Sample records for coalification jinko sekitanka

  1. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

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    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Trouble in paradise. Did Chinese solar producer Jinko Solar pollute water with toxic effluents?; Aerger im Paradies. Hat der chinesische Solarkonzern Jinko Solar Giftstoffe ins Abwasser geleitet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, Jochen


    When neighbours protested against toxic effluents emitted by a Chinese industrial plant, this received international attention, especially as the plant in question is producing solar cells for Jinko Solar at Haining. However, the real facts are impossible to obtain.

  3. Coalification reactions under pressure. Inkohl-ungsreaktionen unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck, G.; Patteisky, K.


    Studies of the influence of pressure on the coalification reactions in hard coal (temperature ranges from 240 to 350/sup 0/C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 8000 ata) have shown that coalification reactions in younger coals are impeded by higher mechanical pressures. The relationship of the mutual effect of pressure and temperature on the coalification reactions may be illustrated by graphs, if the parameters are determined, which cause an increase in the reflection index of the vitrinite of 0.89 to 1.0 and liberate 8 liters of gas per kilogram of finely ground coal, at 0.5 mm Hg. The results indicate, contrary to theories often expressed in the literature, that the intensifying influence of pressure on coalification may be excluded if the pressure charge operates through shear- and friction-forces, without temperature changes. The results also show that the use of spores as coalification thermometers is limited. It is shown that at higher pressures spores may be exposed to temperatures above 200/sup 0/C without showing thermal modifications.

  4. Constructing a scale of the coalification of fossilized organic matter based on data of chemical composition

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    Uspenskii, V A; Radchenko, O A; Smirnova, N B


    The All-Union Petroleum Research Geological Survey Institute conducted research in connection with building a scale of pure coalification. It consisted in collecting data on the characteristics of humus and humoid components in humus coals. Coals from the Donbass were selected because in their coalification two distinct genetic lines are apparent which differ in lipid content. Coals of various rank from other basins were also used in the study. The median characteristics including element composition, products of semicoking and proportions of humus-humoid and lipid components are presented in a table. The characteristics of the humus-humoid components for coals at various stages of coalification are presented in a further table. The ratio of carbon to semicoke is lower for higher stages of coalification. The second table gives a sufficiently even and regular picture of changing parameter values for the humus-humoid portion of the humus coals to be useful in constructing a coalification scale. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  5. Enhanced mobilization of major inorganics during coalification of peats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, A.M. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States); Cohen, A.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Orem, W.H. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)


    Release patterns for Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, and Si from Cladium, Rhizophora, and Cyrilla peats have been determined by means of experiments to 60{degrees}C and 2100 psi. Where pore solution concentrations are high, significant mobilization is directly through loss of pore solutions. Changes in organic structures during early stage coalification may also mobilize exchangeable ions. Attack on solid inorganic phases begins during peatification and may be accelerated at temperatures above 40{degrees}C by increased organic acid production. Respective maximum concentrations for acetate, formate, and oxalate are around 900, 700, and 70 mg/l in the Cyrilla experiments at 60{degrees}C. Enhanced concentrations of Si, Al and other inorganics may result from these.

  6. Use of structural parameters of Canadian coals to follow coalification process

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    Furimsky, E.; Charland, J.-P.; Dureau, R.; Kalkreuth, W.; Wieschenkaemper, I. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)


    A series of Canadian coals was used to evaluate the structural parameters determined by the FTIR spectroscopy and the apparent aromaticity determined by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy as coalification indicators. The results support the existence of two main coalification regions, i.e. the first involving lignite-subbituminous-high volatile bituminous stages and the second which begins with high volatile bituminous coals and ends with anthracite. The deoxygenation is the main reaction in the first region whereas the steady increase in apparent aromaticity is the most evident process in the second. The hydroxylic oxygen is a good indicator to distinguish between different coalification stages in the first region. The amount of three and more hydrogens attached to aromatic units exhibited a linear trend with both apparent aromaticity and mean reflectance for the coalification range from lignite to anthracite. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Thermal characterization of organic matter along a (hypothetical) coalification gradient (United States)

    Cavallo, Ornella; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Zaccone, Claudio


    Geochemical transformations of organic carbon (C) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are important starting points for genesis of peats, brown coals and other coal precursors. The humification process plays a key role in biogeochemical transformations of organic C and, as a result, in the first stages of coal precursors formation. Thermal analysis was used by Schnitzer and other scientists since 1950-1960s, in order to investigate the stability of several organic materials of industrial value including peat and coal. What soil scientists found was the general occurrence of two exothermic peaks (exotherm 1 and 2) due to decomposition and combustion reactions of organic compounds having different thermal stability and, consequently, different degree of humification. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was carried out on different samples reproducing a "hypothetical" coalification gradient as follows: peat (IHSS Pahokee peat standard), fulvic acid (FA), a peat humic acid (HA), leonardite (IHSS Gascoyne standard) and charcoal. An aliquot of about 20 mg of each sample was heated in a ceramic crucible from 50 to 850˚ C at 30˚ C min-1, at a gas flow rate of 30 mL min-1 using a PerkinElmer TGA4000 thermobalance. Samples were analysed both under nitrogen and under synthetic air. All analyses were carried out in triplicate and the average coefficient of variation was bio-transformation of organic materials. Finally, the temperature at which half of the exothermic mass loss has occurred (TG-T50) was also calculated. Preliminary results obtained from TG analysis under air showed that WL2/WL1 ratio was lower for the FA sample and higher for leonardite and charcoal, following the order FA

  8. Organic chemical and petrographic changes induced by early-stage artificial coalification of peats

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    Rollins, M S; Cohen, A D; Bailey, A M; Durig, J R [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry


    In order to investigate the changes that can occur during the earliest stages of coalification, a series of peat samples representing different depositional and vegetational settings were subjected to increasing temperatures and pressures in an open experimental system designed to simulate an approximate depth of burial of 1-1.5 km. Petrographic and chemical techniques (pyrolysis GC/FT-IR/FID and pyrolysis GC/MS) were utilized to analyze samples before and after coalification. Petrographic changes consisted not only of purely physical changes, such as compaction and creation of distinct microbands, but also, changes in colour, obliteration of distinct cell walls in certain tissues, and the formation of new macerals. Chemical changes supported the destruction of the cellulosic components in the absence of microbial activity. 34 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Organic geochemical studies of the transformation of gymnospermous xylem during peatification and coalification to subbituminous coal (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.; Verheyen, T.V.


    It is generally recognized that xylem from trees that are buried in peat swamps is transformed first to huminite macerals in brown coal and then to vitrinite macerals in bituminous coal by processes collectively known as coalification. In order to understand the chemical nature of coalification of xylem and the chemical structures that eventually evolve in coal, we examined a series of gymnospermous xylem samples coalified to varying degrees. The samples included modern fresh xylem, modern degraded xylem in peat, and xylem coalified to ranks of brown coal (lignite B), lignite A, and subbituminous coal. The organic geochemical methods used in this study included solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NMR method provided average compositional information, and the pyrolysis provided detailed molecular information. Although the samples examined include different plants of different geologic ages, they all share a common feature in that they are gymnospermous and presumably have or had a similar kind of lignin. The data obtained in this study provide enough details to allow delineation of specific coalification pathway for the xylem is microbial degradation in peat (peatification), leading to selective removal of cellulosic components. These components constitute a large fraction of the total mass of xylem, usually greater than 50%. Although cellulosic components can survive degradation under certain conditions, their loss during microbial degradation is the rule rather than exception during peatification. As these components of xylem are degraded and lost, lignin, another major component of xylem, is selectively enriched because it is more resistant to microbial degradation than the cellulosic components. Thus, lignin survives peatification in a practically unaltered state and becomes the major precursor of coalified xylem. During its transformation to brown coal and lignite A, lignin in xylem is altered

  10. Petrographic changes induced by artificial coalification of peat: comparison of two planar facies (Rhizophora and Cladium) from the Everglades-mangrove complex of Florida and a domed facies (Cyrilla) from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia

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    Cohen, A.D.; Bailey, A.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences


    Petrographic changes during coalification of three peat samples were investigated by artificial coalification experiments using a semi-open reactor system. Compressions of from 83 to 88% produced dark brown to black, shiny, flattened pellets exhibiting microscopic banding. Overall amounts of compression inversely correlated with the framework to matrix ratios (F/M) although certain tissue fragments remained relatively uncompressed due to the presence of tanniferous cell fillings. The most distinct microscopic banding (longest and widest bands) developed in samples of the dome-formed peat facies. The planar, root-dominated, Rhizophora facies showed the greatest change in microbanding character during coalification, with greater compressions roots having disappeared. This could explain why roots are significant components of many modern peats (and ancient coal ball concretions) but are difficult to recognize in bituminous coals. Similarly, separation of cuticles from leaves in modern peat-forming environments partially explains why leaf remains are also difficult to recognize in most coals, even those with abundant cutinites. Macerals were also affected. These petrographic results, along with previously reported chemical results, all suggest that the methods used in these experiments have produced changes that might reasonably be expected to occur during natural coalification (despite speeding up). Although more work needs to be done to verify and refine these results and to establish a correlation between these artificial `coalification steps` and true coalification, the new observations and conclusions from these studies might still be helpful in constructing models to predict or interpret coal seam characteristics and to establish the timing and release-potential of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons from coals. 69 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A uranium-bearing coalificated wood remain from the Upper Carboniferous uranium ore deposit in the Baden-Baden region of the Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheimer, F.


    From the 1973 discovered Upper Carboniferous uranium ore sandstone deposit in the Baden-Baden region (Black Forest) a uranium-bearing coalificated wood remain derived, probably the relic of a Cordaites-trunk. The chemical determinated whole uranium content of this amounts about to 40 wght.-%. Pitchblende of the collomorphic type is embedded in the vitrinite of the fossil and imitates the nearly destroyed former wood-structure. The aggregates of this mineral, surrounded by zones of contact, consist of at least two modifications of different reflectance and hardness. Radiometric analyses reveale a different disturbed radioactive equilibrium, which indicated partly loss and re-enrichment of the uranium-content in recent time. A part of the fossil is completely mineralized by pitchblende of high reflectance and associated galena. For this paragenesis the radiometric investigations proved an approached equilibrium of radioactive substances. Therefore it is to be estimated, that the pitchblende is not alterated substantially, in contrast to the embeddings in the vitrinite, rich in little reflecting and soft nasturanium. The inhomogenic mineralization of the highly coalificated fossil, also to recognise microscopically, is set in relation to the controverse genetic interpretation of the deposit. Final remarks are concerned to other uranium-enriched fossils, especially remains of bones of different origin and age. (orig.) [de

  12. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

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    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  14. Corrosion processes and coalification of ferrtic-martensitic steels in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} atmospheres; Korrosionsprozesse und Aufkohlung von ferritisch-martensitischen Staehlen in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} Atmosphaeren

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    Huenert, Daniela


    The dissertation desribes the corrosion of steels with chromium concentrations of 1-12 percent in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} atmospheres at variable pressure in the temperature range of 500-650 C and shows the corresponding degree of coalification. The investigations were carried out in a specially constructed corrosion unit which enables simulations of the power plant conditions temperature, pressure, gas composition, and gas flow rate. Above 575 C, the experimentally measured corrosion rates decrease, similar to those in hydrogen. Below 575 C, higher corrosion rates are observed in H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} atmospheres than in hydrogen, which is assumed to be the result of chromium fixation by the carbon formed in the corrosion process and of the existence of wuestite below this temperature. Below 600 C, temperature and pressure act independently of each other. Investigations between 600 and 625 C showed that pressure and temperature are not independent parameters with regard to oxide layer growth. The combined effect of these parameters results in higher corrosion rates and coalification depths. The dissertation describes this higher corrosion rate and coalification depth by an enhanced transport model. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Korrosionsverhalten an Stahlqualitaeten mit Chromgehalten zwischen 1 und 12 % in H{sub 2}O-CO-2-Atmosphaeren bei unterschiedlichem Druck im Temperaturbereich von 500 bis 650 C dargestellt und die parallel erfolgende Aufkohlung gezeigt. Fuer die Untersuchungen wurde eine Korrosionsanlage aufgebaut, welche die Simulation der Kraftwerksbedingungen Temperatur, Druck und Gaszusammensetzung und -geschwindigkeit erlaubt. Die experimentell bestimmten Korrosionsraten sind oberhalb von 575 C vergleichbar mit denen in Wasserdampf. Unterhalb von 575 C werden hoehere Korrosionsraten in H2O-CO2- Atmosphaeren beobachtet als in Wasserdampf, was als Folge der Fixierung des Chroms durch den waehrend des Korrosionsprozesses gebildeten

  15. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Substitution No.1). Achievement report on development of biogasification process for low coalification degree coal; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.1). Teisekitankadotan no biogas ka process kaihatsu seika hokokusho

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    In this biogasification process, coal is subjected to pretreatment and then experiences methane fermentation. The aim is to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} per unit thermal equivalent to be generated by low coalification degree coal. The electrolytic oxidation technology for coal pretreatment is developed jointly with ESC (Electrosynthesis Company, Inc.), U.S. For the development and improvement of electrolytic oxidation technology, the experimenting electrolytic tank of ESC and a small-scale electrolytic oxidation unit developed by the same are used. Using the developed electrolytic oxidation technology, coal is made meltable at a rate of 2.93%/min, which means that 80% or more of the coal turns meltable in 30 minutes. The technology has its own problem, however, that the power consumption rate is high. The report comprises nine chapters, including (1) the goal and background of research and development, (2) enhancement of research and development, (3) electrolytic oxidation of low coalification degree coal, (4) methane fermentation, (5) prospect of practical application, (6) reference materials and list of literature, and (7) reports on research tours overseas. (NEDO)

  16. Man-made gemstones; Jinko hoseki

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    Isogami, M. [Kyocera Corp., Kyoto (Japan)


    Birth and development of the man-made gemstones in the 20th century are outlined. Manufacturing gemstones was initiated by the invention of corundum production, followed by production of rubies and sapphires. In 1950 GE Co. synthesized diamonds, after that, most gemstones were manufactured consequently by progress of technologies of single crystal growing and ceramic manufacturing. In the 21st century, steep growth in demand is not expected but it seems to keep steady growth and the importance and necessity of man-made gemstones may be increased because of global environmental issues. Man-made gemstones seem to have both personality and variety of characteristics. (NEDO)

  17. Opportunities that abound for British coal--if only

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    The chairman of the National Coal Board discusses primary-energy consumption from 1965, with major emphasis on coal. He points out that coal consumption showed growth after 1975, but before then - except for a boost in 1973 - real expansion has been quite slow. World coal resources and reserves are presented. Because several countries are able to deliver coal into Europe at prices which are lower than the National Coal Board's average cost, Britain must reduce production costs in order to compete more effectively worldwide. Patterns of costs could be improved if more output was to be concentrated at the modern, more-productive collieries. Investment in coal mining is at one of the highest levels of investment of any industry in Britain today.

