the requirements of modern high-performance diesel engines. Introduction of the 'Sputter' technology, as a method of anti friction layer application, opened new perspectives in the field of plain bearing manufacture. In this presentation it is intended to compare various types of plain bearings and to demonstrate operation-oriented bearing testing. (orig.).

  12. Dating fluvial archives of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniela; Cohen, Tim; Reinfelds, Ivars; Jacobs, Zenobia; Shulmeister, James

    2016-04-01

    The Riverine Plain of Southeastern Australia is characterized by a multiplicity of relict river channels. Compared to the modern drainage system the most prominent of those distinct features are defined by large bankfull channel widths, large meander wavelengths and coarse sediment loads. Such morphological differences provide evidence for regimes of higher discharge, stemming from significant changes in runoff volumes, flood-frequency regimes and sediment supply. An existing geochronology for some of these channels is based on multi-grain thermoluminescence (Murrumbidgee River; Page et al., 1996) or radio-carbon dating (Goulburn River; Bowler, 1978) and indicates enhanced fluvial activity between 30 to 13 ka. The absence of exact Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ± 3 ka) ages of the Murrumbidgee palaeochannels was interpreted to indicate decreased fluvial activity during the peak of the LGM but was not inferred for the nearby Goulburn River. Recent developments in optical dating, especially measurements of individual grains of quartz, allow for an examination of these previous findings. Key sites along the Murrumbidgee and Goulburn Rivers have been revisited and new sites of the adjacent Murray River have been investigated. A revised, high-resolution geochronology based on single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating is used to examine the precise occurrence of those massive channels and their implications for the Southern Hemisphere LGM. References: Page, K., Nanson, G., Price, D. (1996). Chronology of Murrumbidgee River palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia. Journal of Quaternary Science 11(4): 311-326. Bowler, J. (1978). Quaternary Climate and Tectonics in the Evolution of the Riverine Plain, Southeastern Australia. In: Davies, J. & Williams, M. (Editors). Landform Evolution in Australia, Australian National University Press: Canberra. p. 70-112.

  13. The Kansas Anthropologist Reminlscence Project for Senior Plains Anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin F. Hawley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations, ask thy father and he will show thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee. Deuteronomy 32: 7. For the past six years, 'The Kansas Anthropologist' has published an ongoing series of reminiscences or retrospective articles by senior Great Plains archaeologists. The aim of the project is to collect reminiscences from senior anthro­pologists regarding their experiences in pre-and post-World War II Plains archaeology, biological anthropology, and ethnology. The historian John Lukacs (1966:x once offered an elegant and concise comment on the value of history, one that I offer here: "I believe that history, as a form of thought, is one of the most precious and perhaps unique rational posssessions of Western civilizations. The character of a person may appear best from the reconstruc­tion of the history of his life; the same is true of the character of nations. The very history of a prob­lem may reveal its essential diagnosis. There is no human endeavor that may not be approached and studied profitably through its history." Fortunately, there hardly needs to be a justification anymore for such a project, as is attested by the recent prolifera­tion of research into the history of archaeology and anthropology on virtually a global scale.The intention of these retrospective articles is not to explore or diagnose any particular problem but rather to create a mosaic of first person narrratives informed by personal experience and illustrated with photos and anecdotes to illuminate the development of Plains anthropology in the 20th Century.

  14. Landscape scale ecology at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Jones, D.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Robert, K.; Gooday, A. J.; Durden, J. M.; Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Stefanoudis, P. V.; Benoist, N. M.; Paterson, G. L.; Wolff, G. A.; Milligan, R. J.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of life on the seafloor is set to some extent by the supply of sinking particulate organic matter from overlying surface water. However, the habitat landscape of the seafloor can also exert important ecological influences at local scales. Community differences on the scales of centimeters upwards can arise from drivers including changes in seafloor sediments, slope, and lateral movement of particulate organic matter. Here we use photographic survey data covering an extent on the order of 100 km2 to examine relationships between megafauna density, biomass, diversity, and community composition, as well as food availability and habitat type across landscape scales. The surveyed area at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain has a maximum water depth of about 4850 m and includes a range of topographic features from slight undulations of the seafloor to exposed bedrock scarps on an abyssal hill rising more than 200 m above the surrounding plain. We first examine community descriptors across the entire area and then sequentially break the analytical units into smaller units including variants based on habitat types and spatial extent. We repeat the examination of seafloor community descriptors with finer and finer analytical unit scales, as well as for different habitat types, and changing levels of phytodetritus coverage. We then examine the scales at which diversity and community composition go from statistically indistinguishable between analytical units to significantly different and which factors best explain these observations. Lastly, we relate the results from this megafauna study to other recent spatial studies at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, from foraminifera to fishes, to build a landscape view of the ecology of the area.

  15. Plain radiographic evaluation of children with obstructive adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolo, E.S.; Ahmed, A.O.; Kazeem, M.J.; Nwaorgu, O.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are several methods of evaluating adenoidal size pre-operatively. Plain nasopharyngeal radiography is a common investigative modality: it has been advocated, and also condemned. Aim: This study was intended to assess nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids using plain X-rays; and also to find correlation if any, with the symptomatology. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out between January and December 2008. The case notes and plain X-rays of the nasopharynx of 34 paediatric patients with clinical features of obstructive adenoids were analyzed. Results: A total of 34 children were studied, 22 (64.7%) were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 10 years: mean age was 3.55 years, standard deviation 2.723. Majority (67.6%) of the children were in the age group 0-4 years. The lowest symptomatology assessment score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest symptomatology scores. The minimum adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio was 0.35 and the maximum was 0.94. There was no significant difference in the mean adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio of males and females (t = 0.407; p = 0.692). Many (75.0%) of the children with moderate to severe nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids were in the age bracket 0-4 years. The lowest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio scores. There was a very weak nonsignificant correlation between the symptomatology assessment score and the radiological assessment score (r = 0.168; p = 0.375). Conclusion: The adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio is reliable in assessing the nasopharyngeal airway in children with obstructive adenoids.

  16. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wave energy converters (WECs) needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed...... for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power...

  17. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  18. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  19. Plain film emergency radiology of child abuse: a strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for the dedicated interpretation of possible radiographic plain film signs that are suspicious for indicating child abuse. For each sign, the features ''PRO'' raise the question of abuse, while radiographic or clinical findings ''CON'' suggest an alternate explanation. Birth trauma, oesteogenesis imperfecta, rescue trauma, and metastatic neuroblastoma are among the many entities cited. A triad of situations may lead a radiologist to look systematically for changes from abuse; a triad of resolutions may result from the search. Periosteal reaction is the major factor in dating of fractures; physiologic periosteal reaction of infancy and periosteal reaction from previous fracture must be considered when so dating fractures. (orig.) [de

  20. Chelonians trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo); Monitoramento de encalhe de quelonios marinhos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine chelonians stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 159 chelonians stranded were registered. The species Chelonia mydas was prevailing in number and distribution. This species make use of this beach area to food. Lepidochelys olivacea was the second species in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. There was only one reproductive register, of Caretta caretta species. (author)

  1. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos propósitos que tem orientado a edição de Galáxia é a publicação de trabalhos que provoquem discussões e sejam capazes de introduzir abordagens e metodologias de estudo na área de sua competência a partir, prioritariamente, de um ponto de vista semiótico. O que rege essa "carta de intenções" é a divulgação de temas e problemas atuais, inovadores e norteadores do pensamento. Até agora a sorte não nos deixou à deriva graças, sobretudo, à confiança que os colaboradores depositam na revista. Neste sexto número, Galáxia apresenta contribuições inéditas para se compreender a dimensão sensorial da imagem no cinema e nas artes, a semiótica da guerra, a dinâmica dos gêneros e formatos na comunicação mediada, a noção de design como intervenção cultural, a semiose dos gestos no discurso polí­tico veiculado pela mí­dia, o imaginário e o espaço na cibercultura. Esses são alguns dos temas de que o exercí­cio competente do pensamento sobre a comunicação na cultura não pode prescindir. Para a seção fórum, o incansável investigador da imagem Jacques Aumont nos ofertou uma de suas mais recentes pesquisas sobre a base sensorial da imagem. Em seu ensaio, examina o processo de superposição a partir da continuidade da imagem móvel e da descontinuidade da montagem. Esse é um tema que não apenas redimensiona as bases semióticas do cinema, como também revela a interferência que o processo cinematográfico continua exercendo na constituição da linguagem audiovisual como um todo. A abordagem de Aumont é surpreendente e, até agora, única, daí­ a decisão de dedicar a ela todo o espaço da seção. Trata-se de um trabalho que teve uma edição restrita no Les Cahiers du Musée National d'Art Modern (MNAM de Paris, uma publicação quadrimestral, editada por Jean-Pierre Criqui (historiador e crí­tico de arte, e voltada para a discussão da arte contemporânea na França. Vinculado ao Centre

  2. The Physical Oceanography of Australia's Sunshine Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Australia's Sunshine coast is located to the south of the Great Barrier Reef and Fraser Island between about 25 oS to 28 oS. With a width of nearly 70-80 km, the eastern Australian continental shelf is at its widest here. The shelf region is referred to as the Southeast Queensland Marine Coastal Zone due to its unique physical oceanographic characteristics. The most prominent large-scale oceanic feature is the southward flowing East Australian Current (EAC). It forms to the north of Fraser Island from Coral Sea outflows, intensifies, and follows the continental shelf as a swift continental shelf hugging current but variable in strength; stronger in the southern hemisphere summer and weaker in winter. Little attention has been paid to the physical oceanography of this region, although important physical processes take place that drive regional marine environmental conditions, drive cross-shelf exchanges and interactions with the EAC, and that represent marine connectivity processes significant to the larger scale eastern Australian fisheries. This presentation reviews recent discoveries that include the Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System, the Fraser Island Gyre, and document the role of cyclonic mesoscale eddies in driving cross-shelf exchanges and contribute to the formation of the Fraser Island Gyre. The Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System appears to be predominately driven by the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf leading to the establishment of one of eight important marine ecological hotspots along the east Australian coast. The Fraser Island Gyre is most prominent during the southern hemisphere autumn and winter months. It is characterised by on-shelf northerly flow, turning eastward south of Fraser Island before joining the EAC. It emerges that cyclonic eddy formation as well as the south-easterly trade winds drive the gyre's establishment and strength. A census of short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic eddies, the first for any western

  3. Collapsing permafrost coasts in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Michael; Lantuit, Hugues

    2017-04-01

    Arctic warming is exposing permafrost coastlines, which account for 34% of the Earth's coasts, to rapid thaw and erosion. Coastal erosion rates as high as 25 m yr-1 together with the large amount of organic matter frozen in permafrost are resulting in an annual release of 14.0 Tg (1012 gram) particulate organic carbon into the nearshore zone. The nearshore zone is the primary recipient of higher fluxes of carbon and nutrients from thawing permafrost. We highlight the crucial role the nearshore zone plays in Arctic biogeochemical cycling, as here the fate of the released material is determined to: (1) degrade into greenhouse gases, (2) fuel marine primary production, (3) be buried in nearshore sediments or (4) be transported offshore. With Arctic warming, coastal erosion fluxes have the potential to increase by an order of magnitude until 2100. Such increases would result in drastic impacts on global carbon fluxes and their climate feedbacks, on nearshore food webs and on local communities, whose survival still relies on marine biological resources. Quantifying the potential impacts of increasing erosion on coastal ecosystems is crucial for food security of northern residents living in Arctic coastal communities. We need to know how the traditional hunting and fishing grounds might be impacted by high loads of sediment and nutrients released from eroding coasts, and to what extent coastal retreat will lead to a loss of natural habitat. Quantifying fluxes of organic carbon and nutrients is required, both in nearshore deposits and in the water column by sediment coring and systematic oceanographic monitoring. Ultimately, this will allow us to assess the transport and degradation pathways of sediment and organic matter derived from erosion. We need to follow the complete pathway, which is multi-directional including atmospheric release, lateral transport, transitional retention in the food web, and ultimate burial in seafloor sediments. We present numbers of multi