  18. The Donets Basin (Ukraine/Russia): coalification and thermal history.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Privalov, V.A.; Zhykalyak, M.V.; Bueker, C.; Panova, E.A.; Rainer, T.; Shymanovskyy, V.A.; Stephenson, R.A.


    The Donets Basin (Donbas) is one of the major late Paleozoic coal basins in the world. The Donbas Foldbelt is an inverted part of the Donets Basin characterized by WNW-ESE-trending folds and faults. The age of basin inversion is under discussion. Large parts of the Donets Basin host anthracite and

  19. First artificial sensory organ applied in clinical medicine. Cochlear implant; Iryokai hatsu no jitsuyo jinko kankaku kikan - jinko naiji -. Jinko naiji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, S. [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)


    The application of artificial internal ears and its present state in Japan as well as a children`s center for training speech perception run by the author are mentioned, and the composing elements (microphone, speech processor and receiver stimulator made of 22 electrodes) and the function of Newcreus Company`s artificial inner ear products - the only object of the health insurance admitted in this country - are described. Then, speech processors of the 2nd generation MSP and the 3rd generation SPEAK are compared in terms of the improvement of hearing coefficient closer to the cochleae activities and the fact that SPEAK is superior to MSP under all circumstances, in particular, for a word of single syllable excepting the case of a word without noise is explained. The state of artificial internal ears applied to children of high-degree impairment of hearing in the advanced countries is mentioned while pointing out the luck of understanding at deaf schools and their instructors in Japan. Further, an advancement of understanding achieved during the last decade with regard to the cochleae physiology is mentioned including the facts that, tough the utility of hearing aids for those with high-degree impairment of hearing is little as it is merely an amplifier, the auditory hearing of word has been improved by more than 20% with the latest SPEAK vocal processor over older ones, and it is prospected that they may live an every-day life without hindrance by the help of reading on written talk in combination. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of artificial soft rock. Jinko nangan zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, K.; Nishioka, T. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Nojiri, Y.; Kurihara, H.; Fukazawa, E. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    When a part of the ground is replaced with artificial materials in the construction of important structures on soft rock foundations, it is desirable for the artificial materials to have the rigidity equivalent to that of the surrounding ground and to be stable in the long term. The article reports a success in the development and utilization of artificial soft rocks satisfying the above conditions by using a raw material produced locally at the construction site. The soft rock aimed at was mudstone belonging to the Neocene period, and the artificial material of soil-mortal system is selected as the equivalent having the same physical properties. Improvements in selection of solidification agents and cohesive soil were especially contrived: taht is, a new material for solidification was developed by mixing blast-furnace cement and gypsum; and the mudstone on the site was used as the cohesive soil by slurrying it to adjust its grain size to homogeneous composition. The artificial soft rock resulting from the above contrivance showed excellent flow, self-leveling, and filling properties at the stage of fresh mortar, and the physical properties after hardning was very similar to those of the natural ground. The long-term stability was also confirmed by the tests on hydration reaction and environmental factors. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Autofluorescence of fossil pollen and spores with special reference to age determination and coalification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van Pieter


    In the present study the primary fluorescence phenomena of fossil pollen and spores are described. This new method in palynology is based on a large number of fluorescence microscopical observations and spectrophotometrical determinations of palynomorphs from deposits of various type and age. It

  2. Recent development in artificial photosynthetic model; Jinko kogosei no moderu ka kenkyu saikin no shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, M [Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In the conversion from solar energy into chemical energy (fuels) by photochemical conversion, an electron donor is necessary since all the fuels are reductive compounds. From the viewpoint of economic profit, water is the only one candidate as a cheap compound and existing impartially. In this paper, photosynthesis as well as the realization of its artificial model, and the relevant basic research executed recently aiming at the construction of an artificial photosynthetic system are explained. The main reaction of photosynthesis is the generation of carbohydrates by the reduction reaction of carbon dioxide with water as an electron donor and solar visual light as an energy resource. As a special example thereof, the UV photolysis of water due to the photocatalysis of a micro-particle system is introduced. The method of using a semiconductor and the method of using sensitizes are described as the photo excitation system when designing the artificial model. Additionally, as the research with respect to the construction of an artificial photosynthetic system, a photo-exciting charge transfer system is introduced. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Physical and chemical properties of artificial potting soils; Jinko jiban ryokuka baiyodo no butsuri kagakuteki seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Artificial potting soils are developed mostly for roof garden, and a lot of products are now on the market. However, these products have the merits and demerits. Therefore, Kajima Corporation developed 'Kei-soil' and 'Souka-meijin' to make up defects of the existing artificial potting soils, and 'Eco-eco K' using waste at a rate of 100% with consideration for environment. The paper considered what kinds of quality these artificial potting soil products developed have from physical/chemical viewpoints. As a result, the following were made clear: (1) the artificial potting soil has more excellent physical property than chernozem; (2) Since 'Aqua-soil,' '{alpha}-base 2,' 'Viva-soil' and 'Soilen G' do not include fertilizer content very much, the manuring practice in planting is important; (3) 'Kei-soil,' 'Souka-meijin' and 'Eco-eco K' include fertilizer content. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T; Kozawa, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics


    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Manufacture of lightweight aggregates utilizing coal fly ash. Sekitan bai riyo ni yoru jinko keiryo kotsuzai seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)


    Processing of a large amount of coal ash is a serious problem in considering the locational conditions of coal firing power generation plants. 46% of the coal ash was effectively used in 1985, and the remaining 54% was disposed at landfills on land and sea. Positive promotion of the effective use of coal ash is the necessity. A production method for an artificial lightweight aggregate utilizing coal ash was established by a joint research. The history of the research and development of this artificial lightweight aggregate (brand name: FA-lIGHT), outline of the manufacturing facilities, physical properties and result of use are introduced. The lightweight aggregates are used not only for the construction of multistoried buildings but also used as most suitable aggregates for making lightweight large scale panels and concrete secondary products such as lightweight blocks. FA-LIGHT is most suitable for use in the production of concrete lightweight aggregates, and can be used for hydroponic agriculture and for the improvement of drainage of land. Spread of its use is expected. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Studies on artificial light type vegetation plant using fluorescent lamps. Keikoto wo mochiita jinko kogata shokubutsu kojo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwao, K [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)


    This paper describes the contents of studies carried out for four years on a fluorescent lamp type vegetation plant. The equipment consists of a chiller unit with 5 HP, a motive power board of three-phase 200 V/feeder with an annual power capacity of 20 kW at maximum, and a micro-computer to control the culture environmental conditions. Discussions were given on the equipment performance, profitability, production capacity for salads and lettuces, and related data. Although the system has some disadvantage in the economy, it provided effective results on the know-hows in culturing high-class vegetables and fruits under season-free and chemical-free conditions. Since the natural light is also required, the professional knowledges and know-hows in this area were incorporated in the development. Fluorescent lamps emitting three primary colors of red, green and blue were devised and used. Because insufficient light intensity would raise the temperature only up to 42{degree}C when the ambient temperature is 25{degree}C, a proximity illumination system was adopted, which provided 45KIx high light intensity as well as the working spectra over an wide area. Tomato cultivation has also become possible, which is an epoch-making success. The system yielded better than hydroponic cultivation in solar greenhouse of the same size. 11 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Detection of travel time delay caused by dilation of an artificial fracture due to pressurization; Jinko chika kiretsu kaatsu ni tomonau toka danseiha denpa jikan henka no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Moriya, H; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    By revealing the relation between dilation of a subsurface fracture due to pressurization and travel time delay, it may be possible to measure the information as to the subsurface fracture system as a geothermal reservoir. In this study, field experiment was conducted to clarify the relation between the travel time delay of elastic waves and the dilation of fracture, pressure, and incident angles. The travel time delay of P-wave and S-wave tended to increase with the pressurization. When incident angle was about 90{degree} against the fracture, the increase was ranging between 0 and 0.2 ms. The magnitude of this delay could not be explained only by the opening of main fracture. It was considered that there were micro-crack zones around the main fracture. The difference of P-S delay depended on the pressurization and change of the pressure. The delay depended on the incident angle against the fracture. The delay of S-wave showed the polarized wave direction dependency. However, the obtained results might greatly depend on the analytical method and parameters. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  9. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  10. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  11. Afforestation of a desert in the sea. Success in artificial development of a sea jungle; Umi no sabaku wo ryokuka suru. Kaichurin no jinko zosei ni seiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    A place where kelps such as Eisenia bicyclis and other large edible seaweeds grow gregariously is called `sea jungle` and is the suitable habitat for fishes and shellfishes. Because of the development of sea areas and changes in natural environment, sea jungles in the sea area around Japan have decreased, and the sea has been deforested. A technique to create sea jungles artificially on the sandy seabed where sea jungles are difficult to grow has been developed. Fundamentally, it is required to place sea-sap blocks and natural stones on the sandy seabed to create the foundation for kelps to grow. It is also necessary to choose the proper depth of water for each kelp and the proper site where natural sea jungles exist close by. As for sea-sap blocks, their arms are made to gear each other so that they can endure the wave force, and their height should be over 1.2m so that they cannot be buried in the sand. Projections (kelp knobs) are installed on the upper surface of the blocks. Their shape is especially designed for spores of kelps so that they can easily adhere to. It is appropriate to place these blocks in the period from September to November when many germs of kelps are generated. It has been demonstrated that sea jungles can be created by this method. 3 figs.

  12. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K; Wang, W [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Integrated interpretation of AE clusters and fracture system in Hijiori HDR artificial reservoir; Hijiori koon gantai jinko choryuso no AE cluster to kiretsu system ni kansuru togoteki kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, K [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    With regard to a fracture system in the Hijiori hot dry rock artificial reservoir, an attempt was made on an interpretation which integrates different data. Major factors that characterize development and performance of an artificial reservoir are composed of a fracture system in rocks, which acts as circulating water paths, a heat exchange face and a reservoir space. The system relates not only with crack density distribution, but also with cracks activated by water pressure fracturing, cracks generating acoustic emission (AE), and cracks working as major flow paths, all of which are characterized by having respective behaviors and roles. Characteristics are shown on AE cluster distribution, crack distribution, production zone and estimated stress fields. Mutual relationship among these elements was discussed based on the Coulomb`s theory. The most important paths are characterized by distribution of slippery cracks. Directions and appearance frequencies of the slippery cracks affect strongly directionality of the paths, which are governed by distribution of the cracks (weak face) and stress field. Among the slippery cracks, cracks that generate AE are cracks that release large energy when a slip occurs. Evaluation on slippery crack distribution is important. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Effects of electrical stimulation on fruit of lentinus edodes; Shiitake jinko kindoko ni taisuru denki shigeki ga kojittai hassei kosu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitobe, K.; Sato, T.; Yoshimura, N. [Akita Univ. (Japan)] Suzuki, T. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan)


    So far, the cultivation of Lentinus edodes is cultivated from material wood mainly, however, recently, artificial bed-blocks method has been used widely. The advantage of bed-block cultivation is to a short growing period and be possible to cultivate by a large scale facilities. Hereafter, it is thought that this growing method is used mainly. Before now, based on the experimental fact that abnormal fruiting of Lentinus edodes occurs due to lightening, the study on the effects of electrical stimulation was reported, however, the investigation on the effects of electrical stimulation on the artificial bed-bocks which is thought to come into wide use in future does not carry out until now. The purpose of this study is to investigate an increased yield of the Lentinus fruit-bodies grown on artificial bed-blocks that electrical stimuli were applied. Nineteen artificial bed-blocks were provided for each applied voltage condition; Control, 200V, 400V, 600V, for the AC. As a result of experiment, in the 600V condition, the total number of fruiting of Lentinus edodes was significantly increased as compared with other conditions. Especially, in the artificial bed-blocks that peak current was over 300 mA, the total number of fruiting was increased. 6 refs., 6figs.

  15. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  16. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  17. Maturation related changes in the distribution of ester bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, C.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Horsfield, B. [German Research Cemter of Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)


    Several lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components during increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis but reveal an intermittent increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference index of fatty acids (CPIFA) parameter is introduced. For the long chain fatty acids the CPIFA decreases with increasing maturity. During diagenesis, the same trend can be observed for the short chain fatty acids but the intermittent increase in the amounts of short chain fatty acids is also accompanied by high CPIFA values. This indicates less altered organic biomass at this maturation level and is in contrast to the mature CPIFA signal of the long chain fatty acids of the same samples. Thus could be due to extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter or it could due to the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities containing C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. The high amounts of alcohols in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification.

  18. The coalification profile of the Grambach 1 exploration well - first indication of an oil kitchen in the molasse basin; Das Inkohlungsprofil der Bohrung Grambach 1 - erster Hinweis auf eine ``Oelkueche`` im Molassebecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltmann, W.; Wehner, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Kuckelkorn, K. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)


    For the first time an exploration well beneath the German part of the Alpine overthrust zone met vitrinite reflectance values raising up to 1,6% R{sub r} - and this in a widespread tectonic high position. The interpretation as an oil and gas kitchen is confirmed by oil maturity (derived by biomarkers and carbon isotope ratios). (orig.) [Deutsch] Erstmals traf im deutschen Teil der alpinen Ueberschiebungszone eine Bohrung ein bis 1,6% R{sub r} ansteigendes Inkohlungsprofil an und dies in einer ausgedehnten Hochscholle. Die Interpretation als `Oel- und Gaskueche` wurde durch die Reife des zugeschlossenen Erdoels (Biomarker, Kohlenstoffisotopen) bestaetigt. (orig.)