  4. The holoplankton of the Santa Catarina coast, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrid Resgalla Jr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information from different sampling surveys carried out along the Santa Catarina coast in order to outline the biogeographical characteristics of the zooplankton in this region and identify species or groups of species with potential use as bioindicators. Based on a checklist of species of the zooplankton community in the state, it was observed that, in the warmer months of the year, the fauna is similar to that of the states of Paraná and São Paulo (e.g. Creseis virgula f. virgula, Penilia avirostris; Acartia lilljeborgi and Oithona oswaldocruzi, while in the colder months there are coastal representatives of the fauna of Rio Grande do Sul (e.g. Acartia tonsa. However, the zooplankton consists predominantly of warm water species for most of the year, which is typical of Tropical Shelf Waters. Various species of zooplankton can be used as hydrological indicators, enabling a distinction to be made between coastal waters which are influenced by continental inputs (e.g. Paracalanus quasimodo and Parvocalanus crassirostris, common in the north of the state, and processes of upwelling (e.g. Podon intermedius and the influence of the Subtropical Shelf Front (e.g. Pleopis polyphemoides, coming from the south. The different environments investigated present a zooplankton abundance that depends on the influence of continental inputs and the possibility of their retaining and contribution for the coastal enrichment, which varies seasonallyEste trabalho apresentada informações oriundas de diferentes amostragens realizadas ao longo da costa de Santa Catarina com o objetivo de esboçar as características biogeográficas do zooplâncton assim como identificar espécies ou grupos de espécies com potencial uso como bioindicadores. A partir de um cheklist das espécies da comunidade zooplanctônica do estado observou-se que nos meses quentes do ano a fauna é similar aos dos estados do Paraná e São Paulo (e. g. Creseis virgula f

  5. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEILA P. CARVALHO-FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  6. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  7. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  8. Status of Gulf Coast salt dome characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, O.E.; Gibbons, M.G.; Deyling, M.A.; McPherson, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Screening and characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository have progressed through the area phase in these Gulf Coast Salt Basins. The domes studied during the area phase are described briefly. The area characterization studies are outlined, and the resulting reports are listed. Geologic and environmental studies resulted in elimination of four domes from further consideration. The remaining domes were judged acceptable and were classified as to their favorability to license. Site characterization planning for location phase activities deals primarily with technical, environmental, and socioeconomic issues of concern to the states and/or to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Department of Energy (DOE). These issues are listed and discussed. 16 references, 9 figures

  9. Emittance growth in coast in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Alekou, A; Bartosik, H; Calaga, R

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS will be used as a test-bed for the LHCprototype crab-cavities, which will be installed and testedin the SPS in 2018. As the time available for experimen-tal beam dynamics studies with the crab cavities installedin the machine will be limited, a very good preparation isrequired in advance. One of the main concerns is the in-duced emittance growth, driven by phase jitter in the crabcavities. In this respect, several machine development (MD)studies were performed during the past years to quantifyand characterize the emittance evolution of proton beamsin coast in the SPS. In these proceedings, the experimentalobservations from past years are summarized and the MDstudies from 2016 are presented. Finally, a proposal for anexperimental program for 2017 is discussed.

  10. Methylmercury in hair fisherman for Turkish coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vural, N. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey); Uenlue, H. [Posion Information Centre, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    Environmental methylmercury mainly arises from the methylation of inorganic mercury. The change in speciation of mercury from inorganic to methylated forms is the first step in the aquatic bioaccumulation processes. The bioconcentration factor of methylmercury in fish tissue to that in water is usually between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}. Among seafood, fish products are the main source of methylmercury absorbed by men from the environment. Since Minimata epidemic health injuries and deaths in relation to mercury pollution, environmental and biological monitoring of inorganic and organic mercury species has gained importance through out the world and many reports have been published on the health effects and biological monitoring of mercury compounds including some Mediterranean countries. This study focuses on methylmercury in hair of fisherman living in different geographical Turkish coasts and relationship to eating fish habit. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Screening specifications for Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.; Laughon, R.B.; McClain, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the salt domes of Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas is being planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary screening specifications were derived for each of the geological evaluation criteria by application of the significant factors that will have an impact on the reconnaissance survey. The procedure for the derivation of each screening specification is discussed. The screening specifications are the official OWI values to be used for the first-cut acceptance for salt dome study areas along the Gulf Coast. The derivation of the screening specifications is illustrated by (1) a statement of the geological evaluation criterion, (2) a discussion of the pertinent factors affecting the criterion, and (3) the evaluation of the value of the specification

  12. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  13. Erosion Pressure on the Danish Coasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Sørensen, Per; Kroon, Aart

    Coastlines around the world are receding due to coastal erosion.With rising sea levels and a potential climatic deterioration due to climate change, erosion rates are likely to increase at many locations in the future.Together with the current preference of people to settle near or directly...... by the ocean, coastal erosion issues become increasingly more important to the human values at risk. Along many Danish coastlines, hard structures already act as coastal protection in the form of groins, breakwaters, revetments etc. These eroding coasts however still lack sand and where the public, in general......, neglects the need for sand replenishment i.e. in the form of repeated sand nourishments. Here we present a conceptual model and method for dividing coastal erosion into acute and chronic erosion pressure, respectively. We focus on the model use for management and climate change adaptation purposes...

  14. Gastropod fauna of the Cameroonian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandel, K.; Kowalke, T.

    1999-11-01

    Eighteen species of gastropods were encountered living near and within the large coastal swamps, mangrove forests, intertidal flats and the rocky shore of the Cameroonian coast of the Atlantic Ocean. These represent members of the subclasses Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterostropha. Within the Neritimorpha, representatives of the genera Nerita, Neritina, and Neritilia could be distinguished by their radula anatomy and ecology. Within the Caenogastropoda, representatives of the families Potamididae with Tympano-tonos and Planaxidae with Angiola are characterized by their early ontogeny and ecology. The Pachymelaniidae are recognized as an independent group and are introduced as a new family within the Cerithioidea. Littorinimorpha with Littorina, Assiminea and Potamopyrgus as well as Neogastropoda (Thais) and Heterostropha (Melampus and Onchidium) are described and compared with representatives of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific province.