  19. The coalification profile of the Grambach 1 exploration well - first indication of an oil kitchen in the molasse basin. Das Inkohlungsprofil der Bohrung Grambach 1 - erster Hinweis auf eine ''Oelkueche'' im Molassebecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltmann, W.; Wehner, H. (Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)); Kuckelkorn, K. (Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany))


    For the first time an exploration well beneath the German part of the Alpine overthrust zone met vitrinite reflectance values raising up to 1,6% R[sub r] - and this in a widespread tectonic high position. The interpretation as an oil and gas kitchen is confirmed by oil maturity (derived by biomarkers and carbon isotope ratios). (orig.)

  20. Maturation-related changes in the distribution of ester-bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian


    A rank series of lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels (vitrinite reflectance (R0): 0.27–0.8%) from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components (fatty acids and alcohols) during...... increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This intermittent increase was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference...

  1. Report on the results of the FY 1999 R and D of the medical welfare equipment technology and the development of an implantable total artificial heart system using a non-pulsatile pump. R and D of an implantable total artificial heart system using a non-pulsatile pump (R and D of the functional/cure artificial heart); Iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu tainai umekomigata jinko shinzo system 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. 5. Renzokuryu pump wo mochiita tainai umekomigata jinko shinzo system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kinoteki chiryoteki jinko shinzo no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The R and D of element technology were made on non-pulsatile pump, drive/controller, energy supply storage system, structural coating materials, etc., and the prescribed target was achieved. In the R and D of a total system, a blood-removing conduit with movability was designed to avoid the functional inlet obstruction, and the animal experiment was carried out. In the short-term chronic animal experiment on the implantation of a single bypass model using this artificial conduit and in the animal experiment for implantation of functional/cure artificial heart, it was confirmed that the operation was conducted easily, the flow rate of the blood of the artificial heart is extremely stable, and the blood-removing conduit functions favorably. In the R and D on Tele-TAH with the aim of future home medical treatment, it became possible to acquire via monitor the pump drive information and blood circulation state information on the animals tested in the breeding farm. The remote medical simulation was made. (NEDO)

  2. Special issue on frontiers of chemistry related to electrical and electronic engineering. Part 4.; Artificial photosynthesis and photoelectrochemistry; Denki/denshi kogaku ga hiraku atarashii kagaku no sekai. 4.; Jinko hikari gosei to hikari denki kagaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Since light can be transformed into electricity, electrolysis of water using light is possible naturally, and photosynthesis in the nature is based on this principle. The reaction field in which electrochemical energy necessary for decomposition of water is generated using light at the first process of photosynthesis is a biofilm less than 10nm thick which is called thylakoid film. In this article, the effects are roughly explained which have been made for constructing an artificial system corresponding to the thylakoid film. Accumulation of knowledge of the molecular level is necessary for the construction of the artificial system and the three dimensional structure concerning the reaction center of photosynthetic bacteria has been determined. At the reaction center, oxidation species of electron donor and reduction species of electron acceptor are generated by charge separation which succeeds electron excitation by light energy. In order to lead the above process to materialistic production, efforts are being made for construction of a reaction center model compound for artificial photosynthesis from both physical chemistry and organic chemistry and the positive results have steadily been obtained in the development of photocatalysis of a semiconductor. 9 figs.

  3. Measurement of electric intensity distribution inside a human cadaver cochlea for multichannel cochlear implants; Multichannel jinko naiji no tame no hito no tekishutsu kagyunai ni okeru denkai kyodo bunpu no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, S.; Ifukube, T.; Matsushima, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    We have proposed a Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may succeed in narrowing the stimulation region and continuously moving the stimulation site for cochlear implants. The TESM stimulates the auditory nerve array through lymph liquid using the 3 adjacent electrodes which are selected among the electrodes of an electrode array. The currents from the two electrodes on both sides are emitted and a central electrode receives them. The current received by the central electrode is made equal to the sum of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. In this paper, the electric intensity profiles produced by the TESM and the monopolar stimulation were measured in a human cadaver cochlea and in a saline solution. As a result, in the TESM, the electric intensity profile produced in the human cadaver cochlea was about the same as that in the saline solution In monopolar stimulation, the electric intensity profile was broader than that of TESM in a human cadaver cochlea. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Development of constructed wetland using hydroponic biofilter method for purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water; Fueiyoka kosui no joka no tameno suiko seibutsu rokaho wo mochiita jinko shicchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)] Nakasato, H. [Top Ecology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Applying the hydroponic biofilter method as a direct purification method for a hyper-eutrophic lake water, an experiment was carried out at the Tsuchiura Port on Lake Kasumigaura to obtain data for constructing a hydrophilic artificial wetland. Purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water containing a large amount of water blooms in summer was attempted applying the hydroponic biofilter method for which hydrophyte is used. As a result, it was clarified, by applying the hydroponic biofilter method, that capturing effect of suspended substances can be achieved in the rooting zone, captured suspended substances are decomposed at high rate, and the revolved nutrient salt can be absorbed and assimilated by the use of plants having high growth rates. Ipomoea aquatica had the highest removal activity, followed by nasturtium officinal, menthe spicata, and oenanthe javanica. As a result, it became clear that a constructed wetland made with the hydroponic biofilter method can be applied as a direct purifying method for hyper-eutrophic lake water by selecting appropriate plants in accordance with season. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in total knee arthroplasty; Jinko kansetsu okikaeji no one cement no hatsunetsu ga seitai soshiki ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M.; Uchida, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Iwatsubo, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurosawa, M.; Hashimoto, Y. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Fukushima, H.


    Bone cement is often applied to fix the components in a surgical operation, such as TKA (total knee arthroplasty). In this paper, we consider the effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in TKA by using numerical simulation. First, we applied an axisymmetric model of tibia to finite element method and analyzed heat generation of bone cement. To confirm the results of analysis by experiment, we measured the temperature determined by 6 points i.e., 2 points each in component-cement interface, cement and bone-cement interface. As a result, the temperature determined by analysis agrees with that determined by experiment. Next, we proposed the evaluation formula of the bone necrosis. We constructed a bone necrosis map from the simulation. From the map, we found that the bone necrosis region was about 2 mm from the bone-cement interface. In addition, the bone necrosis is severe at the base of the tibial component. 7 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T; Makino, M; Morijiri, R; Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  7. Detection of shear-wave traveltime delay by using wavelet transform and characterization of an artificial subsurface fracture; Wavelet henkan ni yoru toka S ha denpa jikan henka no koseido kenshutsu to jinko chika kiretsu no seijo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Moriya, H; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    As characterization of artificial cracks formed underground by using the water pressure fracturing method, experiments have been carried out to detect relationship of pressurization and S-wave propagation time with the polarizing direction dependence. Openings are created when pressure in the vicinity of the artificial cracks increases greater than reopening pressure of micro cracks. Elastic wave velocity decreases in this region because of water in the opened micro cracks. Anisotropy is created in the S-wave propagation velocity due to influence from anisotropic reopening region when the artificial cracks are pressurized, and is separated into two components which polarize orthogonally with each other (micro splitting). Field experiments conducted at the Higashi-hachimantai field were analyzed by using wavelet transform. It was possible to detect the S-wave arrival time at high accuracy, and the arrival of an orthogonally polarized wave was observed in 0.03 to 0.11 ms after the arrival of the S-wave. Possibility was indicated on separation of the two components in the orthogonally polarized wave of the S-wave if the micro splitting is used. If this mechanism is elucidated, it may be possible to extract information on cracking systems (direction of micro crack orientation and crack density). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Sintering systems for recycling plant fly ash and bottom ash from incineration plant. Production of artificial aggregate and permeable block by sintering method. Toshi gomi shokyakubai hibai no saishigenka gijutsu. Nenshoho ni yoru jinko kotsuzai to tosuisei block no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Masuno, K.; Kaneko, M. (Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    With the background that making the incineration residue of municipal waste nonpollutant or recycling the residue have been an urgent problem, Japan's first incineration ash recycle experiment pilot plant was built in the Nanbu Waste Incineration Plant of Funabashi City in 1993. In this paper, the outline of the one-year plant operation has been introduced. This plant consists of an artificial aggregate production line and a permeable block production line. In the former line, the incineration or fly ash is combined with plasticizer (clay) and then added by moisture. After the mixed material is extruded and pelletized, the pellets are sintered in a rotary kiln to be artificial aggregate. The sintering temperature is 1200[degree]C at a maximum and throughput of the raw materials is 130 kg/h. The evaporated and dispersed salt or low boiling point heavy metals are mixed in the flue gas and collected with bug filters. To produce the permeable block, the following processes are executed: the artificial aggregate is crushed and combined with powdered glass, a binder. The resulting material, after press-molded, is sintered at the temperature of up to 1050[degree]C. The test results showed that the products and plant waste represent satisfactorily acceptable level. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. FY1995 development of artificial arm 'SMART ARM' by spherical ultrasonic motor; 1995 nendo kyumen choonpa motor wo mochiita jinko gishu smart arm no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project has an intention of development of new type artificial arm by spherical ultrasonic motor. We have succeeded in developing new type of spherical ultrasonic motor with three DOF. And we have succeeded in applying the motor to an artificial arm. This arm have advantages of small size, low weight torque comparing with conventional ones. We demonstrated them the new arm behaved well and it had good controlabilty. (NEDO)

  10. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances: Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meetings (15th) Held in San Pedro, California on 19-21 November 1991 (United States)


    on Economic Development, which will convene in Rio de Janeiro in June of 1992, will be the next major forum at which this issue may surface for...1985. Coastal oceanography of Japan Islands. Tokai University Shuppan-kai, viii+8+353 pp. (in Japanese). Otsuki, T. 1990. Jinko lagoon . Umetate to...for acclima- tion. It also took 100 days for the test to get the expected water quality with performing de -nitrogen treatment by reducing airflow of

  11. On the data between the ratio of new supply houses at four tenures in Japan. At 47 prefectures and 80 cities; 300,000 and more population on 1995; Shinsetsu chako jutaku no riyo kankeibetsu deta. 47 todofuken and 80 toshi (jinko 300,000 nin 'heisei 7 {center_dot} kokucho' ijo narabini kencho shozaishi)(1993 {approx} 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Toshihiko; Kojina, Kyoji


    On the owned tenure, the average construction-started ratio spreaded from 1.15 houses in Amagasaki-shi to 6.30 houses in Hamamatsu-shi during 1983 {approx} 1987, the same values spreaded from 1.42 houses in Amagasaki-shi to 5083 houses in Akita-shi during 1988 {approx} 1992 and the same values spreaded from 1.44 houses in Osaka-shi to 6.67 houses in Aomori-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997. 2nd on the rental tenure, the average construction-started ratio spreaded from 1.88 house in Sakai-shi to 14.32 houses in Ichikawa-shi during 1983 {approx} 1987, the same values spreaded from 3.72 houses in Sakai-shi to 13.93 houses in Kawasaki-shi during 1988 {approx} 1992 and from 2.82 houses in Yokosuka-shi to 9.88 houses in Sendai-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997, espicialy 13.17 houses in Nishinomiya-shi. 3rd on the issued tenure, the average construction-started ratio spreaded from 0.05 houses in Maebashi-shi 0.45 houses in Mito-shi during 1983 {approx} 1992 and from 0.02 houses in Naha-shi to 0.74 houses in Omiya-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997, espicialy 1.00 houses in Nishinomiya-shi. 4th on the for-sale tenure, the average construction-started ratio spraeded from 0.36 houses in Kurashiki-shi 5.65 houses in Kobe-shi during 1983 {approx} 1987, the same values spreaded from 0.89 houses in Iwaki-shi and Fukui-shi to 6.14 houses in Fukuoka-shi during 1988 {approx} 1992 and from 0.63 houses in Kurashiki-shi to 7.51 houses in Urawa-shi during 1993 {approx} 1997, especially 8.66 houses in Nishinomiya-shi. The construction-started hoses of the rental tenure were leading during this fifteen years, but the construction-started houses of the for-sale tenure were increasing recently in Japan, though the same values of the owned tenure were continuing during this periods. At 80 cities the construction-started ratio of the rental tenure spreaded from 2.61 houses in Kitakyushu-shi to 12.01 houses in Hachioji-shi on 1993, the same values spreaded from 2.41 houses in Toyota-shi to 9.98 houses in Sendai-shi on 1994, the same values spreaded from 1.86 houses in Okazaki-shi to 10.70 houses in Sendai-shi on 1995, the same values spreaded from 2.04 houses in Kawagoe-shi on 1996, the same values spreaded from 1.73 houses in Yokosuka-shi to 8.70 houses in Sendai-shi on 1997. Especially there were high grade ratio of the construction-started houses of the rental tenure which were occurred by the grate earthquake in 1995 at Hyogo-ken, in Nishinomiya-shi 25.14 houses on 1995, 18.75 houses on 1996, 18.75 houses on 1996, 11.47 houses on 1997. (author)

  12. New stimulation method with the function of narrowing and moving the stimulated region for cochlear implants. Its evaluation by the animal experiment and the numerical analysis; Jinko naiji no tame no shigeki bui no seneika to ido kino wo motta shigeki hoshiki. Suchi kaiseki to dobutsu jikken ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, S.; Sakajiri, M.; Ifukube, T.; Matsushima, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve can elicit auditory sensations in the subjects with sensorineural deafness. Each stimulating electrode of an electrode array of the multi-channel cochlear implants may stimulate a distinct neural population. However, a great deal of current spreads from each electrode throughout a lymph because of the high electrical conductivity of the lymph liquid. This phenomenon causes the transmitted information to be reduce due to channel interactions. Even if the number of electrodes is increased, the transmitted information will be limited because of current spread. We have proposed the Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may succeed in narrowing the stimulation region and continuously moving the stimulation site for the cochlear implants. We evaluate whether or not TESM works according to a theory which is based on the numerical analysis using the auditory nerve fiber model consisted of unmyelinated and myelinated segments. In this simulation, the neural site and the am of the excited fibers are compared with the compound action potentials which we obtained through animal experiments. As a result, based on the numerical analysis using this model, it is also proved that the anodal/cathodal threshold stimulation current ratio increases by decreasing unmyelinated segment between the inner hair cell and the habenula perforate. Also by comparing the result of the numerical analysis with that of the animal experiment, It is suggested that an effect of the unmyelinated segment is not significant. Based on their results mentioned above, we succeed in narrowing a Stimulation region by controlling the am of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. Also we succeed in continuously moving a stimulation site by changing the ratio of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  13. FY1995 establishment of extracellular matrix engineering by the combination of genetic engineering and polymer engineering and the application to super-bioartifical liver; 1995 nendo idenshi kogaku to kobunshi kogaku wo yugoshita atarashii saibogai matrix kogaku no sosei to super bio jinko zoki kaihatsu eno tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Cellular and tissue engineering for bioartificial organs need lots of information about extra-cellular matrices and cytokines network which play important roles for the regulation of cellular function. In order to develop high performance artificial livers, we made establishment of extracellular matrix (ECM) engineering by the combination of genetic engineering and polymer engineering. We designed a superglycoprotein-like polymer (PVLA) as a specific model ligand to asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-R) on hepatocytes. Hepatocytes morphology was remarkably affected by PVLA concentration for coating on polystyrene dishes. In addition, hepatic functions such as differentiation and proliferation were closely related with cell morphology. Especially, round hepatocytes on the polystyrene surface coated with high concentration of PVLA were found to reconstruct 3D liver-like tissue stimulated by EGF. It turned out that the adsorptive states of PVLA polymeric micells can switch the function of EGF to be motogenic or mitogenic. The mechanisms of 3D-tissue formation on two types of substrata mediated by ASGP-R were examined. The proliferation and cell death (apoptosis) in hepatitis of hepatocytes were also examined in the viewpoint of cytokine network such as TNF - {alpha} and interferon-{gamma}. The highly efficient gene-transfection into hepatocytes was also successfully made using PVLA as ECM for cell attachment. As one of the trials to clarify liver cells society formation the mechanism of the final differentiation of kupffer cells and the role of HGF in embryonic construction of liver were successfully examined. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the research and development of medical and welfare apparatus/technology. Totally implantable artificial heart for clinical use; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Rinsho oyo ni muketa tainai umekomigata jinko shinzo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the development of control technologies for a pulsatile pump, studies proceeded with a view to using a mixed venous blood oxygen saturation sensor, an ultrasonic sensor, and an absolute pressure sensor. Efforts were started to downsize the hydraulic actuator and to enhance its efficiency. In the development of a non-pulsatile artificial heart, the GyroP1710 series of artificial heart systems of Japanese make was developed, which employed a curved inlet known to be highly compatible from the anatomical point of view. In the development of a total system, a pulsatile auxiliary artificial heart was given a chronic animal test which continued approximately three weeks, when it yielded a flow of approximately 4 liters/minute showing that it would be practical as an auxiliary heart. As for the non-pulsatile artificial heart, a cardiopulmonary bypass test was conducted, when the blood circulation behavior was normal and organ functions were sustained. The free hemoglobin level was 9.3mg/dl achieving the target value, and the test animal lived as long as 50 days. (NEDO)

  15. Study on the optium operation of the solar assisted air-source heat pump system. Part 5. ; Fundamental performance of a SOL-AIR PANEL effected by environmental condition that can be controlled artifically. SOL-AIR heat pump system no saiteki untenho ni kansuru kenkyu. 5. ; Jinko kankyo joken hendo ni uoru shuhonetsu panel no kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y; Ohashi, K; Kasuya, A [Kogauin Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Shiraishi, K; Hino, T [Kajima Institute of Construction Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper follows the privious paper which reports about the experimental system of the solar air panel and the experimental conditions in the artificial environmental room. In this paper the basic performance of heat exchange of a solar panel related to the difference of the artificial enviromental conditions such as the wind speed, the wind direction, the radiation, and the dry or wet surface of the solar air panel, and the results of its analysis are presented. As a result of the experiment, the following were determined: wind direction affects the heat exchange characteristics of the solar air panel; the slits lead to improved heat conduction on both sides of the panel; and when the flat surface of the panel is wet the amount of all the heat exchange increases, due to increased air circulation and evaporation. It is possible to estimate the total quantity of heat exchange, and to determine the fundamental performance of a solar air panel. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Zeolite facies and regional rank of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisch, H J


    The author has correlated diagnostic analcime-, heulandite-, and laumontite-bearing mineral assemblages from four areas in the Upper Carboniferous and the Permian of New South Wales with the rank of the associated coals, represented by the carbon content of vitrinite. The results show that lowest-grade regional metamorphism of the zeolite facies reflects at least in part the same physical conditions of metamorphism as the increase in degree of coalification (rank) in the bituminous coal range. Degree of coalification is probably independent of partial pressures of H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/: it is controlled mainly by maximum depth of burial, its duration, and the geothermal gradient.

  17. Fiscal 1996 report on the comprehensive invetigational research on medical instruments. Development of a trace collection/microanalysis system of blood, etc.; development of a high accuracy three dimensional image diagnosis system; development of a low invasion operation supporting system; development of artificial internal organ technology; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho sogo chosa kenkyu (iryo kiki). Ketsuekinado biryo saishu/biryo bunseki system kaihatsu, koseido sanjigen gazo shindan system kaihatsu, teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu, jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In accordance with the rapidly advancing phenomena of decreasing in number of child and aging in Japan, enhancement in quality of medical care and welfare is an issue to be urgently considered, and importance of the support by technology of medical instruments is increasing. The purpose of this research is to extract subjects of the element technology, which will be important strategically and in the long run, from two viewpoints of the needs side and seeds side to study the course of the development of medical instruments. For this, questionnaires were sent out to learned persons in charge of work connected with medical care to grasp the needs for the future development of medical instruments. Based on them, the paper extracted subjects of the element technology which are considered to become strategically important in Japan. The report outlined the investigational research and arranged the methods and results of the survey of the needs for the development of medical instruments. Next, the paper described the method to extract important subjects of the element technology from the needs survey, and then arranged important subjects of the element technology extracted through the study in the committee. At last, the paper generalized the investigational research and summarized the remaining subjects, etc. at the same time. 11 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  19. A manuscript of De Saussure, Horace, Benedict on the origin of coal - Oratio de Lithantrace (1770) - science, business and environmental politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, A.V.; Newman, J.K. (Illinois University, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Geology)


    18th century ideas about the origin of coal are presented. They ranged from thinking that coal and lignite were accumulations of resinous wood transported from forests to the sea, to coal being a shale impregnated by bituminous fluids, through to the idea, in 1778, that all types of coal are the products of peat having undergone different degrees of coalification.

  20. An experimental study of the process of maturation of huminite organic matter using high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Z.A.


    Two series of tests of artificial coalification in high pressure tanks were conducted. Lignite coals of the Pliocene in open and closed systems were studied in the first series in the following conditions: length, 1 week; pressure, 1.5 and 10 kilobars and temperatures of 90, 120, 160 and 200C. In the second series an attempt was made to model the behavior of humous detrite (in a large quantity) in sedimentary rock. For this purpose a mixture was prepared of four different types of coal with a different degree of conversion which was then subjected to testing in the same conditions as in the first series of tests. The degree of coalification was determined on the basis of individual measures of the vitrinite reflection indicator. The results of the experiment showed that the determining factors in increasing the degree of coalification are the temperature and length of effects, while the role of pressure is insignificant and is expressed only in maintaining the rise in coalification in closed systems (which follows from the Le Chatelier Brown principle).

  1. The relationship between bituminous coal quality and tectonic setting of the western part of upper Silesian coal Basin (USCB) of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probierz, Krystian; Morga, Rafal


    Variation of quality parameters of coals occurring in selected geological structures in the western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was examined. It was ascertained that coals under research are characterised by high vitrinite content and medium rank (R o = 0.82 - 1.06%, V daf = 28.30 - 37.40%, RI = 19 - 89) and can be classified as para- and ortobituminous coals (ECE Geneva, 1993). Distribution of coal quality parameters was featured by different degree of concordance with spatial orientation of geological structures. In some cases (the Concordia over thrust, the anticline of Makoszowy fold) such concordance was revealed and it was proved that the structures were forming simultaneously with coalification process. In another two cases (the Klodnica fault, the Saara fault) concordance of this kind was not found. However, distribution of rank parameters allowed to reconstruct the sequence of the two processes, indicating that the faults formed after coalification. There were also cases (the Sosnica folds, the Ruda syncline) in which univocal relative timing of coalification and structure formation was not possible. The results obtained show, that presented method of analysis of spatial distribution of basic coal quality parameters within the deposit (above all R o , V daf , RI) can be used, similarly to optical anisotropy examination, for relative timing of geological structure formation and coalification process. It was confirmed, that knowledge of structure and geological history of a basin enables more precise prognosis of chemical - technological properties of coals. (Author)

  2. World record of PV solar competitiveness: 2.6 cent per KWh in Dubai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Thouverez, Pierre


    A proposition of 2.99 cent per KWh of solar photovoltaic power has been made to the local electric power operator (DEWA) by a Saudi and Spanish venture, and DEWA is now to examine technical and commercial aspects to choose between this proposition and those made by a Chinese company (JinkoSolar), a Saudi and American venture, Engie and EDF. The author of this article outlines that such a competitive trend can be noticed in other countries (in the Emirates, in Mexico, in Peru, in the USA). The competitiveness record in Dubai is due to a low labour cost and to an optimal sunning. The author then discusses the fact that solar PV in France is now nearly as cheap as nuclear, and the main consequence of this trend: nuclear will never be competitive with respect to solar energy any longer. He finally evokes Wattway, the project of a solar road in France, and quotes various reactions and opinions about it

  3. Industrial and scientific technology research and development project fiscal 1997 commissioned by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. Report on research and development of a brain type computer architecture `trial fabrication and high-level evaluation on chips for a large-scale artificial neural system` and on results of evaluation studies on the chips; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Nogata computer architecture no kenkyu kaihatsu `daikibo jinko shinkei kairo system yo chip no shisaku to kodo hyoka` chip hyoka kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to develop a brain type computer architecture, a brain mimic processor (BMP) has been developed (which was made in LSI in fiscal 1997), and studies are being made on developing its applications. Development has been made on an element in which linkage of one million cells with one thousand neural cells can be realized. Evaluation substrates mounted with the BMP, control software, and compilers were provided to 15 organizations including the National Research Institutes, universities, corporations, and other societies (for 19 themes) to evaluate capability of the LSI and its application development. All of the research organizations are using these items utilizing features of the LSI or the network for such purposes as learning, storage, recognition and control. The applicable theme may include infrared spectrum pattern recognition and domain division of document images using neural network functions. It can also include structural analysis of mass spectrum molecules, time series pattern recognition, location of corresponding points in images, estimation of moving images, satellite control, character recognition, short time storage, long-term association memory models, and invention process studies, all utilizing the functions of the BMP. 71 refs., 89 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M A; Hatcher, P G


    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studied by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing /sup 13/C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.


    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  6. Applicability of Hilt's law to the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivek, Martin; Caslavsky, Marek; Jirasek, Jakub


    Hilt's law (dependence of the coalification degree on depth) is a substantial and long-acknowledged rule. Its validity in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Carboniferous, Mississippian to Pennsylvanian - Lower Namurian to Westphalian A) is the subject of this study. It is based on over 29,000 analyses of the volatile matter moisture- and ash-free (V daf ) from surface and underground boreholes drilled in 1946-1989. Vitrinite reflectance (R max ) cannot be used as a measure of coalification in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin: the number of reflectance measurements is small and their distribution over the basin area is very uneven. Statistical data on V daf for the individual stratal units were processed. Modelling of the trends in the volatile matter moisture- and ash-free (V daf ) depending on ''stratigraphic depth'' proved the general applicability of Hilt's law. The distribution of this parameter in selected boreholes and segments of the basin was also studied, and coalification gradients were calculated. Coalification in specific examples (boreholes) is, however, highly variable and shows numerous deviations from Hilt's law even within individual boreholes, which is documented on a real example. The causes of some of the deviations are relatively well known (e.g., effect of elevated pressure in tectonically deformed areas, effect of effusive rocks or paleoweathering zones) while others can be presumed (heat flows due to Variscan and Carpathian orogenies affected by the lithology of the Carboniferous massif). The contribution of these effects in specific examples can be determined with great difficulty only. (author)

  7. Study on maturation process of huminitic organic matter by means of high-pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Z.A.


    Two different series of artificial coalification experiments were made using high pressure bombs. The first series was carried out with a lignite coal of Pliocene age in open and closed systems under the following conditions: duration: one week, load pressure: 1.5 and 10 kbar: temperature: 90, 120, 160 and 200 C, respectively. In the second series of experiments the behaviour of multipopulate vitrinite material in sedimentary rocks was simulated. This was realized by a coal mixture made from four different types of coal of various rank. This starting material was treated under the same conditions as the samples of the first series. The degree of coalification was followed by the random reflectance of the vitrinitic microcomponents of coal. The experimental results show that temperature and duration of the run are the primary factors to increase the rank while the role of load pressure is negligible. The only effect of volatile pressure is to retain the increase of coalification in closed system (as a consequence of the Le Chatelier-Brown principle).

  8. Dependence of carbon dioxide sorption on the petrographic composition of bituminous coals from the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzana Weishauptova; Ivana Sykorova [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics


    The effect of the rank and of the maceral composition of bituminous coal on carbon dioxide sorption capacity was studied on the basis of samples from two coal mines (Darkov, CSM) from the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. The samples from the two mines cover a small but very significant section of coalification within the transition zone between high-volatile bituminous A coal and medium-volatile bituminous coal, where porosity and sorption properties pass through their minima. The coal porous system was characterized by the micropore volume evaluated using the sorption isotherm of carbon dioxide and the volumes of meso-, macro- and coarse pores were determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry. The micropore fraction in the coal porous system ranged between 53% and 75%. It was particularly high in coals with high vitrinite content, namely collotelinite, and also in coals with high inertinite content. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity was determined from the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms measured using a gravimetric sorption analyzer at 298 K until a relative pressure of 0.015 p/p{sub s}, and was interpreted by characteristic parameters of the Dubinin and Langmuir equations. It was found that the adsorbed amount of CO{sub 2} in the CSM coal increases with the content of vitrinite and collotelinite, whereas no increase or only a slight increase was observed for the Darkov coal. The tendency of adsorption capacity to depend on maceral composition, and also to some extent on coalification, observed for the CSM coal, may be related to higher microporosity due to the coalification process or oxidative processes leading to the formation of pseudovitrinite. 42 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of ancient buried wood-II. Observations on the origin of coal from lignite to bituminous coal (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Breger, I.A.; Szeverenyi, N.; Maciel, G.E.