  15. High-resolution chronology of the Mekong delta coast for characterizing and predicting decadal to centennial changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.; Bateman, M. D.; Nguyen, V. L.; Ta, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2013-12-01

    Deltaic coasts have prograded over the last several millennia after the culmination of the postglacial sea-level rise to form coastal lowlands, where nowadays c. 25% of the world's population lives. Knowing past deltaic shoreline changes, especially on decadal- to centennial-scale, is essential for understanding the fate of delta in the coming decades and centuries. We tested the effectiveness of quartz optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of beach ridges to constrain shoreline changes of the Mekong River delta, southern Vietnam. Forty-seven OSL ages were analysed from the Tra Vinh delta plain, and the beach ridge sediments were found to have excellent luminescence properties resulting in low age uncertainties of c. 5 %. The OSL chronology agrees well with shoreline changes over recent decades and with radiocarbon ages of tidal flat sediment, clearly illustrating the coastal progradation over the last 3500 years. The OSL ages show no reversal and document decadal- to centennial-scale shoreline migration especially in the last 1500 years. The chronology also suggests major changes in shoreline orientation at the beginning of the Little Ice Age, related to the strengthening of the winter monsoon, and a constant progradation rate over the last 1500 years. A decrease in sand supply to the coast in the last few decades due to river dam construction and fluvial sand dredging is inferred, possibly affecting the behaviour of the modern and future shorelines, which can be compared with the less human-influenced past changes reconstructed in this study.

  16. The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, George Charlton

    1916-01-01

    In the spring of 1910 the writer, working under the direction of T. Wayland Vaughan, geologist in charge of Coastal Plain investigations, undertook a study of the later Tertiary formations of the Gulf Coastal Plain. According to the plans outlined before the work was begun, the beds that had formerly been grouped under the names Lafayette formation and Grand Gulf formation were to be studied with a view to their possible separation into more satisfactory stratigraphic units that might be correlated with other formations which, on the basis of their fossils, had been assigned to their proper positions in the geologic time scale. The original plan included a study of the post-Vicksburgian Tertiary deposits from western Florida to Mississippi River and correlations with formations previously recognized in Florida, southern Alabama, and Louisiana. This plan was subsequently modified to extend the investigation as far west as Sabine River. The field work was interrupted and the office work was delayed by calls for geologic work in other areas, so that the preparation of the reports could not be begun until the spring of 1914.

  17. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  18. Trace metal enrichment in agricultural soils of Jianghan Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Ying, S.; Daniel, J. N.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schaefer, M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coal consumption in China is increasing annually due to constantly rising energy demand. As a result, a massive amount of coal combustion byproducts, particularly in the form of fly ash, are expelled from power plants and distributed through atmospheric transport. The fly ash is eventually deposited on to land, potentially contaminating agricultural soils. Coal fly ash contains high concentration of a suite of toxic trace metals including lead, chromium, and arsenic. In this study, we surveyed the concentration of trace metals in agricultural soils at 131 sites within a 20 km radius of Yangluo Power Plant, a 2400 MW plant within the highly populated Jianghan Plain of Central China. Using X-ray fluorecence (XRF) spectrometry, the total concentration of trace metals in homogenized surface and subsurface soil samples were measured to calculate the corresponding enrichment factor at each site. Our initial findings demonstrate that Pb is enriched in a majority of sites, independent of land use, whereas As and Cr are generally not enriched in this region. Further studies using Pb isotopes as a source-tracing tool will help determine the Pb pollution's origin. Ultimately, the results of this study may inform whether crops grown within the Jianghan Plain have the potential of being contaminated by metals emitted from coal power plants.

  19. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  20. Application of MEDALUS Method for Desertification Mapping in SEJZI plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandehmehr, L.; Soltani, S.; Sepehr, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the UNCCD definition, "Desertification" is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. According to this definition, natural and anthropogenic processes have main roles in desertification severity. The MEDALUS methodology is a practical approach to assess the status of desertification and evaluating of desertification risk. In this study, have been developed a regional model for desertification assessment and mapping in SEJZI plain (Eastern Isfahan) based on MEDALUS methodology. At first step, main factors and indicators affecting on desertification process were identified. According to the local condition, seven factors include: climate, soil, vegetation cover, ground water, water erosion, wind erosion and policy and management were recognized. Each factor included several indicators accounting as factor quality determination. These indicators quantified based on their influences on desertification process. For each indicator a score ranging from 100 to 200 have been assigned and desertification weighting was extracting. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, severe and high severe. Results showed that 1.69% of study area classified as moderate class, 34.86% classified as severe and 63.45% involved high severe class. The climate and management and policy were the most important factors affecting on desertification process. Keywords: Desertification, MEDALUS, SEJZI Plain, Desertification Mapping

  1. Analysis of farming types’ characteristics in the Boianu Plain (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Vijulie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution and dimensional structure of the farms depending on their legal status, and the owners’ perceptions on the current status. The main research methods used in the study were: direct observation method, digital mapping, statistical analysis, surveying (semi-structured interview and SWOT analysis. The Boianu Plain is by excellence an agricultural region. Its arable land is worked/operated by three main categories of farms: individual holdings, family farming associations and farming societies. Production obtained within individual holdings is always lower comparative to family farming associations and especially to farming societies. Partnership helps farmers to join their technical and financial means in order to increase the annual production and, implicitly, gain profit. In this respect, the farmers’ perception resulted from the semi-structured interviews is a good evaluation instrument. The most critical issue at local level is making individual farmers aware of the benefits of family association and/or farmland leasing. The SWOT analysis reveals the possibility of an efficient management as driven by the way that the existing opportunities are able to mitigate or completely remove the weaknesses. The Boianu Plain has a very good agricultural potential in a highly favourable environment, but poorly capitalized.

  2. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David A.; Harrell, Wade C.; Metzger, Kristine L.; Baasch, David M.; Hefley, Trevor J.

    2015-09-23

    Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas-Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for this endangered species include providing adequate places to stop and rest during migration, which are generally referred to as stopover sites. To assist in recovery efforts, initial estimates of stopover site use intensity are presented, which provide opportunity to identify areas across the migration range used more intensively by whooping cranes. We used location data acquired from 58 unique individuals fitted with platform transmitting terminals that collected global position system locations. Radio-tagged birds provided 2,158 stopover sites over 10 migrations and 5 years (2010–14). Using a grid-based approach, we identified 1,095 20-square-kilometer grid cells that contained stopover sites. We categorized occupied grid cells based on density of stopover sites and the amount of time cranes spent in the area. This assessment resulted in four categories of stopover site use: unoccupied, low intensity, core intensity, and extended-use core intensity. Although provisional, this evaluation of stopover site use intensity offers the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners a tool to identify landscapes that may be of greater conservation significance to migrating whooping cranes. Initially, the tool will be used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other interested parties in evaluating the Great Plains Wind Energy Habitat Conservation Plan.