    Coalified logs ranging in age from Late Pennsylvania to Miocene and in rank from lignite B to bituminous coal were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) utilizing the cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning technique, as well as by infrared spectroscopy. The results of this study indicate that at least three major stages of coalification can be observed as wood gradually undergoes transformation to bituminous coal. The first stage involves hydrolysis and loss of cellulose from wood with retention and differential concentration of the resistant lignin. The second stage involves conversion of the lignin residues directly to coalified wood of lignitic rank, during which the oxygen content of intermediate diagenetic products remains constant as the hydrogen content and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to involve loss of methoxyl groups, water, and C3 side chains from the lignin. In the third major stage of coalification, the coalified wood increases in rank to subbituminous and bituminous coal; during this stage the oxygen content decreases, hydrogen remains constant, and the carbon content increases. These changes are thought to result from loss of soluble humic acids that are rich in oxygen and that are mobilized during compaction and dewatering. Relatively resistant resinous substances are differentially concentrated in the coal during this stage. The hypothesis that humic acids are formed as mobile by-products of the coalification of lignin and function only as vehicles for removal of oxygen represents a dramatic departure from commonly accepted views that they are relatively low-molecular-weight intermediates formed during the degradation of lignin that then condense to form high-molecular-weight coal structures. ?? 1982.

  10. International handbook of coal petrography. 2nd ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosdale, P. (ed.)


    This handbook is a CD-ROM version of the 1963 edition which was produced as a series of scanned tiff files with some corrections added. The handbook contains an alphabetical list of terms pertaining to brown coal petrography. Only terms recognised by a majority of experienced world petrographers are included. Generally, each of the terms contains sections on the origin of the term, a description of its constituents and properties, botanical affinities and genesis, alteration during coalification, occurrence and practical importance. Other sections cover other nomenclature systems, synonyms and analogous terms, and petrographic analysis methods.

  11. Energy characteristics of finest coal particles surfaces versus their upgrading using flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Sablik


    The paper presents selected results of investigations on energy properties of the fine coal particles, and methodological grounds for conducting such investigations. Using the discussed relationships, values of contact angle of coal particles with various degree of coalification in the range defined by the energy nonhomogeneity of the surfaces were computed. There have been determined the values of the contact angles of coal particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces after coating with nonpolar and polar reagents. The energy state of the surfaces of coal particles in the feeds and products of industrial flotation were determined, which enabled to evaluate this process. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Geological factors of the isotopic distribution of carbon of organic matter in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maass, J.


    The isotope ratio of carbon of fossile organic matter can be regarded as a definite criterion of its genetic origin. As the biofacial character of organic matter, especially the chemical composition (H/C-ratio), decisively influences the mode and quantity of the potential hydrocarbon production, isotopic analysis is an essential method for the prognostic evaluation of sedimentary basins with regard to their oil and gas perspectives. The genetic relations to the parent substance continue in the bituminization and coalification products and make it possible to apply the isotopic analysis of carbon to prospection work for hydrocarbons. (author)

  13. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Compression map, functional groups and fossilization: A chemometric approach (Pennsylvanian neuropteroid foliage, Canada) (United States)

    D'Angelo, J. A.; Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria


    Nearly all of the spectrochemical studies involving Carboniferous foliage of seed-ferns are based on a limited number of pinnules, mainly compressions. In contrast, in this paper we illustrate working with a larger pinnate segment, i.e., a 22-cm long neuropteroid specimen, compression-preserved with cuticle, the compression map. The objective is to study preservation variability on a larger scale, where observation of transparency/opacity of constituent pinnules is used as a first approximation for assessing the degree of pinnule coalification/fossilization. Spectrochemical methods by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry furnish semi-quantitative data for principal component analysis.The compression map shows a high degree of preservation variability, which ranges from comparatively more coalified pinnules to less coalified pinnules that resemble fossilized-cuticles, noting that the pinnule midveins are preserved more like fossilized-cuticles. A general overall trend of coalified pinnules towards fossilized-cuticles, i.e., variable chemistry, is inferred from the semi-quantitative FTIR data as higher contents of aromatic compounds occur in the visually more opaque upper location of the compression map. The latter also shows a higher condensation of the aromatic nuclei along with some variation in both ring size and degree of aromatic substitution. From principal component analysis we infer correspondence between transparency/opacity observation and chemical information which correlate with varying degree to fossilization/coalification among pinnules. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F


    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  16. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education


    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  17. Application of coal petrographic methods in petroleum and natural gas exploration. Anwendung kohlenpetrographischer Methoden bei der Erdoel- und Erdgasprospektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmueller, M.


    The relationship that exists between coalification and the formation of liquid petroleum and natural gas depends entirely upon the temperature in the earth's crust and the duration of heating. The degree of coalification can be determined by reflectivity measurements on very small vitrinitic (huminitic) inclusions in sedimentary rocks, because a satisfactory correlation has been established between mean reflectivity (R/sub m Oil/) and different parameters of chemical rank using 900 vitrites of different rank. This paper reports the considerable experience obtained with this method using cores and cuttings from boreholes of the German oil industry. Subsequently, examples from other countries are described which confirm the applicability of the method. Results obtained so far suggest that oil deposits may occur when the reflectivity (R/sub m Oil/) of the vitrinite lies between 0.3 and 1.0% (brown coal to high-volatile bituminous stage), whereas economic gas deposits may be found when R/sub m Oil/ extends from 0.7 to 2.0% (high-low volatile bituminous stage).

  18. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan


    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  19. Characterized hydrochar of algal biomass for producing solid fuel through hydrothermal carbonization. (United States)

    Park, Ki Young; Lee, Kwanyong; Kim, Daegi


    The aim of this work was to study the characterized hydrochar of algal biomass to produce solid fuel though hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization conducted at temperatures ranging from 180 to 270 °C with a 60 min reaction improved the upgrading of the fuel properties and the dewatering of wet-basis biomasses such as algae. The carbon content, carbon recovery, energy recovery, and atomic C/O and C/H ratios in all the hydrochars in this study were improved. These characteristic changes in hydrochar from algal biomass are similar to the coalification reactions due to dehydration and decarboxylation with an increase in the hydrothermal reaction temperature. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means of generating highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources using algal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare earth element patterns in nigerian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegba, S.B.


    Rare Earth Elements (REE's) retain group coherence in their environment and are therefore useful geochemical markers. We report the pattern of ten REE's (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu) determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for coals obtained from eight mines in Nigeria, namely, Okaba, Enugu, Ogbete, Onyeama, Gombe, Lafia, Asaba and Afikpo. Our results show the existence of fractionations with the highest index of 13.19 for Lafia coal, depletion in HREE, negative Eu anomaly for most of the coals, REE patterns that are consistent with chondritic trends; prominent (Eu/Eu * ) cn for Okaba and Gombe coals. Variations in geochemical data observed could suggest strong departures from band metamorphism during the coalification events of the Benue Trough geosynclines, where the coal deposits are all located. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Proceedings of the papers of the 33rd Coal Science Conference (1996); Dai 33 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi happyo ronbunshu (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a proceedings of the papers made public in the 33rd (fiscal 1996) Coal Science Conference held by the Japan Institute of Energy. The number of the papers included is 82. The processes such as coal liquefaction, coal gasification and pyrolysis are largely influenced by reaction of the carbon compound in coal. However, coal, which is different in reaction characteristics depending on its producing area, is a comprehensive compound. Therefore, the trial has been made for clarifying the molecular structure and skeleton. In the sense, the following papers are taken notice of: Suzuki and others` Estimation for origin of coals by biomaker analysis; Sugimoto and others` Change of unit skeletons during the artificial coalification; Hirado and others` Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Okawa and others` Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kanbayashi and others` Analysis of the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction characteristics by using the coal database.

  2. Maximum solid concentrations of coal water slurries predicted by neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Yanchang; Zhou, Junhu; Liu, Jianzhong; Cen, Kefa


    The nonlinear back-propagation (BP) neural network models were developed to predict the maximum solid concentration of coal water slurry (CWS) which is a substitute for oil fuel, based on physicochemical properties of 37 typical Chinese coals. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to train five BP neural network models with different input factors. The data pretreatment method, learning rate and hidden neuron number were optimized by training models. It is found that the Hardgrove grindability index (HGI), moisture and coalification degree of parent coal are 3 indispensable factors for the prediction of CWS maximum solid concentration. Each BP neural network model gives a more accurate prediction result than the traditional polynomial regression equation. The BP neural network model with 3 input factors of HGI, moisture and oxygen/carbon ratio gives the smallest mean absolute error of 0.40%, which is much lower than that of 1.15% given by the traditional polynomial regression equation. (author)

  3. Condensation reactions of glucose and aromatic ring; Glucose to hokokan tono shukugo hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T.; Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    For artificial coalification, condensation reactions of aromatic ring and activated compounds produced by dehydrating reaction of glucose were studied experimentally. In heat treatment experiment in water, three reaction specimens such as glucose, glucose and phenol, and glucose and benzaldehyde were fed into an autoclave together with distilled water, and subjected to reaction at 180{degree}C under spontaneous pressure for 50 hours. In hydrogenation experiment, the specimens were fed into an autoclave together with tetradecane and sulfurization catalyst, and subjected to reaction at 350{degree}C under initial pressure of 9.8MPa for 2 hours for gas chromatography (GC) analysis of products. As the experimental result, the reaction between glucose and aromatic ring in heat treatment in water occurred between aromatic ring and active fragment with a mean carbon number of 4-5 produced by decomposition of glucose. The reactivity was higher in benzaldehyde addition than phenol addition. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.


    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Borane-catalyzed cracking of C-C bonds in coal; Boran-katalysierte C-C-Bindungungsspaltung in Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narangerel, J; Haenel, M W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)


    Coal, especially coking coal, was reacted with hydrogen at comparatively mild reaction conditions (150-280 degrees centigrade, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure) in the presence of catalysts consisting of borange reagents and certain transition metal halides to obtaine more than 80 percent of pyridine-soluble products. The influence of the degree of coalification, catalyst and temperature on the borane-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of C-C bonds in coal was investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Steinkohlen, insbesondere im Inkohlungsbereich der Fettkohlen (Kokskohlen), werden in Gegenwart von Katalysatoren aus Boran-Reagentien und bestimmten Uebergangsmetallhalogeniden mit Wasserstoff bei vergleichsweise milden Reaktionsbedingungen (250-280 C, 20 MPa Wasserstoffdruck) in zu ueber 80% pyridinloesliche Produkte umgewandelt. Der Einfluss von Inkohlungsgrad, Katalysator und Temperatur auf die Boran-katalysierte C-C-Bindungshydrogenolyse in Kohle wurde untersucht. (orig.)

  6. Black coal and lignite from biomass as fuel or alternative to carbon dioxide capture and storage; Stein- und Braunkohle aus Biomasse als Brennstoff oder als Alternative zur CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung und -Speicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, S.; Koch, C.; Scheer, J.; Stadlbauer, E.A.; Richarts, F.; Altensen, R.; Richter, H. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany); Weber, B. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (UAEM), Toluca (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Bayer, M.P.; Albert, K. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie


    This article refers to coalification of biomass in light of embedding this technique in the regional material flow management. From a process engineering point of view the focus is set on Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Low Temperature Conversion (LTC). Based on monosaccharides as building blocks of polysaccharides and ligneous biomass, the thermal behavior of glucose, fructose and xylose depending on reaction time and temperature is tracked. Consequently mainly hemicellulosic structures are affected under HTC conditions. However LTC converts both hemicelluloses as well as cellulose. The classification of HTC and LTC products from spent grains in terms of H/C and C/O ratio according to Meunier's coalification diagram ranges HTC coal in the area of lignite and the LTC coal in the area of black coal. This grading in terms of elementary analysis is confirmed by solid state{sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The spectrum of LTC coal from spent grains fashioned at 400 C for duration of 3 h is undistinguishable from the spectrum of black coal. From the chemical point of view these two coals has to be described as identical. However the spectrum of the HTC product made of spent grains fashioned at 250 C for 3 h in a pressurized environment shows similarity to the spectrum of lignite. As engineering usage HTC products are a tool to convert cellulose-based residues in a uniform, high-energy matter for incineration processes. For this in-house waste management of e.g. breweries or sugar refineries could be enhanced. LTC coals are due to their stability eligible to extract CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and transfer carbon to the long-term stable geological cycle of matter. Consequential LTC offers an alternative to CCS. As a side effect LTC coals contribute to the elevation of carbon content in soils, which facilitates their water-holding and nutrient-holding capacity. (orig.)

  7. Developmental geology of coalbed methane from shallow to deep in Rocky Mountain basins and in Cook Inlet-Matanuska Basin, Alaska, USA and Canada (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Flores, R.M.


    The Rocky Mountain basins of western North America contain vast deposits of coal of Cretaceous through early Tertiary age. Coalbed methane is produced in Rocky Mountain basins at depths ranging from 45 m (150 ft) to 1981 m (6500 ft) from coal of lignite to low-volatile bituminous rank. Although some production has been established in almost all Rocky Mountain basins, commercial production occurs in only a few. despite more than two decades of exploration for coalbed methane in the Rocky Mountain region, it is still difficult to predict production characteristics of coalbed methane wells prior to drilling. Commonly cited problems include low permeabilities, high water production, and coals that are significantly undersaturated with respect to methane. Sources of coalbed gases can be early biogenic, formed during the early stages of coalification, thermogenic, formed during the main stages of coalification, or late stage biogenic, formed as a result of the reintroduction of methane-gnerating bacteria by groundwater after uplift and erosion. Examples of all three types of coalbed gases, and combinations of more than one type, can be found in the Rocky Mountain region. Coals in the Rocky Mountain region achieved their present ranks largely as a result of burial beneath sediments that accumulated during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through the end of the eocene) or shortly after. Thermal events since the end of the orogeny have also locally elevated coal ranks. Coal beds in the upper part of high-volatile A bituminous rank or greater commonly occur within much more extensive basin-centered gas deposits which cover large areas of the deeper parts of most Rocky Mountain basins. Within these basin-centered deposits all lithologies, including coals, sandstones, and shales, are gas saturated, and very little water is produced. The interbedded coals and carbonaceous shales are probably the source of much of this gas. Basin-centered gas deposits become overpressured

  8. Coal Reservoir Physical Property Features and CBM Resource Potential in Xingtai Coal-bearing Region%邢台含煤区煤储层物性特征及煤层气资源潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮; 上官拴通; 张国斌; 李英英; 闫家栋


    为了评价邢台含煤区煤层气开发潜力,采集不同矿井的2、8、9号煤样进行了煤岩组分、孔裂隙分布、等温吸附及水单相渗透率实验分析,采用体积法和综合排队系数法对底板标高-2000 m以浅的煤层气资源量进行了预测和评价.结果表明:区内目的煤层厚度、煤级适中,具有较好的生储条件;煤岩的镜质组、惰质组和壳质组含量依次减少,水分随煤化程度的增加呈现先减小后增大,挥发分随煤化程度的增加而减少;孔隙度随煤化程度增大而增大,且孔径分布不均匀,微孔的孔容和比表面积所占比例最大;显微裂隙密度级别为一级,部分裂隙被脉状方解石和粒状黄铁矿充填;煤的吸附量受煤级控制,且在一定压力范围内,吸附量随压力增加而增大,吸附能力随压力增加而减小;煤层渗透率离散性较大,属中~高级渗透率.估算底板标高-2000 m以浅潜在的煤层气资源量为427.31亿m3,优选出中等有利区块6个,其中FY区、QHY区、GZ区为煤层气勘探首选区块.%To assess CBM exploitation potential in the Xingtai coal-bearing region, collected coal samples from coal seam Nos. 2, 8 and 9 in different coalmines, carried out experimental analysis of coal lithotype, pore and fissure distribution, isothermal adsorption and wa-ter single-phase permeability. Through the volumetric method and integrated queuing coefficient method carried out prediction and as-sessment of CBM resources above floor elevation-2000 m. The result has shown that the target coal thickness and coal rank are moder-ate, thus have better CBM generation and preservation conditions. Contents of coal macerals vitrinite, inertinite and exinite are sequen-tially deceasing;moisture content increasing along with coalification degree increasing presents deceasing first than increasing;volatile matter decreasing along with coalification degree increasing. Porosity is increasing along with coalification

  9. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko


    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  10. Characterization of Coal Quality Based On Ash Content From M2 Coal-Seam Group, Muara Enim Formation, South Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frillia Putri Nasution


    Full Text Available Muara Enim Formation is well known as coal-bearing formation in South Sumatra Basin. As coal-bearing formation, this formation was subjects of many integrated study. Muara Enim Formation can be divided into four coal-seam group, M1, M2, M3, and M4. The M2 group comprising of Petai (C, Suban (B, Lower Mangus (A2, and Upper Mangus (A1. Depositional environments of Group M2 is transitional lower delta plain with sub-depositional are crevasse splay and distributary channel. The differentiation of both sub-depositional environments can be caused the quality of coal deposit. One of quality aspects is ash content. This research conducted hopefully can give better understanding of relationship between depositional environments to ash content. Group M2 on research area were found only Seam C, Seam B, and Seam A2, that has distribution from north to central so long as 1400 m. Coal-seam thickness C ranged between 3.25-9.25 m, Seam B range 7.54-13.43 m, and Seam C range 1.53-8.37 m, where all of coal-seams thickening on the central part and thinning-splitting to northern part and southern part. The ash content is formed from burning coal residue material. Ash contents on coal seam caused by organic and inorganic compound which resulted from mixing modified material on surrounded when transportation, sedimentation, and coalification process. There are 27 sample, consists of 9 sample from Seam C, 8 sample from Seam B, and 10 sample from Seam A2. Space grid of sampling is 100-150 m. Ash content influenced by many factors, but in research area, main factor is existence of inorganic parting. Average ash content of Seam C is 6,04%, Seam B is 5,05%, and Seam A2 is 3,8%. Low ash content influenced by settle environment with minor detrital material. High ash content caused by oxidation and erosional process when coalification process. Ash content on coal in research area originated from detritus material carried by channel system into brackish area or originated

  11. Methane flaring: an initiative in line with the greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, D.


    Methane is a by-product of the coalification process. Once produced, it typically remains trapped within the coal seam and the surrounding strata. High quality black coals in Australia may contain up to 20 m 3 of methane per tonne of coal. In order to mine coal safely, this gas level must be reduced. Presence of gas at the coal face is a hazard as sparks created by coal extraction machine picks may ignite the gas/air mix. Concentrations of methane between approximately 5% and 15% in air create an explosive mixture. This represents a considerable potential safety risk for underground mining personnel. In Queensland, all underground mining personnel and equipment are protected by sensors that remove electrical power from machines should the ambient methane levels exceed 1.25%. While this assists in creating a safe working environment, it also halts coal production. Normal mine ventilation air removes a significant amount of methane, however in gassy mines the ventilation air flow required to maintain methane levels below the 1.25% limit can introduce other problems. These include excess airborne dust, which can lead to respiratory issues and poor visibility. A flare was installed at Central Colliery to achieve reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions. It would also be used to burn gas flow beyond that which can be effectively utilised by power generation

  12. Studies on coal vitrinoid substances and their carbonized products. Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A


    The purposes of this research were to investigate some of the physical and chemical properties of coal vitrinoid substances and the changes in those properties which occurred during the carbonization of the vitrinoids and to compare, wherever possible the processes of coalification and carbonization. The construction and use of a direct reading reflectometer is described and tests which revealed that the average maximum and minimum reflectances obtained from particulate blocks of vitrinoid could be accepted as approximations of the true maximum and minimum reflectances. Reflectance determinations upon oriented samples formed the basis of this research and lead to the suggestion that there are two overlapping segments of the curve relating reflectance to either carbon content of aromaticity. The apparent step in reflectance is considered to be at least partly due to a mottling of the lower-reflecting vitrinoids caused by a marked difference in appearance of various of the coalified plant cell wall layers and cell contents. Various of the properties of the vitrinoids, including behavior upon carbonization, indicated that the lower-reflecting group of vitrinoids from Northumberland and North Durham were all of lower rank than other, higher-reflecting vitrinoids, in spite of the overlapping carbon content. The changes in density, optical properties and chemical analyses of the vitrinoids following carbonization at temperatures up to 600C are described: increase in reflectance is reported for some low-rank vitrinoids carbonized at 200C and significant changes in the anisotropy of some carbonized vitrinoids are given in terms of bireflectance.

  13. Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Sekitanbaibun no kobutsu soseigakuteki kento kagakubutsu sosei to kobutsugakuteki sosei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirato, M.; Nagashima, S.; Okada, S. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)


    Coal ash is a substance that has been mixed into minerals in the earth`s crust during their coalification process. Estimation was made on what kinds of mineral composition have been mixed into coals. Noted first was the kinds of compounds contained in the ash, wherein the ratios of mass in the compounds and minerals were correlated, and selection was made on minerals which are thought correlated. The selection criterion was based on minerals containing silica, alumina, iron oxide, lime and magnesium as compounds. Then, a phase equilibrium line diagram was used to estimate compositions and melting points of minerals which are thought to have been produced from these compounds. By comparing the estimation with the measured melting points of the ashes, mineral compositions thought reasonable were all selected. Assumption was possible on minerals that are thought to have been transferred into coal ash. Compound indications of ashes from 29 kinds of the world`s typical coals were replaced with the subject minerals and expressed as mineral compositions. As a method of calculation, stoichiometric coefficients for each mineral were determined by taking material balance in atomic/molecular levels in masses of compound aggregates and mineral composition aggregates. 7 tabs.

  14. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Agglomeration and reaction characteristics of various coal chars in fluidized-bed coal gasifier; Ryudoso sekitan gas ka ronai deno sekitan no gyoshu tokusei to hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemiya, S.; Aoki, K.; Mori, S.; Kojima, T. [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With relation to the coals delivered as common samples in the coal fundamental technology development project, an experimental study was conducted on agglomeration characteristics and reaction characteristics in the fluidized-bed coal gasifier. For the experiment, used was a fluidized bed gasifier inserted with a cone-shape dispersion plate with a nozzle in the center. After raising the temperature of the gasifier up to 773K, gasification was conducted sending to the gasifier air from the nozzle and steam from the dispersion plate. The mean particle diameter and gas concentration of chars were measured till the temperature reaches 1373K. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion ratio increases with a decrease in coalification degree of the coal. Moreover, influence of the coal kind was markedly observed at the grid zone of the lower part of the bed, and it was clarified that the lower carbon content ratio the coal kind has, the faster the speed of CO formation and water gasification get. The agglomeration temperature of charcoal which is a product of the condensate is lower by as many as several hundred K than the point of softening, and it was considered to be necessary to study the relation with the temperature distribution in the bed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Report on the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in research of coal liquefying technologies. Studies on direct hydrogenation liquefying reaction mechanism and prevention of carbonization; 1989 nendo sekitan no ekika gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu hokokusho. Chokusetsu suiten ekika hanno kiko to tanka boshi no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper reports the research of coal liquefying technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. The research was performed with importance placed on the fundamentals of coal liquefaction and high value added compounds. Production of n-paraffin in the liquefying reaction occurs from reduction of acidic ester, and this ester structure contributes to cross-linking of aromatic rings. Most of the aromatic rings in coal has long side chains. A hypothesis was assumed that these chains have been produced from reaction of lignin in plants with fatty acid or alcohol. The hypothesis was verified from a synthesizing reaction by model substances. This could be said an initial reaction model for coalification. In order to verify de-alkylating reaction of the liquefied oil, model substances were used to investigate the products. Benzene having long alkyl side chains have the alkyl group dissociated, and on the other hand cyclization progressed producing naphthalene. Melting performance during coking is attributed to a great amount of solvent soluble low molecular constituents contained in coal. These constituents are contained in close contact in a net-like structure, which is loosened only by heating extraction, and extracted. They have no hydrogen donating performance. (NEDO)

  17. Isotopic variations in the nitrogen of natural humic and bituminous organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiehl, G.; Lehmann, M.


    delta 15 N-values and nitrogen contents of a series of humic and bituminous organic sediments of different ranks were determined. The change of the isotopic abundance of nitrogen was investigated during heating in model experiments, using a gas flame coal. In the case of humic carbon coals the relative nitrogen contents vary from 0.8 to 1.4% and the delta 15 N-values from + 3.5 to + 6.3 parts per thousand increasing from the brown coal to anthracite ranks. During the coalification process both the delta 15 N-values and the relative nitrogen contents do not vary continuously with the rank, but pass through maxima and minima. Model experiments using a gas flame coal show the same trend. Nitrogen with delta 15 N-values of + 2.8 or -7 parts per thousand was released in pyrolysis experiments, applying a gas flame coal and a steam coal at temperatures of 650 and 1000 0 C, respectively. The investigated bituminous sediments yielded relative amounts of 0.1 to 0.8% with delta 15 N-values of + 4.2 to + 10.7 parts per thousand. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the elucidation of nitrogen genesis in natural gas deposits. (author)

  18. Working group report: methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, D.


    The process of coalification inherently generates methane and other byproducts. The amount of methane released during coal mining is a function of coal rank and depth, gas content, and mining methods, as well as other factors such as moisture. In most underground mines, methane is removed by drawing large quantities of air through the mine releasing the air into the atmosphere. In surface mines, exposed coal faces and surfaces, as well as areas of coal rubble created by blasting operations are believed to be the major sources of methane. A portion of the methane emitted from coal mining comes from post-mining activities such as coal processing, transportation, and utilisation. Some methane is also released from coal waste piles and abandoned mines. This paper highlights difficulties with previous methane emission studies namely: absence of data on which to base estimates; use of national data to develop global estimates; failure to include all possible emission sources; overreliance on statistical estimation methodologies. It recommends a 'tiered' approach for the estimation of emissions from underground mines, surface mines and post-mining activities. For each source, two or more approaches (or 'tiers') are presented, with the first tier requiring basic and readily available data and higher tiers requiring additional data. 29 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Chemical evolution of Miocene wood: Example from the Belchatow brown coal deposit, central Poland (United States)

    Drobniak, A.; Mastalerz, Maria


    Miocene conifer wood samples from the Belchatow brown coal deposit in Poland were studied in order to discuss a range of chemical variations that occur as a result of biochemical coalification. Petrographic analysis, ultimate analysis, electron microprobe technique, and FTIR spectroscopy were used in this study. Our data show several progressive trends in functional groups distribution that take place during the wood transformation from group 1 to group 4, such as an overall increase in aromaticity, an increase in lignin/cellulose ratio, and an increase in oxygen functionalities. Other observations include an increase in aliphatic stretching and bending functionalities from groups 1 to 3; followed by a decrease in the wood of group 4; appearance of aliphatic out-of-plane bands in group 3 and increase in group 4; an increase in CH2/CH3 in group 4 compared to the other groups; and decrease in O-H groups in group 4 compared to other groups. These observations, together with other chemical and petrological observations, indicate that the progressive elimination of cellulose and modification of lignin are dominant processes of the wood transformation. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen functionality of glucose-glycine condensate; Glucose to glycine tono shukugo hanno (shukugobutsuchu no chisso kagobutsu no keitai bunseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, C.; Yoshioka, T.; Komano, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Sugimoto, Y.; : Miki, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to clarify a humification process in the early stage of coalification, the nitrogen functionality of prepared glucose-glycine condensate was studied experimentally. In experiment, the condensate was prepared by heating the mixture of glucose, glycine and water in a autoclave at 130{degree}C for 50 hours, and furthermore heating the produced solid material in water at 300{degree}C. After the condensate was hydrocracked, the fraction, condensate and hydrocracking residue were analyzed by elementary analyzer, {sup 13}C-NMR, XPS, FT-IR, capillary GC-FID/NPD and GC-MS. As a result, the glucose-glycine condensate could be arranged on the basis of three types of nitrogen such as pyridine, pyrrole and quaternary amine type. Pyridine type nitrogen increased, while quaternary amine type one decreased with an increase in heating treatment temperature. Rich pyrrole type nitrogen and poor pyridine type one were found in light nitrogen compounds in hydrocracked products. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezovska, M.