  3. Quaternary subsidence of the Oahu Coastal Plain, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Huppert, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Cronin, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inter-plate hotspots continue to test our understanding of how the Earth's lithosphere deforms in response to an applied load, in part, because many current models are based on short or discontinuous observational datasets. Here we reconstruct a record of relative sea level rise spanning nearly two million years using the strontium isotope stratigraphy (SIS) of shallow water carbonates (e.g. corals, mollusks) recovered from a >300 m long drill core through the coastal plain of Oahu. We then compare it to model-predicted subsidence histories for our site that incorporate displacements at Ewa Beach, Oahu, due to the flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to loading of each volcano along the Hawaiian Ridge as well as its migration over the Hawaiian Swell. Preliminary results indicate Oahu experienced relatively rapid rates of subsidence ( 0.45 mm/yr) during the mid-Pleistocene—vertical displacements our model largely attributes to loading of West Molokai. An abrupt slowing of subsidence over the past million years may be driven by the relative eastward progression of volcanism, including construction of large shields on Maui and Hawaii. Shallowly buried, late Pleistocene aged corals, however, may suggest: (1) a more limited flexural response to this loading for southeastern Oahu than has been inferred from raised marine isotope stage (MIS) 11/13 dated, shallow-water, deposits found elsewhere on the island and/or (2) substantial dissolution of coastal plain carbonates between MIS 31 and 11.

  4. Plain abdominal radiographs in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.A.; Nancarrow, P.A.; Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Teele, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    The value of plain abdominal radiography in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been ascertained. We reviewed the scout radiographs prior to first barium examination in 100 children with IBD (53 Crohn, 47 ulcerative colitis (UC) and scout films prior to excretory urography in 50 patients who had no clinical evidence of intestinal disease (controls)). The films were reviewed without clinical information, and the abnormalities on each film scored according to severity and location. Criteria included: mural thickening, dilatation and mucosal abnormalities of the small bowel and colon, as well as abnormal quantity and/or distribution of feces in the colon. Eighty percent (40/50) of the films in the control group were interpreted as normal. Abnormalities suggestive of IBD were presented in 73% of the IBD group (76% Crohn and 72% UC). Thirty-one percent of the films in the IBD group had a moderately abnormal score (>=3) or markedly abnormal score (>=5) at presentation. The most reliable radiographic findings were: mucosal abnormality in the colon and small bowel and an abnormal stool pattern (feces completely absent or only present in one colonic segment). The clinical presentation of IBD in childhood is often vague and nonspecific. Abnormalities in plain films of the abdomen are common in these patients and may be helpful in suggesting the presence and, to a great degree, the severity of disease in these children.

  5. OPERÁRIO FERROVIÁRIO ESPORTE CLUBE: PATRIMÔNIO CULTURAL DE PONTA GROSSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvanderson Ramalho dos SANTOS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo avalia como uma equipe de futebol centenária, o Operário Ferroviário, pode configurar-se como patrimônio cultural. Equipe nascida da família ferroviária, o Operário, ao longo de um século, acumulou diversos simbolismos e traços culturais peculiares. Foram diversas as modificações sociais, espaciais e culturais que o Operário contribuiu no cotidiano da sociedade e do espaço de Ponta Grossa. Sendo assim, o Operário constitui-se num importante elemento no processo de criação e manutenção da identidade local.

  6. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011, Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) Gail A. Randall issued..., issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his registration, be, and it...

  7. United States Coast Guard: Officer Corps Military Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    captain relieved of command after viewing porn on computer,‖ 10 July 2010, http://www.thenewstribune.com/2010/07/ 10/1259108/portland-coast-guard...Coast Guard captain relieved of command after viewing porn on computer,‖ 10 July 2010. http://www.thenewstribune.com/2010/07/ 10/1259108/portland

  8. [Nursing perspective on psychiatric care in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Michaël Bilson is a nurse at the psychiatric hospital of Bingerville, in Ivory Coast. Here, he describes his mission supporting the National Health Worker Training Institute. It is the only nurse training school in Ivory Coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Coast redwood science symposium—2016: Past successes and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Yana Valachovic

    2017-01-01

    There is no more iconic tree or more closely watched forest ecosystem than coast redwood. With its limited range and high value, the coast redwood forest is a microcosm of many of the emerging science and management issues facing today’s forested landscapes. As new information is collected and new management approaches and treatments tried, it is critical that policies...

  10. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wave climate along the coast of Karnataka State in India which lies along the central portion of the west coast of India (figure 2). The data were col- lected for a month during June–July to represent ... data is US Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World Indian ..... wave data; In: Report of the Port and Harbour Research.

  11. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    period particularly on south-western coast of the island while stone anchors were noticed on the eastern coast of the island where medieval period remains can be noticed in the form of pottery, cannons and a few stone structures. Similar type of stone...

  12. Tsunami source of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yushiro; Satake, Kenji; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2011-07-01

    Tsunami waveform inversion for the 11 March, 2011, off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M 9.0) indicates that the source of the largest tsunami was located near the axis of the Japan trench. Ocean-bottom pressure, and GPS wave, gauges recorded two-step tsunami waveforms: a gradual increase of sea level (~2 m) followed by an impulsive tsunami wave (3 to 5 m). The slip distribution estimated from 33 coastal tide gauges, offshore GPS wave gauges and bottom-pressure gauges show that the large slip, more than 40 m, was located along the trench axis. This offshore slip, similar but much larger than the 1896 Sanriku "tsunami earthquake," is responsible for the recorded large impulsive peak. Large slip on the plate interface at southern Sanriku-oki (~30 m) and Miyagi-oki (~17 m) around the epicenter, a similar location with larger slip than the previously proposed fault model of the 869 Jogan earthquake, is responsible for the initial water-level rise and, presumably, the large tsunami inundation in Sendai plain. The interplate slip is ~10 m in Fukushima-oki, and less than 3 m in the Ibaraki-oki region. The total seismic moment is estimated as 3.8 × 1022 N m ( M w = 9.0).