    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  2. Interaction of uranium and organic matter in unaniferous sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouzaud, J N; Oberlin, A; Trichet, J


    Conventional transmission electron microscopy (lattice fringes and dark field techniques) was used for determining the structure and microtexture of some Precambrian organic matter. The samples came from Cluff (Saskatchewan, Canada) and Oklo (Gabon) and contain uranium with organo-metallic bonding (uranium was shown to be present by energy dispersive X-ray analysis carried out in the CTEM). Despite their algal origin, these materials show a high oxygen content. This strong degree of oxidation inhibits the parallel molecular orientation usually produced in carbonaceous products as coalification progresses. Progressive heat-treatment to 3000/sup 0/C produces microporous carbon (50 to 100A). It is, however, partially transformed into graphite in a manner similar to anthracites and non-graphitizable carbons heat-treated under pressure (5 kbars). It is favored by pore flattening, due to pressure, which introduces a long-range, preferred orientation parallel to the flattening plane. Conversely, it is partially prevented by cross-linking due to oxygen. Comparison with materials of higher plant origin (e.g. from Arlit, Niger) suggests a possible mechanism of uranium fixation.

  3. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)


    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F


    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  5. Research on the Composition and Distribution of Organic Sulfur in Coal. (United States)

    Zhang, Lanjun; Li, Zenghua; Yang, Yongliang; Zhou, Yinbo; Li, Jinhu; Si, Leilei; Kong, Biao


    The structure and distribution of organic sulfur in coals of different rank and different sulfur content were studied by combining mild organic solvent extraction with XPS technology. The XPS results have shown that the distribution of organic sulfur in coal is related to the degree of metamorphism of coal. Namely, thiophenic sulfur content is reduced with decreasing metamorphic degree; sulfonic acid content rises with decreasing metamorphic degree; the contents of sulfate sulfur, sulfoxide and sulfone are rarely related with metamorphic degree. The solvent extraction and GC/MS test results have also shown that the composition and structure of free and soluble organic sulfur small molecules in coal is closely related to the metamorphic degree of coal. The free organic sulfur small molecules in coal of low metamorphic degree are mainly composed of aliphatic sulfides, while those in coal of medium and high metamorphic degree are mainly composed of thiophenes. Besides, the degree of aromatization of organic sulfur small molecules rises with increasing degree of coalification.

  6. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária


    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  7. Compression-cuticle relationship of seed ferns: Insights from liquid-solid states FTIR (Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic, Canada-Spain-Argentina) (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; D'Angelo, J. A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Keefe, D.


    Cuticles have been macerated from suitably preserved compressed fossil foliage by Schulze's process for the past 150 years, whereas the physical-biochemical relationship between the "coalified layer" with preserved cuticle as a unit has hardly been investigated, although they provide complementary information. This relationship is conceptualized by an analogue model of the anatomy of an extant leaf: "vitrinite (mesophyll) + cuticle (biomacropolymer) = compression". Alkaline solutions from Schulze's process as a proxy for the vitrinite, are studied by means of liquid-solid states Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, cuticle-free coalified layers and fossilized cuticles of seed ferns mainly from Canada, Spain and Argentina of Late Pennsylvanian-Late Triassic age are included in the study sample. Infrared data of cuticle and alkaline solutions differ which is primarily contingent on the mesophyll +biomacropolymer characteristics. The compression records two pathways of organic matter transformation. One is the vitrinized component that reflects the diagenetic-post-diagenetic coalification history parallel with the evolution of the associated coal seam. The other is the cuticle that reflects the sum-total of evolutionary pathway of the biomacropolymer, its monomeric, or polymeric fragmentation, though factors promoting preservation include entombing clay minerals and lower pH conditions. Caution is advised when interpreting liquid-state-based FTIR data, as some IR signals may have resulted from the interaction of Schulze's process with the cuticular biochemistry. A biochemical-study course for taphonomy is suggested, as fossilized cuticles, cuticle-free coalified layers, and compressions are responses to shared physicogeochemical factors. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium trace and alpha activity characterization of coal and fly ash using particle track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, S.K.


    Uranium is extensively found in carbonaceous components of sedimentary rocks and is considered to be accumulated in coals during the coalification process through the geological times. Burning of coal is mainly responsible for a manifold increase in the concentration of radioactive nuclides in atmosphere precipitates. Fly ash being an incombustible residue and formed from 90% of the inorganic material in coal, escapes into the atmosphere and constitutes a potential hazard. Also its use as one of the pozzolanic materials in the products of concrete, bricks etc and filling of ground cavities is even more hazardous because of the wall radioactivity, besides emission and diffusion of radon. This paper reports a simple method called Particle Track Etch (PTE) technique, for trace determination of uranium content in coal and fly ash samples by making use of low cost and versatile plastic detectors known as Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). Total alpha activity has also been estimated using these SSNTDs. The values of uranium concentration in coal samples are found to range from 1.1 to 3.6 ppm (uniform component) and 33 to 46 ppm (non-uniform part) whereas in fly ash, it varies from 8 to 11 ppm (uniform) and 55 to 71 ppm in non-uniform range. It is also observed that the alpha activity is a function of uranium concentration for most of the natural samples of coal studied except for mixtures of fly ash samples where relationship is found to be on higher side. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins (United States)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.


    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  10. Comparison of the associative structure of two different types of rich coals and their coking properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Changhui Lin; Meng Zhang; Zhicai Wang; Mingdong Zheng [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    Solvent extractions of two different types of Chinese rich coals i.e. Aiweiergou coal (AG) and Zaozhuang coal (ZZ) using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) with different mixing ratios were carried out and the caking indexes of the extracted residues were measured. It was found that the extracted residues from the two types of coals showed different changing tendencies of the caking indexes with the extraction yield. When the extraction yield attained about 50% for ZZ coal, the extracted residue had no caking property. However for AG coal, when the extraction yield reached the maximum of 63.5%, the corresponding extracted residue still had considerable caking property with the caking index of 25. This difference indicated the different associative structure of the two coals although they are of the same coalification. Hydro-thermal treatment of the two rich coals gave different extract fractionation distributions for the treated coals compared to those of raw coals respectively. The coking property evaluations of the two coals and their hydro-thermally treated ones were carried out in a crucible coking determination. The results showed that the hydro-thermal treatment could greatly improve the micro-strengths of the resulting coke from the two coals, and the improvement was more significant for the more aggregated AG coal. The reactivities of hydro-thermally treated AG coal blends were almost the same as those of raw coal blends. The higher coke reactivities of AG raw coal and its hydro-thermally treated ones than those of ZZ coal might be attributed to its special ash composition. 20 refs.,4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Compression-cuticle relationship of seed ferns: Insights from liquid-solid states FTIR (Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic, Canada-Spain-Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Area de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario - M5502JMA - Mendoza (Argentina); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Keefe, Dale [Molecular Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)


    Cuticles have been macerated from suitably preserved compressed fossil foliage by Schulze's process for the past 150 years, whereas the physical-biochemical relationship between the ''coalified layer'' with preserved cuticle as a unit has hardly been investigated, although they provide complementary information. This relationship is conceptualized by an analogue model of the anatomy of an extant leaf: ''vitrinite (mesophyll) + cuticle (biomacropolymer) = compression''. Alkaline solutions from Schulze's process as a proxy for the vitrinite, are studied by means of liquid-solid states Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, cuticle-free coalified layers and fossilized cuticles of seed ferns mainly from Canada, Spain and Argentina of Late Pennsylvanian-Late Triassic age are included in the study sample. Infrared data of cuticle and alkaline solutions differ which is primarily contingent on the mesophyll +biomacropolymer characteristics. The compression records two pathways of organic matter transformation. One is the vitrinized component that reflects the diagenetic-post-diagenetic coalification history parallel with the evolution of the associated coal seam. The other is the cuticle that reflects the sum-total of evolutionary pathway of the biomacropolymer, its monomeric, or polymeric fragmentation, though factors promoting preservation include entombing clay minerals and lower pH conditions. Caution is advised when interpreting liquid-state-based FTIR data, as some IR signals may have resulted from the interaction of Schulze's process with the cuticular biochemistry. A biochemical-study course for taphonomy is suggested, as fossilized cuticles, cuticle-free coalified layers, and compressions are responses to shared physicogeochemical factors. (author)

  12. Impact of organic-mineral matter interactions on thermal reaction pathways for coal model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Struss, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.


    Coal is a complex, heterogeneous solid that includes interdispersed mineral matter. However, knowledge of organic-mineral matter interactions is embryonic, and the impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction is incomplete. Clay minerals, for example, are known to be effective catalysts for organic reactions. Furthermore, clays such as montmorillonite have been proposed to be key catalysts in the thermal alteration of lignin into vitrinite during the coalification process. Recent studies by Hatcher and coworkers on the evolution of coalified woods using microscopy and NMR have led them to propose selective, acid-catalyzed, solid state reaction chemistry to account for retained structural integrity in the wood. However, the chemical feasibility of such reactions in relevant solids is difficult to demonstrate. The authors have begun a model compound study to gain a better molecular level understanding of the effects in the solid state of organic-mineral matter interactions relevant to both coal formation and processing. To satisfy the need for model compounds that remain nonvolatile solids at temperatures ranging to 450 C, model compounds are employed that are chemically bound to the surface of a fumed silica (Si-O-C{sub aryl}linkage). The organic structures currently under investigation are phenethyl phenyl ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) derivatives, which serve as models for {beta}-alkyl aryl ether units that are present in lignin and lignitic coals. The solid-state chemistry of these materials at 200--450 C in the presence of interdispersed acid catalysts such as small particle size silica-aluminas and montmorillonite clay will be reported. Initial focus will be on defining the potential impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction.

  13. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.


    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  14. 13C-NMR Study on Structure Evolution Characteristics of High-Organic-Sulfur Coals from Typical Chinese Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wei


    Full Text Available The structure evolution characteristics of high-organic-sulfur (HOS coals with a wide range of ranks from typical Chinese areas were investigated using 13C-CP/MAS NMR. The results indicate that the structure parameters that are relevant to coal rank include CH3 carbon (fal*, quaternary carbon, CH/CH2 carbon + quaternary carbon (falH, aliphatic carbon (falC, protonated aromatic carbon (faH, protonated aromatic carbon + aromatic bridgehead carbon (faH+B, aromaticity (faCP, and aromatic carbon (farC. The coal structure changed dramatically in the first two coalification jumps, especially the first one. A large number of aromatic structures condensed, and aliphatic structures rapidly developed at the initial stage of bituminous coal accompanied by remarkable decarboxylation. Compared to ordinary coals, the structure evolution characteristics of HOS coals manifest in three ways: First, the aromatic CH3 carbon, alkylated aromatic carbon (faS, aromatic bridgehead carbon (faB, and phenolic ether (faP are barely relevant to rank, and abundant organic sulfur has an impact on the normal evolution process of coal. Second, the average aromatic cluster sizes of some super-high-organic-sulfur (SHOS coals are not large, and the extensive development of cross bonds and/or bridged bonds form closer connections among the aromatic fringes. Moreover, sulfur-containing functional groups are probably significant components in these linkages. Third, a considerable portion of “oxygen-containing functional groups” in SHOS coals determined by 13C-NMR are actually sulfur-containing groups, which results in the anomaly that the oxygen-containing structures increase with coal rank.

  15. Anatomy of an intruded coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Yoksoulian, Lois E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)


    If time and heating rate are important agents in coal maturation, one might expect to see differences in chemical changes in response to maturation depending on the means of increased rank. Using a suite of samples obtained from an intruded Pennsylvanian-age coal in southern Illinois, we present whole-coal chemical data. Comparing these data to extant geochemical data for coals that have undergone normal burial maturation, we evaluated the hypothesis that if coal alteration occurs rapidly (due to intrusion) rather than gradually (burial maturation), then different relationships are seen in chemical composition (proximate and ultimate analyses) and vitrinite reflectance. The Pennsylvanian-age (Asturian [Westphalian D]) Springfield (No. 5) coal is mined at the Big Ridge Mine, near Eldorado, southern Illinois. This high volatile B bituminous coal was intruded by an ultramafic igneous intrusion during the early Permian. Alteration occurs out to {proportional_to} 1.2 x dike thickness and includes an increase in random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) from levels {proportional_to} 0.7% to over 5.3%, loss of liptinites, and formation of devolatilization vacuoles and fine mosaic texture. Decreases in volatile matter (VM) and increases in fixed carbon (FC) appear to be less than would be expected for the level of reflectance seen within the alteration halo. Carbonate minerals have a major influence on proximate analyses but even following the removal of carbonates, the decrease in VM is still less than would be seen in coals of similar vitrinite reflectance that were altered by normal burial maturation. Carbonate mineralization also contributes to variability in ultimate analysis values approaching the intrusion, particularly for %C and %O. After carbonate removal, data for these coals do not appear to follow the normal burial coalification tracks when plotted on a van Krevelen diagram and on a Seyler chart. These differences suggest that a slightly different maturation

  16. Meeting of Commission of International Committee on Petrology of Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, P P; Bogolyubova, L I


    In Urbana, Illinois from 18-20 May 1979 the XXXII session of the International Committee on Petrology met. Reports were made on standards for the study of bituminous and anthracite coals. Use of reflective capacity of vitrain to determine coalification of coals was discussed along with a proposition to establish numerical boundaries between brown, bituminous and anthracite coals. The re-editing of the International Dictionary on Petrology of Coals was agreed upon in view of new facts on microcomponents of coal and methods of studying them. The next meeting of the Commission took place at Ostrav, Czechoslovakia from 14-26 April 1980. At the plenary session, new officials were elected and agreement to re-edit the Dictionary on Petrology of Coals was confirmed. At the meeting of the Commission on Coal Petrography the question of the determination of components of coal by quantitative diagnosis, and results of determining components of vitrain by measuring its reflective capacity were reported on. At the meeting of the Committee on Applying Facts of Petrology in Geology, the classification of solid oil bitumen and organic substance of sediments was discussed. At the meeting of the Committee on the Application of the Petrology of Coals in Industry, attention was given to discussing basic parameters for the international classification of coals to be presented at the meeting of the Economic Commission of Europe in Geneva. In the final plenary session of the commission, results of discussions were summarized. The next session was to be held in France in 1981. (In Russian)

  17. Coalbed methane: new frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.


    There are large numbers of stacked coal seams permeated with methane or natural gas in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, and approximately 20 coalbed methane pilot projects are operating in the area, and brief descriptions of some of them were provided. Coalbed methane reserves have a long life cycle. A definition of coalbed methane can be a permeability challenged reservoir. It is not uncommon for coalbed methane wells to flow water for periods varying from 2 to 6 months after completion before the production of natural gas. A made-in-Canada technological solution is being developed by CDX Canada Inc., along with its American parent company. The techniques used by CDX are a marriage between coal mining techniques and oil and gas techniques. A brief description of coalification was provided. Nexen is participating in the production of gas from an Upper Mannville coal at 1 000-metres depth in a nine-well pilot project. The Alberta Foothills are considered prime exploration area since older coal is carried close to the surface by thrusting. CDX Canada uses cavitation completion in vertical wells. Cavitation consists in setting the casing above the coal seam and drilling ahead under balanced. The design of wells for coalbed methane gas is based on rock and fluid mechanics. Hydraulic fracturing completions is also used, as are tiltmeters. An enhanced coalbed methane recovery pilot project is being conducted by the Alberta Research Council at Fenn-Big Valley, located in central Alberta. It injects carbon dioxide, which shows great potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. 1 figs.