  13. Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

  14. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  15. Thermal responses of marine animals with reference to Kalpakkam Coast (South East Coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2008-01-01

    Kalpakkam has been chosen as model coastal site to study the impact of thermal discharges on water qualities, benthic animals and fishes. The results of this study are expected to be valid for any given open coastal location on the east and west coast of India. The present study investigates, the impact of the elevated temperature due to thermal discharge on two groups of marine animals viz. Benthos (non-swimming bottom dwellers) and fishes

  16. From the African Coast, the invention of two territories: Equatorial Guinea and Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjoa Nathalie Chiyé Kessé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the African coast starts Latin American history and part of Europe’s. This article includes a comprehensive analysis on the cultural influence of Africa especially Equatorial Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire in Latin America. From the first European incursions into African coast (xvi century and throughout the colonial era, the paper highlights interethnic relations that occurred following the meeting and coexistence between cultures of both continents, an analysis that is essential to study the survival of traditions, beliefs and African customs that survive today in many regions of Latin America. Considering the importance now given to the recovery of identity traits of the past for studies of multi-ethnicity and re-construction of identities, this article can be used by researchers at Afro-descendance, notable in Latin America, whose research is related to African identity traits in their respective nations. Equatorial Guinea was a Spanish colony along with the Protectorate of Morocco and Western Sahara. The duration of this colony ran from 1885 to 1968. In 1926, it became the Spanish Guinea, and in 1968 it acquired its independance from Spain while retaining the Spanish cultural architecture. Furthermore, the French presence in this first stage of the conquest in Côte d’Ivoire, is provided by the army. The colonial authorities in Paris were not yet sufficiently organized to move their representatives to what was then known as the Poor or Bad People Coast or Coast of teeth. It was the military from Senegal, as base of the French colonial army who assumed the conquest and organization of the Ivorian territory for immediate exploitation of economic resources. It is this improvised framework without legal planning, which led to the idea of the invention of Africa supported by Valentin Mudimbe (1988 and Achille Mbembe (2000.

  17. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A revista Galáxia surgiu no cenário intelectual nacional para atestar que a vitalidade das múltiplas confluências entre Comunicação e Semiótica delimitava um campo de conhecimento maduro capaz de produzir a sua própria revista cientí­fica. Fiel ao seu nome - homenagem a Haroldo de Campos, que, em poema homônimo, sinalizava para o conví­vio entre fronteiras -, a revista assumiu sua vocação transdisciplinar. O Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica da PUC/SP confiou o projeto inicial do periódico a Irene Machado, que respondeu, de forma notável, pela editoria cientí­fica dos sete primeiros números. A dedicação de Irene Machado contribuiu para consolidar a proposta dos trânsitos e fluxos de idéias como fatores de fomento da diversidade que marca a Comunicação como campo cientí­fico. Sem esse competente trabalho, a revista não teria alcançado o significativo patamar Nacional A na escala de avaliação do sistema Qualis/CAPES. Nessa esteira, feita em nome do Programa, os rigores de edição do presente volume ficaram a cargo de uma comissão composta por Lucrécia D'Aléssio Ferrara, Ana Claudia de Oliveira, Eugênio Trivinho e Helena Katz. Galáxia 8 apresenta uma dupla articulação na seção "Fórum". José Luiz Fiorin mostra as contribuições de uma teoria da significação para a compreensão dos fenômenos comunicacionais, que não se restringem ao âmbito da produção de massa. Eric Landowski, por sua vez, chama a atenção para um outro regime de interpretação das encenações do corpo numa detalhada análise ancorada em quatro dimensões especí­ficas do retrato (mimética, hermenêutica, cosmética e estética, na qual a fotografia dos homens polí­ticos na imprensa é tratada como componente de uma estratégia discursiva midiática global. A problematização dessas dimensões possibilita ao autor desenvolver uma teoria semiótica da visualidade midiática. Com essas duas

  18. Regional beach/cliff system dynamics along the california coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C.J.; Reid, Don

    2007-01-01

    The coast of California is comprised of both sandy shorelines and cliffed coastline, and in many areas these features spatially coincide. In order to better understand the regional trends of change along the California coast, the U.S. Geological Survey is quantifying both sandy shoreline change and coastal cliff retreat for the state. The resulting database was used to examine the dynamics of the beach/cliff system. We found inconsistent evidence of a relationship between rates of cliff retreat and shoreline change on the spatial scale of 100-km cells. However, when the data are correlated within individual regions, a strong relationship exists between the geomorphology of the coast and the behavior of the beach/cliff system. Areas of high-relief coast show negative correlations, indicating that higher rates of cliff retreat correlate with lower rates of shoreline erosion. In contrast, low- to moderate-relief coasts show strong positive correlations.

  19. Joint interpretation of seismic tomography and new magnetotelluric results provide evidence for support of high topography in the Southern Rocky Mountains and High Plains of eastern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    A recent magnetotelluric (MT) survey in central Colorado, USA, when interpreted alongside existing seismic tomography, reveals potential mechanisms of support for high topography both regionally and locally. Broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected at twenty-three sites along a 330 km E-W profile across the Southern Rocky Mountains and High Plains of central North America as part of the Deep RIFT Electrical Resistivity (DRIFTER) experiment. Remote-reference data processing yielded high quality MT data over a period range of 100 Hz to 10,000 seconds. A prominent feature of the regional geo-electric structure is the Denver Basin, which contains a thick package of highly conductive shales and porous sandstone aquifers. One-dimensional forward modeling was performed on stations within the Denver Basin to estimate depth to the base of this shallow conductor. Those estimates were then used to place a horizontal penalty cut in the model mesh of a regularized two-dimensional inversion. Two-dimensional modeling of the resistivity structure reveals two major anomalous regions in the lithosphere: 1) a high conductivity region in the crust under the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains and 2) a lateral step increase in lithospheric resistivity beneath the plains. The Rocky Mountain crustal anomaly coincides with low seismic wave speeds and enhanced heat flow and is thus interpreted as evidence of partial melt and/or high temperature fluids emplaced in the crust by tectonic activity along the Rio Grande Rift. The lateral variation in the mantle lithosphere, while co-located with a pronounced step increase in seismic velocity, appears to be a gradational boundary in resistivity across eastern Colorado and could indicate a small degree of compositional modification at the edge of the North American craton. These inferred conductivity mechanisms, namely crustal melt and modification of mantle lithosphere, likely contribute to high topography locally in the

  20. A synthesis of the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan storm surge, the deposits and the post event state of the coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A.; Soria, J. L.; Jessica, P.; Siringan, F. P.; Tang, H.; Weiss, R.; Khan, N.; Fritz, H. M.; Manglicmot, M.; Gallentes, A.; Lau, A.; Cheong, A.; Koh, T.

    2017-12-01

    Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 was an extremely intense and fast moving typhoon. The typhoon claimed more than 6000 lives, caused widespread damage, and affected more than 16 million people along its path in central Philippines. Overwash associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan also left behind a variety of geomorphic and sedimentological imprints, which provide a valuable dataset for modern storm deposits in different landform settings. Here we present a synthesis of the geological and geomorphological record from sites that span clastic, mixed clastic-carbonate, and non-clastic carbonate coasts affected by contrasting surge mechanisms. On the sheltered clastic coast where overwash was dominated by wind-induced setup surge, the overwash sediments occur as a sand unit of no more than 20 cm near the shore, and then spread into sub-cm thin sandsheet that blanket pre-Haiyan soil surfaces up to 1.6 km inland. Thicker sections of the overwash sand exhibit sharp, depositional contacts, planar stratification, and generally coarsen upward and fine landward. On the mixed clastic-carbonate coast, the Typhoon Haiyan deposits are generally thin (reef flat surface, and a sand sheet that blanketed the coastal plain up to 300 m distance inland. Overall, Haiyan's overwash sediments exhibit characteristics that are consistent with other overwash sediments from comparably intense storm surges, but are also observed in recent tsunami deposits. Thus, although the Haiyan overwash sediments excellently represent a rare modern-day record of an extreme storm, the sediment signatures of Haiyan do share many of the characteristics of tsunami deposits suggesting caution when interpreting inundation events in the geologic record.

  1. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  2. SDI increases water use efficiency of grain crops in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the semi-arid Southern High Plains, nearly all irrigation water is derived from the declining High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. As well capacities likewise decline, one tactic for continued irrigation is to install subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems with zones sized to accommodate the limited...

  3. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Leonards, Ute; Attwood, Angela S; Bauld, Linda; Hogarth, Lee; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-06-25

    Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013).

  4. Landscape-scale patterns of fire and drought on the high plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette Ford; Charles Jackson; Matthew Reeves; Benjamin Bird; Dave Turner

    2015-01-01

    We examine 31 years (1982-2012) of temperature, precipitation and natural wildfire occurrence data for Federal and Tribal lands to determine landscape-scale patterns of drought and fire on the southern and central High Plains of the western United States. The High Plains states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and...

  5. 17 CFR 240.15d-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.15d-20 Section 240.15d-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.15d-20 Plain English presentation of...

  6. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation of...

  7. Horses of Different Colors: The Plains Indians in Stories for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the stereotypes of Plains Indians and then surveys the realities of that culture, emphasizing the physical and spiritual role of the horse. Reviews two children's books by writer-artist Paul Goble, pointing out their accurate depiction of the material and spiritual nature of the traditional Plains Indian culture. (JHZ)

  8. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  9. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system...) Metal parts contacting the journal; or (e) Is— (1) Missing; or (2) Not in contact with the journal. ...

  10. A Decade of Inquiry: The Status of Female Superintendents and Secondary Principals in the High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmire, Doreen; Morrison, Marcia; Van Osdel, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    This research provides insight into the status of female administrators from a particular geographical area in rural America. Findings reveal that some progress has been made across the United States but there is more effort needed especially in the High Plains states. The numbers of females in administrative positions in the High Plains states…

  11. The role of plain radiographs in the diagnosis of chronic maxillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Computed tomography is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, this facility is not readily available in many developing countries. Thus, plain sinus radiography is still widely in use in our practice. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic value of plain radiographs in adult ...

  12. 100 years of mapping the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain: combining research and teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoek, W. Z.; Middelkoop, H.; Geomorfologie

    2012-01-01

    The history of modern soil, geomorphological and shallow geological mapping in the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta plain goes back about 100 years. The delta plain is of very heterogeneous build up, with clayey and peaty flood basins, dissected by sandy fluvial distributary channel belts with fine

  13. An appraisal of plain language in the South African banking sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) came into full force in April 2011. An important corollary of this Act, and the National Credit Act 34 of 2005, is the obligation that consumer documents must be in plain language. It has long been debated whether it is possible to make legal documents available in plain ...

  14. Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, R.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Lin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The great Lisbon earthquake of November 1st, 1755 with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.5-9.0 was the most destructive earthquake in European history. The associated tsunami run-up was reported to have reached 5-15??m along the Portuguese and Moroccan coasts and the run-up was significant at the Azores and Madeira Island. Run-up reports from a trans-oceanic tsunami were documented in the Caribbean, Brazil and Newfoundland (Canada). No reports were documented along the U.S. East Coast. Many attempts have been made to characterize the 1755 Lisbon earthquake source using geophysical surveys and modeling the near-field earthquake intensity and tsunami effects. Studying far field effects, as presented in this paper, is advantageous in establishing constraints on source location and strike orientation because trans-oceanic tsunamis are less influenced by near source bathymetry and are unaffected by triggered submarine landslides at the source. Source location, fault orientation and bathymetry are the main elements governing transatlantic tsunami propagation to sites along the U.S. East Coast, much more than distance from the source and continental shelf width. Results of our far and near-field tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison limit the earthquake source area to a region located south of the Gorringe Bank in the center of the Horseshoe Plain. This is in contrast with previously suggested sources such as Marqu??s de Pombal Fault, and Gulf of C??diz Fault, which are farther east of the Horseshoe Plain. The earthquake was likely to be a thrust event on a fault striking ~ 345?? and dipping to the ENE as opposed to the suggested earthquake source of the Gorringe Bank Fault, which trends NE-SW. Gorringe Bank, the Madeira-Tore Rise (MTR), and the Azores appear to have acted as topographic scatterers for tsunami energy, shielding most of the U.S. East Coast from the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Additional simulations to assess tsunami hazard to the U.S. East

  15. Flora do Rio de Janeiro: Pontederiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Michele Guarany Quintanilha; Moreira, Andréia Donza Rezende; Bove, Claudia Petean

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo tem como objetivo contribuir para o conhecimento das espécies de Pontederiaceae ocorrentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro. O trabalho tem por base a análise morfológica de materiais depositados em herbários e coletas de campo, além da compilação de dados de literatura. Foram registrados três gêneros e cinco espécies: Eichhornia azurea, Eichhornia crassipes, Heteranthera reniformis, Pontederia cordata e Pontederia sagittata. Chave para identificação, descrições, dados sob...