  18. Influence of the hydrothermal dewatering on the combustion characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lichao; Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Chang; Wang, Zhihua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa


    This study investigates the influence of hydrothermal dewatering performed at different temperatures on the combustion characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals with different coalification maturities. It was found that the upgrading process significantly decreased the inherent moisture and oxygen content, increased the calorific value and fixed carbon content, and promoted the damage of the hydrophilic oxygen functional groups. The results of oxygen/carbon atomic ratio indicated that the upgrading process converted the low-rank coals near to high-rank coals which can also be gained using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the combustion processes of upgraded coals were delayed toward the high temperature region, and the upgraded coals had higher ignition and burnout temperature. On the other hand, based on the higher average combustion rate and comprehensive combustion parameter, the upgraded coals performed better compared with raw brown coals and the Da Tong bituminous coal. In ignition segment, the activation energy increased after treatment but decreased in the combustion stage. The changes in coal compositions, microstructure, rank, and combustion characteristics were more notable as the temperature in hydrothermal dewatering increased from 250 to 300 °C or coals of lower ranks were used. - Highlights: • Typical Chinese lignites with various ranks are upgraded by hydrothermal dewatering. • Upgraded coals exhibit chemical compositions comparable with that of bituminous coal. • FTIR show the change of microstructure and improvement in coal rank after upgrading. • Upgraded coals exhibit difficulty in ignition but combust easily. • More evident effects are obtained for raw brown coal with relative lower rank.

  19. Nitrogen emissions during pyrolysis and combustion; Einfluesse auf die Stickstofffreisetzung bei der Pyrolyse und Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R F; Friebel, J; Halang, S [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. IEC


    Reduction of nitric oxide emissions during brown coal combustion is an important contribution to clean utilisation of this very important domestic primary energy source. In modern processes, the nitrogen contained in the fuels is the main source of oxides. The distribution of this nitrogen in the products can be influenced by modifying the degassing parameters especially in the first phase of combustion, i.e. pyrolysis. The heat-up rate, pressure, as well as the genesis and mineral content of the coal were found to be the main influencing paramters. Depending on the fuel characteristics (degree of coalification, concentration of volatile matter, ash composition), the nitrogen released during pyrolysis and the nitrogen retained in the solid residue contribute to the total emissions of nitric oxides in different degrees. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verminderung der Stickoxidemission bei der Verbrennung von Braunkohle stellt einen wichtigen Beitrag zur sauberen Verwertung dieses bedeutendsten einheimischen Primaerenergietraegers dar. In modernen Prozessen bildet dabei der im Brennstoff gebundene Stickstoff die Hauptquelle der Oxide. Insbesondere durch Einflussnahme auf die Entgasungsbedingungen waehrend der ersten Phase der Verbrennung - der Pyrolyse - kann die Verteilung dieses Stickstoffes auf die Produkte beeinflusst werden. Als wesentliche Einflussgroessen auf die Einbindung in den verbleibenden Koks und die Freisetzung fluechtiger N-haltiger Gase (HCN, NH{sub 3}) wurden die Aufheizgeschwindigkeit, der Druck und die Mineralsubstanz der Kohle gefunden. Eine wesentliche Einflussgroesse stellt daneben auch die Herkunft der Kohlen dar. In Abhaengigkeit von den Brennstoffeigenschaften (Inkohlungsgrad, Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen, Aschezusammensetzung) tragen der waehrend der Pyrolyse freigesetzte und der im festen Rueckstand verbleibende Stickstoff in unterschiedlichem Masse zur Gesamtemission an Stickoxiden bei. (orig.)

  20. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  1. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.


    peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

  2. Origin of natural waters and gases within the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing and autochthonous Miocene strata in South-Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarba, Maciej J.; Pluta, Irena


    The molecular and stable isotope compositions of coalbed gases from the Upper Carboniferous strata and natural gases accumulated within the autochthonous Upper Miocene Skawina Formation of the Debowiec-Simoradz gas deposit were determined, as well as the chemical and stable isotope compositions of waters from the Skawina Formation and waters at the top of the Upper Carboniferous strata of the Kaczyce Ridge (the abandoned 'Morcinek' coal mine) in the South-Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Two genetic types of natural gases within the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata were identified: thermogenic (CH 4 , small amounts of higher gaseous hydrocarbons, and CO 2 ) and microbial (CH 4 , very small amounts of ethane, and CO 2 ). Thermogenic gases were generated during the bituminous stage of coalification and completed at the end of the Variscan orogeny. Degassing (desorption) of thermogenic gases began at the end of late Carboniferous until the late Miocene time-period and extended to the present-day. This process took place in the Upper Carboniferous strata up to a depth of about 550 m under the sealing Upper Miocene cover. A primary accumulation zone of indigenous, thermogenic gases is present below the degassing zone. Up to 200 m depth from the top of the Upper Carboniferous strata, within the weathered complex, an accumulation zone of secondary, microbial gas occurs. Waters within these strata are mainly of meteoric origin of the infiltration period just before the last sea transgression in the late Miocene and partly of marine origin having migrated from the Upper Miocene strata. Then, both methanogenic archaebacteria and their nutrients were transported by meteoric water into the near-surface Carboniferous strata where the generated microbial CH 4 saturated coal seams. Waters within the Miocene strata of the Debowiec-Simoradz and Zablocie are of marine origin, and natural gases accumulated within autochthonous Miocene strata of the Debowiec

  3. Oxidation and carbonisation of coals: a case study of coal fire affected coals from the Wuda coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Kus, Jolanta; Meyer, Uwe; Ma, Jianwei; Chen-Brauchler, Dai


    At the coalfield of Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China) extensive underground coal fires cause widespread thermal and oxidative effects in coal seams. Within phase B of the Coal Fire Research Project of the Sino-German Initiative, methods for innovative fire-extinguishing technologies were investigated in multifaceted research approaches. Extensive investigations of oxidative and thermally affected coal seams in coal fire zone 18 were conducted in 2008 prior to application of new fire-extinguishing methods. We present results from the outcrop of coal seam No. 4 in the fire zone 18. The coal of seam No. 4 is of Early Permian age and belongs stratigraphically to the Shanxi Formation. The unaffected coal displays a high volatile bituminous A rank with a background value of random vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.90 to 0.96 % Rr. Coal channel samples were coallected at actively extracted coal faces along multiple profiles with surface temperatures ranging from about 50° to 600°C. Microscopic examinations revealed a variety of products of coal exposure to the fire. Within coal samples, a marked rise in vitrinite reflectance from background values to 5.55% Rr (6.00 % Rmax) is encountered. In addition, a number of coal samples showed suppressed vitrinite reflectances ranging between 0.82 to 0.88% Rr. Further, seemingly heat unaffected coal samples display intensive development of oxidations rims at coal grain edges and cracks as well as shrinkage cracks and formation of iron oxides/hydroxides. Instead, thermally affected coal samples with higher coalification grade are further characterised by development of macropores (devolatilisation pores) in vitrinitic streaks, transformation of liptinite to meta-liptinite and micrinite as well as by natural coke particles of mostly porous nature and fine to coarse grained anisotropic mosaic. Coal petrographic investigations confirmed a hypothesis that both, oxidations as well as low temperature carbonisation govern the thermal

  4. Application of automated image analysis to coal petrography (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.


    The coal petrologist seeks to determine the petrographic characteristics of organic and inorganic coal constituents and their lateral and vertical variations within a single coal bed or different coal beds of a particular coal field. Definitive descriptions of coal characteristics and coal facies provide the basis for interpretation of depositional environments, diagenetic changes, and burial history and determination of the degree of coalification or metamorphism. Numerous coal core or columnar samples must be studied in detail in order to adequately describe and define coal microlithotypes, lithotypes, and lithologic facies and their variations. The large amount of petrographic information required can be obtained rapidly and quantitatively by use of an automated image-analysis system (AIAS). An AIAS can be used to generate quantitative megascopic and microscopic modal analyses for the lithologic units of an entire columnar section of a coal bed. In our scheme for megascopic analysis, distinctive bands 2 mm or more thick are first demarcated by visual inspection. These bands consist of either nearly pure microlithotypes or lithotypes such as vitrite/vitrain or fusite/fusain, or assemblages of microlithotypes. Megascopic analysis with the aid of the AIAS is next performed to determine volume percentages of vitrite, inertite, minerals, and microlithotype mixtures in bands 0.5 to 2 mm thick. The microlithotype mixtures are analyzed microscopically by use of the AIAS to determine their modal composition in terms of maceral and optically observable mineral components. Megascopic and microscopic data are combined to describe the coal unit quantitatively in terms of (V) for vitrite, (E) for liptite, (I) for inertite or fusite, (M) for mineral components other than iron sulfide, (S) for iron sulfide, and (VEIM) for the composition of the mixed phases (Xi) i = 1,2, etc. in terms of the maceral groups vitrinite V, exinite E, inertinite I, and optically observable mineral

  5. Interaction and the structures of coal (United States)

    Opaprakasit, Pakorn

    solvents, which in turn enhances the coal extraction yield. Finally, the evidence for the presence of a glass transition temperature in coal was examined. The results from Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed that no transition similar to the Tg can be observed in bulk coal or its low-molecular weight fraction, pyridine soluble extracted material, at a temperature near 110°C. In contrast, an irreversible transition that is due to water evaporation has been found. Thermomechanical measurements, which are very sensitive to the presence of a Tg in synthetic polymers, also provided no evidence for a Tg below temperatures where chemical reactions occur. Additionally, the results from Thermomechanical Analysis showed an expansion in size when the coal was heated to 300°C, which is associated with a "caking" process. The degree of expansion during this "caking" process is about five times greater in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane than the parallel, indicating an accommodation of anisotropic strain relaxation, which was generated in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane during the coalification process.

  6. Evaluation of the quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen, Lars


    Middle Jurassic Haldager Sand play. Potential trap structures are widely distributed in the basin, most commonly associated with the flanks of salt diapirs. The plays rely on charge from the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian or uppermost Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous shales. Both plays have been tested with negative results, however, and failure is typically attributed to insufficient maturation (burial depth of the source rocks. This maturation question has been investigated by analysis of vitrinite reflectance data from the study area, corrected for post-Early Cretaceous uplift. A likely depth to the top of the oil window(vitrinite reflectance = 0.6%Ro is c. 3050–3100 m based on regional coalification curves. The Frederikshavn Formation had not been buried to this depth prior to post-Early Cretaceous exhumation,and the potential source rocks of the formation are thermally immature in terms of hydrocarbon generation. The potential source rocks of the Fjerritslev Formation are generally immature to very early mature. Mature source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin are thus dependent on local, deeper burial to reach the required thermal maturity for oil generation. Such potential kitchen areas with mature Fjerritslev Formation source rocks may occur in the central part of the study area (central–northern Jylland, and a few places offshore. These inferred petroleum kitchens are areally restricted, mainly associated with salt structures and local grabens (such as the Fjerritslev Trough and the Himmerland Graben.

  7. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Stricker, Gary D.; Warden, Augusta; Ellis, Margaret S. [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 939, Denver, Colorado 80225 (United States)


    decrease of methane composition of the coal-bed gas. Other geologic factors, such as burial, thermal and maturation history, lateral and vertical continuity, and coalification of the coal beds, also played a significant role in controlling methanogenic pathways and provided new perspectives on gas evolution and emplacement. The early-stage gas produced by CO{sub 2} reduction has mixed with transitional thermogenic gas in the deeper, central parts of the Powder River Basin to form 'old' gas, whereas along the basin margins the overprint of gas from methyl-type fermentation represents 'new' gas. Thus, a clear understanding of these geologic factors is necessary to relate the microbiological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes involved in the generation of coal-bed gas. (author)

  8. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani


    Full Text Available Introduction Maceral is a term to introduce organic components visible under a microscope (Stopes, 1935. The physical and chemical characteristics of macerals such as elemental composition, moisture content, hardness, density and petrographic characteristics differ. The differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of macerals are reflected in their industrial behavior.(Parkash, 1985. Petrographic analysis provides information on the various physical components of coals (Suwarna and Hemanto, 2007 and determination of quality of coal, coalification rate, composition and characteristics of coke and paleoenvironmental deposition (Taylor et al., 1998. Sampling and methodology Coal samples were collected from freshly mined coal from 11 coal seams of 4 active coal mines (Cheshlagh, Zemestan Yourt, Narges Chal and Cheshmehsaran for organic petrography in the Gheshlagh coal deposits. All samples were collected and stored in plastic bags to prevent contamination and weathering. Samples were prepared for microscopic analysis by reflected light following ASTM Standard procedure D2797-04. For microscopic study, coal samples were crushed to1-mm size fraction (18 mesh size, mounted in epoxy resin and polished. Three polished samples were prepared for each coal seam. The petrographic composition was obtained by maceral analyses under standard conditions (ISO 7404/3, 2009, for maceral analysis. Maceral point counting (based on 400 points analyses were performed using an Olympus BX51 reflected light microscope. The terminology used to identify and describe the organic matter particles is the one proposed by the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998; ICCP, 2001; Scott and Glasspool, 2007; Taylor et al., 1998; Stach et al., 1982; Hower et al., 2009; Hower and Wagner, 2012. Organic petrography of theGheshlagh coal seams The vitrinite maceral group is dominant in all coal seams (66.2 to 87.2 vol.% and includes collodetrinite