  16. Segunda Guerra Mundial, Rio de Janeiro

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    Ricardo de Souza Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the National Memorial to the World War II Dead (1956-60, a monument designed by Marcos Konder Netto and Hélio Ribas Marinho, and located in Flamengo Park, Rio de Janeiro. We start by commenting on the debates that were going on within the Modernist movement about the need for a new monumentality. Then, we examine the memorial against the urban landscape of Rio de Janeiro and its specific architectural language. Finally, we make an effort to explain the apparent paradox found in modern monuments.

  17. Flora do Rio de Janeiro: Nymphaeaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Andréia Donza Rezende; Bove, Claudia Petean

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo tem como objetivo contribuir para o conhecimento das espécies de Nymphaeaceae ocorrentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro. O trabalho tem por base a análise morfológica de materiais depositados em herbários e coletas de campo, além da compilação de dados de literatura. Foram registrados um gênero e seis espécies: Nymphaea amazonum, Nymphaea caerulea, Nymphaea lasiophylla, Nymphaea lingulata, Nymphaea pulchella, Nymphaea rudgeana, das quais Nymphaea lasiophylla é citada pel...

  18. Plant succession in a forest on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, and Holocene palaeoenvironments, Southern Brazil Sucessão vegetal em uma floresta da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, e os paleoambientes do Holoceno, Sul do Brasil

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    Márcia Grala Leal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant succession provides information on vegetation dynamics of a region and, therefore, improves our understanding of the natural trends of present ecosystems. With this objective, plant succession based on palynology of a sediment profile in a swamp forest was studied on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. Samples were treated with HCl, HF, KOH and acetolysis; slides were mounted in glycerol-jelly. For each sample a minimum of 500 grains of pollen + pteridophyte and bryophyte spores was counted and other palynomorphs were counted in parallel. Tilia and Tilia Graph software were used to construct percentage and concentration diagrams, with three 14C datings. The results show a local water reservoir in the beginning of the Holocene (± 9800 yrs. BP, creating a herbaceous plant marsh by hydrosere. The initial colonization of the marsh by trees occurred about 8800 yrs. BP, with tropical species from the Coastal Plain migrating in an east-west direction. Afterwards, there was a dry phase between 7000-5000 yrs. BP. The second appearance of regional tree species began at about 5000 yrs. BP, resulting in the present forest and in the west-east migration of tropical species from interior lowlands, like this one, to re-colonize the coast after the last marine regression.O estudo de sucessão vegetal permite obter informações sobre a dinâmica da vegetação de uma região e, portanto, compreender melhor os ecossistemas da atualidade e suas tendências naturais. Com este objetivo foi feito um estudo de sucessão vegetal, com base em Palinologia, em um perfil sedimentar do interior de uma floresta paludosa, porção baixa da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram tratadas com HCl, HF, KOH e acetólise e as lâminas montadas em gelatina-glicerinada. Para cada amostra foi contado um número mínimo de 500 grãos de pólen + esporos de pteridófitos e briófitos, com uma

  19. Sumário/Editorial

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    Comissão Editorial

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Galáxia: Revista Transdisciplinar de Comunicação, Semiótica, Cultura, editada pelo Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica (PUC-SP, amplia, com a publicação deste número 9, a sua consolidação como periódico de divulgação científica de pesquisas e, sobretudo, como espaço incentivador do trânsito de idéias e do diálogo teórico entre investigadores nacionais e internacionais da área de Comunicação e afins. Procura propor paradigmas para a definição dos objetos científicos da área desafiada pelo desenvolvimento tecnológico da informação e pela crescente expansão da economia globalizada e da mundialização da cultura. O presente número confirma o projeto em que se aliam comunicação, semiótica, cultura, tecnologia e informação. Nessa integração, e dentre os temas do volume, destaca-se o espaço, que, lido em sua organização e mediação sígnica, permite compreender as dinâmicas culturais que lhe dão suporte. Na seção "Fórum", Manar Hammad, pesquisador francês da Falculté d'Architecture de Versailles, apresenta uma leitura semiótica do Santuário de Bel, conjunto religioso monumental da antiga Síria, situado na cidade de Tadmor-Palmira. Atualmente, o templo não é senão um complexo em ruínas ou pouco conservado, mas ainda oferece à leitura os alicerces de sua construção e os pilares de crenças que nortearam a civilização modelada por valores gregos que atestam um sincretismo básico para a compreensão da cultura do antigo oriente. A leitura da construção semiótica desse conjunto de relações sígnicas permite flagrar os procedimentos de enunciação que superam o âmbito do verbal para atingir a complexidade dos signos não-verbais e, notadamente, do espaço. Utilizando sua formação arquitetônica, mas superando os limites perceptivos de um espaço simplesmente físico ou tecnicamente edificado, Manar Hammad procura apreender o processo

  20. Frog size on continental islands of the coast of Rio de Janeiro and the generality of the Island Rule.

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    Raoni Rebouças

    Full Text Available Island Rule postulated that individuals on islands tend to dwarfism when individuals from mainland populations are large and to gigantism when mainland populations present small individuals. There has been much discussion about this rule, but only few studies were carried out aiming to reveal this pattern for anurans. Our study focused on measuring the size of individuals on islands and to find a possible pattern of size modification for insular anurans. Individuals were collected on continental islands, measured and compared to mainland populations. We selected four species with different natural history aspects during these analyses. Island parameters were compared to size of individuals in order to find an explanation to size modification. Three of the four species presented size shifting on islands. Ololygon trapicheiroi and Adenomera marmorata showed dwarfism, Boana albomarginata showed gigantism and in Thoropa miliaris there was no evident size modification. Allometric analysis also revealed differential modification, which might be a result of different selective pressures on islands in respect of mainland populations. Regression model explained most of the size modification in B. albomarginata, but not for the other species. Our results indicate that previous assumptions, usually proposed for mammals from older islands, do not fit to the anurans studied here. We support the assumption that size modification on islands are population-specific. Hence, in B. albomarginata some factor associated to competition, living area and isolation time might likely be responsible for gigantism on islands.